1. Amadeo Vives – Amadeu Vives i Roig was a Spanish musical composer, creator of over a hundred-stage works. The personal papers of Amadeu Vives are preserved in the Biblioteca de Catalunya, a Catalan, Vives was born in Collbató, near Montserrat. He studied in Barcelona under José Ribera, and in 1891 helped found the influential Orfeó Català choral society and he then became an early pupil of Felipe Pedrell, a fundamental figure of 20th century Spanish music. He soon moved to Madrid, where he lived the rest of his life, first publishing a series of works, solo. Before turning to zarzuela, Vives wrote a successful Catalan-language stage play, Jo no sabia que el món era així, a year later, his first zarzuela, the one-act La primera del barrio, was produced at the Teatro de la Zarzuela in Madrid. His next several zarzuelas met some critical acclaim—particularly for Don Lucas del Cigarral and La balada de la luz —but his real critical and popular breakthrough came with the one-act Bohemios. Vives drew on the literary source as Giacomo Puccinis masterpiece La bohème. His last works, the two-act zarzuelas Los flamencos and Noche de verbena have not proved so durable, the comedia lírica Talismán was a critical success, Vives died in Madrid in 1932. Isaac Albéniz once said that if Vives had sought to compose with a universal accent and he aspired to become a symphonic composer, but never pursued that ambition. Webber remarks that Perhaps he simply lacked the confidence to try, london, Scarecrow Press,2003 Foreword by Plácido Domingo Christopher Webber, Amadeo Vives on zarzuela. net Regidor Arribas, R. Granados, V. Articles contiguts al Programa de la representació de Doña Francisquita al Teatro de la Zarzuela de Madrid,1998 Hernández Girbal, F. Amadeo Vives. Lladó i Figueres, Josep M. Amadeu Vives, publicacions de lAbadia de Montserrat,1988. 282 p. ISBN 84-8043-009-5 Sagardía, Angel, Barcelona, Edicions de Nou Art Thor, DL1982. ISBN 84-7327-059-2 Free scores by Amadeu Vives i Roig in the Choral Public Domain Library Personal papers of Amadeu Vives in Biblioteca de CatalunyaAmadeo Vives – Amadeu Vives
2. History of FC Barcelona – The history of Futbol Club Barcelona goes from the football clubs founding in 1899 and up to current time. FC Barcelona, also simply as Barcelona and familiarly as Barça, is based in Barcelona, Catalonia. The team was founded in 1899 by a group of Swiss, the club played amateur football until 1910 in various regional competitions. In 1910, the participated in their first of many European competitions, and has since amassed ten UEFA trophies. In 1928, Barcelona co-founded La Liga, the top-tier in Spanish football, as of 2016, Barcelona has never been relegated from La Liga, a record they share with Athletic Bilbao and arch-rival Real Madrid. The history of Barcelona has often been political, though it is a club created and run by foreigners, Barcelona gradually became a club associated with Catalan values. In Spains transition to autocracy in 1925, Catalonia became increasingly hostile towards the government in Madrid. The Spanish transition to democracy in 1978 has not dampened the clubs image of Catalan pride, in the 2000s – a period of sporting success in the club and an increased focus on Catalan players – club officials have openly called for Catalonia to become an independent state. On 22 October 1899, Joan Gamper placed an advertisement in Los Deportes declaring his wish to form a football club, a positive response resulted in a meeting at the Gimnasio Solé on 29 November. Eleven players attended, Walter Wild, Lluís dOssó, Bartomeu Terradas, Otto Kunzle, Otto Maier, Enric Ducal, Pere Cabot, Josep Llobet, John Parsons, as a result, Football Club Barcelona was born. FC Barcelona quickly emerged as one of the clubs in Spain, competing in the Campeonato de Cataluña. In 1902, the club won its first trophy, the Copa Macaya, in 1908, Joan Gamper became club president for the first time to save the club from bankruptcy. The club had not won since the Campeonato de Cataluña in 1905, one of his main achievements was to help Barcelona acquire its own stadium and thus achieve a stable income. On 14 March 1909, the moved into the Camp de la Indústria. To celebrate their new surroundings, a logo contest was held the following year, Carles Comamala won the contest, and his suggestion became the crest that the club still wears as of 2012, with some minor changes. The contest was considered the most prestigious in that era. From the inaugural year in 1910 to 1913, Barcelona won the four consecutive times. Carles Comamala played a part of the four-time champion, managing the side along with AmechazurraHistory of FC Barcelona – The first crest worn by Barcelona.
3. Antoni Nicolau – Antoni Nicolau i Parera was a Catalan composer. He was a student of Juan Bautista Pujol, cançó de la Moreneta on Jacint Verdaguer i el lied català. M. Teresa Garrigosa, soprano, Emili Blasco, piano La mà de Guido,2005, free scores by Antoni Nicolau at the International Music Score Library ProjectAntoni Nicolau – Antoni Nicolau
4. Estadio Les Cortes – Camp de Les Corts, commonly referred to as Les Corts, was a sports stadium in Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain. It was the ground for FC Barcelona until the club moved to the Camp Nou in 1957. It was also the ground of CD Condal for the clubs entire history. Les Corts was built as a result of a plan by the club president, Joan Gamper. It replaced the Camp de la Indústria as the home of FC Barcelona, inaugurated in 1922, the initial capacity was 20,000. The first game played at the ground was between FC Barcelona and St Mirren, on May 13,1923, the stadium hosted the Copa del Rey final between Athletic Bilbao and CE Europa and on December 21,1924, Les Corts hosted a game between Spain and Austria. On June 24,1925, the stadium was the scene of an incident that saw it closed for six months, during a game, FC Barcelona fans jeered the Spanish national anthem and then applauded God Save the King, performed by a visiting British Royal Marine band. The dictatorship of Primo de Rivera accused Joan Gamper of promoting Catalan nationalism, Les Corts was shut down and Gamper was expelled from Spain. The stadium was the home of FC Barcelona during two of its most successful eras, the club built on that success and also won the first ever La Liga while based at Les Corts. By the late 1940s, FC Barcelona had outgrown Les Corts, the stadium had been extended on several occasions, reaching a final capacity of 60,000. However, there was no room for expansion and in 1950 the club began to make plans for a new stadiumEstadio Les Cortes – Model of Camp de Les Corts in FC Barcelona Museum
5. Championat de Catalunya – The Catalan football championship was a football competition in Catalonia and the first football league in Spain before the La Liga was established in 1929. In December 1900, Alfons Macaya, the president of Hispania AC, the league was played between 1901 and 1940 and was cancelled during Francisco Francos dictatorship during the Spanish Civil War. In 1901, Hispania AC became the first Catalan champions after winning the inaugural Copa Macaya, the following season, 1901-1902, saw FC Barcelona win the title, their first football trophy. During the 1902-1903 season two rival competitions were organised with RCD Espanyol winning the Copa Macaya and FC Barcelona winning the Copa Barcelona, after 1903 the championship was organised by the Football Associació de Catalunya and it became known as the Campionat de Catalunya. The winners also began to represent Catalonia in the Copa del Rey, by 1917 the league had turned professional and included a second division. The classification includes the results of the Copa Macaya, the Barcelona Cup, the 1902-1903 and 1912-1913 seasons were contested two championshipsChampionat de Catalunya – The Copa Macaya.
6. Cemetery of Barcelona – Montjuïc Cemetery, known in Catalan as Cementiri del Sud-oest or Cementiri de Montjuïc, is located on one of the rocky slopes of Montjuïc hill in Barcelona. It was opened on 17 March 1883 by the city of Barcelona as its main cemetery and it now contains over one million burials and cremation ashes in 150,000 plots, niches and mausolea and is operated by Cementiris de Barcelona S. A. The city became heavily industrialised during the 19th century and its growth led Barcelona becoming the centre of the Principality of Catalonia. The growth in population led to a demand for burial facilities. The steep slopes of the hillside give Montjuïc its special character, with winding paths, the cemetery contains one Commonwealth war grave, British Army Private Charles Hill of the Queens Own Cameron Highlanders who died during World War II. In Catalonia that style developed into Modernisme, as it was known in the Catalan language, burials at Montjuïc Cemetery Poblenou Cemetery Essay about Barcelonas graveyard Cementiris de Barcelona S. ACemetery of Barcelona – Montjuïc Cemetery, panoramic view
7. El Masnou – El Masnou is a municipality in Catalonia, Spain. It is situated on the coast between Montgat and Premià de Mar, to the north-east of the city of Barcelona, in the comarca of el Maresme, the town is both a tourist centre and a dormitory town for Barcelona. The main N-II road and a RENFE railway line run through the town, the town center has buildings in a wide range of styles, neoclassical, modernista, noucentista and simply eclectic. The municipal museum has collections of archeology and of Catalan ceramics, a Roman village called Cal Ros de les Cabres was one of the first settlements located on the site of the current town. The agriculture of El Masnou is mainly of flowers, especially carnations, famous Catalan Cellist Pablo Casals lived in El Masnou, and current basketball star Ricky Rubio is a native. Also, Bruno, a footballer who plays for Brighton & Hove Albion, was born in El Masnou. Other famous people who were born in El Masnou are, Antoni Llampallas Alsina Attorney, fèlix Oliver, a pioneer of cinema in Uruguay. Jordi Pagans i Monsalvatje, One of the most important Catalan contemporary figurative painters, cousin of the renowned classical music composer Xavier Montsalvatge i Bassols. In his paintings the influence of the Empordà coast, especially the people of Cadaqués, lluís Millet i Pagès, musician, founder of the Catalan choir. Pau Estape i Maristani, mayor of El Masnou, panareda Clopés, Josep Maria, Rios Calvet, Jaume, Rabella Vives, Josep Maria. Guia de Catalunya, Barcelona, Caixa de Catalunya, official website Government data pages Historic-artistic heritageEl Masnou – El Masnou
8. Els segadors – Els Segadors is the official national anthem of Catalonia, nationality and autonomous community of Spain. Though the original dates in the oral tradition to 1640, its modern lyrics were written by Emili Guanyavents. The music was standardized by Francesc Alió in 1892, the Catalan government adopted Els Segadors as the national anthem of Catalonia in 1993, by law of its parliament. The official version was made in 1994, contemporary Catalan composer Jordi Savall made a version of the folk song, using the original narrative combined with the modern lyrics and refrain, which were added later. Catalan Songs Cançons De La Catalunya Millenaria, Jordi Savall,1990 Catalan nationalism Anthems of the communities of Spain Generalitat of CataloniaEls segadors – Senyera (flag of Catalonia)
9. Enric Granados – Enrique Granados Campiña was a Spanish pianist and composer of classical music. His music is in a uniquely Spanish style and, as such, is representative of musical nationalism, Enrique Granados Campiña was born in Lleida, Spain, the son of Calixto Granados, a Spanish army captain, and Enriqueta Campiña. As a young man he studied piano in Barcelona, where his teachers included Francisco Jurnet, in 1887 he went to Paris to study. Bériot insisted on extreme refinement in tone production, which strongly influenced Granados’s own teaching of pedal technique and he also fostered Granadoss abilities in improvisation. Just as important were his studies with Felip Pedrell and he returned to Barcelona in 1889. His first successes were at the end of the 1890s, with the opera Maria del Carmen, in 1911 Granados premiered his suite for piano Goyescas, which became his most famous work. It is a set of six based on paintings of Francisco Goya. Such was the success of work that he was encouraged to expand it. He wrote an opera based on the subject in 1914, and it was performed for the first time in New York City on 28 January 1916, and was very well received. Shortly afterwards, he was invited to perform a recital for President Woodrow Wilson. The delay incurred by accepting the recital invitation caused him to miss his boat back to Spain, instead, he took a ship to England, where he boarded the passenger ferry SS Sussex for Dieppe, France. On the way across the English Channel, the Sussex was torpedoed by a German U-boat, in a failed attempt to save his wife Amparo, whom he saw flailing about in the water some distance away, Granados jumped out of his lifeboat and drowned. However, the broke in two parts and only one sank. Ironically, the part of the ship that contained his cabin did not sink and was towed to port, with most of the passengers, except for Granados and his wife, on board. Granados and his wife left six children, Eduard, Solita, Enrique, Víctor, Natàlia, the personal papers of Enrique Granados are preserved in, among other institutions, the National Library of Catalonia. Granados wrote piano music, chamber music, songs, zarzuelas, many of his piano compositions have been transcribed for the classical guitar, examples include Dedicatoria, Danza No. His music can be divided into three styles or periods, A romantic style including such pieces as Escenas Romanticas and Escenas Poeticas. A more typically nationalist, Spanish style including such pieces as Danzas Españolas,6 Piezas sobre cantos populares españoles, the Goya period, which includes the piano suite Goyescas, the opera Goyescas, various Tonadillas for voice and piano, and other worksEnric Granados – Enrique Granados Campiña
10. Gurre-Lieder – Gurre-Lieder is a large cantata for five vocal soloists, narrator, chorus and large orchestra, composed by Arnold Schönberg, on poems by the Danish novelist Jens Peter Jacobsen. In 1900, Schönberg began composing the work as a cycle for soprano, tenor. It was written in a lush, late-romantic style heavily influenced by Richard Wagner, according to Schönberg, however, he finished them half a week too late for the contest, and this decided the fate of the work. Later that year, he expanded his original conception, composing links between the first nine songs as well as adding a prelude, the Wood Doves Song. He worked on this version sporadically until around 1903, when he abandoned the task of orchestrating the work. He had also come under the spell of Gustav Mahler, whom he had met in 1903, in Des Sommerwindes wilde Jagd, Schönberg also introduced the first use of Sprechgesang, a technique he would explore more fully in Pierrot Lunaire of 1912. The orchestration was completed in November 1911. Franz Schreker conducted the premiere of the work in Vienna on 23 February 1913, by this time, Schönberg was disenchanted with the style and character of the piece and was even dismissive of its positive reception, saying I was rather indifferent, if not even a little angry. I foresaw that this success would have no influence on the fate of my later works, I had, during these thirteen years, developed my style in such a manner that to the ordinary concertgoer, it would seem to bear no relation to all preceding music. I had to fight for new work, I had been offended in the most outrageous manner by criticism, I had lost friends. And I stood alone against a world of enemies, violinist Francis Aranyi called it the strangest thing that a man in front of that kind of a hysterical, worshipping mob has ever done. It would be wrong to assume that Schoenberg considered Gurre-Lieder a composition of no merit, a few months after the premiere he wrote to Wassily Kandinsky, I certainly do not look down on this work, as the journalists always suppose. For although I have certainly developed very much since those days, I have not improved, I consider it important that people give credence to the elements in this work which I retained later. The Dutch first performance, directed by Schoenberg himself, was in March 1921, clark had tried to have the premiere the previous year, on 14 April 1927, but these plans fell through. Leopold Stokowski conducted the American premiere on 8 April 1932, with the Philadelphia Orchestra, soloists, stokowskis performances on 9 and 11 April 1932 were recorded live by RCA. Bell Laboratories had been recording the Philadelphia Orchestra in high fidelity and stereophonic sound. A performance of Gurre-Lieder without intermission runs over an hour and a half, riccardo Chaillys 1990 Decca recording, for example, lasts more than 100 minutes and takes two compact discs. In 2014 the Dutch National Opera in Amsterdam was the first company to stage the Gurre-Lieder, the cantata is divided into three partsGurre-Lieder – Ruins of Gurre Castle, 2007
11. History of barcelona – The history of Barcelona stretches over 2000 years to its origins as an Iberian village named Barkeno. Barcelona is currently a city of 1,620,943, the second largest in Spain, and its wider urban region is home to three-quarters of the population of Catalonia and one-eighth of that of Spain. The origin of the earliest settlement at the site of present-day Barcelona is unclear, remains from the Neolithic and early Chalcolithic periods have been found on the coastal plain near the city. The ruins of a settlement have been excavated in the El Raval neighborhood, including different tombs. Later, in the 3rd and 2nd centuries BC, the area was settled by the Laietani, both settlements struck coinage which survives to this day. It is sometimes asserted that the area was occupied c.230 BC by Carthaginian troops under the leadership of Hamilcar Barca, but this is disputed. There is no evidence that Barcelona was ever a Carthaginian settlement, or that its name in antiquity, at least two founding myths have been proposed for Barcelona by romantic historians since the 15th century. One credits the Carthaginian general Hamilcar Barca, father of Hannibal, with the foundation of the city around 230 BC, giving it the name Barkenon. Despite the similarities between the name of this Carthaginian family and that of the city, it is usually accepted that the origin of the name Barcelona is the Iberian word Barkeno. The second myth attributes the foundation of the city to Hercules before the foundation of Rome, during the fourth of his Labours, Hercules joins Jason and the Argonauts in search of the Golden Fleece, travelling across the Mediterranean in nine ships. One of the ships is lost in a storm off the Catalan coast and he finds it wrecked by a small hill, but with the crew saved. The crew are so taken by the beauty of the location that they found a city with the name Barca Nona, information about the period from 218 BC until the 1st century BC is scarce. The north-east of the peninsula was the first region to fall under Roman control, the name Barcino was formalised around the end of the reign of Caesar Augustus. It was a version of the name which had been official until then, Colonia Faventia Julia Augusta Pia Barcino. As a colonia, it was established to distribute land among retired soldiers, the Roman geographer Pomponius Mela refers to Barcino as one of a number of small settlements near Tarraco, a town wealthy in maritime resources. However, Barcinos strategic position on a branch of the Via Augusta allowed its commercial and economic development, the perimeter walls were 1.5 km long, enclosing an area of 12 ha. By the 2nd century, the city had the form of an oppidum, the main economic activity was cultivation of the surrounding land, and its wine was widely exported. The archeological remains from the period indicate a relatively prosperous population, the forums most impressive building was the temple dedicated to Caesar Augustus, probably constructed at the start of the 1st centuryHistory of barcelona – Medieval stone relief on Porta de Sant Iu, Cathedral of Barcelona.
12. Independence of Catalonia – The Catalan independence movement is a political and popular movement derived from Catalan nationalism, which seeks the independence of Catalonia from Spain. The Estelada flag, in its blue and red versions, has become its main symbol, the political movement began in 1922 when Francesc Macià founded Estat Català. In 1931, Estat Català and other parties formed Esquerra Republicana de Catalunya, Macià proclaimed a Catalan Republic, but after negotiations with the leaders of the new Spanish Republic, he instead accepted autonomy within the Spanish state. In the Spanish Civil War, General Francisco Franco abolished Catalan autonomy in 1938, following Francos death in 1975, Catalan political parties concentrated on autonomy rather than independence. Popular protest against the decision quickly turned into demands for independence, a 2010 protest demonstration against the courts decision, organised by the cultural organisation Òmnium Cultural, was attended by over a million people. The popular movement fed upwards to the politicians, a mass protest on 11 September 2012 explicitly called on the Catalan government to begin the process towards independence. Catalan president Artur Mas called a general election, which resulted in a pro-independence majority for the first time in the regions history. The new parliament adopted the Catalan Sovereignty Declaration in early 2013, the Catalan government announced a referendum, to be held in November 2014, on the question of statehood. The referendum was to ask two questions, Do you want Catalonia to become a State, and Do you want this State to be independent. The Spanish government referred the proposed referendum to the Spanish Constitutional Court, the Catalan government then changed it from a binding referendum to a non-binding consultation. Despite the Spanish court also banning the non-binding vote, the Catalan self-determination referendum went ahead on 9 November 2014, the result was an 81% vote for yes-yes, but the turnout was only 42%. Mas called another election for September 2015, which he said would be a plebiscite on independence, pro-independence parties fell just short of a majority of votes in the September election, although they won a majority of seats. The Spanish government continues to oppose any move in the direction of Catalan independence, the PDeCAT and ERC currently form the coalition Junts pel Sí. Parties opposed to any change in Catalonias position are Ciutadans and the Catalonian branch of the Partido Popular, other parties favour an intermediate form of self-determination, or at least support a referendum on the question. Initially, the territories of Aragon, including Catalonia, kept their own fueros. Catalans revolted against the Spanish crown in the Reapers War of 1640–1652,11 September is still observed as National Day of Catalonia. The beginnings of separatism in Catalonia can be traced back to the mid–19th century, the Renaixença, which aimed at the revival of the Catalan language and Catalan traditions, led to the development of Catalan nationalism and a desire for independence. Between the 1850s and the 1910s, some individuals, organisations, the first pro-independence political party in Catalonia was Estat Català, founded in 1922 by Francesc MaciàIndependence of Catalonia – Supporters of Catalan independence in 2012
13. Joan Maragall – Joan Maragall i Gorina was a Spanish Catalan poet, journalist and translator, the foremost member of the modernisme movement in literature. His manuscripts are preserved in the Joan Maragall Archive of Barcelona, maragalls upper-class family was dedicated to the flourishing textile industry in Barcelona, and after finishing school, Joan Maragall took on his fathers job. Having never liked his familys trade, he decided to go to university instead, however, he dropped out of school and married Clara Noble with whom he had 13 children. In 1904 he won all three prizes awarded by the Jocs Florals in Barcelona, and was proclaimed Mestre en Gai Saber and his private home in Sant Gervasi was bought by the Biblioteca de Catalunya and can be visited. His grandson, Pasqual Maragall, would become mayor of Barcelona, maragalls poetry was based on themes drawn from human life and nature. Highly influenced by German-language authors such as Nietzsche, Novalis and Goethe, all of which he translated into Catalan, his poetry went through decadentist and vitalist periods. He is best known for his theory of the word, or teoria de la paraula viva. In addition to his writing, Maragall published journalism in avant-garde magazines of the time--including ], CatalòniaJoan Maragall – Joan Maragall, by Pau Audouard dated 1903.
14. Lluis Maria Millet – Lluís Millet i Pagès was a Spanish Catalan composer, musician and co-founder of Orfeó Català in 1891. A student of Felip Pedrell, from 1896 he taught music at Barcelonas Escuela Municipal de Musica where he later succeeded Nicolau as director. Lluís Millets family moved to Barcelona to escape the threats posed by the Third Carlist War, the family wanted Lluís to become a merchant, but he followed the musical career by enrolling at the Conservatory of the Liceu of Barcelona. There he trained under Miquel Font and Josep Rodoreda, and Carles G. Vidiella, Lluís Millet was early attracted to choir songs, and aged just 17 he became conductor of the Chorus the La Lira de Sant Cugat del Vallès. He also had a job at the Cafè Inglés in Barcelona, first as pianist and later as a member of a trio with Josep Badia, the violinist, and Lluís Pamies, egloga for orchestra Catalanesques for orchestraLluis Maria Millet – Portrait of Lluís Millet by Ramon Casas
15. Maria Gay – Maria Gay was a Catalan opera singer, a mezzo-soprano born as Maria de Lourdes Lucia Antonia Pichot Gironés. She has sometimes referred to as Maria Gay Zenatello. According to one story, young Maria was arrested for singing revolutionary or nationalist songs and she defiantly continued to sing them in prison, with a voice so fine she was offered a chance to study bel canto. She was a pupil of soprano Ada Adini. In 1897, she married Catalan composer Joan Gay i Planella, with whom she had two daughters and a son, all of whom died young, her daughters of illness as teenagers, in 1902, she debuted in the title role of Carmen in Brussels. She was a hit in the role and became one of the best regarded interpreters of Carmen of her era, in 1906, she debuted at Milans La Scala, where she met tenor Giovanni Zenatello. In 1908, she made her debut in Carmen for the Met in New York City opposite Geraldine Farrar as Micaela, in 1910 she performed the same role with the Boston Opera Company as Carmen. She made a series of records for the Columbia Phonograph Company. Gay and Zenatello worked to find, help train, and promote promising young singers and their most famous find was Lily Pons, who the couple managed until Pons and the couple had a falling out. Gay and Zenatello set up a home in Manhattan, New York City in 1936 and she died on 20 July 1943. Maria Gay was buried in Ferncliff Cemetery in Hartsdale, New York, Maria Gays discography can be searched at the National Library of CataloniaMaria Gay – Maria Gay and Giovanni Zenatello
16. Orquesta Pau Casals – The Orquestra Pau Casals was established by Pablo Casals in the early 1920s in Barcelona, with the debut performance taking place October 13,1920. There had been other orchestras in Barcelona, but none that played with any enduring success, the orchestra was managed by a group of Casals friends including Felip Capdevila and Casals second wife Francesca. Casals hired musicians full-time and invested his savings to balance the accounts, however, after nine years of training, the Orquestra Pau Casals became recognized as one of the finer orchestras in Europe, attracting high quality soloists and guest conductors. Casals conducted the orchestra himself, and promoted it by playing with it exclusively as a soloist in Barcelona, the orchestra recorded Beethovens First and Fourth Symphonies in November 1929Orquesta Pau Casals – Pau Casals at an unknown date, c. 1910s-1920s
17. Palau de la Musica Catalana – The Palau de la Música Catalana is a concert hall in Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain. It was inaugurated February 9,1908, the project was financed primarily by the society, but important financial contributions also were made by Barcelonas wealthy industrialists and bourgeoisie. The Palau won the architect an award from the Barcelona City Council in 1909, between 1982 and 1989, the building underwent extensive restoration, remodeling, and extension under the direction of architects Oscar Tusquets and Carles Díaz. In 1997, the Palau de la Música Catalana was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site along with Hospital de Sant Pau, today, more than half a million people a year attend musical performances in the Palau that range from symphonic and chamber music to jazz and Cançó. The Palau is located in the corner of a street, Carrer Palau de la Música. Most of the other prominent modernista buildings, those designed by Antoni Gaudí, in contrast to many other buildings built in the modernisme style, however, it must also be said that the design of the Palau is eminently rational. It pays strict attention to function and makes use of the most up-to-date materials. As Benton has pointed out, To eyes unaccustomed to the architecture of Barcelona, and yet the building follows exactly the exhortations of the rationalists. The structure, in brick and iron, is clearly expressed, actually, its walls are the first example of curtain wall structures. The exposed red brick and iron, the mosaics, the glass. Even Miguel Blays massive sculptural group symbolizing Catalan music on the corner of the building does not impede the view into or out from the interior, as Carandell and co-authors have pointed out, in the Palau the house as a defense and protected inner space has ceased to exist. Two colonnades enjoy a position on the second-level balcony of the main façade. Each column is covered uniquely with multicolored glazed tile pieces in mostly floral designs and is capped with a candelabrum that at night blazes with light. Above the columns are busts of Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina, Johann Sebastian Bach. The top of the main façade is graced by a large mosaic by Lluís Bru that represents the members of the Orfeó Català. Originally, guests entered the Palau from the street through two arches supported by pillars that opened into the vestibule. The former ticket windows, which are located in the pillar, are beautiful concentric arches adorned with floral mosaics of various materials created by Lluís Bru. The ceiling of the vestibule is decorated with glazed ceramic moldings that are arranged in the shape of stars, from the vestibule, on the left and right, grand marble staircases ascend from between crowned lamps on columns to bring visitors to the second floorPalau de la Musica Catalana – UNESCO World Heritage Site
18. List of FC Barcelona presidents – FC Barcelona, nicknamed Barça, is a football club based in Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain that competes in La Liga, the most senior football league in Spain. Since its founding in 1899, the club has had 40 different presidents, the club is owned by the club-members of FC Barcelona, and similarly to a limited liability company, they elect the president by a ballot. The president has the responsibility for the management of the club, including formally signing contracts with players. In Spain, it is customary for the president to watch the games in which the first-team participates, on 22 October 1899, Swiss sportsman Joan Gamper placed an advertisement in the Los Deportes newspaper declaring his wish to form a football club in the city. As a result of this meeting FC Barcelona was formed, in 1908, Gamper became club president for the first time, taking over the presidency to save the club from extinction. The club had not won anything since the Campionat de Catalunya in 1905, Gamper was subsequently club president on five separate occasions between 1908 and 1925 and spent 26 years with the club. One of his achievements was to help Barça acquire its own stadium. An annual pre-season competition, the Joan Gamper Trophy, has held in his honour since 1966. The team won six Campionat de Catalunya titles between 1930 and 1938, but success at national level evaded them, from the formation of La Liga until 1978, Barcelona had 20 different presidents, meaning each presidential period lasted on average two-and-a-half years. In 1978 Josep Lluís Núñez became the first elected president of FC Barcelona, the process of electing a president of FC Barcelona was closely tied to Spains transition to democracy in 1974 and the end of Francos dictatorship. Núñezs main objective was to develop Barça into a club by giving it stability both on and off the pitch. His presidency lasted for 22 years, making him the longest-serving president, after the departure of Núñez in 2000, his vice-president through 22 years, Joan Gaspart took over the club. Enric Reyna was elected as president until the board resigned on 5 May 2003. Hereafter an interim commission presided until the elections were held. On 15 June 2003 Joan Laporta entered office and was the most successful president in terms of Champions league trophies. On 13 June 2010 Sandro Rosell was elected president of FC Barcelona with more than 60% of the vote of Barças club members, below is the official presidential history of FC Barcelona, from when Walter Wild took over at the club in 1899, until the present dayList of FC Barcelona presidents – Gamper's advertisement in Los Deportes
19. CE Espanyol – Reial Club Deportiu Espanyol de Barcelona, commonly known as RCD Espanyol, or simply as Espanyol, is a professional sports club based in Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain. Founded in 1900, the plays in La Liga, the highest division of Spanish football. It has won the Copa del Rey four times, most recently in 2006, the team compete in the Derbi barceloní against FC Barcelona. Espanyol play at the 40, 500-capacity Estadi Cornellà-El Prat, having played at grounds including the Estadi Olímpic Lluís Companys. Espanyol was founded on 28 October 1900 by Ángel Rodríguez Ruiz, the clubs original home was in the well-off district of Sarrià and was initially known as the Sociedad Española de Football. One year later, the changed its name to Club Español de Fútbol. Espanyol was the first club in Spain to be formed exclusively by Spanish fans of the game, the club originally played in bright yellow shirts, with the colour of the shorts being left to the individual player. A friend of the club owned a textile business and happened to have an abundance of yellow material left over from a job. In 1910, the changed its name to Club Deportivo Español and chose blue and white stripes as shirt colours. The club were successful from the beginning, winning the Campionat de Catalunya in 1903. In 1906, the club folded due to financial reasons and most of the joined the X Sporting Club. This club won the Campionat de Catalunya three times between 1906 and 1908, in 1909, this club was effectively relaunched as Club Deportivo Español, and in 1910, they adopted their present-day colours. Espanyol are one of several Spanish football clubs granted patronage by the Spanish crown and thus entitled to use Real in their names and this right was granted to Espanyol in 1912 by Alfonso XIII and the club subsequently became known as Real Club Deportivo Español. After the Spanish Civil War, the name reverted, the club took the Catalan spelling for its name in February 1995. The word Deportiu in Reial Club Deportiu Espanyol de Barcelona is a Catalanised form of the original word Deportivo and this choice was made in order to retain the initials RCD in the clubs name. In 1994, Espanyol created its reserve team, Espanyol B, with their win in the Copa del Rey the previous season, Espanyol entered the UEFA Cup. Following a 5–3 aggregate success against Slovak side Artmedia Bratislava, they were drawn in Group F alongside Ajax, Belgian minnows Zulte Waregem, Espanyol were group winners, victorious in all four of their ties. Their opponent in the Round of 32 was Livorno, who had just scraped into the knockout stages, Espanyol were 4–1 victors on aggregate, recording a 2–1 win in Tuscany and finishing the job 2–0 in BarcelonaCE Espanyol – Line-up in the 1980s
20. Basilica and Expiatory Church of the Holy Family – The Basílica i Temple Expiatori de la Sagrada Família is a large Roman Catholic church in Barcelona, designed by Catalan Spanish architect Antoni Gaudí. Construction of Sagrada Família commenced in 1882 by architect Francisco Paula de Villar with Gaudí becoming involved in 1883 after Francisco resigned as the head architect, taking over the project, Gaudí transformed it with his architectural and engineering style, combining Gothic and curvilinear Art Nouveau forms. Gaudí devoted his last years to the project, and at the time of his death at age 73 in 1926, Sagrada Familias construction progressed slowly, as it relied on private donations and was interrupted by the Spanish Civil War, only to resume intermittent progress in the 1950s. Construction passed the midpoint in 2010 with some of the projects greatest challenges remaining and a completion date of 2026. The Basilica of the Sagrada Família was the inspiration of a bookseller, Josep Maria Bocabella, after a visit to the Vatican in 1872, Bocabella returned from Italy with the intention of building a church inspired by that at Loreto. The apse crypt was completed before Villars resignation on 18 March 1883, when Gaudí assumed responsibility for its design, Antoni Gaudí began work on the church in 1883 but was not appointed Architect Director until 1884. On the subject of the long construction period, Gaudí is said to have remarked. When Gaudí died in 1926, the basilica was between 15 and 25 percent complete, after Gaudís death, work continued under the direction of Domènec Sugrañes i Gras until interrupted by the Spanish Civil War in 1936. Parts of the basilica and Gaudís models and workshop were destroyed during the war by Catalan anarchists. The present design is based on reconstructed versions of the plans that were burned in a fire as well as on modern adaptations, since 1940 the architects Francesc Quintana, Isidre Puig Boada, Lluís Bonet i Gari and Francesc Cardoner have carried on the work. The illumination was designed by Carles Buigas, the current director and son of Lluís Bonet, Jordi Bonet i Armengol, has been introducing computers into the design and construction process since the 1980s. Mark Burry of New Zealand serves as Executive Architect and Researcher, sculptures by J. Busquets, Etsuro Sotoo and the controversial Josep Subirachs decorate the fantastical façades. Barcelona-born Jordi Fauli took over as architect in 2012. The central nave vaulting was completed in 2000 and the main tasks since then have been the construction of the transept vaults and apse. As of 2006, work concentrated on the crossing and supporting structure for the tower of Jesus Christ as well as the southern enclosure of the central nave. The church shares its site with the Sagrada Família Schools building, relocated in 2002 from the eastern corner of the site to the southern corner, the building now houses an exhibition. Chief architect Jordi Fauli announced in October 2015 that construction is 70 percent complete and has entered its final phase of raising six immense towers. The towers and most of the structure are to be completed by 2026Basilica and Expiatory Church of the Holy Family – View of the Passion Façade (Western side) in September 2009 (cranes digitally removed)