Medalla de bronce
En los primeros Juegos Olímpicos modernos el campeón recibía la medalla de plata y el subcampeón la de bronce.[cita requerida]
En los primeros Juegos Olímpicos modernos el campeón recibía la medalla de plata y el subcampeón la de bronce.[cita requerida]
1. Commercial bronze – These additions produce a range of alloys that may be harder than copper alone, or have other useful properties, such as stiffness, ductility, or machinability. The archeological period where bronze was the hardest metal in use is known as the Bronze Age. In the ancient Near East this began with the rise of Sumer in the 4th millennium BC, with India and China starting to use bronze around the same time, everywhere it gradually spread across regions. The Bronze Age was followed by the Iron Age starting from about 1300 BC and reaching most of Eurasia by about 500 BC, the discovery of bronze enabled people to create metal objects which were harder and more durable than previously possible. Bronze tools, weapons, armor, and building such as decorative tiles were harder and more durable than their stone. It was only later that tin was used, becoming the major ingredient of bronze in the late 3rd millennium BC. Tin bronze was superior to arsenic bronze in that the process could be more easily controlled. Also, unlike arsenic, metallic tin and fumes from tin refining are not toxic, the earliest tin-alloy bronze dates to 4500 BCE in a Vinča culture site in Pločnik. Other early examples date to the late 4th millennium BC in Africa, Susa and some ancient sites in China, Luristan, ores of copper and the far rarer tin are not often found together, so serious bronze work has always involved trade. Tin sources and trade in ancient times had a influence on the development of cultures. In Europe, a source of tin was the British deposits of ore in Cornwall. In many parts of the world, large hoards of bronze artefacts are found, suggesting that bronze also represented a store of value, in Europe, large hoards of bronze tools, typically socketed axes, are found, which mostly show no signs of wear. With Chinese ritual bronzes, which are documented in the inscriptions they carry and from other sources and these were made in enormous quantities for elite burials, and also used by the living for ritual offerings. Pure iron is soft, and the process of beating and folding sponge iron to wrought iron removes from the metal carbon. Careful control of the alloying and tempering eventually allowed for wrought iron with properties comparable to modern steel, Bronze was still used during the Iron Age, and has continued in use for many purposes to the modern day. Among other advantages, it does not rust, the weaker wrought iron was found to be sufficiently strong for many uses. Archaeologists suspect that a disruption of the tin trade precipitated the transition. The population migrations around 1200–1100 BC reduced the shipping of tin around the Mediterranean, limiting supplies, there are many different bronze alloys, but typically modern bronze is 88% copper and 12% tinCommercial bronze – Yoruba bronze head sculpture, Ife, Nigeria c. 12th century AD
2. The Olympic Games – The Olympic Games are considered the worlds foremost sports competition with more than 200 nations participating. The Olympic Games are held four years, with the Summer and Winter Games alternating by occurring every four years. Their creation was inspired by the ancient Olympic Games, which were held in Olympia, Greece, Baron Pierre de Coubertin founded the International Olympic Committee in 1894, leading to the first modern Games in Athens in 1896. The IOC is the body of the Olympic Movement, with the Olympic Charter defining its structure. The evolution of the Olympic Movement during the 20th and 21st centuries has resulted in changes to the Olympic Games. The IOC has had to adapt to a variety of economic, political, as a result, the Olympics has shifted away from pure amateurism, as envisioned by Coubertin, to allowing participation of professional athletes. The growing importance of mass media created the issue of corporate sponsorship, World wars led to the cancellation of the 1916,1940, and 1944 Games. Large boycotts during the Cold War limited participation in the 1980 and 1984 Games, the Olympic Movement consists of international sports federations, National Olympic Committees, and organising committees for each specific Olympic Games. As the decision-making body, the IOC is responsible for choosing the host city for each Games, the IOC also determines the Olympic programme, consisting of the sports to be contested at the Games. There are several Olympic rituals and symbols, such as the Olympic flag and torch, over 13,000 athletes compete at the Summer and Winter Olympic Games in 33 different sports and nearly 400 events. The first, second, and third-place finishers in each event receive Olympic medals, gold, silver, the Games have grown so much that nearly every nation is now represented. This growth has created numerous challenges and controversies, including boycotts, doping, bribery, every two years the Olympics and its media exposure provide unknown athletes with the chance to attain national and sometimes international fame. The Games also constitute an opportunity for the host city and country to themselves to the world. The Ancient Olympic Games were religious and athletic festivals held every four years at the sanctuary of Zeus in Olympia, competition was among representatives of several city-states and kingdoms of Ancient Greece. These Games featured mainly athletic but also combat such as wrestling. It has been written that during the Games, all conflicts among the participating city-states were postponed until the Games were finished. This cessation of hostilities was known as the Olympic peace or truce and this idea is a modern myth because the Greeks never suspended their wars. The truce did allow those religious pilgrims who were travelling to Olympia to pass through warring territories unmolested because they were protected by ZeusThe Olympic Games – Stadium in Olympia, Greece.
3. 1980 Moscow Olympic Games – The 1980 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XXII Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event held in Moscow, Soviet Union, in present-day Russia. The 1980 Games were the first Olympic Games to be staged in Eastern Europe and they were also the first Olympic Games to be held in a socialist country, and the only Summer Games to be held in such a country until 2008 in Beijing, China. These were the final Olympic Games under the IOC Presidency of Michael Morris and this prompted the Soviet-led boycott of the 1984 Summer Olympics. The only two cities to bid for the 1980 Summer Olympics were Moscow and Los Angeles, the choice between them was made on 23 October 1974 in the 75th IOC Session in Vienna, Austria. Los Angeles would eventually host the 1984 Summer Olympics, eighty nations were represented at the Moscow Games – the smallest number since 1956. Six nations made their first Olympic appearance in 1980, Angola, Botswana, Jordan, Laos, Mozambique, cyprus made its debut at the Summer Olympics, but had appeared earlier at the 1980 Winter Olympics in Lake Placid, New York. Sri Lanka competed for the first time under its new name, Benin had competed previously as Dahomey and Zimbabwe competed for the first time under that name. The Soviet invasion spurred Jimmy Carter to issue an ultimatum on January 20,1980,65 countries and regions invited did not take part in the 1980 Olympics. Many of these followed the United States boycott initiative, while others cited economic reasons for not coming, iran, under Ayatollah Khomeini hostile to both superpowers, boycotted when the Islamic Conference condemned the invasion. Many of the boycotting nations participated instead in the Liberty Bell Classic, also known as the Olympic Boycott Games, in Philadelphia. However, the nations that did compete had won 71 percent of all medals, competitors from three countries – New Zealand, Portugal, and Spain – competed under the flags of their respective National Olympic Committees. Some of these teams that marched under other than their national flags were depleted by boycotts by individual athletes. The impact of the boycott was mixed, some events, such as field hockey and equestrian sports, were hard hit, while others such as boxing, judo, rowing, swimming, track and field and weightlifting had more participants than in 1976. Athletes from 25 countries won Olympic gold and competitors from 36 countries became Olympic medalists, Italy won four times more gold medals than they won in Montreal and France multiplied its gold medal tally by three. Romania won more medals than it had at any previous Olympics. In terms of medals, the Moscow Olympics was Irelands most successful games since Melbourne 1956. The same was true for Great Britain, third World athletes qualified for more events and took more medals than they did at any previous Olympics. 21 percent of the competitors were women – a higher percentage than at any previous Olympics, There were 203 events – more than at any previous Olympics1980 Moscow Olympic Games – 1980 Summer Olympics Torch
4. Miniature medal – A medal may be awarded to a person or organization as a form of recognition for sporting, military, scientific, academic, or various other achievements. Military awards and decorations are more precise terms for types of state decoration. Medals may also be created for sale to commemorate particular individuals or events, an artist who creates medals or medallions is called a medallist or medalist. There are also devotional medals which may be worn for religious reasons, Medals have long been popular collectible items either as a variety of exonumia or of militaria. Medallions may also be called table medals because they are too large to be worn and can only be displayed on a wall, table top, desk, the word medallion has the same ultimate derivation, but this time through the Italian medaglione, meaning large medal. The main or front surface of a medal is termed the obverse, the reverse, or back surface of the medal, is not always used and may be left blank or may contain a secondary design. It is not uncommon to only an artistic rendering on the obverse, while all details. The rim is only occasionally employed to display an inscription such as a motto, privy mark, engraver symbol, assayer’s marking. Medals that are intended to be hung from a ribbon also include a suspension piece at the crest with which to loop a suspension ring through. It is through the ring that a ribbon is run or folded so the medal may hang pendent, Medals pinned to the breast use only a small cut of ribbon that is attached to a top bar where the brooch pin is affixed. Top bars may be hidden under the ribbon so they are not visible, be a device from which the ribbon attaches. Some top bars are elaborate and contain a whole design unto themselves, Medals that are made with inexpensive material might be gilded, silver-plated, chased, or finished in a variety of other ways to improve their appearance. Medals have also made of rock, gemstone, ivory, glass, porcelain, terra cotta, coal, wood, paper, enamel, lacquerware. Honorary awards, as a button, which it is custom to give the kings kinsmen. Roman emperors used both military awards of medals, and political gifts of medallions that were very large coins, usually in gold or silver. Both these and actual golden coins were often set as pieces of jewellery, the bracteate is a type of thin gold medal, usually plain on the reverse, found in Northern Europe from the so-called Dark Ages or Migration Period. They often have suspension loops and were intended to be worn on a chain as jewellery. They imitate, at a distance, Roman imperial coins and medallions, the surviving example is mounted for wearing as jewelleryMiniature medal – Obverse of medal distributed by Cecilia Gonzaga 's family to political allies, a common practice in Renaissance Europe. Designed by Pisanello in 1447.
5. Bronze Medal – The outright winner receives a gold medal and the second place a silver medal. More generally, bronze is traditionally the most common used for all types of high-quality medals. The practice of awarding bronze third place medals began at the 1904 Olympic Games in St. Louis, Missouri, prior to which only first, minting Olympic medals is the responsibility of the host city. From 1972–2000, Cassiolis design remained on the obverse with a design by the host city on the reverse. Noting that Cassiolis design showed a Roman amphitheatre for what was originally a Greek game, winter Olympics medals have been of more varied design. In 1995, a study was carried out by social psychologists Victoria Medvec, Scott Madey, the study showed that athletes who won the bronze medal were significantly happier with their winning than those athletes who won the silver medal. The silver medalists were more frustrated because they had missed the gold medal and this is more pronounced in knockout competitions, where the bronze medals are achieved by winning a playoff, whereas silver medals are awarded after a defeat in the final. This psychological phenomenon was parodied in the Jerry Seinfeld special Im Telling You for the Last Time, bronze and brass ornamental work Third place playoff Medal Designs for all Olympic GamesBronze Medal – A bronze medal from the 1980 Summer Olympics
6. Gold Medal – A gold medal is a medal awarded for highest achievement in a non-military field. Its name derives from the use of at least a fraction of gold in form of plating or alloying in its manufacture, others offer only the prestige of the award. Many organizations now award gold medals either annually or extraordinarily, including UNESCO, while some gold medals are solid gold, others are gold-plated or silver-gilt, like those of the Olympic Games, the Lorentz Medal, the United States Congressional Gold Medal and the Nobel Prize medal. Nobel Prize medals consist of 18 karat green gold plated with 24 karat gold, before 1980 they were struck in 23 karat gold. In the United States, Congress would enact a resolution asking the President to reward those responsible, the commanding officer would receive a gold medal and his officers silver medals. Other countries similarly honored their military and naval victors in a similar fashion, Medals have historically been given as prizes in various types of competitive activities, especially athletics. Traditionally, medals are made of the metals, Gold Silver Bronze Occasionally. This standard was adopted for Olympic competition at the 1904 Summer Olympics, at the 1896 event, silver was awarded to winners and bronze to runners-up, while at 1904 other prizes were given, not medals. At the modern Olympic Games, winners of a sporting discipline receive a medal in recognition of their achievement. At the Ancient Olympic Games only one winner per event was crowned with kotinos, aristophanes in Plutus makes a remark why victorious athletes are crowned with wreath made of wild olive instead of gold. When Tigranes, an Armenian general learned this, he uttered to his leader, what kind of men are these against whom you have brought us to fight. Men who do not compete for possessions, but for honour, hence medals were not awarded at the ancient Olympic Games. At the 1896 Summer Olympics, winners received a silver medal, in 1900, most winners received cups or trophies instead of medals. The next three Olympics awarded the winners solid gold medals, but the medals themselves were smaller, the use of gold rapidly declined with the onset of the First World War and also with the onset of the Second World War. The last series of Olympic medals to be made of gold were awarded at the 1912 Olympic Games in Stockholm. Olympic Gold medals are required to be made from at least 92. 5% silver, all Olympic medals must be at least 60mm in diameter and 3mm thick. Minting the medals is the responsibility of the Olympic host, from the 1972 Summer Olympics through 2000, Cassiolis design remained on the obverse with a custom design by the host city on the reverse. Noting that Cassiolis design showed a Roman amphitheater for what originally were Greek games, Winter Olympics medals have been of more varied designGold Medal – The gold, silver and bronze medals of the 1964 Olympic Winter Games (Olympic Museum).
7. Silver Medal – The outright winner receives a gold medal and the third place a bronze medal. More generally, silver is traditionally a metal used for all types of high-quality medals. In 1896, winners medals were in fact silver, the custom of gold-silver-bronze for the first three places dates from the 1904 games and has been copied for many other sporting events. Minting the medals is the responsibility of the host city, from 1972–2000, Cassiolis design remained on the obverse with a custom design by the host city on the reverse. Noting that Cassiolis design showed a Roman amphitheatre for what was originally a Greek games, winter Olympics medals have been of more varied design. In The Open Championship golf tournament, the Silver Medal is an award presented to the lowest scoring player at the tournament. Runner-up Medal Designs for all Olympic GamesSilver Medal – The 1896 Olympic Silver Medal