1. List of '2005 in' articles – 2005 was designated as, International Year for Sport and Physical Education International Year of Microcredit The year 2005 was the end of the International Decade of the Worlds Indigenous People. January 12 – Deep Impact is launched from Cape Canaveral with the purpose of studying the comet Tempel 1, january 14 – The Huygens spacecraft lands on Titan, the largest moon of Saturn. February 10 – North Korea announces that it possesses nuclear weapons as a protection against the hostility it feels from the United States, february 14 – Former Lebanese Prime Minister Rafic Hariri is assassinated, along with 21 others, by a suicide bomber in Beirut. February 16 – The Kyoto Protocol officially goes into effect, march 14 – The Peoples Republic of China ratifies an anti-secession law, aimed at preventing Taiwan from declaring independence. March 24 – The President of Kyrgyzstan Askar Akayev is overthrown following mass anti-government demonstrations, march 28 – The 8.6 Mw Nias–Simeulue earthquake shakes northern Sumatra with a maximum Mercalli intensity of VI, leaving 915–1,314 people dead and 340–1,146 injured. April 2 – Pope John Paul II dies, over 4 million people travel to the Vatican to mourn him, Pope Benedict XVI succeeds him on April 19, becoming the 265th pope. April 9 – Charles, Prince of Wales marries Camilla Parker Bowles in a ceremony at Windsors Guildhall. Camilla acquires the title Duchess of Cornwall, April 26 – Syria withdraws the last of its military garrison from Lebanon, ending its 29-year military occupation of the country. April 27 – The Superjumbo jet aircraft Airbus A380 makes its first flight from Toulouse, may 13 – Uzbek Interior Ministry and National Security Service troops massacre at least 200 protesters in the city of Andijan. May 15 – A passenger ferry capsizes and sinks in strong winds in the Bura Gauranga River in Bangladesh, june 21 – A Volna booster rocket carrying the first light sail spacecraft fails 83 seconds after its launch, destroying the spacecraft. June 28 – Three U. S. Navy SEALs and 16 American Special Operations Forces soldiers are killed in a firefight in Afghanistan. Only one SEAL survives the battle, july 2 – Live 8, a set of 10 simultaneous concerts, takes place throughout the world, raising interest in the Make Poverty History campaign. July 6 – The European Parliament rejects the Proposed directive on the patentability of computer-implemented inventions in its second reading, july 7 – Four coordinated suicide bombings rock central London, killing 52 people and injuring over 700. July 23 – A series of hit the resort city of Sharm el-Sheikh, Egypt. July 28 – The Provisional Irish Republican Army announces an end to the campaign it has pursued since 1969. August 12 – The Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter is launched from Cape Canaveral, august 16 – West Caribbean Airways Flight 708 crashes into a mountain in Venezuela, killing 160 passengers. August 18 – Peace Mission 2005, the first joint China–Russia military exercise, august 29 – Hurricane Katrina makes landfall along the U. S. Gulf Coast, causing severe damage and killing over a thousand people and dealing an estimated $108 billion in damage. August 31 – A stampede at the Al-Aaimmah bridge in Baghdad, Iraq, september 7 – Egypt holds its first ever multi-party presidential election, which is marred with allegations of fraudList of '2005 in' articles – Shirley Chisholm
2. List of '2006 in' articles – 2006 was designated as, International Year of Deserts and Desertification International Aspergers Year January 1 – Russia cuts the shipment of natural gas to Ukraine over a price dispute. January 12 – A stampede during the Stoning of the Devil ritual on the last day at the Hajj in Mina, Saudi Arabia, January 15 – NASAs Stardust mission successfully ends, the first to return dust from a comet. January 19 – NASA launches the first space mission to Pluto as a rocket hurls the New Horizons spacecraft on a nine-year journey. February 3 – Egyptian passenger ferry, MS al-Salam Boccaccio 98, sinks in the Red Sea off the coast of Saudi Arabia, february 10–26 – The 2006 Winter Olympics are held in Turin, Italy. February 17 – A massive mudslide occurs in Southern Leyte, Philippines killing an estimated 1,126 people, march 9 – NASAs Cassini–Huygens spacecraft discovers geysers of a liquid substance shooting from Saturns moon Enceladus, signaling a possible presence of water. March 10 – NASAs Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter enters orbit around Mars, march 16 – The United Nations General Assembly votes overwhelmingly to establish the United Nations Human Rights Council. March 28 – A scramjet jet engine, HyShot III, designed to fly at seven times the speed of sound, is tested at Woomera. April 11 The European Space Agencys Venus Express spaceprobe enters Venus orbit, President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad confirms that Iran has successfully produced a few grams of low-grade enriched uranium. May – The Human Genome Project publishes the last chromosome sequence, may 27 – The 6.4 Mw Yogyakarta earthquake shakes central Java with an MSK intensity of IX, leaving more than 5,700 dead and 37,000 injured. June 3 – Montenegro declares independence after a May 21 referendum, the state union of Serbia and Montenegro is dissolved on June 5, leaving Serbia as the successor state. June 9 – July 9 – The 2006 FIFA World Cup begins in Germany, June 28 Israel launches an offensive in the Gaza Strip in response to rocketfire by Hamas into Israeli territory. The United States Armed Forces withdraws its forces in Iceland, thereby disbanding the Iceland Defense Force, July 1 – The Qinghai–Tibet Railway launches a trial operation, making Tibet the last province-level entity of China to have a conventional railway. July 6 – The Nathu La pass between India and China, sealed during the Sino-Indian War, re-opens for trade after 44 years, July 12 – Israeli troops invade Lebanon in response to Hezbollah kidnapping two Israeli soldiers and killing three others. Hezbollah declares open war against Israel two days later, august 22 – Pulkovo Aviation Enterprise Flight 612 crashes near the Russian border in Ukraine, killing all 171 people on board. August 24 – The International Astronomical Union defines planet at its 26th General Assembly, september 19 – The Royal Thai Army overthrows the government of Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra in a coup détat. September 29 – Gol Transportes Aéreos Flight 1907 collides with a jet over the Amazon rainforest. October 9 – North Korea claims to have conducted its nuclear test. October 13 – South Korean Ban Ki-moon is elected as the new Secretary-General of the United Nations,5,1948 by Jackson Pollock becomes the most expensive painting after it is sold privately for $140 millionList of '2006 in' articles – 2006 FIFA World Cup opening ceremony in Germany.
3. Two Thousand and Seven – 2007 was designated as International Heliophysical Year. January 1 Bulgaria and Romania join the European Union, while Slovenia joins the Eurozone, adam Air Flight 574 disappeared from Jakartas radar. A week later it was founded that the aircraft has crashed into the Makassar Strait, january 8 – Russian oil supplies to Poland, Germany, and Ukraine are cut as the Russia–Belarus energy dispute escalates, they are restored three days later. February 2 The IPCC publishes its fourth assessment report, having concluded that climate change is very likely to have a predominantly human cause. February 3 – A truck bomb explodes in Baghdad, Iraq, killing at least 135 people, february 26 – The International Court of Justice finds Serbia guilty of failing to prevent genocide in the Srebrenica massacre, but clears it of direct responsibility and complicity in the case. March 1 – The fourth International Polar Year, a $1.73 billion research program to both the North Pole and South Pole, is launched in Paris. March 23 – Naval forces of Irans Revolutionary Guard seize Royal Navy personnel in disputed Iran-Iraq waters, march 27 – Latvian Prime Minister Aigars Kalvītis and Russian Prime Minister Mikhail Fradkov sign a border treaty between Latvia and Russia, officially demarcating the border between the two. April 3 – French high speed train, the TGV, reaches a top speed of 574.8 km/h. April 18 – A series of attacks take place across Baghdad, Iraq, April 24 – Gliese 581 c, a potentially Earth-like extrasolar planet habitable for life, is discovered in the constellation Libra. April 26-27 – Ethnic Russian riot in Tallinn and other cities in Estonia against the moving of the Bronze Soldier, may 17 – The Russian Orthodox Church Abroad and the Moscow Patriarchate re-unite after 80 years of schism. May 20 – Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum of Dubai makes the largest single donation in modern history. June 5 – NASAs MESSENGER spacecraft makes its second fly-by of Venus en route to Mercury, july 7 – Live Earth Concerts are held throughout 9 major cities around the world to raise environmental awareness. July 17 – TAM Airlines Flight 3054 overruns the runway of São Paulo–Congonhas Airport and crashes, killing all 187 and 12 others on the ground. July 24 – Five Bulgarian nurses were released from Libyan prison after eight, august 4 – The Phoenix spacecraft is launched toward Mars to study its north pole. August 14 – Multiple suicide bombings kill 572 people in Qahtaniya, august 15 – An 8.0 earthquake strikes Peru, killing at least 450 people, injuring more than 1,500, and causing tsunami warnings in the Pacific Ocean. September 6 – Israeli Air Force airplanes attack a suspected nuclear reactor in Syria in an airstrike, september 14 – The SELENE spacecraft launches, with its objective being to study the Moon. September 20 – The Universal Forum of Cultures opens in Monterrey, october 28 – The Vatican beatifies 498 Spanish victims of religious persecution from before and during the Spanish Civil War. November 6 – A suicide bomber kills at least 50 people in Mazar-i-Sharif, Afghanistan, november 14 – High Speed 1 from London to the Channel Tunnel is opened to passengersTwo Thousand and Seven – Yvonne De Carlo
4. Two Thousand and Nine – Asunción, the capital of Paraguay, becomes the American Capital of Culture and Vilnius and Linz become the European Capitals of Culture. Slovakia adopts the euro as its currency, replacing the Slovak koruna. January 21 – Israel withdraws from the Gaza Strip, officially ending a war it had with Hamas. However, Intermittent air strikes by both sides continue in the weeks to follow, january 26 The first trial at the International Criminal Court is held. Former Union of Congolese Patriots leader Thomas Lubanga is accused of training soldiers to kill, pillage. The Icelandic government and banking system collapse, Prime Minister Geir Haarde immediately resigns, february 1 Patriarch Kirill of Moscow is enthroned as the Patriarch of the Russian Orthodox Church following the death of his predecessor, Alexy II in 2008. Jóhanna Sigurðardóttir is appointed as the new Prime Minister of Iceland, february 26 – Former Serbian president Milan Milutinović is acquitted by the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia regarding war crimes during the Kosovo War. March 2 – The President of Guinea-Bissau, João Bernardo Vieira, is assassinated during an attack on his residence in Bissau. March 4 – The International Criminal Court issues an arrest warrant for Sudanese President Omar al-Bashir for war crimes and crimes against humanity in Darfur, al-Bashir is the first sitting head of state to be indicted by the ICC since its establishment in 2002. March 7 – NASAs Kepler Mission, a space photometer that will search for planets in the Milky Way galaxy, is launched from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Florida. March 17 – The President of Madagascar, Marc Ravalomanana, is overthrown in a coup détat, april 1 – Albania and Croatia are admitted to NATO, becoming the newest members of the organization. April 6 – A6.3 magnitude earthquake strikes near LAquila, Italy, killing nearly 300, april 21 – UNESCO launches The World Digital Library. May 18 – Following more than a quarter-century of fighting, the Sri Lankan Civil War ends with the military defeat of the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam. May 25 – North Korea announces that it has conducted a successful nuclear test in North Hamgyong Province. The United Nations Security Council condemns the reported test, june 1 – Air France Flight 447, en route from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, to Paris, crashes into the Atlantic Ocean, killing all 228 on board. June 11 – The outbreak of the H1N1 influenza strain, commonly referred to as swine flu, is deemed a global pandemic, june 18 – NASA launches the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter/LCROSS probes to the Moon, the first American lunar mission since Lunar Prospector in 1998. June 28 – The Military of Honduras ousts Honduran President Manuel Zelaya in a coup détat, june 30 – Yemenia Flight 626 crashes off the coast of Moroni, Comoros, killing all but one of the 153 passengers and crew. July 15 – Caspian Airlines Flight 7908 crashes near Qazvin, Iran, july 16 – Icelands national parliament, the Althingi, votes to pursue joining the EUTwo Thousand and Nine – 2008–2009 Israel–Gaza conflict
5. Twenty Ten – The year 2010 is pronounced either two thousand ten, or twenty-ten. 2010 was the first year to have a variation in pronunciation. January 4 – The tallest man-made structure to date, the Burj Khalifa in Dubai, january 8 – The Togo national football team is involved in an attack in Cabinda Province, Angola, and as a result withdraws from the Africa Cup of Nations. The attack was perpetrated by the FLEC, their first since the Angolan Civil War, january 12 – A7. 0-magnitude earthquake occurs in Haiti, devastating the nations capital, Port-au-Prince. With a confirmed death toll over 316,000, it is the seventh deadliest on record, january 15 The longest annular solar eclipse of the 3rd millennium occurs. The Chadian Civil War officially ends, january 25 – Ethiopian Airlines Flight 409 crashes into the Mediterranean shortly after take-off from Beirut–Rafic Hariri International Airport, killing all 90 people on board. February 3 – The sculpture LHomme qui marche I by Alberto Giacometti sells in London for £65 million, february 12–28 – The 2010 Winter Olympics are held in Vancouver and Whistler, Canada. February 27 – An 8. 8-magnitude earthquake occurs in Chile, triggering a tsunami over the Pacific, the earthquake is one of the largest in recorded history. March 16 – The Kasubi Tombs, Ugandas only cultural World Heritage Site, are destroyed by fire, march 26 – The ROKS Cheonan, a South Korean Navy ship carrying 104 personnel, sinks off the countrys west coast, killing 46. In May, an independent investigation blames North Korea, which denies the allegations, april 7 – Kyrgyz President Kurmanbek Bakiyev flees the country amid fierce anti-government riots in the capital, Bishkek. April 10 – The President of Poland, Lech Kaczyński, is among 96 killed when their airplane crashes near Smolensk, Russia. April 14 – Volcanic ash from one of several eruptions beneath Mount Eyjafjallajökull, april 20 – The Deepwater Horizon oil drilling platform explodes in the Gulf of Mexico, killing 11 workers. May 2 – The eurozone and the International Monetary Fund agree to a €110 billion bailout package for Greece, the package involves sharp Greek austerity measures. May 4 – Nude, Green Leaves and Bust by Pablo Picasso sells in New York for US$106.5 million, setting another new world record for a work of art sold at auction. May 6 – The 2010 Flash Crash, a stock market crash, occurs over 36 minutes. May 7 Chile becomes the 31st member of the OECD, Scientists conducting the Neanderthal genome project announce that they have sequenced enough of the Neanderthal genome to suggest that Neanderthals and humans may have interbred. May 12 – Afriqiyah Airways Flight 771 crashes at runway at Tripoli International Airport in Libya, may 19 – Protests in Bangkok, Thailand, end with a bloody military crackdown, killing 91 and injuring more than 2,100. May 20 Scientists announced that they have created a synthetic genomeTwenty Ten – January 12: Damaged buildings in Jacmel as a result of the Haiti earthquake
6. Two thousand eleven – January 4 – Tunisian street vendor Mohamed Bouazizi dies after setting himself on fire a month earlier, sparking anti-government protests in Tunisia and later other Arab nations. These protests become known collectively as the Arab Spring, January 9 –15 – Southern Sudan holds a referendum on independence. The Sudanese electorate votes in favour of independence, paving the way for the creation of the new state in July. January 14 – Arab Spring, The Tunisian government falls after a month of increasingly violent protests, January 24 –37 people are killed and more than 180 others wounded in a bombing at Domodedovo International Airport in Moscow, Russia. February 22 – March 14 – Uncertainty over Libyan oil output causes crude oil prices to rise 20% over a period following the Arab Spring, causing the 2011 energy crisis. March 11 – A9. 0-magnitude earthquake and subsequent tsunami hit the east of Japan, killing 15,840, tsunami warnings are issued in 50 countries and territories. Emergencies are declared at four power plants affected by the quake. March 15 Arab Spring, Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa, King of Bahrain declares a state of emergency as troops from the Gulf Co-operation Council are sent to quell the civil unrest. Arab Spring, The Syrian Civil War begins, april 29 – An estimated two billion people watch the wedding of Prince William, Duke of Cambridge and Catherine Middleton at Westminster Abbey in London. May 1 – U. S. President Barack Obama announces that Osama bin Laden, may 16 – The European Union agrees to a €78 billion rescue deal for Portugal. The bailout loan will be split between the European Financial Stabilisation Mechanism, the European Financial Stability Facility, and the International Monetary Fund. May 21 – Grímsvötn, Icelands most active volcano, erupted and caused disruption to air travel in Northwestern Europe, may 26 – Former Bosnian Serb Army commander Ratko Mladić, wanted for genocide, war crimes and crimes against humanity, is arrested in Serbia. June 4 – Chiles Puyehue volcano erupts, causing air traffic cancellations across South America, New Zealand, Australia, june 5 – Arab Spring, Yemeni President Ali Abdullah Saleh travels to Saudi Arabia for treatment of an injury sustained during an attack on the presidential palace. Protesters celebrate his transfer of power to his Vice-President Abd al-Rab Mansur al-Hadi, june 12 – Arab Spring, Thousands of Syrians flee to Turkey as Syrian troops lay siege to Jisr ash-Shugur. June 28 – Food and Agriculture Organization announces the eradication of the cattle plague rinderpest from the world, July 7 – The worlds first artificial organ transplant is achieved, using an artificial windpipe coated with stem cells. July 9 – South Sudan secedes from Sudan, per the result of the referendum held in January. July 12 – The planet Neptune completes its first orbit since it was discovered in 1846, July 14 – South Sudan joins the United Nations as the 193rd member. July 20 Goran Hadžić is detained in Serbia, becoming the last of 161 people indicted by the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia, the United Nations declares a famine in southern Somalia, the first in over 30 yearsTwo thousand eleven – Gerry Rafferty
7. Heisei 24 – February 19 – Iran suspends oil exports to Britain and France, following sanctions put in place by the European Union and the United States in January. February 21 – Greek government-debt crisis, Eurozone finance ministers reach an agreement on a second, march 13 – After 244 years since its first publication, the Encyclopædia Britannica discontinues its print edition. March 22 – The President of Mali, Amadou Toumani Touré, is ousted in a coup détat after mutinous soldiers attack government offices, april 6 – The National Movement for the Liberation of Azawad unilaterally declares the independence of Azawad from Mali. April 12 – Mutinous soldiers in Guinea-Bissau stage a coup détat and take control of the capital city and they arrest interim President Raimundo Pereira and leading presidential candidate Carlos Gomes Júnior in the midst of a presidential election campaign. April 13 – Kwangmyŏngsŏng-3, a North Korean Earth observation satellite, the United States and other countries had called the impending launch a violation of United Nations Security Council demands. The launch was planned to mark the centenary of the birth of Kim Il-sung, april 26 – Former Liberian President Charles Taylor is found guilty on 11 counts of aiding and abetting war crimes and crimes against humanity during the Sierra Leone Civil War. May 2 – A pastel version of The Scream, by the Norwegian painter Edvard Munch, sells for US$120 million in a New York City auction, may 12 – August 12 – The 2012 World Expo takes place in Yeosu, South Korea. May 22 – Tokyo Skytree, the tallest self-supporting tower in the world at 634 metres high, is opened to the public, june 5–6 – The centurys second and last solar transit of Venus occurs. The next pair are predicted to occur in 2117 and 2125, june 24 – Lonesome George, the last known individual of the Pinta Island tortoise subspecies, dies in Galápagos National Park, thus making the subspecies extinct. July 4 – CERN announces the discovery of a new particle with properties consistent with the Higgs boson after experiments at the Large Hadron Collider, July 27 – August 12 – The 2012 Summer Olympics are held in London, England, United Kingdom. July 30–31 – In the worst power outage in world history, August 6 – Curiosity, the Mars Science Laboratory missions rover, successfully lands on Mars. The move is met with fierce criticism from other countries. September 11–27 – A series of terrorist attacks are directed against United States diplomatic missions worldwide, as well as missions of Germany, Switzerland. In the US, opinions are divided whether the attacks are a reaction to a YouTube trailer for the film Innocence of Muslims. In Libya, among the dead is US ambassador J. Christopher Stevens, october 16 – Seven paintings worth $25 million are stolen from the Kunsthal in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. November 14–21 – Israel launches Operation Pillar of Defense against the Palestinian-governed Gaza Strip, in the following week 140 Palestinians and five Israelis are killed in an ensuing cycle of violence. November 25 – December 9 – Typhoon Bopha, known as Pablo in the Philippines, the typhoon causes considerable damage in the island of Mindanao. November 29 – The UN General Assembly approves a motion granting Palestine non-member observer state status, December 8 – In Qatar, the UN Climate Change Conference agrees to extend the Kyoto Protocol until 2020Heisei 24 – Etta James
8. MMXIII – January 16–20 – Thirty-nine international workers and one security guard die in a hostage crisis at a natural gas facility near In Aménas, Algeria. February 12 – North Korea conducts its third nuclear test, prompting widespread condemnation. February 15 – A meteor explodes over the Russian city of Chelyabinsk, injuring 1, 489-1,492 people and it is the most powerful meteor to strike Earths atmosphere in over a century. The incident, along with a flyby of a larger asteroid. February 21 – American scientists use a 3D printer to create a living lab-grown ear from collagen, in the future, it is hoped, similar ears could be grown to order as transplants for human patients suffering from ear trauma or amputation. February 28 – Benedict XVI resigns as pope, becoming the first to do so since Gregory XII in 1415, march 24 – Central African Republic President François Bozizé flees to the Democratic Republic of the Congo, after rebel forces capture the nations capital, Bangui. March 25 – The European Union agrees to a €10 billion economic bailout for Cyprus, the bailout loan will be equally split between the European Financial Stabilisation Mechanism, the European Financial Stability Facility, and the International Monetary Fund. The deal precipitates a banking crisis in the island nation, march 27 – Canada becomes the first country to withdraw from the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification. April 2 – The United Nations General Assembly adopts the Arms Trade Treaty to regulate the trade of conventional weapons. April 15 – Two Chechen Islamist brothers explode two bombs at the Boston Marathon in Boston, Massachusetts, in the United States, killing 3, july 1 – Croatia becomes the 28th member of the European Union. July 3 – Amid mass protests across Egypt, President Mohamed Morsi is deposed in a military coup détat, august 14 – Following the military coup in Egypt, two anti-coup camps are raided by the security forces leaving 2,600 dead. The raids were described by Human Rights Watch as one of the world’s largest killings of demonstrators in a day in recent history”. August 21 –1,429 are killed in the Ghouta chemical attack during the Syrian Civil War, september 21 – al-Shabaab Islamic militants attack the Westgate shopping mall in Nairobi, Kenya, killing at least 62 civilians and wounding over 170. October 18 – Saudi Arabia rejects a seat on the United Nations Security Council, jordan takes the seat on December 6. November 5 – The Mars Orbiter Mission is launched by India from its launchpad in Sriharikota, november 8 – Typhoon Haiyan, one of the strongest tropical cyclones on record, hits the Philippines and Vietnam, causing devastation with at least 6,241 dead. November 24 – Iran agrees to limit their nuclear development program in exchange for sanctions relief, December 7 – Ninth Ministerial Conference of the World Trade Organization delegates sign the Bali Package agreement aimed at loosening global trade barriers. December 14 – Chinese spacecraft Change 3, carrying the Yutu rover, becomes the first spacecraft to soft-land on the Moon since 1976 and the third ever robotic rover to do so. December 15 – Fighting between ethnic Dinka and Nuer members of the presidential guard break out in Juba, South Sudan, plunging the country into civil warMMXIII – April 24: Savar building collapse.
9. MMXIV – February – The Ebola virus epidemic in West Africa begins, infecting at least 28,616 people and killing at least 11,310 people, the most severe both in terms of numbers of infections and casualties. February 7–23 – The XXII Olympic Winter Games are held in Sochi, february 13 – Belgium becomes the first country in the world to legalise euthanasia for terminally ill patients of any age. March 5 – Nicolás Maduro, the President of Venezuela, severs diplomatic and political ties with Panama, march 8 – Malaysia Airlines Flight 370, a Boeing 777 airliner en route to Beijing from Kuala Lumpur, disappears over the Gulf of Thailand with 239 people on board. The aircraft is presumed to have crashed into the Indian Ocean, march 16 – A referendum on the status of the Crimean Peninsula is held. March 21 – Russia formally annexes Crimea after President Vladimir Putin signed a bill finalizing the annexation process, march 24 – During an emergency meeting, the United Kingdom, the United States, Italy, Germany, France, Japan, and Canada temporarily suspend Russia from the G8. March 27 – The United Nations General Assembly passes Resolution 68/262, recognizing Crimea within Ukraine’s international borders, march 31 – The United Nations International Court of Justice rules that Japans Antarctic whaling program is not scientific but commercial and forbids grants of further permits. April 7 – The Donetsk Peoples Republic unilaterally declares its independence from Ukraine, april 14 – An estimated 276 girls and women are abducted and held hostage from a school in Nigeria. April 16 – Korean ferry MV Sewol capsizes and sinks after a cargo shift, killing 304 people. April 27 – The Catholic Church simultaneously canonizes Popes John XXIII, april 28 – United States President Barack Obamas new economic sanctions against Russia go into effect, targeting companies and individuals close to Russian President Vladimir Putin. May 5 The World Health Organization identifies the spread of poliomyelitis in at least 10 countries as a worldwide health emergency. Boko Haram militants kill approximately 300 people in an attack on Gamboru Ngala. The Donetsk Peoples Republic and the Luhansk Peoples Republic declare the formation of Novorossiya, june 12 – July 13 – The 2014 FIFA World Cup is held in Brazil, and is won by Germany. June 13 – The military intervention against ISIL begins, june 29 – The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant declares itself a caliphate. In seven weeks of fighting,2,100 Palestinians and 71 Israelis are killed, July 17 Malaysia Airlines Flight 17, a Boeing 777, crashes in eastern Ukraine after being shot down by a missile. All 298 people on board are killed, July 21 – The United Nations Security Council adopts Resolution 2166 in response to the shootdown of Malaysia Airlines Flight 17. July 24 – Air Algérie Flight 5017 crashes in Mali, killing all 116 people on board, august 7 – Khmer Rouge leaders Nuon Chea and Khieu Samphan are found guilty of crimes against humanity and are sentenced to life imprisonment by the Khmer Rouge Tribunal. August 8 – The United States military begins an air campaign in northern Iraq to stem the influx of ISIL militants, september 22 – The United States and several Arab partners begin their airstrike campaign in Syria. October 19 – The Roman Catholic Church beatifies Pope Paul VI, october 31 – Longtime Burkina Faso President Blaise Compaoré resigns after widespread protests in response to the attempt in abolishing presidential term limitsMMXIV – Princess Leonore, Duchess of Gotland
10. MMXV – Lithuania officially adopts the euro as its currency, replacing the litas, and becomes the nineteenth Eurozone country. January 3–7 – A series of massacres in Baga, Nigeria, january 15 – The Swiss National Bank abandons the cap on the francs value relative to the euro, causing turmoil in international financial markets. January 22 – After Houthi forces seize the palace, Yemeni President Abd Rabbuh Mansur Hadi resigns after months of unrest. February 12 Leaders from Russia, Ukraine, Germany and France reach an agreement on the conflict in eastern Ukraine that includes a ceasefire, the United Nations Security Council adopts Resolution 2199 to combat terrorism. March 5–8 – The ancient city sites of Nimrud, Hatra and Dur-Sharrukin in Iraq are demolished by the Islamic State of Iraq, March 6 – NASAs Dawn probe enters orbit around Ceres, becoming the first spacecraft to visit a dwarf planet. March 12 – The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant becomes allies with fellow jihadist group Boko Haram, March 24 – An Airbus A320-211 operated by Germanwings crashes in the French Alps, killing all 150 on board. March 25 – A Saudi Arabia-led coalition of Arab countries starts a military intervention in Yemen in order to uphold the Yemeni government in its fight against the Houthis southern offensive. April 2 –148 people are killed, the majority students, in a shooting at the Garissa University College in Kenya. April 25 – A magnitude 7.8 earthquake strikes Nepal, april 29 – The World Health Organization declares that rubella has been eradicated from the Americas. May 1–October 31 – Expo 2015 is held in Milan, Italy. May 12 – A second major earthquake in Nepal, measuring 7.3 on the moment magnitude scale, results in 153 deaths in Nepal,62 in India,1 in China and 2 in Bangladesh with a total of 218 deaths. May 20 – The two constituent republics of Novorossiya, the Donetsk Peoples Republic and the Luhansk Peoples Republic, announce the suspension of the Novorossiya project, may 23 – Ireland votes to legalize same-sex marriage, becoming the first country to legalize same-sex marriage by popular vote. June 6 – The governments of India and Bangladesh officially ratify their 1974 agreement to exchange enclaves along their border, june 7–8 – The 41st G7 summit is held in Schloss Elmau, Bavaria. Sousse attacks, 22-year-old Seifeddine Rezgui opens fire at a tourist resort at Port El Kantaoui, Tunisia, Kuwait mosque bombing, A suicide bomber attacks the Shia Mosque Imam Jafar as-Sadiq at Kuwait City, Kuwait, killing 27 people and injuring 227 others. June 30 Cuba becomes the first country in the world to eradicate mother-to-child transmission of HIV, july 1 – Greek government-debt crisis, Greece becomes the first advanced economy to miss a payment to the International Monetary Fund in the 71-year history of the IMF. July 14 NASAs New Horizons spacecraft performs a close flyby of Pluto, iran agrees to long-term limits of its nuclear program in exchange for sanctions relief. July 20 – Cuba and the United States reestablish full diplomatic relations, july 24 – Turkey begins a series of airstrikes against PKK and ISIL targets after the 2015 Suruç bombing. August 5 – Debris found on Réunion Island is confirmed to be that of Malaysian Airlines Flight 370, august 17 – A bombing takes place inside the Erawan Shrine at the Ratchaprasong intersection in Pathum Wan District, Bangkok, Thailand, killing 20 people and injuring 125MMXV – Mario Cuomo
11. Argentiina – Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic, is a federal republic in the southern half of South America. With a mainland area of 2,780,400 km2, Argentina is the eighth-largest country in the world, the second largest in Latin America, and the largest Spanish-speaking one. The country is subdivided into provinces and one autonomous city, Buenos Aires. The provinces and the capital have their own constitutions, but exist under a federal system, Argentina claims sovereignty over part of Antarctica, the Falkland Islands, and South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands. The earliest recorded presence in the area of modern-day Argentina dates back to the Paleolithic period. The country has its roots in Spanish colonization of the region during the 16th century, Argentina rose as the successor state of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, a Spanish overseas viceroyalty founded in 1776. The country thereafter enjoyed relative peace and stability, with waves of European immigration radically reshaping its cultural. The almost-unparalleled increase in prosperity led to Argentina becoming the seventh wealthiest developed nation in the world by the early 20th century, Argentina retains its historic status as a middle power in international affairs, and is a prominent regional power in the Southern Cone and Latin America. Argentina has the second largest economy in South America, the third-largest in Latin America and is a member of the G-15 and it is the country with the second highest Human Development Index in Latin America with a rating of very high. Because of its stability, market size and growing high-tech sector, the description of the country by the word Argentina has to be found on a Venice map in 1536. In English the name Argentina probably comes from the Spanish language, however the naming itself is not Spanish, Argentina means in Italian of silver, silver coloured, probably borrowed from the Old French adjective argentine of silver > silver coloured already mentioned in the 12th century. The French word argentine is the form of argentin and derives of argent silver with the suffix -in. The Italian naming Argentina for the country implies Argentina Terra land of silver or Argentina costa coast of silver, in Italian, the adjective or the proper noun is often used in an autonomous way as a substantive and replaces it and it is said lArgentina. The name Argentina was probably first given by the Venitian and Genoese navigators, in Spanish and Portuguese, the words for silver are respectively plata and prata and of silver is said plateado and prateado. Argentina was first associated with the silver mountains legend, widespread among the first European explorers of the La Plata Basin. The first written use of the name in Spanish can be traced to La Argentina, a 1602 poem by Martín del Barco Centenera describing the region, the 1826 constitution included the first use of the name Argentine Republic in legal documents. The name Argentine Confederation was also used and was formalized in the Argentine Constitution of 1853. In 1860 a presidential decree settled the name as Argentine RepublicArgentiina – The Cave of the Hands in Santa Cruz province, with indigenous artwork dating from 13,000–9,000 years ago
12. Anthropogenic climate variability – Global warming and climate change are terms for the observed century-scale rise in the average temperature of the Earths climate system and its related effects. Multiple lines of evidence show that the climate system is warming. The largest human influence has been emission of gases such as carbon dioxide, methane. These findings have been recognized by the science academies of the major industrialized nations and are not disputed by any scientific body of national or international standing. Future climate change and associated impacts will differ from region to region around the globe, anticipated effects include warming global temperature, rising sea levels, changing precipitation, and expansion of deserts in the subtropics. Warming is expected to be greater over land than over the oceans and greatest in the Arctic, with the retreat of glaciers, permafrost. Effects significant to humans include the threat to security from decreasing crop yields. Possible societal responses to global warming include mitigation by emissions reduction, adaptation to its effects, building systems resilient to its effects, most countries are parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, whose ultimate objective is to prevent dangerous anthropogenic climate change. Public reactions to global warming and concern about its effects are also increasing, a global 2015 Pew Research Center report showed a median of 54% consider it a very serious problem. There are significant regional differences, with Americans and Chinese among the least concerned, the global average surface temperature shows a warming of 0.85 °C in the period 1880 to 2012, based on multiple independently produced datasets. Earths average surface temperature rose by 0. 74±0.18 °C over the period 1906–2005, the rate of warming almost doubled for the last half of that period. The rest has melted ice and warmed the continents and atmosphere, the average temperature of the lower troposphere has increased between 0.12 and 0.135 °C per decade since 1979, according to satellite temperature measurements. The warming that is evident in the temperature record is consistent with a wide range of observations. The probability that these changes could have occurred by chance is virtually zero, temperature changes vary over the globe. Since 1979, land temperatures have increased about twice as fast as ocean temperatures, ocean temperatures increase more slowly than land temperatures because of the larger effective heat capacity of the oceans and because the ocean loses more heat by evaporation. Since the beginning of industrialisation the temperature difference between the hemispheres has increased due to melting of sea ice and snow in the North. Average arctic temperatures have been increasing at almost twice the rate of the rest of the world in the past 100 years, the thermal inertia of the oceans and slow responses of other indirect effects mean that climate can take centuries or longer to adjust to changes in forcing. Some of this warming will be driven by past natural forcings which are still seeking equilibrium in the climate systemAnthropogenic climate variability – Atmospheric sciences
13. Cartel of the Suns – The term Cartel of the Suns describes a Venezuelan organization allegedly headed by high-ranking members of the Armed Forces of Venezuela who are involved in international drug trade. Reports that members of the Venezuelan military were involved in drug trafficking began in the 1990s, though it was limited to taking payments, the Cartel of the Suns name returned in 2004 by reporter and city council member Mauro Marcano. Shortly before he was murdered, Marcano alleged that Alexis Maneiro, head of the National Guard, according to Vice News, the Bolivarian government under Hugo Chavez expanded corruption to unprecedented levels in an already corrupt military. Chavez gave military officials millions of dollars for programs that allegedly disappeared, also giving legal immunity to drug trafficking officials to maintain power. When Chavez ousted the United States Drug Enforcement Administration in 2005, according to Colombian intelligence, an arrested drug vigilante stated that senior figures in President Hugo Chavezs security forces to arrange drug shipments through Venezuela. It has been alleged that the National Guard had worked with the FARC with drug trade, british officials alleged that planes from Colombia would also be sheltered by Venezuelan Air Force bases. On 15 February 2014, a commander for the Venezuelan National Guard was stopped while driving to Valencia with his family and was arrested for having 554 kilos of cocaine in his possession. Allegedly, lower ranking National Guardsmen compete for positions at border checkpoints so they can be paid bribes for illicit trade, allegedly, the corrupt officials of the Cartel of the Suns traffic drugs from Colombia to Venezuela where they are shipped internationally. In January 2015, the security chief of both Hugo Chavez and Diosdado Cabello, Leamsy Salazar, made accusations that Cabello was head of the Cartel of the Suns. Salazar stated that he saw Cabello give orders on transporting tons of cocaine, the shipments of drugs were reportedly sent from the FARC in Colombia to the United States and Europe, with the possible assistance of Cuba. The alleged international drug operation had involved other senior members of Venezuelas government as well, such as Tarek El Aissami and José David Cabello. Hugo Carvajal is allegedly one of the leaders of the Cartel of the Suns, the arrest was carried out following a formal request by the U. S. government, which accuses Carvajal of ties to drug trafficking and to the FARC guerrilla group. On July 27, Carvajal was released after authorities decided he had diplomatic immunity, the International Institute for Strategic Studies accused Chavezs government of funding FARCs Caracas office and giving it access to intelligence services. Venezuelan diplomats denounced the IISS findings saying that they had basic inaccuracies, according to Interpol, the files found by Colombian forces were considered to be authentic. Deep state Controversies surrounding Army of the Guardians of the Islamic Revolution Illegal drug trade in Colombia Susurluk scandalCartel of the Suns – The sun insignias seen on shoulders of Venezuelan generals is how the group obtained its name.
14. The road of the money K – The Route of the K-Money was a 2013 political scandal in Argentina. It began with reports on the Periodismo para todos television program on the results of it investigation, embezzlement and an associated money trail involved Argentine presidents Néstor Kirchner, Cristina de Kirchner and their employee, businessman Lázaro Báez. The investigation concluded that Báez diverted money intended for infrastructure to tax havens. The scandal led to an official investigation, to date no judicial investigation ever found any proof of wrongdoing by Néstor Kirchner or Cristina de Kirchner. However, in April 2016 Lázaro Baez was awaiting trial on charges in an Argentinian federal prison. Periodismo para todos began its 2013 season on April 14.4 million when he became president in 2003 and she was elected president four years later, when Néstor Kirchner died in 2010, their assets were US$14.1 million. Lanata said that there was also an amount of undeclared money. The first program included interviews with Leonardo Fariña and Federico Elaskar, Báez, a businessman from Santa Cruz Province, was a close friend of Néstor Kirchner. Fariña worked for Báez, and Elaskar headed SGI, Elaskar detailed operations at La Rosadita, a firm in the Madero Center building in Puerto Madero. La Rosadita channeled money from Santa Cruz to Uruguay and Uruguay to Switzerland, Elaskar revealed more than 50 financial firms used for similar transactions, the operation required collaboration by banks as well. Fabián Rossi, husband of actress Iliana Calabró, was accused of managing operations in Panama. Fariña and Elaskar later recanted their statements, Fariña said on the TV program Intrusos en el espectáculo that he knew that he was being filmed, he lied to Lanata and he never carried bags of money. Elaskar said that he lied to harm Fariña, Rossi said that Fariña and Elaskar were deluded. In later programs, Lanata presented more evidence for the allegations, the second episode focused on the relationship between Báez and the Kirchners. Lanata documented agreements between Báez and Néstor Kirchner authorizing a builder, Austral Construcciones, to build apartments on land owned by Kirchner and these documents had already been sent to the courts by deputy Elisa Carrió, who alleged illegal collaboration by Báez, Kirchner and minister Julio de Vido. According to the Swiss bank Teegan, a corporation wholly owned by Lázaro Báezs son Martín. Jorge Harguindeguy, former Argentine ambassador to Panama, confirmed the Panamanian operations of La Rosadita, travel records obtained by La Nación indicate that Fariña, Rossi, Martín Báez and Daniel Pérez Gadín all visited Panama, often at the same time. Fariña flew from Uruguay to Panama on the plane of Chaco ProvinceThe road of the money K – Madero Center
15. Romaihi – Qatar, officially the State of Qatar, is a sovereign country located in Western Asia, occupying the small Qatar Peninsula on the northeastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula. Its sole land border is with Saudi Arabia to the south, with the rest of its surrounded by the Arabian Gulf. A strait in the Arabian Gulf separates Qatar from the island country of Bahrain, as well as sharing maritime borders with the United Arab Emirates. Following Ottoman rule, Qatar became a British protectorate in the early 20th century until gaining independence in 1971, Qatar has been ruled by the House of Thani since the early 19th century. Sheikh Jassim bin Mohammed Al Thani was the founder of the State of Qatar, Qatar is a hereditary monarchy and its head of state is Emir Sheikh Tamim bin Hamad Al Thani. Whether it should be regarded as a constitutional or a monarchy is a matter of opinion. In 2003, the constitution was approved in a referendum. In early 2017, Qatars total population was 2.6 million,313,000 Qatari citizens and 2.3 million expatriates, Qatar is a high income economy, backed by the worlds third largest natural gas reserves and oil reserves. The country has the highest per capita income in the world, Qatar is classified by the UN as a country of very high human development and is the most advanced Arab state for human development. Qatar is a significant power in the Arab world, supporting several rebel groups during the Arab Spring both financially and through its globally expanding media group, Al Jazeera Media Network. For its size, Qatar wields disproportionate influence in the world, Qatar will host the 2022 FIFA World Cup, becoming the first Arab country to do so. A century later, Ptolemy produced the first known map to depict the peninsula, the map also referenced a town named Cadara to the east of the peninsula. The term Catara was exclusively used until the 18th century, after which Katara emerged as the most commonly recognised spelling, eventually, the modern derivative Qatar was adopted as the countrys name. In Standard Arabic, the name is pronounced, while in the local dialect it is, Human habitation of Qatar dates back to 50,000 years ago. Settlements and tools dating back to the Stone Age have been unearthed in the peninsula, Mesopotamian artefacts originating from the Ubaid period have been discovered in abandoned coastal settlements. Al Daasa, a settlement located on the western coast of Qatar, is the most important Ubaid site in the country and is believed to have accommodated a small seasonal encampment. Kassite Babylonian material dating back to the second millennium BC found in Al Khor Islands attests to trade relations between the inhabitants of Qatar and the Kassites in modern-day Bahrain, among the findings were 3,000,000 crushed snail shells and Kassite potsherds. It has been suggested that Qatar is the earliest known site of shellfish dye production, in 224 AD, the Sasanian Empire gained control over the territories surrounding the Persian GulfRomaihi – Dot carvings at Jebel Jassassiyeh, dating to c. 4000 BC.
16. State of Chile – Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a South American country occupying a long, narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west. It borders Peru to the north, Bolivia to the northeast, Argentina to the east, Chilean territory includes the Pacific islands of Juan Fernández, Salas y Gómez, Desventuradas, and Easter Island in Oceania. Chile also claims about 1,250,000 square kilometres of Antarctica, the arid Atacama Desert in northern Chile contains great mineral wealth, principally copper. Southern Chile is rich in forests and grazing lands, and features a string of volcanoes and lakes, the southern coast is a labyrinth of fjords, inlets, canals, twisting peninsulas, and islands. Spain conquered and colonized Chile in the century, replacing Inca rule in northern and central Chile. After declaring its independence from Spain in 1818, Chile emerged in the 1830s as a relatively stable authoritarian republic, in the 1960s and 1970s the country experienced severe left-right political polarization and turmoil. The regime, headed by Augusto Pinochet, ended in 1990 after it lost a referendum in 1988 and was succeeded by a coalition which ruled through four presidencies until 2010. Chile is today one of South Americas most stable and prosperous nations and it leads Latin American nations in rankings of human development, competitiveness, income per capita, globalization, state of peace, economic freedom, and low perception of corruption. It also ranks high regionally in sustainability of the state, Chile is a founding member of the United Nations, the Union of South American Nations and the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States. There are various theories about the origin of the word Chile, another theory points to the similarity of the valley of the Aconcagua with that of the Casma Valley in Peru, where there was a town and valley named Chili. Another origin attributed to chilli is the onomatopoeic cheele-cheele—the Mapuche imitation of the warble of a locally known as trile. The Spanish conquistadors heard about this name from the Incas, ultimately, Almagro is credited with the universalization of the name Chile, after naming the Mapocho valley as such. The older spelling Chili was in use in English until at least 1900 before switching over to Chile, stone tool evidence indicates humans sporadically frequented the Monte Verde valley area as long as 18,500 years ago. About 10,000 years ago, migrating Native Americans settled in fertile valleys, settlement sites from very early human habitation include Monte Verde, Cueva del Milodon and the Pali Aike Craters lava tube. They fought against the Sapa Inca Tupac Yupanqui and his army, the result of the bloody three-day confrontation known as the Battle of the Maule was that the Inca conquest of the territories of Chile ended at the Maule river. The next Europeans to reach Chile were Diego de Almagro and his band of Spanish conquistadors, the Spanish encountered various cultures that supported themselves principally through slash-and-burn agriculture and hunting. The conquest of Chile began in earnest in 1540 and was carried out by Pedro de Valdivia, one of Francisco Pizarros lieutenants, who founded the city of Santiago on 12 February 1541. Although the Spanish did not find the gold and silver they sought, they recognized the agricultural potential of Chiles central valleyState of Chile – The Mapuche people were the original inhabitants of southern and central Chile.
17. The Republic of Colombia – Colombia, officially the Republic of Colombia, is a transcontinental country largely situated in the northwest of South America, with territories in Central America. Colombia shares a border to the northwest with Panama, to the east with Venezuela and Brazil and to the south with Ecuador and it shares its maritime limits with Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Honduras, Jamaica, Haiti and the Dominican Republic. It is a unitary, constitutional republic comprising thirty-two departments, the territory of what is now Colombia was originally inhabited by indigenous peoples including the Muisca, the Quimbaya and the Tairona. The Spanish arrived in 1499 and initiated a period of conquest and colonization ultimately creating the Viceroyalty of New Granada, independence from Spain was won in 1819, but by 1830 the Gran Colombia Federation was dissolved. What is now Colombia and Panama emerged as the Republic of New Granada, the new nation experimented with federalism as the Granadine Confederation, and then the United States of Colombia, before the Republic of Colombia was finally declared in 1886. Since the 1960s the country has suffered from an asymmetric low-intensity armed conflict, Colombia is one of the most ethnically and linguistically diverse countries in the world, and thereby possesses a rich cultural heritage. Cultural diversity has also influenced by Colombias varied geography. The urban centres are located in the highlands of the Andes mountains. Colombian territory also encompasses Amazon rainforest, tropical grassland and both Caribbean and Pacific coastlines, ecologically, it is one of the worlds 17 megadiverse countries, and the most densely biodiverse of these per square kilometer. Colombia is a power and a regional actor with the fourth-largest economy in Latin America, is part of the CIVETS group of six leading emerging markets and is an accessing member to the OECD. Colombia has an economy with macroeconomic stability and favorable growth prospects in the long run. The name Colombia is derived from the last name of Christopher Columbus and it was conceived by the Venezuelan revolutionary Francisco de Miranda as a reference to all the New World, but especially to those portions under Spanish and Portuguese rule. The name was adopted by the Republic of Colombia of 1819. When Venezuela, Ecuador and Cundinamarca came to exist as independent states, New Granada officially changed its name in 1858 to the Granadine Confederation. In 1863 the name was changed, this time to United States of Colombia. To refer to country, the Colombian government uses the terms Colombia. Owing to its location, the present territory of Colombia was a corridor of early human migration from Mesoamerica, the oldest archaeological finds are from the Pubenza and El Totumo sites in the Magdalena Valley 100 km southwest of Bogotá. These sites date from the Paleoindian period, at Puerto Hormiga and other sites, traces from the Archaic Period have been foundThe Republic of Colombia – San Agustín Archaeological Park
18. 2008-2009 Greek financial crisis – The European debt crisis is a multi-year debt crisis that has been taking place in the European Union since the end of 2009. The detailed causes of the debt crisis varied, in several countries, private debts arising from a property bubble were transferred to sovereign debt as a result of banking system bailouts and government responses to slowing economies post-bubble. The structure of the eurozone as a union without fiscal union contributed to the crisis. European banks own a significant amount of debt, such that concerns regarding the solvency of banking systems or sovereigns are negatively reinforcing. The ECB also contributed to solve the crisis by lowering interest rates, return to economic growth and improved structural deficits enabled Ireland and Portugal to exit their bailout programmes in July 2014. Greece and Cyprus both managed to regain market access in 2014. Spain never officially received a bailout programme and its rescue package from the ESM was earmarked for a bank recapitalization fund and did not include financial support for the government itself. In 1992, members of the European Union signed the Maastricht Treaty, under which they pledged to limit their deficit spending and debt levels. The crisis subsequently spread to Ireland and Portugal, while raising concerns about Italy, Spain, and the European banking system, in Greece, the low forecast was reported until very late in the year, clearly not corresponding to the actual situation. The fact that the Greek debt exceeded $400 billion and France owned 10% of that debt, as of January 2009, a group of 10 central and eastern European banks had already asked for a bailout. At the time, the European Commission released a forecast of a 1. 8% decline in EU economic output for 2009, the many public funded bank recapitalizations were one reason behind the sharply deteriorated debt-to-GDP ratios experienced by several European governments in the wake of the Great Recession. The states that were affected by the crisis faced a strong rise in interest rate spreads for government bonds as a result of investor concerns about their future debt sustainability. Together these three international organisations representing the creditors became nicknamed the Troika. By the end of 2011, Germany was estimated to have more than €9 billion out of the crisis as investors flocked to safer. By July 2012 also the Netherlands, Austria, and Finland benefited from zero or negative interest rates, looking at short-term government bonds with a maturity of less than one year the list of beneficiaries also includes Belgium and France. While Switzerland equally benefited from lower interest rates, the crisis also harmed its export sector due to an influx of foreign capital. This is the biggest Swiss intervention since 1978, in total, the debt crisis forced five out of 17 eurozone countries to seek help from other nations by the end of 2012. This has also greatly diminished contagion risk for other eurozone countries, as of October 2012 only 3 out of 17 eurozone countries, namely Greece, Portugal, and Cyprus still battled with long-term interest rates above 6%2008-2009 Greek financial crisis – Total (gross) government debt around the world as a percent of GDP by IMF
19. Refugee crisis – Refugee crisis can refer to movements of large groups of displaced people, who could be either internally displaced persons, refugees or other migrants. In June 2015 the UN refugee agency reported that wars and persecutions are the reasons behind the refugee crises all over the world. In countries ravaged by massive corruption and greed by those in political positions has caused many to leave their dearest homes in search of survival in foreign lands, the term environmental refugee is also commonly used and an estimated 25 million people can currently be classified as such. Case studies from Bolivia, Senegal and Tanzania, three countries extremely prone to change, show that people affected by environmental degradation rarely move across borders. Instead, they adapt to new circumstances by moving short distances for short periods, millions of people live in places that are vulnerable to the effects of climate change. They face extreme weather such as droughts or floods. Their lives and livelihoods might be threatened in new ways and create new vulnerabilities, following the effects of Hurricane Katrina in 2005, the term refugee was sometimes used to describe people displaced by the storm and the aftereffects. There was an outcry that the term should not be used to describe Americans displaced within their own county, the UNHCR similarly opposes the use of the term refugee in reference to environmental migrants, as this term has a strict legal definition. A distinction between a forced and an economic migrant is sometimes used and it was suggested that a better term for migrants who fled for the purpose of their and their dependents basic survival would be forced humanitarian migrants. This would take account that economic migrants are also somehow forced to flee. Some migrants fall outside the mandates of the support offered by governments and non-governmental organisations. An example to illustrate this is the 2008-2009 mass movement of Zimbabweans to neighbouring countries, most of these migrants didnt fit in either category and have more general needs, rights and responsibilities, that fall outside the specific mandate of the UNHCR and thus between the cracks. Most of those crossing the border did not apply for refugee status, many of them were not legally protected, nor do they receive humanitarian support. South Africa was considering the introduction of a permit for Zimbabweans. The term boat people came into use in the 1970s with the mass exodus of Vietnamese refugees following the Vietnam War. It is a widely used form of migration for people migrating from Cuba, Haiti, Morocco and they often risk their lives on dangerously crude and overcrowded boats to escape oppression or poverty in their home nations. Events resulting from the Vietnam War led many people in Cambodia, Laos, in 2001,353 asylum seekers sailing from Indonesia to Australia drowned when their vessel sank. The main danger to a person is that the boat he or she is sailing in may actually be anything that floats and is large enough for passengersRefugee crisis
20. August 2017 lunar eclipse – A partial lunar eclipse will take place on August 7/8,2017, the second of two lunar eclipses in 2017. The Moon will only be covered by the Earths umbral shadow at maximum eclipse. This will precede by 14 days the total eclipse of August 21,2017. It will be visible over eastern Europe, Africa, Asia and Australia and it is part of Saros cycle 119. List of lunar eclipses and List of 21st-century lunar eclipses 2017 Aug 07 chart, Eclipse Predictions by Fred Espenak, NASA/GSFC Hermit eclipse, 2017-08-07August 2017 lunar eclipse – Partial eclipses 1950–2049
21. Paraguayan People's Army – They operate in northern Paraguay, with most incidents occurring in Concepción Department, as well as the neighboring departments of Canindeyú and San Pedro. The EPP are believed to number 50-80 members, as of March 2012, the group was suspected of carrying out 27 separate operations, with more than half of them occurring after January 2011. These incidents resulted in the deaths of at least 16 people —9 civilians and 7 police officers, by December 2013, the insurgency resulted in killing of at least 33 civilians and police officers, with an unknown number of killed EPP operatives. By mid 2016, fatalities from the insurgency had surpassed 60, most of them civilians, the EPP began as an offshoot of another radical fringe group, the Free Homeland Party. After the PPL was taken apart by police in 2005, several members decided to form a new group with which to continue the armed struggle. By December 2013, the resulted in killing of at least 33 civilians and police officers. Two EPP operatives were killed in early April 2014, including the third in command in EPP, on August 27,2016, the insurgents ambushed a mobile patrol of the Paraguayan army with a roadside bomb and automatic weapons, killing one officer and eight non-commissioned officers. The guerrillas stole their M-4 carbines and a machine gun. The incident took place near the village of Arroyito, east of Concepcion, the EPP criticized the government of Fernando Lugo, saying that he ignored the countrys social problems and would not implement real land reform. In 2012, the EPP declared war on Federico Francos cabinet, the Paraguayan state describes the group as a terrorist organization. It is known that at least one key FARC leader, Orley Jurado Palomino, has gone to Paraguay to provide training, advice and operational leadership to the insurgent groupParaguayan People's Army – Alcides Oviedo Brítez, current EPP leader.
22. West Africa Ebola outbreak – The first cases were recorded in Guinea in December 2013, later, the disease spread to neighboring Liberia and Sierra Leone, with minor outbreaks occurring elsewhere. It caused significant mortality, with the fatality rate reported at slightly above 70%. Small outbreaks occurred in Nigeria and Mali, and isolated cases were recorded in Senegal, in addition, imported cases led to secondary infection of medical workers in the United States and Spain but did not spread further. The number of cases peaked in October 2014 and then began to decline gradually, on 29 March 2016, the WHO terminated the Public Health Emergency of International Concern status of the outbreak. Subsequent flare-ups occurred, the last was declared over on 9 June 2016,42 days after the last case tested negative on 28 April 2016 in Monrovia. The outbreak left about 17,000 survivors of the disease, many of whom report post-recovery symptoms termed post-Ebola syndrome, often severe enough to require medical care for months or even years. In December 2016, the WHO announced that a trial of the rVSV-ZEBOV vaccine appeared to offer protection from the strain of Ebola responsible for the West Africa outbreak. The vaccine has not yet had regulatory approval, but it is considered to be so effective that 300,000 doses have already been stockpiled, Ebola virus disease was first described in 1976 in two simultaneous outbreaks in South Sudan and Democratic Republic of the Congo. Ebola had been discovered to be endemic to West Africa decades prior to the 2013–2016 outbreak, the 2013–2016 outbreak was the first anywhere in the world to reach epidemic proportions. Previous outbreaks had been brought under control within a few weeks, other factors included local burial customs of washing the body and the unprecedented spread of Ebola to densely populated cities. The WHO has been criticised for its delay in taking action to address the epidemic. On 8 August 2014, it declared the outbreak a public health emergency of international concern, the response to the epidemic then moved to a second phase, as the focus shifted from slowing transmission to ending the epidemic. On 8 April 2015, the WHO reported a total of only 30 confirmed cases, cases continued to gradually dwindle and on 7 October 2015, all three of the most seriously affected countries recorded their first joint week without any new cases. However, as of late 2015, while the epidemic had ended, sporadic new cases were still being recorded. On 31 July 2015, the WHO announced an extremely promising development in the search for a vaccine for Ebola virus disease. While the vaccine had shown 100% efficacy in individuals, more evidence was needed regarding its capacity to protect populations through herd immunity. Stating that the Ebola outbreak has decimated families, health systems, economies, and social structures, as the main epidemic was coming to an end in December 2015, the UN announced that 22,000 children had been orphaned, losing one or both parents to Ebola. On 29 March 2016, the Director-General of WHO terminated the Public Health Emergency of International Concern status of the West African Ebola virus epidemicWest Africa Ebola outbreak – Articles related to the
23. 'merica – Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography, climate and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci'merica – Native Americans meeting with Europeans, 1764
24. Eugenio Polgovsky – Eugenio Polgovsky is a filmmaker and visual artist. He works as director, cinematographer, editor, sound designer and producer of his films, Polgovsky is known for the Mexican documentaries Tropic of Cancer and Los Herederos The Inheritors. He is the first filmmaker invited in the history of Trinity College, Cambridge, Polgovsky is founder of Tecolote Films in Mexico City. He has received 4 Ariel, Mexican Academy Awards and more than 20 International awards for his films, including the Joris Ivens Award in Cinema Du Réel, París 2005. His personal cinematography enchained with a meticulous and original editing explore the backgrounds of the Mexican reality, the MoMa of NY presented his film Tropic of Cancer as part of a selection of the region’s most innovative contemporary films. On the year 2014 he won his 4th Ariel Mexican Academy Award for the best Short Documentary Film Un Salto de Vida, about the dramatic pollution of the Santiago river in Jalisco and a family that fight against corruption and impunity of the factories. Polgovsky has been recognized with over 30 awards in his different skills, editing, photography, in 2010 was invited to the Flaherty Seminar in Colgate US to present his filmography and attended a presentation of his films in Cambridge UK. Documental Koehler, Robert Agrarian Utopias/Dystopias, The New Nonfiction Cinema Scope, working Methods, The Robert Flaherty Film Seminar. Le Monde, Sept.20,2011 Dans le champ de haricots, THE INHERITORS, For María and José, All Work and No Play. Eugenio Polgovsky Films Official website, www. tecolotefilms. com French webpage Les Enfants Heritiers Polgovsky - Berlinale Polgovsky Rotterdam Int. Film Festival Los Herederos Hubert Bals, Bright Future Semaine de la Critique, Cannes 2005 Trópico de Cáncer Tropic of Cancer - Sundance 2005 Variety - The InheritorsEugenio Polgovsky – Polgovsky at the Berlinale, 2009
25. GAMESCom – Gamescom is a trade fair for video games held annually at the Koelnmesse in Cologne, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. It is organised by the BIU and it is used by many video game developers to show off their upcoming games and game-related hardware. Gamescom is the worlds largest gaming event, with 345,000 visitors, Gamescom 2009 was held from 19 August to 23 August. 245,000 people attended that years visit, firmware 3.0 for the PlayStation 3 was also announced, adding new features to the PlayStation Network. Sony announced that the European Video Store would launch in November 2009, sony also announced that the PlayStation Portable would get smaller games in the form of minis and that comics would also be available to download in December 2009. A free game registration promotion was announced for the PSP Go, Microsoft Game Studios announced Fable III, along with a release date of 2010. Also, Microsoft announced their intention to release Fable II on the Xbox Live Marketplace in five episodes, while most press conferences were not available for live streaming, Electronic Arts was streaming its press conference on EA. com. Sony Computer Entertainment Europe also showcased its press conference on its online community-based service PlayStation Home shortly afterwards, sony also made its press conference available for download on the PlayStation Store. Various gaming websites offered live-blogging of the press conferences. Gamescom 2010 was held from 18 August to 22 August,254,000 people attended that years visit. These games will be exclusive to the PlayStation 3, all 4 One has a set release date as late 2011, while Resistance 3 did not have a release date. Gamescom 2011 was held from 17 August to 21 August,275,000 people attended that years visit. Gamescom 2012 was held from 15 August to 19 August,275,000 people attended that years visit. Gamescom 2013 was held from 21 August to 25 August,340,000 people attended that years visit. 335,000 people attended that years visit, the Counter-Strike, Global Offensive Major ESL One Cologne 2014 was held at Gamescom Gamescom 2015 was held from 5 August to 9 August. 345,000 people attended that years visit, Gamescom 2016 was held from 17 August to 21 August. 345,000 people attended that years visit, Gamescom 2017 will be held from 22 August to 26 August. The Game Developers Conference Europe, a European spinoff of the Game Developers Conference, is annually in conjunction with the GamescomGAMESCom – At Gamescom 2013
26. Guayana Esequiba – Guayana Esequiba is a territory administered by Guyana and claimed by Venezuela. Originally, parts of what is now eastern Venezuela were included in the disputed area, the portion today under the administration of Guyana divides the area in six administrative regions, while Venezuela treats it as a single entity. This territory of 159,500 km² is the subject of a boundary dispute inherited from the colonial powers. The status of the territory is subject to the Treaty of Geneva and this treaty stipulates that the parties will agree to find a practical, peaceful and satisfactory solution to the dispute. However, few decades after the Peace of Münster, the Dutch began to spread gradually west of the Essequibo River and these new settlements were regularly contested and destroyed by the Spanish authorities. The French Encyclopédie, published in the half of the 18th century. When Spain created the Captaincy General of Venezuela in 1777, the Essequibo river was restated as the border between Spanish territory and the Dutch colony of Essequibo. However, no boundary between the Spanish and Dutch possessions was ever defined, under the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1814, Dutch colonies of Demerara, Berbice and Essequibo were transferred to Great Britain. In 1831, Britain merged Berbice, Demerara, and Essequibo into British Guiana, with the Essequibo River as its west border and it is absolutely essential that these settlers be put under the jurisdiction and obedience to our laws, or be withdrawn to their former possessions. In 1824 Venezuela appointed José Manuel Hurtado as its new Ambassador to Britain, Hurtado officially presented to the British government Venezuelas claim to the border at the Essequibo River, which was not objected to by Britain. However, the British government continued to promote colonization of territory west of the Essequibo River in succeeding years, in 1835, under the aegis of the Royal Geographical Society, the German-born explorer and naturalist Robert Hermann Schomburgk conducted botanical and geographical exploration of British Guiana. This resulted in a sketch of the territory with a line marking what he believed to be the western boundary claimed by the Dutch, as a result of this, he was commissioned in 1840 by the British government to survey Guianas boundaries. This survey resulted in what came to be known as the Schomburgk Line, the Line went well beyond the area of British occupation, and gave British Guiana control of the mouth of the Orinoco River. According to Schomburgk it did not contain all the area that Britain might legitimately claim, Venezuela disputed Schomburgks placing of border markers at the Orinoco river, and in 1844 claimed all of Guiana west of the Essequibo River. Also in 1844, a British proposal to Venezuela to modify the border to give Venezuela full control of the Orinoco river mouth and adjacent territory was ignored. In 1850 both Britain and Venezuela reached an agreement whereby they accepted not to colonize the territory, although where this territory began. This would have granted the Barima District to Venezuela, in October 1886 Britain declared the Schomburgk Line to be the provisional frontier of British Guiana, and in February 1887 Venezuela severed diplomatic relations. In 1894 Venezuela appealed to the United States to intervene, citing the Monroe Doctrine as justification, the United States did not want to get involved, only going as far as suggesting the possibility of arbitrationGuayana Esequiba – Map of Gran Colombia (1819) including the Esequibo region.
27. Battle of Syria – The Syrian Civil War is an armed conflict taking place in Syria. Syrian opposition groups formed the Free Syrian Army and seized control of the area surrounding Aleppo, over time, some factions of the Syrian opposition split from their original moderate position to pursue an Islamist vision for Syria, joining groups such as al-Nusra Front and ISIL. In 2015, the YPG joined forces with Arab, Assyrian, Armenian, Russia and Hezbollah militarily engaged in support of the Syrian government, while beginning in 2014, a coalition of NATO countries began launching airstrikes against ISIL. International organizations have accused the Syrian government, ISIL, and rebel groups of human rights violations. The conflict has caused a major refugee crisis, over the course of the war a number of peace initiatives have been launched, including the March 2017 Geneva peace talks on Syria led by the United Nations, but fighting continues. Syria became an independent republic in 1946, although democratic rule ended with a coup in March 1949, a popular uprising against military rule in 1954 saw the army transfer power to civilians. From 1958 to 1961, a union with Egypt replaced Syrias parliamentary system with a highly centralized presidential government. The secular Baath Syrian Regional Branch government came to power through a successful coup détat in 1963, for the next several years Syria went through additional coups and changes in leadership. In March 1971, Hafez al-Assad, an Alawite, declared himself President, on 31 January 1973, Hafez al-Assad implemented a new constitution, which led to a national crisis. They labeled Assad the enemy of Allah and called for a jihad against his rule, the government survived a series of armed revolts by Sunni Islamists, mainly members of the Muslim Brotherhood, from 1976 until 1982. Upon Hafez al-Assads death in 2000, his son Bashar al-Assad was elected as President of Syria, Bashar al-Assad and his wife Asma, a Sunni Muslim born and educated in Britain, initially inspired hopes for democratic reforms. The Damascus Spring, a period of social and political debate, the Damascus Spring largely ended in August 2001 with the arrest and imprisonment of ten leading activists who had called for democratic elections and a campaign of civil disobedience. In the opinion of his critics, Bashar al-Assad had failed to deliver on promised reforms, Syrian Arabs, together with some 600,000 Palestinian Arabs, make up roughly 74 percent of the population. Syria Muslims are 74 percent Sunnis, and 13 percent Shias,3 percent were Druze, not all of the Sunnis are Arabs. Bashar is married to a Sunni, with whom he has several children and he is affiliated with the sect that his parents belong to, the minority Alawite sect which comprises an estimated 8-12 percent of the total population. Assyrians, an indigenous Eastern Aramaic-speaking Christian Semitic people, numbering approximately 500,000, are mainly in northeast Syria. A larger population lives over the border in northern Iraq, other ethnic groups include Armenians, Circassians, Turkmens, Greeks, Mhallami, Kawliya, Yezidi, Shabaks, and Mandeans. Socioeconomic inequality increased significantly after free market policies were initiated by Hafez al-Assad in his later years, the country also faced particularly high youth unemployment ratesBattle of Syria – Pro-regime demonstration in Latakia, heartland of Assad's Alawite people
28. Illegal drug trade in Mexico – The Mexican Drug War is the Mexican theater of the United States War on Drugs, involving an ongoing low-intensity asymmetric war between the Mexican Government and various drug trafficking syndicates. Since 2006, when the Mexican military began to intervene, the principal goal has been to reduce the drug-related violence. Additionally, the Mexican government has claimed that their focus is on dismantling the powerful drug cartels, rather than on preventing drug trafficking. Mexican drug cartels now dominate the wholesale illicit drug market and in 2007 controlled 90% of the entering the United States. Arrests of key leaders, particularly in the Tijuana and Gulf cartels, has led to increasing drug violence as cartels fight for control of the trafficking routes into the United States. Analysts estimate that wholesale earnings from illicit drug sales range from $13.6 to $49.4 billion annually, by the end of Felipe Calderóns administration, the official death toll of the Mexican Drug War was at least 60,000. Estimates set the death toll above 120,000 killed by 2013, given its geographic location, Mexico has long been used as a staging and transshipment point for narcotics and contraband between Latin America and U. S. markets. Towards the end of the 1960s, Mexican narcotic smugglers started to smuggle drugs on a major scale, during the 1970s and early 1980s, Colombias Pablo Escobar was the main exporter of cocaine and dealt with organized criminal networks all over the world. By the mid-1980s, the organizations from Mexico were well-established and reliable transporters of Colombian cocaine, transporters from Mexico usually were given 35% to 50% of each cocaine shipment. This arrangement meant that organizations from Mexico became involved in the distribution, as well as the transportation of cocaine, currently, the Sinaloa Cartel and the Gulf Cartel have taken over trafficking cocaine from Colombia to the worldwide markets. The balance of power between the various Mexican cartels continually shifts as new organizations emerge and older ones weaken and collapse, a disruption in the system, such as the arrests or deaths of cartel leaders, generates bloodshed as rivals move in to exploit the power vacuum. The fighting between rival drug cartels began in earnest after the 1989 arrest of Miguel Ángel Félix Gallardo, there was a lull in the fighting during the late 1990s but the violence has steadily worsened since 2000. The center-left PRI party ruled Mexico for around 70 years until 2000, during this time, drug cartels expanded their power and corruption, and anti-drug operations focused mainly on destroying marijuana and opium crops in mountainous regions. It is estimated that about 110 people died in Nuevo Laredo between January and August 2005 as a result of the fighting between the Gulf and Sinaloa cartels. The same year, there was another surge in violence in the state of Michoacán as the La Familia Michoacana drug cartel established itself, on December 11,2006, the newly elected President Felipe Calderón sent 6,500 Mexican Army soldiers to Michoacán to end drug violence there. As time passed, Calderón continued to escalate his anti-drug campaign, in there are now about 45,000 troops involved along with state. Mexico is a drug transit and producing country. It is the main supplier of cannabis and an important entry point of South American cocaineIllegal drug trade in Mexico – Mexican soldiers during a confrontation in Michoacán in August 2007
29. War on ISIL – Later, there were also minor interventions by some states against ISIL-affiliated groups in Nigeria and Libya. In mid-June 2014, Iran, according to American and British information, started flying drones over Iraq, simultaneously, the United States ordered a small number of troops to Iraq and started flying crewed aircraft over Iraq. In August 2014, the US and Iran separately began a campaign of airstrikes on ISIL targets in Iraq, since then, fourteen countries in a US-led coalition have also executed airstrikes on ISIL in Iraq and in Syria. In September 2015, Russian forces, with the permission of the Syrian government, began hundreds of bombing raids against ISIL, al-Nusra Front, since the airstrikes started, ISIL has been losing ground in both Iraq and Syria. There have been accounts of civilian deaths from the airstrikes. In mid-2016, the US and Russia planned to begin to coordinating their airstrikes, however, on the margins of the 4/5 September 2014 NATO summit in Wales, U. S. Those nine countries agreed to do so by supporting anti-ISIL forces in Iraq and Syria with supplies and air support, according to a statement that day from Kerry and U. S. Secretary of Defense Hagel. On 3 December 2014, at the NATO headquarters in Brussels, on 30 September 2015, Russia began its air campaign on the side and in support of the Syrian government. Russia was also reported to have reached agreements on co-ordination of operations in Syria with Jordan, on 14 March 2016, Russian President Vladimir Putin announced a partial withdrawal from Syrian territory, citing the success of the ongoing ceasefire and greater security of the Syrian government. Until July 2015, the Turkish government attacked ISIL only once, in September 2014 Turkey joined a US-led coalition ‘to fight ISIL’. Turkish tanks shelled the village the day of the ground operation. The operation reportedly lasted over an hour and killed over 100 ISIL militants, the Turkish General Staff neither confirmed nor denied the special forces foray but did confirm shelling the village. On 24 July, a report appeared on a Turkish newspaper website stating that the United States had agreed with Turkey on a ‘partial no-fly zone’ in northern Syria. On 24 and 25 July launched an operation entitled ‘Operation Martyr Yalçın’ against both ISIL in Syria and the Kurdistan Workers Party in Iraq, deploying at least 70 F-16 fighter jets. Later that month Iran started flying drones over Iraq, and by August, according to sources like Reuters, One war correspondent suggested that Iran joined the air war against ISIL on 21 June. In July, according to the International Institute for Strategic Studies, Iran sent several Su-25 aircraft to Iraq, in early August, those Su-25s began combat against ISIL, according to Business Insider. By September, according to Business Insider, Iranian Quds Force personnel were deployed to Samarra, Baghdad, Karbala, and the abandoned U. S. military post formerly known as Camp Speicher. At the end of November 2014, an Israeli website claimed to have seen Iranian F-4 Phantom II jet-fighters bombing ISIL in eastern Iraq, in March and May 2015, American commentators indicated Qasem Soleimani was leading Iraqs military strategy against ISILWar on ISIL
30. Sport in Guyana – Guyana, officially the Co-operative Republic of Guyana, is a sovereign state on the northern mainland of South America. It is, however, included in the Caribbean Region due to its cultural, historical. Guyana is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the north, Brazil to the south and southwest, Suriname to the east, with 215,000 square kilometres, Guyana is the fourth-smallest country on mainland South America after Uruguay, Suriname and French Guiana. The region known as the Guianas consists of the large landmass north of the Amazon River. Originally inhabited by indigenous groups, Guyana was settled by the Dutch before coming under British control in the late 18th century. It was governed as British Guiana, with mostly a plantation style economy until the 1950s and it gained independence in 1966, and officially became a republic within the Commonwealth of Nations in 1970. The legacy of British rule is reflected in the political administration and diverse population, which includes Indian, African, Amerindian. Guyana is the only South American nation in which English is the official language, the majority of the population, however, speak Guyanese Creole, an English-based creole language, as a first language. In addition to being part of the Anglophone Caribbean, Guyana is one of the few Caribbean countries that is not an island in the West Indies, CARICOM, of which Guyana is a member, is headquartered in Guyanas capital and largest city, Georgetown. In 2008, the joined the Union of South American Nations as a founding member. The name Guyana is derived from Guiana, the name for the region that formerly included Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, Guyana is derived from an Indigenous Amerindian language, there are nine indigenous tribes residing in Guyana, the Wai Wai, Macushi, Patamona, Lokono, Kalina, Wapishana, Pemon, Akawaio and Warao. Historically the Lokono and Kalina tribes dominated Guyana, although Christopher Columbus sighted Guyana during his third voyage, the Dutch were the first to establish colonies, Essequibo, Berbice, and Demerara. After the British assumed control in 1796, the Dutch formally ceded the area in 1814, in 1831 the three separate colonies became a single British colony known as British Guiana. Since its Independence in 1824 Venezuela has claimed the area of land to the west of the Essequibo River, in 1899 an international tribunal ruled the land belonged to Great Britain. Guyana achieved independence from the United Kingdom on 26 May 1966 and became a republic on 23 February 1970, the US State Department and the US Central Intelligence Agency, along with the British government, played a strong role in influencing political control in Guyana during this time. The American government supported Forbes Burnham during the years of independence because Cheddi Jagan was identified as a Marxist. In 1978, Guyana received international notice when 918 members of the American cult, Peoples Temple, however, most of the suicides were by Americans and not GuyaneseSport in Guyana – Map of British Guiana.
31. Wildlife of Indonesia – Indonesia, officially the Republic of Indonesia, is a unitary sovereign state and transcontinental country located mainly in Southeast Asia with some territories in Oceania. Situated between the Indian and Pacific oceans, it is the worlds largest island country, with more than seventeen thousand islands. At 1,904,569 square kilometres, Indonesia is the worlds 14th-largest country in terms of area and worlds 7th-largest country in terms of combined sea. It has an population of over 260 million people and is the worlds fourth most populous country. The worlds most populous island, Java, contains more than half of the countrys population, Indonesias republican form of government includes an elected legislature and president. Indonesia has 34 provinces, of which five have Special Administrative status and its capital and countrys most populous city is Jakarta, which is also the most populous city in Southeast Asia and the second in Asia. The country shares land borders with Papua New Guinea, East Timor, other neighbouring countries include Singapore, Vietnam, the Philippines, Australia, Palau, and the Indian territory of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Despite its large population and densely populated regions, Indonesia has vast areas of wilderness that support the second highest level of biodiversity. The country has abundant natural resources like oil and natural gas, tin, copper, agriculture mainly produces rice, palm oil, tea, coffee, cacao, medicinal plants, spices and rubber. Indonesias major trading partners are Japan, United States, China, the Indonesian archipelago has been an important region for trade since at least the 7th century, when Srivijaya and then later Majapahit traded with China and India. Local rulers gradually absorbed foreign cultural, religious and political models from the early centuries CE, Indonesian history has been influenced by foreign powers drawn to its natural resources. Indonesia consists of hundreds of native ethnic and linguistic groups. The largest – and politically dominant – ethnic group are the Javanese, a shared identity has developed, defined by a national language, ethnic diversity, religious pluralism within a Muslim-majority population, and a history of colonialism and rebellion against it. Indonesias national motto, Bhinneka Tunggal Ika, articulates the diversity that shapes the country, Indonesias economy is the worlds 16th largest by nominal GDP and the 8th largest by GDP at PPP, the largest in Southeast Asia, and is considered an emerging market and newly industrialised country. Indonesia has been a member of the United Nations since 1950, Indonesia is a member of the G20 major economies and World Trade Organization. The name Indonesia derives from the Greek name of the Indós, the name dates to the 18th century, far predating the formation of independent Indonesia. In 1850, George Windsor Earl, an English ethnologist, proposed the terms Indunesians—and, his preference, in the same publication, one of his students, James Richardson Logan, used Indonesia as a synonym for Indian Archipelago. However, Dutch academics writing in East Indies publications were reluctant to use Indonesia, they preferred Malay Archipelago, the Netherlands East Indies, popularly Indië, the East, and InsulindeWildlife of Indonesia – A Borobudur ship carved on Borobudur, c. 800 CE. Indonesian outrigger boats may have made trade voyages to the east coast of Africa as early as the 1st century CE.
32. Joachin Guzman – Joaquín Archivaldo Guzmán Loera is a Mexican drug lord who headed the Sinaloa Cartel, a criminal organization named after the Mexican Pacific coast state of Sinaloa where it was formed. Each year from 2009 to 2011 Forbes magazine ranked Guzmán as one of the most powerful people in the world, ranking 41st, 60th and he was thus the second most powerful man in Mexico, after Carlos Slim. He was named as the 10th richest man in Mexico in 2011, the magazine also calls him the biggest drug lord of all time. In 2013, the Chicago Crime Commission named Guzmán Public Enemy Number One for the influence of his network in Chicago. The last person to receive such notoriety was Al Capone in 1930, Guzmáns Sinaloa Cartel transports multi-ton cocaine shipments from Colombia through Mexico to the United States, the worlds top consumer, and has distribution cells throughout the U. S. The organization has also involved in the production, smuggling and distribution of Mexican methamphetamine, marijuana, ecstasy. By the time of his 2014 arrest, Guzmán had exported more drugs to the United States than anyone else, Guzmán was first captured in 1993 in Guatemala, extradited and sentenced to 20 years in prison in Mexico for murder and drug trafficking. After bribing prison guards, he was able to escape from a federal maximum-security prison in 2001 and he was wanted by the governments of Mexico, United States, and by INTERPOL. The U. S. offered a US$5 million reward for leading to his capture. He was arrested a second time by Mexican authorities in Mexico on 22 February 2014 and he was found inside a fourth-floor condominium in Mazatlán, Sinaloa, and was captured without any gunshots fired. Guzmán escaped from prison again on 11 July 2015 by exiting through a 1.5 km tunnel that led to a construction site and he was recaptured by Mexican marines and Federal Police following a shootout on 8 January 2016. On January 19,2017, Guzman was extradited via aircraft to the United States to face charges there related to his leadership of the Sinaloa cartel. Joaquín Archivaldo Guzmán Loera was born into a family in the rural community of La Tuna, Badiraguato, Sinaloa. Sources disagree on the date of his birth, with some stating he was born on 25 December 1954 and his parents were Emilio Guzmán Bustillos and María Consuelo Loera Pérez. His paternal grandparents were Juan Guzmán and Otilia Bustillos, and his grandparents were Ovidio Loera Cobret. For many generations, his family lived and died at La Tuna, Guzmán has two younger sisters, Armida and Bernarda, and four younger brothers, Miguel Ángel, Aureliano, Arturo and Emilio. He had three unnamed brothers who reportedly died of natural causes when he was very young. Few details are known of Guzmáns upbringing, as a child, Guzmán sold oranges, and dropped out of school in third grade to work with his fatherJoachin Guzman – 1993 mugshot of Joaquín Guzmán Loera
33. Jupiter's day – Thursday is the day of the week following Wednesday and before Friday. According to the ISO8601 international standard adopted in most western countries, in countries that use the Sunday-first convention, Thursday is defined as the fifth day of the week. It is the day of the week in the Judeo-Christian liturgical calendar. It is often abbreviated to Th or Thu, see Names of the days of the week for more on naming conventions. The name is derived from Old English Þūnresdæg and Middle English Thuresday meaning Thors Day and it was named after the Norse god of Thunder, Thor. Thunor, Donar and Thor are derived from the name of the Germanic god of thunder, Thunraz, Estonians did not work on Thursdays and Thursday nights were called evenings of Tooru. Some sources say Estonians used to gather in holy woods on Thursday evenings, in most Romance languages, the day is named after the Roman god Jupiter, who was the god of sky and thunder. In Latin, the day was known as Iovis Dies, Jupiters Day and this is also reflected in the p-Celtic Welsh dydd Iau. The astrological and astronomical sign of the planet Jupiter is sometimes used to represent Thursday, finnish and Northern Sami, both non-Germanic languages, uses the borrowing Torstai and Duorastat. In the extinct Polabian Slavic language, it was perundan, Perun being the Slavic equivalent of Thor, there are a number of modern names imitating the naming of Thursday after an equivalent of Jupiter in local tradition. In most of the languages of India, the word for Thursday is Guruvara – vara meaning day and guru being the style for Bṛhaspati, guru to the gods, in Thai, the word is Wan Pharuehatsabodi – referring to the Hindu deity Bṛhaspati, also associated with Jupiter. En was an old Illyrian deity and in his honor in the Albanian language Thursday is called Enjte, in the Nahuatl language, Thursday is Tezcatlipotōnal meaning day of Tezcatlipoca. In Slavic languages and in Chinese, this name is fourth. Hungarian uses a Slavic loanword csütörtök, in ancient Chinese, it is 木曜日. In Estonian its neljapäev, meaning day or fourth day in a week. The Baltic languages also use the fourth day. Greek uses a number for this day, Πέμπτη Pémpti fifth, as does Portuguese, quinta-feira fifth day, Hebrew, יום חמישי often written יום ה, in Catholic liturgy, Thursday is referred to in Latin as feria quinta. Icelandic also uses the fifth dayJupiter's day – Painting depicting the English god Thunor (the Norse Thor), after whom Thursday is named, by Mårten Eskil Winge, 1872
34. Inavir – Laninamivir is a neuraminidase inhibitor which is being researched for the treatment and prophylaxis of Influenzavirus A and Influenzavirus B. It is currently in Phase III clinical trials and it is a long-acting neuraminidase inhibitor administered by nasal inhalation. Laninamivir was approved for treatment in Japan in 2010 and for prophylaxis in 2013. It is currently marketed under the name Inavir by Daiichi Sankyo, Biota Pharmaceuticals and Daiichi Sankyo co-own Laninamivir. On 1 April 2011, BARDA awarded up to an estimated U$231m to Biota Pharmaceuticals wholly owned subsidiary, Biota Scientific Management Pty Ltd and it is under clinical evaluations in other countriesInavir – Laninamivir
35. The United State of Mexico – Mexico, officially the United Mexican States, is a federal republic in the southern half of North America. It is bordered to the north by the United States, to the south and west by the Pacific Ocean, to the southeast by Guatemala, Belize, and the Caribbean Sea, and to the east by the Gulf of Mexico. Covering almost two million square kilometers, Mexico is the sixth largest country in the Americas by total area, Mexico is a federation comprising 31 states and a federal district that is also its capital and most populous city. Other metropolises include Guadalajara, Monterrey, Puebla, Toluca, Tijuana, pre-Columbian Mexico was home to many advanced Mesoamerican civilizations, such as the Olmec, Toltec, Teotihuacan, Zapotec, Maya and Aztec before first contact with Europeans. In 1521, the Spanish Empire conquered and colonized the territory from its base in Mexico-Tenochtitlan, Three centuries later, this territory became Mexico following recognition in 1821 after the colonys Mexican War of Independence. The tumultuous post-independence period was characterized by instability and many political changes. The Mexican–American War led to the cession of the extensive northern borderlands, one-third of its territory. The Pastry War, the Franco-Mexican War, a civil war, the dictatorship was overthrown in the Mexican Revolution of 1910, which culminated with the promulgation of the 1917 Constitution and the emergence of the countrys current political system. Mexico has the fifteenth largest nominal GDP and the eleventh largest by purchasing power parity, the Mexican economy is strongly linked to those of its North American Free Trade Agreement partners, especially the United States. Mexico was the first Latin American member of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and it is classified as an upper-middle income country by the World Bank and a newly industrialized country by several analysts. By 2050, Mexico could become the fifth or seventh largest economy. The country is considered both a power and middle power, and is often identified as an emerging global power. Due to its culture and history, Mexico ranks first in the Americas. Mexico is a country, ranking fourth in the world by biodiversity. In 2015 it was the 9th most visited country in the world, Mexico is a member of the United Nations, the World Trade Organization, the G8+5, the G20, the Uniting for Consensus and the Pacific Alliance. Mēxihco is the Nahuatl term for the heartland of the Aztec Empire, namely, the Valley of Mexico, and its people, the Mexica and this became the future State of Mexico as a division of New Spain prior to independence. It is generally considered to be a toponym for the valley became the primary ethnonym for the Aztec Triple Alliance as a result. After New Spain won independence from Spain, representatives decided to name the new country after its capital and this was founded in 1524 on top of the ancient Mexica capital of Mexico-TenochtitlanThe United State of Mexico – Image of Mexico-Tenochtitlan from the Codex Mendoza
36. Milagro Sala – Milagro Sala is a leader of the Tupac Amaru neighborhood association, part of the Association of State Workers of Jujuy, and a leading figure in the Movimiento piquetero of Argentina. On January 16,2016, Sala was arrested on charges of fraud, on October 28th 2016 the GAD decided that the detention of Milagro Sala was arbitrary and ordered Argentinas government to free her inmediatly. The Argentina government considered that the GAD decision was not mandatory, Sala was born in the Lower Azopardo neighborhood of San Salvador de Jujuy. At 15 years old she discovered that she was adopted and that her mother had abandoned her in a cardboard box in front of a hospital. She left the house where she was raised and she lived for years among hustlers, drug dealers, thieves and prostitutes. She was a shoe shiner, robbed with her friends, and abused narcotics, at age 18 she was caught, there, she organized a hunger strike that resulted in her being allowed to cook for her fellow female prisoners, with better food at equal cost. She spent eight months in prison, and counseled other Lower Azopardo prostitutes toward changing their situation, Sala subsequently joined the Argentine Workers Center. She gained nationwide notoriety for the power she obtained in the Province of Jujuy through the Asociacion barrial Tupac Amaru and this NGO manages a 200 million peso budget, at least 40 vehicles, and over 300 firearms registered in RENAR. Its influence led to conflict with political figures in Jujuy, however. She’s also had filed for death threats and destruction of property by Senator Gerardo Morales. She denied involvement in a 2009 incident in which two youths attacked Morales, asserting that the accusations are politically motivated and without proof and she is the mother of two children, and the adoptive mother of twelve. Tupac Amaru receives 7.9 million pesos per month for public housing construction subsidies from the National Government and it includes 70,000 affiliates, whose membership is requisite in keeping their children in school, where applicable. Members form housing cooperatives through which government subsidies are channeled, the organization also manages six factories employing 5,000 workers in the construction material, tool and die, and textile industries. It maintains two schools and an equipped with a MRI scanner. The political ideology of the Tupac Amaru organization is represented by the figures of Tupac Amaru, Che Guevara. They consider themselves indigienista, proclaiming the government of Bolivian President Evo Morales as a political model, Sala attributes many of the accusations against the group and herself to racism, affirming that we will be investigated, while there was corruption among companies. I am dark skinned, and a Kolla, but I´m not stupid, Tupac Amaru established branches elsewhere in Argentina, including Salta, Tucumán, Santiago del Estero, Buenos Aires, and Mendoza, these new chapters total 16 organizations. Gerardo Morales was elected governor in 2015, and denounced that Sala may have committed financial fraud, Morales ordered that the organizations trusted with the payment of subsidies should do so through bank accounts, so that the money can be tracedMilagro Sala – Milagro Sala
37. U.S. Mexico Border Barrier – The Mexico–United States barrier is a series of walls and fences along the Mexico–United States border aimed at preventing illegal crossings from Mexico into the United States and vice versa. As of January 2009, U. S. Customs and Border Protection reported that it had more than 580 miles of barriers in place, the total length of the continental border is 1,989 miles. 96.6 per cent of apprehensions by the Border Patrol in 2010 occurred at the southwest border, the number of Border Patrol apprehensions declined 61% from 1,189,000 in 2005 to 723,840 in 2008 to 463,000 in 2010. The decrease in apprehensions may be due to a number of factors including changes in U. S. economic conditions, Border apprehensions in 2010 were at their lowest level since 1972. The 1, 954-mile border between the United States and Mexico traverses a variety of terrains, including urban areas and deserts. The barrier is located on urban and uninhabited sections of the border, areas where the most concentrated numbers of illegal crossings. These urban areas include San Diego, California and El Paso, Texas. As of August 29,2008, the U. S. Department of Homeland Security had built 190 miles of border fence and 154.3 miles of vehicle border fence. The completed fence is mainly in New Mexico, Arizona, and California, U. S. Customs and Border Protection reported that it had more than 580 miles of fence in place by the second week of January 2009. Work is still under way on fence segments in Texas and on the Border Infrastructure System in California. As a result of the effect of the barrier, there has been an increase in the number of people trying to illegally cross the Sonoran Desert. Such illegal immigrants must cross 50 miles of terrain to reach the first road. This would also have included a 100-yard border zone on the U. S. side, on December 15,2005, Congressman Hunters amendment to the Border Protection, Anti-terrorism, and Illegal Immigration Control Act of 2005 passed in the House. This plan called for mandatory fencing along 698 miles of the 1, on May 17,2006 the U. S. Senate proposed with Comprehensive Immigration Reform Act of 2006 what could be 370 miles of triple layered-fencing and a vehicle fence. Although that bill died in committee, eventually the Secure Fence Act of 2006 was passed by Congress, the government of Mexico and ministers of several Latin American countries condemned the plans. Rick Perry, governor of Texas, also expressed his opposition saying that instead of closing the border it should be opened more and through technology support legal, the barrier expansion was also opposed by a unanimous vote of the Laredo, Texas City Council. Laredos Mayor, Raul G. Salinas, was concerned about defending his towns people by saying that the Bill which included miles of wall would devastate Laredo. He stated These are people that are sustaining our economy by forty percent and its like a slap in the faceU.S. Mexico Border Barrier – Mexico-United States barrier at the pedestrian border crossing in Tijuana.
38. Willgo – Nimesulide is a relatively COX-2 selective, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug with pain medication and fever reducing properties. Its approved indications are the treatment of pain, the symptomatic treatment of osteoarthritis. It has a mode of action and is characterized by a fast onset of action. It works by blocking the production of prostaglandins thereby relieving pain, Nimesulide is similar in gastrointestinal safety to other NSAIDs. It may be taken through prescription in the treatment of acute pain, Nimesulide should never be taken long-term, such as for chronic conditions like arthritis. This is due to its association with a risk of liver toxicity. Due to concerns about the risk of hepatotoxicity, nimesulide has been withdrawn from market in several countries, Nimesulide is rapidly absorbed following oral administration. Nimesulide undergoes extensive biotransformation, mainly to 4-hydroxynimesulide, Food, gender and advanced age have negligible effects on nimesulide pharmacokinetics. Moderate renal impairment does not necessitate dosage adjustment, while in patients with renal impairment or hepatic impairment Nimesulide is contraindicated. Nimesulide has a rapid onset of action, with meaningful reductions in pain. Clinical evidence is available to support a good profile in terms of gastrointestinal tolerability. Nimesulide has never filed for Food and Drug Administration evaluation in the United States. It is available in a variety of forms, tablets, powder for dissolution in water, suppositories, mouth dissolving tablets, many generic and copy-products also exist, new-aid, Nims, Nice, Nimulide Several reports have been made of adverse drug reactions in India. On Feb 12,2011, Indian Express reported that the Union Ministry of Health and Family Welfare had finally decided to suspend the use of the analgesic. From 10 March 2011 onwards Nimesulide formulations are not indicated for use in children below 12 years of age. On September 13,2011 Madras High Court revoked a suspension on manufacture and sale of paediatric drugs nimesulide, on September 21,2007 the EMA released a press release on their review on the liver-related safety of nimesulide. Therefore, the EMA has limited the use of systemic formulations of nimesulide to 15 days, the Irish Medicines Board has decided to suspend Nimesulide from the Irish market and refer it to the EU Committee for Human Medicinal Products for a review of its benefit/risk profile. The decision is due to the reporting of six cases of potentially related liver failures to the IMB by the National Liver Transplant Unit and these cases occurred in the period from 1999 to 2006Willgo – 100mg Nimesulide pills
39. Administrative divisions of Paraguay – Paraguay lies on both banks of the Paraguay River, which runs through the center of the country from north to south. Due to its location in South America, it is sometimes referred to as Corazón de Sudamérica. Paraguay is one of the two landlocked countries that lie outside Afro-Eurasia, Paraguay is the smallest landlocked country in the Americas. The indigenous Guaraní had been living in Paraguay for at least a millennium before the Spanish conquered the territory in the 16th century, Spanish settlers and Jesuit missions introduced Christianity and Spanish culture to the region. Paraguay was a colony of the Spanish Empire, with few urban centers and settlers. Following independence from Spain in 1811, Paraguay was ruled by a series of dictators who generally implemented isolationist and protectionist policies and he was toppled in an internal military coup, and free multi-party elections were organized and held for the first time in 1993. A year later, Paraguay joined Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay to found Mercosur, as of 2009, Paraguays population was estimated to be at around 6.5 million, most of whom are concentrated in the southeast region of the country. The capital and largest city is Asunción, of which the area is home to nearly a third of Paraguays population. In contrast to most Latin American nations, Paraguays indigenous language and culture, Guaraní, in each census, residents predominantly identify as mestizo, reflecting years of intermarriage among the different ethnic groups. Guaraní is recognized as an official language alongside Spanish, and both languages are spoken in the country. There is no consensus for the derivation or meaning of the name Paraguay, the most common interpretations include, Born from water Riverine of many varieties River which originates a sea Fray Antonio Ruiz de Montoya said that it meant river crowned. The Spanish officer and scientist Félix de Azara suggests two derivations, the Payaguas, referring to the tribe who lived along the river. The French-Argentine historian and writer Paul Groussac argued that it meant river that flows through the sea, Paraguayan poet and ex-president Juan Natalicio González said it meant river of the inhabitants of the sea. Indigenous peoples have inhabited this area for thousands of years, pre-Columbian society in the region which is now Paraguay consisted of semi-nomadic tribes that were known for their warrior traditions. These indigenous tribes belonged to five language families, which was the basis of their major divisions. Differing language groups were generally competitive over resources and territories and they were further divided into tribes by speaking languages in branches of these families. Today 17 separate ethnolinguistic groups remain, the first Europeans in the area were Spanish explorers in 1516. The Spanish explorer Juan de Salazar de Espinosa founded the settlement of Asunción on 15 August 1537, the city eventually became the center of a Spanish colonial province of ParaguayAdministrative divisions of Paraguay – José Gaspar Rodríguez de Francia, Paraguay's first president.
40. Rapiacta – Peramivir is an antiviral drug developed by BioCryst Pharmaceuticals for the treatment of influenza. Peramivir is an inhibitor, acting as a transition-state analogue inhibitor of influenza neuraminidase. It is approved for intravenous administration, in October 2009, the U. S. Food and Drug Administration issued an emergency use authorization for the use of peramivir based on safety data from phase I, phase II, and limited phase III trial data. The emergency use authorization for peramivir expired in June 2010, on 19 December 2014, the FDA approved peramivir to treat influenza infection in adults. Peramivir has also approved in Japan and South Korea and is available in Japan as Rapiacta. As of 2015, it is the only option for treating swine flu. In October 2009, it was reported that the antiviral drug peramivir had been life-saving effective in intravenous treating 8 serious cases of swine flu. The U. S. government gave BioCryst Pharmaceuticals more than $77 million to finish the Phase III clinical development of peramivir, in 2009 the department of Health and Human Services had already given about $180 million to the program. Biocryst also donated 1200 courses of treatment to the US department of Health, the Emergency Use Authorization expired on June 23,2010. The difference between peramivir and control group for the endpoint, clinical or virologic, was small. But a H274Y virus mutation showed resistance to oseltamivir and peramivir, but not to zanamivir, ultimately 3. 2% of Apdm09 viruses collected between 2009 and 2012 had highly reduced peramivir inhibition due to the H275Y NA mutation. BioCryst Pharmaceuticals submitted a new application to the U. S. Food. Peramivir was approved for administration in Dec 2014. FDA Approval for Peramivir Peramivir, Requirements for Administration under EUA BioCryst Pharmaceuticals, IncRapiacta – Influenza (Flu)
41. Piruw – Peru, officially the Republic of Peru, is a country in western South America. It is bordered in the north by Ecuador and Colombia, in the east by Brazil, in the southeast by Bolivia, in the south by Chile, and in the west by the Pacific Ocean. Peruvian territory was home to ancient cultures spanning from the Norte Chico civilization in Caral, one of the oldest in the world, to the Inca Empire, the largest state in Pre-Columbian America. The Spanish Empire conquered the region in the 16th century and established a Viceroyalty with its capital in Lima, ideas of political autonomy later spread throughout Spanish America and Peru gained its independence, which was formally proclaimed in 1821. After the battle of Ayacucho, three years after proclamation, Peru ensured its independence, subsequently, the country has undergone changes in government from oligarchic to democratic systems. Peru has gone through periods of political unrest and internal conflict as well as periods of stability, Peru is a representative democratic republic divided into 25 regions. It is a country with a high Human Development Index score. Its main economic activities include mining, manufacturing, agriculture and fishing, the Peruvian population, estimated at 31.2 million in 2015, is multiethnic, including Amerindians, Europeans, Africans and Asians. The main spoken language is Spanish, although a significant number of Peruvians speak Quechua or other native languages and this mixture of cultural traditions has resulted in a wide diversity of expressions in fields such as art, cuisine, literature, and music. The name of the country may be derived from Birú, the name of a ruler who lived near the Bay of San Miguel, Panama. When his possessions were visited by Spanish explorers in 1522, they were the southernmost part of the New World yet known to Europeans, thus, when Francisco Pizarro explored the regions farther south, they came to be designated Birú or Perú. An alternative history is provided by the contemporary writer Inca Garcilasco de la Vega, son of an Inca princess, the Spanish Crown gave the name legal status with the 1529 Capitulación de Toledo, which designated the newly encountered Inca Empire as the province of Peru. Under Spanish rule, the country adopted the denomination Viceroyalty of Peru, the earliest evidences of human presence in Peruvian territory have been dated to approximately 9,000 BC. Andean societies were based on agriculture, using such as irrigation and terracing, camelid husbandry. Organization relied on reciprocity and redistribution because these societies had no notion of market or money, the oldest known complex society in Peru, the Norte Chico civilization, flourished along the coast of the Pacific Ocean between 3,000 and 1,800 BC. These early developments were followed by archaeological cultures that developed mostly around the coastal, the Cupisnique culture which flourished from around 1000 to 200 BC along what is now Perus Pacific Coast was an example of early pre-Incan culture. The Chavín culture that developed from 1500 to 300 BC was probably more of a religious than a political phenomenon, on the coast, these included the civilizations of the Paracas, Nazca, Wari, and the more outstanding Chimu and Mochica. Their capital was at Chan Chan outside of modern-day Trujillo, in the 15th century, the Incas emerged as a powerful state which, in the span of a century, formed the largest empire in pre-Columbian America with their capital in CuscoPiruw – Sculpted Chavin head embedded in one of the walls of the temple of Chavín de Huantar
42. List of Syrian civil war refugee camps – In January 2017, UNHCR counted 4,863,684 registered refugees. Turkey is the largest host country of registered refugees with over 2.7 million Syrian refugees, assistance to internally displaced persons within Syria, and Syrian refugees in neighbouring countries, is planning largely through the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. In 2016, pledges have been made to the UNHCR, by various nations, the Arab Spring uprisings in Tunisia, Egypt, Libya, Bahrain and Yemen inspired protests in Syria, followed by Syrian Army intervention. By May it was estimated that no more than 300 Syrian refugees had crossed into Turkey, Turkey set up a small camp for those refugees and reported it was preparing for a worst-case scenario should refugee numbers increase. By mid-May, about 700 refugees from Tel Kazakh had fled into Lebanon, with the siege of Jisr al-Shughour, the situation on the Turkish-Syrian border deteriorated and thousands fled in anticipation of a Syrian Army attack. Initially it was reported that about 2,500 Syrians crossed the border, the number of refugees housed in Turkish camps exceed 10,000 by mid June, and was estimated at 8,500 in Lebanon where the total refugee population was estimated at over 20,000. As Syrian troops amassed at the Turkish border, the flow increased to hundreds of refugees a day by 23 June, by early July over 15,000 Syrians had sought refuge in Turkey. More than 5,000 returned to Syria, leaving around 10,227 Syrian refugees in Turkey, registered refugees in Lebanon reached 2,600 by the end of August, with thousands more residing in Lebanon illegally. According to Al-Arabiya, some 2,500 Syrians resided in the Wadi Khaled area, most of Syrian refugees in the area were Arabs and Bedouins. A humanitarian aid campaign was launched by Baitulmaal, despite the repatriation of many Syrians between July and August, in early September Turkey began setting up six refugee camps – some 6,000 out of initial 15,000 refugees remained in Turkey. By November the number of refugees in Turkey stood at 7,600 and had reached almost 5,000 in Lebanon, by mid-December, the number of refugees in Jordan was around 1,500 registered and possibly thousands more unregistered. By the end of 2011, it was reported that thousands of refugees had found shelter in Libya, early in the year Lebanon reported 5,000 refugees and Turkey 9,700. Israel announced preparations to accommodate Alawite Syrian refugees in the Golan Heights, Jordan opened a camp for 3,000 refugees. By March, fighting in Homs, and along the Lebanese border, forced 2,000 Syrians to flee into Lebanon, UN registered refugees in Turkeys Hatay Province reach 13,500 with thousands more elsewhere. Turkish officials anticipated as many as 50,000 new arrivals and begin constructing camps in Hatay, Kilis, Gaziantep, Jordan reported as many as 80,000 arrivals and had enrolled 5,000 Syrian students in state schools. Refugees in the Kurdish region of Iraq reached 1,000 and were offered shelter, ethnic Kurdish refugees were offered military training to protect Kurdish-majority territories in Syria. The April offensive by the Syrian Army, preceding the 10 April ceasefire under the Kofi Annan peace plan, over 5,000 arrive on 4–5 April. Bringing the total in Turkey to 25,000, Turkey demanded Syria abide by the ceasefire, and more support from the international communityList of Syrian civil war refugee camps – Number and location of people fleeing the violence in Syria, 13 June 2012.
43. Viox – Rofecoxib /ˌrɒfᵻˈkɒksɪb/ is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug that has now been withdrawn over safety concerns. It was marketed by Merck & Co. to treat osteoarthritis, acute pain conditions, rofecoxib was approved by the U. S. Food and Drug Administration on May 20,1999, and was marketed under the brand names Vioxx, Ceoxx, and Ceeoxx. Rofecoxib gained widespread acceptance among physicians treating patients with arthritis and other conditions causing chronic or acute pain, Worldwide, over 80 million people were prescribed rofecoxib at some time. On September 30,2004, Merck withdrew rofecoxib from the market because of concerns about increased risk of attack and stroke associated with long-term. Rofecoxib was one of the most widely used drugs ever to be withdrawn from the market, in the year before withdrawal, Merck had sales revenue of US$2.5 billion from Vioxx. Merck reserved $970 million to pay for its Vioxx-related legal expenses through 2007, rofecoxib was available on prescription in both tablet-form and as an oral suspension. It was available by injection for hospital use, cyclooxygenase has two well-studied isoforms, called COX-1 and COX-2. COX-1 mediates the synthesis of prostaglandins responsible for protection of the lining, while COX-2 mediates the synthesis of prostaglandins responsible for pain. By creating selective NSAIDs that inhibit COX-2, but not COX-1, the pain relief as traditional NSAIDs is offered. Rofecoxib is a selective COX-2 inhibitor, or coxib, others include Mercks etoricoxib, Pfizer’s celecoxib and valdecoxib. Interestingly, at the time of its withdrawal, rofecoxib was the only coxib with clinical evidence of its superior gastrointestinal adverse effect profile over conventional NSAIDs and this was largely based on the VIGOR study, which compared the efficacy and adverse effect profiles of rofecoxib and naproxen. The therapeutic recommended dosages were 12.5,25, and 50 mg with a bioavailability of 93%. Rofecoxib crossed the placenta and blood–brain barrier, and took 1–3 hours to reach peak concentration with an effective half-life of approximately 17 hours. The metabolic products are cis-dihydro and trans-dihydro derivatives of rofecoxib which are excreted through urine. On March 11,2009, Scott S. Reuben, former chief of acute pain at Baystate Medical Center, Springfield, revealed that data for 21 studies he had authored for the efficacy of the drug had been fabricated in order to augment the analgesic effects of the drugs. There is no evidence that Reuben colluded with Merck in falsifying his data, Reuben was also a former paid spokesperson for the drug company Pfizer. The retracted studies were not submitted to either the FDA or the European Unions regulatory agencies prior to the drugs approval, Drug manufacturer Merck had no comment on the disclosure. Aside from the incidence of gastric ulceration, rofecoxib exhibits a similar adverse effect profile to other NSAIDsViox
44. Brexit – Brexit is a commonly used term for the United Kingdoms planned withdrawal from the European Union. Following the 2016 referendum vote to leave, the UK government started the process on 29 March 2017. She has promised a Great Repeal Bill to repeal the European Communities Act, the terms of withdrawal have not yet been negotiated and in the meantime, the UK remains a full member of the European Union. The UK joined the European Communities, the EUs predecessor, in 1973, in the 1970s and 1980s, withdrawal from the European Economic Community was advocated mainly by Labour Party and trade union figures. From the 1990s, withdrawal from the EU was advocated mainly by the newly founded UK Independence Party, Brexit is a portmanteau of British and exit. It was derived by analogy from Grexit, referring to a withdrawal of Greece from the eurozone. The term Brexit may have first been used in reference to a possible UK withdrawal from the EU by Peter Wilding in a Euractiv blog post on 15 May 2012, since 1977 both pro- and anti-European views have had majority support, with dramatic swings between the two camps. In the United Kingdom European Communities membership referendum of 1975, two-thirds of British voters favoured continued membership. The highest ever rejection of membership was in 1980, the first full year of Prime Minister Margaret Thatchers term of office, with 65% opposed to, once de Gaulle had relinquished the French presidency in 1969, the UK made a third and successful application for membership. The document concluded that it was advisable to put the considerations of influence, the Treaty of Accession was signed in January 1972 by the prime minister Edward Heath, leader of the Conservative party. In 1975, the United Kingdom held its first ever national referendum on whether the UK should remain in the European Communities, All of the major political parties and mainstream press supported continuing membership of the EC. On 5 June 1975, the electorate were asked to vote yes or no on the question, every administrative county and region in the UK returned majority Yes votes, apart from the Shetland Islands and the Outer Hebrides. With a turnout of just under 65%, the outcome of the vote was 67. 2% in favour of staying in, support for the UK to leave the EC in 1975, in the data, appears unrelated to the support for Leave in the 2016 referendum. In 1979 the United Kingdom opted out of the newly formed European Exchange Rate Mechanism which was the precursor to the creation of the euro, the opposition Labour Party campaigned in the 1983 general election on a commitment to withdraw from the EEC without a referendum. It was heavily defeated as the Conservative government of Margaret Thatcher was re-elected, the Labour Party subsequently changed its policy. In 1985 the United Kingdom ratified the Single European Act, the first major revision to the Treaty of Rome without a referendum with the full support HM Government of Margaret Thatcher. In November 1990 Thatcher resigned as Prime Minister amid internal divisions within the Conservative Party arising partly from her increasingly Eurosceptic views, in September 1992 the United Kingdom was forced to withdraw from the ERM after the pound sterling came under pressure from currency speculators. The resulting cost to UK taxpayers was estimated to be in excess of £3 billion, as a result of the Maastricht Treaty, the European Communities became the European Union on 1 November 1993Brexit
45. Sport in Syria – Syrias capital and largest city is Damascus. Religious groups include Sunnis, Christians, Alawites, Druze, Mandeans, Shiites, Salafis, Sunni Arabs make up the largest religious group in Syria. Its capital Damascus and largest city Aleppo are among the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world, in the Islamic era, Damascus was the seat of the Umayyad Caliphate and a provincial capital of the Mamluk Sultanate in Egypt. The post-independence period was tumultuous, and a number of military coups. In 1958, Syria entered a union with Egypt called the United Arab Republic. Syria was under Emergency Law from 1963 to 2011, effectively suspending most constitutional protections for citizens, Bashar al-Assad has been president since 2000 and was preceded by his father Hafez al-Assad, who was in office from 1970 to 2000. Mainstream modern academic opinion strongly favours the argument that the Greek word is related to the cognate Ἀσσυρία, Assyria, in the past, others believed that it was derived from Siryon, the name that the Sidonians gave to Mount Hermon. However, the discovery of the inscription in 2000 seems to support the theory that the term Syria derives from Assyria. The area designated by the word has changed over time, since approximately 10,000 BC, Syria was one of centers of Neolithic culture where agriculture and cattle breeding appeared for the first time in the world. The following Neolithic period is represented by houses of Mureybet culture. At the time of the pre-pottery Neolithic, people used vessels made of stone, gyps, finds of obsidian tools from Anatolia are evidences of early trade relations. Cities of Hamoukar and Emar played an important role during the late Neolithic, archaeologists have demonstrated that civilization in Syria was one of the most ancient on earth, perhaps preceded by only those of Mesopotamia. The earliest recorded indigenous civilisation in the region was the Kingdom of Ebla near present-day Idlib, gifts from Pharaohs, found during excavations, confirm Eblas contact with Egypt. One of the earliest written texts from Syria is an agreement between Vizier Ibrium of Ebla and an ambiguous kingdom called Abarsal c.2300 BC. The Northwest Semitic language of the Amorites is the earliest attested of the Canaanite languages, Mari reemerged during this period, and saw renewed prosperity until conquered by Hammurabi of Babylon. Ugarit also arose during this time, circa 1800 BC, close to modern Latakia, Ugaritic was a Semitic language loosely related to the Canaanite languages, and developed the Ugaritic alphabet. The Ugarites kingdom survived until its destruction at the hands of the marauding Indo-European Sea Peoples in the 12th century BC, Yamhad was described in the tablets of Mari as the mightiest state in the near east and as having more vassals than Hammurabi of Babylon. Yamhad imposed its authority over Alalakh, Qatna, the Hurrians states, the army of Yamhad campaigned as far away as Dēr on the border of ElamSport in Syria – Female figurine, 5000 BC. Ancient Orient Museum.
46. U.T.C – Coordinated Universal Time, abbreviated to UTC, is the primary time standard by which the world regulates clocks and time. It is within about 1 second of mean time at 0° longitude. It is one of closely related successors to Greenwich Mean Time. For most purposes, UTC is considered interchangeable with GMT, the first Coordinated Universal Time was informally adopted on 1 January 1960. This change also adopted leap seconds to simplify future adjustments, a number of proposals have been made to replace UTC with a new system that would eliminate leap seconds, but no consensus has yet been reached. Leap seconds are inserted as necessary to keep UTC within 0.9 seconds of universal time, see the Current number of leap seconds section for the number of leap seconds inserted to date. The official abbreviation for Coordinated Universal Time is UTC and this abbreviation arose from a desire by the International Telecommunication Union and the International Astronomical Union to use the same abbreviation in all languages. English speakers originally proposed CUT, while French speakers proposed TUC, the compromise that emerged was UTC, which conforms to the pattern for the abbreviations of the variants of Universal Time. Time zones around the world are expressed using positive or negative offsets from UTC, the westernmost time zone uses UTC−12, being twelve hours behind UTC, the easternmost time zone, theoretically, uses UTC+12, being twelve hours ahead of UTC. In 1995, the nation of Kiribati moved those of its atolls in the Line Islands from UTC-10 to UTC+14 so that the country would all be on the same day. UTC is used in internet and World Wide Web standards. The Network Time Protocol, designed to synchronise the clocks of computers over the internet, computer servers, online services and other entities that rely on having a universally accepted time use UTC as it is more specific than GMT. If only limited precision is needed, clients can obtain the current UTC from a number of official internet UTC servers, for sub-microsecond precision, clients can obtain the time from satellite signals. UTC is also the standard used in aviation, e. g. for flight plans. Weather forecasts and maps all use UTC to avoid confusion about time zones, the International Space Station also uses UTC as a time standard. Amateur radio operators often schedule their radio contacts in UTC, because transmissions on some frequencies can be picked up by many time zones, UTC is also used in digital tachographs used on large goods vehicles under EU and AETR rules. UTC divides time into days, hours, minutes and seconds, days are conventionally identified using the Gregorian calendar, but Julian day numbers can also be used. Each day contains 24 hours and each hour contains 60 minutes, the number of seconds in a minute is usually 60, but with an occasional leap second, it may be 61 or 59 insteadU.T.C – Key concepts
47. Ucraine – Ukraine is currently in territorial dispute with Russia over the Crimean Peninsula which Russia annexed in 2014 but which Ukraine and most of the international community recognise as Ukrainian. Including Crimea, Ukraine has an area of 603,628 km2, making it the largest country entirely within Europe and it has a population of about 42.5 million, making it the 32nd most populous country in the world. The territory of modern Ukraine has been inhabited since 32,000 BC, during the Middle Ages, the area was a key centre of East Slavic culture, with the powerful state of Kievan Rus forming the basis of Ukrainian identity. Following its fragmentation in the 13th century, the territory was contested, ruled and divided by a variety of powers, including Lithuania, Poland, the Ottoman Empire, Austria-Hungary, and Russia. A Cossack republic emerged and prospered during the 17th and 18th centuries, two brief periods of independence occurred during the 20th century, once near the end of World War I and another during World War II. Before its independence, Ukraine was typically referred to in English as The Ukraine, following independence, Ukraine declared itself a neutral state. Nonetheless it formed a limited partnership with the Russian Federation and other CIS countries. In the 2000s, the government began leaning towards NATO, and it was later agreed that the question of joining NATO should be answered by a national referendum at some point in the future. Former President Viktor Yanukovych considered the current level of co-operation between Ukraine and NATO sufficient, and was against Ukraine joining NATO and these events formed the background for the annexation of Crimea by Russia in March 2014, and the War in Donbass in April 2014. On 1 January 2016, Ukraine applied the economic part of the Deep, Ukraine has long been a global breadbasket because of its extensive, fertile farmlands and is one of the worlds largest grain exporters. The diversified economy of Ukraine includes a heavy industry sector, particularly in aerospace. Ukraine is a republic under a semi-presidential system with separate powers, legislative, executive. Its capital and largest city is Kiev, taking into account reserves and paramilitary personnel, Ukraine maintains the second-largest military in Europe after that of Russia. Ukrainian is the language and its alphabet is Cyrillic. The dominant religion in the country is Eastern Orthodoxy, which has strongly influenced Ukrainian architecture, literature, there are different hypotheses as to the etymology of the name Ukraine. According to the older and most widespread hypothesis, it means borderland, while more recently some studies claim a different meaning, homeland or region. The Ukraine now implies disregard for the sovereignty, according to U. S. ambassador William Taylor. Neanderthal settlement in Ukraine is seen in the Molodova archaeological sites include a mammoth bone dwellingUcraine – Gold Scythian pectoral, or neckpiece, from a royal kurgan in Ordzhonikidze, dated to the 4th century BC
48. (EU) – The European Union is a political and economic union of 28 member states that are located primarily in Europe. It has an area of 4,475,757 km2, the EU has developed an internal single market through a standardised system of laws that apply in all member states. Within the Schengen Area, passport controls have been abolished, a monetary union was established in 1999 and came into full force in 2002, and is composed of 19 EU member states which use the euro currency. The EU operates through a system of supranational and intergovernmental decision-making. The EU traces its origins from the European Coal and Steel Community, the community and its successors have grown in size by the accession of new member states and in power by the addition of policy areas to its remit. While no member state has left the EU or its antecedent organisations, the Maastricht Treaty established the European Union in 1993 and introduced European citizenship. The latest major amendment to the basis of the EU. The EU as a whole is the largest economy in the world, additionally,27 out of 28 EU countries have a very high Human Development Index, according to the United Nations Development Programme. In 2012, the EU was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize, through the Common Foreign and Security Policy, the EU has developed a role in external relations and defence. The union maintains permanent diplomatic missions throughout the world and represents itself at the United Nations, the World Trade Organization, the G7, because of its global influence, the European Union has been described as an emerging superpower. After World War II, European integration was seen as an antidote to the nationalism which had devastated the continent. 1952 saw the creation of the European Coal and Steel Community, the supporters of the Community included Alcide De Gasperi, Jean Monnet, Robert Schuman, and Paul-Henri Spaak. These men and others are credited as the Founding fathers of the European Union. In 1957, Belgium, France, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands and West Germany signed the Treaty of Rome and they also signed another pact creating the European Atomic Energy Community for co-operation in developing nuclear energy. Both treaties came into force in 1958, the EEC and Euratom were created separately from the ECSC, although they shared the same courts and the Common Assembly. The EEC was headed by Walter Hallstein and Euratom was headed by Louis Armand, Euratom was to integrate sectors in nuclear energy while the EEC would develop a customs union among members. During the 1960s, tensions began to show, with France seeking to limit supranational power, Jean Rey presided over the first merged Commission. In 1973, the Communities enlarged to include Denmark, Ireland, Norway had negotiated to join at the same time, but Norwegian voters rejected membership in a referendum(EU) – In 1989, the Iron Curtain fell, enabling the union to expand further (Berlin Wall pictured).
49. Oriental Republic of Uruguay – Uruguay, officially the Oriental Republic of Uruguay, is a country in the southeastern region of South America. It borders Argentina to its west and Brazil to its north and east, with the Río de la Plata to the south and the Atlantic Ocean to the southeast. Uruguay is home to an estimated 3.42 million people, of whom 1.8 million live in the area of its capital and largest city. With an area of approximately 176,000 square kilometres, Uruguay is geographically the second-smallest nation in South America, only larger in size than Suriname. Uruguay was inhabited by the Charrúa people for approximately 4000 years before the Portuguese established Colonia del Sacramento, one of the oldest European settlements in the region, in 1680. Montevideo was founded as a stronghold by the Spanish in the early 18th century. Uruguay won its independence between 1811 and 1828, following a struggle between Spain, Portugal, Argentina and Brazil. It remained subject to influence and intervention throughout the 19th century. Modern Uruguay is a constitutional republic, with a president who serves as both head of state and head of government. Uruguay is ranked first in Latin America in democracy, peace, lack of corruption, e-government, on a per-capita basis, Uruguay contributes more troops to United Nations peace-keeping missions than any other country. It ranks second in the region on economic freedom, income equality, per-capita income, Uruguay is the third-best country on the continent in terms of HDI, GDP growth, innovation and infrastructure. It is regarded as a country by the UN. Uruguay is also the third-best ranked in the world in e-Participation, Uruguay is an important global exporter of combed wool, rice, soybeans, frozen beef, malt and milk. Nearly 95% of Uruguays electricity comes from energy, mostly hydroelectric facilities. The Economist named Uruguay country of the year in 2013, acknowledging the innovative policy of legalizing the production, sale, the name of the namesake river comes from the Spanish pronunciation of the regional Guarani word for it. There are several interpretations, including bird-river, the name could also refer to a river snail called uruguá that was plentiful in the water. The only documented inhabitants of Uruguay before European colonization of the area were the Charrúa, the Portuguese discovered the region of present-day Uruguay in 1512. The Spanish arrived in present-day Uruguay in 1516, the indigenous peoples fierce resistance to conquest, combined with the absence of gold and silver, limited their settlement in the region during the 16th and 17th centuriesOriental Republic of Uruguay – A 5 peso coin celebrating the 150th anniversary of Uruguay's independence
50. Spanish Wikinews – Wikinews is a free-content news source wiki and a project of the Wikimedia Foundation. The site works through collaborative journalism, Wikipedia co-founder Jimmy Wales has distinguished Wikinews from Wikipedia by saying on Wikinews, each story is to be written as a news story as opposed to an encyclopedia article. The neutral point of view policy espoused in Wikinews distinguishes it from other citizen journalism efforts such as Indymedia, in contrast to most projects of the Wikimedia Foundation, Wikinews allows original work under the form of original reporting and interviews. The first recorded proposal of a Wikimedia news site was a two-line anonymous post on January 5,2003, daniel Alston, who edited Wikipedia as Fonzy, claimed to have been the one who posted it. The proposal was further developed by German freelance journalist, software developer. In November 2004, a demonstration wiki was established to show how such a news site might work. A month later, in December 2004, the site was moved out of the demo stage, a German language edition was launched at the same time. On March 13,2005, the English edition of Wikinews reached 1,000 news articles, a few months later in September 2005, the project moved to the Creative Commons Attribution 2.5 license. It reached 5,000 articles on April 29,2006, Wikinews reporters have conducted interviews with several notable people, including an interview in December 2007 with Israeli President Shimon Peres by Wikinews reporter David Shankbone. Shankbone had been invited to conduct the interview by the America-Israel Friendship League, other notable interviews have included writers, actors and politicians, such as Augusten Burroughs, several 2008 U. S. Wikinews—like Wikipedia—has been criticized for its inability to be neutral or include only verified. Robert McHenry, former editor-in-chief of the Encyclopædia Britannica, criticized the credibility of the project, Above all, the central question about the Wikinews effort is its credibility. Making a newspaper is hard. Someone who wants to do it but doesnt really know how hasnt solved the problem by gathering a lot of people who dont know. McHenry was skeptical about Wikinews ability to provide a point of view and its claim to be evenhanded. At its heart, its just a craft, and that means that it can be practiced by anyone who is sensible and intelligent and thoughtful and curious. I go back to the morning of Virginia Tech – the morning I decided I wanted to work, the conversation on the talk page that day was extremely thoughtful. I remember thinking to myself if my own newsroom had been having a conversation that intelligent I would have been delighted. So yes, you absolutely have proved Robert McHenry wrong, on bigger stories theres just no point in competing with the ruthless purview of the encyclopediaSpanish Wikinews – Wikinews reporter David Shankbone with Israeli president Shimon Peres in 2007.
51. MB-003 – ZMapp is an experimental biopharmaceutical drug comprising three chimeric monoclonal antibodies under development as a treatment for Ebola virus disease. ZMapp is under development as a treatment for Ebola virus disease, like intravenous immunoglobulin therapy, ZMapp contains neutralizing antibodies that provide passive immunity to the virus by directly and specifically reacting with it in a lock and key fashion. The drug is composed of three monoclonal antibodies that have been chimerized with human constant regions, the components are chimeric monoclonal antibody c13C6 from a previously existing antibody cocktail called MB-003 and two chimeric mAbs from a different antibody cocktail called ZMab, c2G4 and c4G7. ZMapp is manufactured in the tobacco plant Nicotiana benthamiana in the process known as pharming by Kentucky BioProcessing. MB-003 is a cocktail of three humanized or human–mouse chimeric mAbs, c13C6, h13F6 and c6D8, a study published in September 2012 found that rhesus macaques infected with Ebola virus survived when receiving MB-003 one hour after infection. When treated 24 or 48 hours after infection, four of six animals survived and had little to no viremia and few, if any, MB-003 was created by scientists at the U. S. ZMAb is a mixture of three mouse mAbs, m1H3, m2G4 and m4G7. The authors concluded that post-exposure treatment resulted in a robust immune response, with protection for up to 10 weeks. ZMab was created by the NML and licensed to Defyrus, a Toronto-based biodefense company, in an experiment also published in the 2014 paper,21 rhesus macaque primates were infected with the Kikwit Congolese variant of EBOV. Three primates in the arm were given a non-functional antibody. All primates in the treatment arm received three doses of ZMapp, spaced 3 days apart. The first treatment group received its first dose on 3rd day after being infected, the group on the 4th day after being infected. All three primates in the group died, all 18 primates in the treatment arm survived. Mapp then went on to show that ZMapp inhibits replication of a Guinean strain of EBOV in cell cultures, mapp remains involved in the production of the drug through its contracts with Kentucky BioProcessing, a subsidiary of Reynolds American. Subsequently, antibodies are extracted and purified from the plants, once the genes encoding the chimeric mAbs are in hand, the entire tobacco production cycle is believed to take a few months. The development of production methods was funded by the U. S. Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency as part of its bio-defense efforts following the 9/11 terrorist attacks. The National Institutes of Health announced on 27 February 2015 the commencement of a controlled trial of ZMapp to be conducted in Liberia. The FDA allowed two drugs, ZMapp and an RNA interference drug called TKM-Ebola, to be used by Americans who had contracted Ebola virus disease, during 2014, a limited supply of ZMapp was used to treat 7 individuals infected with the Ebola virus, of these 2 died. The outcome is not considered to be statistically significant, mapp announced in August 2014, that supplies of ZMapp had been exhaustedMB-003 – The Nicotiana benthamiana tobacco plant