1. 1522 – Year 1522 was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. January 9 – Pope Adrian VI succeeds Pope Leo X as the 218th pope, the only Dutch pope, he will be the last non-Italian elected for more than 450 years. April 27 – Battle of Bicocca, French and Swiss forces under Odet de Lautrec are defeated by the Spanish in their attempt to retake Milan, may – England presents an ultimatum to France and Scotland. June 19 – Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor visits King Henry VIII of England and signs the Treaty of Windsor pledging a joint invasion of France, july – The English army attacks Brittany and Picardy from Calais, burning and looting the countryside. July 28 – Ottoman Sultan Suleiman I begins his siege of the Knights of St. John in Rhodes, december 18 – The Turks finally break into Rhodes, but the Knights continue fierce resistance in the streets. December 20 – Suleiman the Magnificent accepts the surrender of the surviving Knights and they eventually re-settle on Malta and become known as the Knights of Malta. The Diet of Nuremberg is held, the Knights Revolt erupts in Germany. Costa Rica is named by the Spanish colonizer Gil González Dávila when he finds copious quantities of gold in Pacific beaches, the third edition of Erasmuss Greek Textus Receptus of the Bible is published. Some believe that Australia is sighted by a Portuguese expedition led by Cristóvão de Mendonça who maps the continent and names it Jave la Grande1522 – December 20: Knights of Malta.
2. 1642 – As of the start of 1642, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. January 4 – First English Civil War, Charles I attempts to arrest 6 leading members of the Long Parliament, march 1 – Georgeana, Massachusetts becomes the first incorporated city in America. March 19 – the citizens of Galway seize an English naval ship, close the town gates, april 8 – George Spencer is executed by the New Haven Colony for alleged bestiality. May 1 – honours granted by Charles I from this date onward are retrospectively annulled by Parliament. May 17 – foundation of Ville-Marie, later renamed Montreal, as a permanent settlement July – First English Civil War, august 4 – Lord Forbes relieves Forthill and besieges Galway. August 21 – First Battle of Lostwithiel, august 22 – King Charles I raises the royal battle standard over Nottingham Castle, so declaring war on his own Parliament. September 2 – Parliament orders the theatres of London closed, effectively ending the era of English Renaissance theatre, september 7 – Lord Forbes raises his unsuccessful siege of Galway. September 8 – Thomas Granger is executed by hanging at Plymouth, october 23 – First English Civil War – Battle of Edgehill, Royalists and Parliamentarians battle to a draw. November 13 – First English Civil War – Battle of Turnham Green, The Royalist forces withdraw in face of the Parliamentarian army, november 24 – Abel Tasman becomes the first European to discover the island Van Diemens Land. December 13 – Abel Tasman is the first recorded European to sight New Zealand, the Dutch drive Spain from Taiwan. The village of Bro in Sweden is granted the city rights for the time and takes the name Kristinehamn after the then Swedish monarch. Rembrandt finishes his painting The Night Watch, the Manchu under their leader Hong Taiji raid the Ming Chinese province of Shandong from their base in Manchuria. Two years later Beijing falls to rebels, the Chongzhen Emperor commits suicide, isaac Aboab da Fonseca is appointed rabbi in Pernambuco, Brazil, thus becoming the first rabbi of the Americas1642 – Abel Tasman sights New Zealand.
3. 1906 – As of the start of 1906, the Gregorian calendar was 13 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. January 16–April 7 – Algeciras Conference to resolve the First Moroccan Crisis between France and Germany, january 22 – The SS Valencia strikes a reef off Vancouver Island, Canada, killing over 100 in the ensuing disaster. January 31 – Ecuador–Colombia earthquake and associated tsunami, february 10 – HMS Dreadnought is launched and sparks the naval race between Britain and Germany. February 11 – Pope Pius X publishes the encyclical Vehementer Nos denouncing the 1905 French law on the Separation of the Churches, february 11 – Two British £1-per-head tax collectors are killed near Richmond, Natal, sparking the Bambatha Rebellion. March 10 – Courrières mine disaster, an explosion in a mine in France kills 1,060. March 18 – In France, Romanian inventor Traian Vuia becomes the first person to achieve an unassisted takeoff in a powered monoplane. April 7 – Mount Vesuvius erupts and devastates Naples, april 14 – The Azusa Street Revival, the primary catalyst for the revival of Pentecostalism this century, opens in Los Angeles. April 18 – San Francisco earthquake on the San Andreas Fault destroys much of San Francisco, California, USA, killing at least 3,000, with 225, 000–300,000 left homeless, and $350 million in damages. April 23 – In Tsarist Russia, the Fundamental Laws are announced at the first state Duma, may – Jack Londons novel White Fang begins serialization in the American magazine Outing. May 29 – Karl Staaff steps down as Prime Minister of Sweden over the issue of expanded voting rights and he is replaced by the right-wing naval officer and public official, Arvid Lindman. June 7 – Cunard liner RMS Lusitania is launched in Glasgow as the worlds largest ship, July 1 – Sporting Lisbon, a well known football club in Portugal, founded. July 6 – The Second Geneva Convention meets, July 12 – Alfred Dreyfus is exonerated. He is reinstalled in the French Army on July 21, thus ending the Dreyfus affair, august 4 – The first Imperial German Navy submarine, U-1, is launched. August 16 – A magnitude 8.2 earthquake in Valparaíso, august 22 – The first Victor Victrola, a phonographic record player, is manufactured. August 23 – Unable to control a rebellion Cuban President Tomás Estrada Palma requests United States intervention, the subsequent provisional occupation administration lasts until 1909. September 11 – Mahatma Gandhi coins the term Satyagraha to characterize the Non-Violence movement in South Africa, september 18 – A typhoon and tsunami kill an estimated 10,000 in Hong Kong. September 30 – The first Gordon Bennett Cup in ballooning is held, the winning team, piloting the balloon United States, lands in Fylingdales, Yorkshire, England. October 1 – The Grand Duchy of Finland becomes the first nation to include the right of women to stand as candidates when it adopts universal suffrage, october 6 – The Majlis of Iran convenes for the first time1906 – The ruins of San Francisco following the April 18 earthquake and later fires
4. 1970 – January 1 Unix time begins at 00,00,00 UTC. First Quarter Storm begin in the Philippines, January 5 – The 7.1 Mw Tonghai earthquake shakes Tonghai County, Yunnan province, China, with a maximum Mercalli intensity of X. Between 10, 000–14,621 were killed and 26,783 were injured, January 5 – The first episode of United States soap opera All My Children is broadcast on the ABC television network. January 12 – Biafra capitulates, ending the Nigerian Civil War, January 14 – Diana Ross and The Supremes perform their farewell live concert together at the Frontier Hotel in Las Vegas. Rosss replacement, Jean Terrell, is introduced onstage at the end of the last show, January 15 – After a 32-month fight for independence from Nigeria, Biafran forces under Philip Effiong formally surrender to General Yakubu Gowon. January 20 – The Greater London Council announces its plans for the Thames Barrier at Woolwich to prevent flooding, January 21 Five lifeboatmen are killed when a Fraserburgh, Scotland vessel, The Duchess of Kent, capsizes. Pan American Airways offers the first commercially scheduled Boeing 747 service from John F. Kennedy International Airport to London Heathrow Airport. January 23 – Joseph Fielding Smith becomes the 10th President of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints January 26 – Mick Jagger is fined £200 for possession of cannabis, february 1 – The Benavidez rail disaster near Buenos Aires, Argentina kills 236. February 10 – An avalanche at Val-dIsère, France kills 41 tourists, february 11 – Ōsumi, Japans first satellite, is launched on a Lambda-4 rocket. February 13 – Black Sabbaths eponymous debut album is released, often regarded as the first true heavy metal album, february 14 – The iconic live album The Who, Live at Leeds is recorded. February 17 MacDonald family massacre, Jeffrey R. MacDonald kills his wife and children at Fort Bragg, North Carolina, author David Irving is ordered to pay £40,000 libel damages to Capt. John Broome over his book The Destruction of Convoy PQ17, february 18 – A jury finds the Chicago Seven defendants not guilty of conspiring to incite a riot, in charges stemming from the violence at the 1968 Democratic National Convention. Five of the defendants are found guilty on the charge of crossing state lines to incite a riot. February 19 – Poseidon bubble, shares in Australian nickel mining company Poseidon NL, february 21 – Construction begins on the Boğaziçi Bridge crossing the Bosphorus in Istanbul. February 22 – Guyana becomes a Republic within the Commonwealth of Nations, february 26 – Chevrolet releases the second generation Camaro. March 1 – Rhodesia severs its last tie with the United Kingdom, march 5 – The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty goes into effect, after ratification by 56 nations. March 6 A bomb being constructed by members of the Weathermen and meant to be planted at a dance in New Jersey, explodes. Süleyman Demirel of AP forms the new government of Turkey, march 7 Citroën introduces the SM at the Geneva Auto Salon1970 – February 11: Ōsumi (satellite) launched
5. Geramny – Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany, is a federal parliamentary republic in central-western Europe. It includes 16 constituent states, covers an area of 357,021 square kilometres, with about 82 million inhabitants, Germany is the most populous member state of the European Union. After the United States, it is the second most popular destination in the world. Germanys capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, while its largest conurbation is the Ruhr, other major cities include Hamburg, Munich, Cologne, Frankfurt, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf and Leipzig. Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity, a region named Germania was documented before 100 AD. During the Migration Period the Germanic tribes expanded southward, beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation, in 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire. After World War I and the German Revolution of 1918–1919, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic, the establishment of the national socialist dictatorship in 1933 led to World War II and the Holocaust. After a period of Allied occupation, two German states were founded, the Federal Republic of Germany and the German Democratic Republic, in 1990, the country was reunified. In the 21st century, Germany is a power and has the worlds fourth-largest economy by nominal GDP. As a global leader in industrial and technological sectors, it is both the worlds third-largest exporter and importer of goods. Germany is a country with a very high standard of living sustained by a skilled. It upholds a social security and universal health system, environmental protection. Germany was a member of the European Economic Community in 1957. It is part of the Schengen Area, and became a co-founder of the Eurozone in 1999, Germany is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G8, the G20, and the OECD. The national military expenditure is the 9th highest in the world, the English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine. This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz popular, derived from *þeudō, descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂- people, the discovery of the Mauer 1 mandible shows that ancient humans were present in Germany at least 600,000 years ago. The oldest complete hunting weapons found anywhere in the world were discovered in a mine in Schöningen where three 380, 000-year-old wooden javelins were unearthedGeramny – The Nebra sky disk is dated to c. 1600 BC.
6. Icelandic Wikipedia – This is a list of the different language editions of Wikipedia, as of 7 April 2017 there are 295 Wikipedias of which 284 are active. Each Wikipedia has a code, which is used as a subdomain below wikipedia. org, interlanguage links are sorted by that code. The codes represent the language defined by ISO 639-1 and ISO 639-3. The Spanish Wikipedia includes both Peninsular Castilian and Latin American Spanish, Malay Wikipedia includes a number of Malay languages. Differences between the ISO mappings and Wikipedia codes include, Additionally, Wikipedias vary in wikt, orthography at times, belarussian, however, has a separate Wikipedia for the normative orthography and Taraškievica. An approximation to the number of users is given in powers of ten, so 5 means at least 10,000,4 means at least 1000,3 means at least 100. The Total column refers to the number of pages in all namespaces, active Users are registered users who have made at least one edit in the last thirty days. Images is the number of uploaded files. Note that some large Wikipedias dont use local images and rely on Commons completely, the Depth column is a rough indicator of a Wikipedia’s quality, showing how frequently its articles are updated. It does not refer to academic quality, languages used on the Internet m, Help, How to start a new Wikipedia m, List of WikipediasIcelandic Wikipedia – Screenshot of Wikipedia's portal wikipedia.org showing the different language editions sorted by article count.
7. Heimatlos – In international law, statelessness is the lack of citizenship. A stateless person is someone who is not considered as a national by any state under the operation of its law, some stateless persons are also refugees. However, not all refugees are stateless, and many persons who are stateless have never crossed an international border. Most people belonging to a nation, despite lacking their own nation state, nonetheless hold citizenship in one or more countries. Conflicting nationality laws are one of causes of statelessness. Nationality is usually acquired through one of two modes, Jus soli denotes a regime by which nationality is acquired through birth on the territory of the state and this is common in the Americas. Jus sanguinis is a regime by which nationality is acquired through descent, today, many nations apply a combination of the two systems. Although many states allow the acquisition of nationality through parental descent irrespective of where the child is born, there are 27 countries in the world that do not grant equal rights to women in passing on their nationality. This can result in statelessness when the father is stateless, unknown, there have, however, been recent changes in favor of gender neutrality in nationality laws, including successful reform processes in Algeria, Morocco, and Senegal that may inform change elsewhere. Moreover, the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women prohibits sex-based discrimination in the conferral of nationality, an important measure to prevent statelessness at birth provides nationality to children born in a territory who would otherwise be stateless. In most large-scale statelessness situations, statelessness is a result of discrimination, many states define their body of citizens based on ethnicity, leading to the exclusion of large groups. This violates international laws against discrimination, in some cases, statelessness is a consequence of state succession. Some people become stateless when their state of nationality ceases to exist and this was the case when the Soviet Union disintegrated, and also in the cases of Yugoslavia and Ethiopia. People may also become stateless as a result of administrative and practical problems, individuals might be entitled to citizenship but unable to undertake the necessary procedural steps. In disruptive conflict or post-conflict situations, many find that difficulties in completing simple administrative procedures are exacerbated. Such obstacles may affect the ability of individuals to complete such as birth registration. The United Nations Children’s Fund estimated in 2013 that 230 million children under the age of 5 have not been registered, not holding proof of nationality—being undocumented—is not the same as being stateless, but the lack of identity documents such as a birth certificate can lead to statelessness. Many millions of people live their lives without documents, without their nationality ever being questionedHeimatlos – Legal status of persons
8. Battle of aguere – The battle took place November 14–15,1494. Fernández de Lugo had suffered defeat by Guanche forces at the First Battle of Acentejo, the Battle of Aguere was later followed by the decisive Second Battle of Acentejo more than a month later, which resulted in the complete Castilian conquest of Tenerife. The group enlisted the aid of Juan Alfonso Pérez de Guzmán, the Duke of Medina Sidonia, who contributed 600 soldiers and 30 horsemen, veterans of the conquest of Granada. 500 Castilian soldiers were added to this force, a group that included survivors of the First Battle of Acentejo and a contingent sent by Doña Inés Peraza. Fernández de Lugo also had the support of Ferdinand and Isabella, during this time of regrouping, he also captured many slaves in Gran Canaria. The Castilian force embarked from Gran Canaria in November in 6 caravels and about a dozen smaller ships, and headed towards the port of Santa Cruz de Tenerife. After fortifying Santa Cruz, the Castilian marched on November 13–14 towards La Cuesta, the Castilians maintained Santa Cruz as their base of operations, with their fleet waiting there in case of a defeat. In terms of strategy, the tableland of San Cristóbal de La Laguna was of importance to the conquest of the island. Fernández de Lugo garrisoned Santa Cruz to prevent a surprise attack, meanwhile, the Guanches, alerted by inhabitants on the coast, gathered their forces. The mencey Bencomo sent emissaries to the other menceys, and gathered about 2,000 warriors at La Cuesta before the Castilians had reached that point, Bencomo sent two spies to observe the strength and size of the Castilian forces. However, the spies were discovered by the Castilians, and Bencomo could not benefit from any intelligence regarding the enemy forces and this gave the Castilians an early advantage, although they suffered from the disadvantage of advancing up a difficult height surrounded by Guanche warriors. However, having garrisoned Santa Cruz, Fernández de Lugo decided to take a risk in advancing this way, the next day the Guanche forces were surprised that the Castilians had ascended La Cuesta and were dominating the rising grounds in the midst of the plain of Aguere. The laurisilva-covered area called Aguere by the natives included Las Mercedes, parts of present-day San Cristóbal de La Laguna, Ortigal, Bencomo reorganized his forces and with 5,000 men rushed to what are now the outskirts of San Cristóbal, intending to cut off the Castilians. However, before the Guanche forces could do this, Fernández de Lugos army had already appeared before them, the Guanche center was commanded by Bencomo, the right flank by Acaymo, mencey of Tacoronte, and the left flank by Tinguaro. Based on this information, Buenaventura Bonnet believes that the battle took place in the now known as Barrio del Timple, Barrio Nuevo or Viña Nava. The battle began with an assault by the Guanche troops, who were armed with weapons like the banote or banot. They had no shields or armor, and wore the tamarco, the Guanche forces also hurled rocks. The Castilian vanguard consisted of harquebusiers and crossbowmen who mowed the attacking Guanche ranks with their projectiles, the Castilian pikemen and horsemen then attacked the Guanches who were fleeing the crossbow and harquebus fireBattle of aguere – Statue of Bencomo at Candelaria, Tenerife.
9. Battle of Biccoca – The Battle of Bicocca or La Bicocca was fought on 27 April 1522, during the Italian War of 1521–26. A combined French and Venetian force under Odet de Foix, Vicomte de Lautrec, was defeated by an Imperial–Spanish. Lautrec then withdrew from Lombardy, leaving the Duchy of Milan in Imperial hands, having been driven from Milan by an Imperial advance in late 1521, Lautrec had regrouped, attempting to strike at Colonnas lines of communication. The Swiss pikemen advanced over open fields under heavy fire to assault the Imperial positions. Having suffered massive casualties from the fire of Spanish arquebusiers, the Swiss retreated, meanwhile, an attempt by French cavalry to flank Colonnas position proved equally ineffective. The Swiss, unwilling to further, marched off to their cantons a few days later. It was also one of the first engagements in which played a decisive role on the battlefield. At the start of the war in 1521, Holy Roman Emperor Charles V and Pope Leo X moved jointly against the Duchy of Milan, the principal French possession in Lombardy. A large Papal force under Federico II Gonzaga, Duke of Mantua, together with Spanish troops from Naples and some smaller Italian contingents, concentrated near Mantua. For the next months, Colonna fought an evasive war of maneuver against Odet de Foix, Vicomte de Lautrec. By the autumn of 1521, Lautrec, who was holding a line along the Adda river to Cremona, began to suffer losses from desertion. Colonna took the opportunity this offered and, advancing close to the Alps, crossed the Adda at Vaprio, Lautrec, lacking infantry and assuming the years campaign to be over, Colonna had no intention of stopping his advance, however. On the night of November 23, he launched an attack on the city. Following some abortive street-fighting, Lautrec withdrew to Cremona with about 12,000 men, the French proceeded to attack Novara and Pavia, hoping to draw Colonna into a decisive battle. Colonna, leaving Milan, fortified himself in the monastery of Certosa south of the city, Lautrec was suddenly confronted, however, with the intransigence of the Swiss, who formed the largest contingent of the French army. They complained that they had not received any of the pay promised them since their arrival in Lombardy, the Swiss captains, led by Albert von Stein, demanded that Lautrec attack the Imperial army immediately—else the mercenaries would abandon the French and return to their cantons. Lautrec reluctantly acquiesced and marched south towards Milan, Colonna had meanwhile relocated to a formidable new position, the manor park of Bicocca, about four miles north of Milan. The north side of the park was bordered by a road, Colonna deepened thisBattle of Biccoca – Anne de Montmorency, painted by Jean Clouet (c. 1530). Montmorency commanded the Swiss assault, and was the only survivor among the French nobles who accompanied it.
10. Battle of Pavia – The Battle of Pavia, fought on the morning of 24 February 1525, was the decisive engagement of the Italian War of 1521–26. In the four-hour battle, the French army was split and defeated in detail, the French suffered massive casualties, including many of the chief nobles of France. Francis himself was captured by Habsburg troops and imprisoned by Charles V and forced to sign the humiliating Treaty of Madrid, the outcome of the battle cemented Habsburg ascendancy in Italy. The French, in possession of Lombardy at the start of the Italian War of 1521–26, had forced to abandon it after their defeat at the Battle of Bicocca in 1522. Charles de Lannoy now launched an invasion of Provence under the command of Fernando dAvalos, Marquess of Pescara, in mid-October 1524, Francis himself crossed the Alps and advanced on Milan at the head of an army numbering more than 40,000. Bourbon and dAvalos, their troops not yet recovered from the campaign in Provence, were in no position to offer serious resistance. The French army moved in columns, brushing aside Imperial attempts to hold its advance. Having entered Milan and installed Louis II de la Trémoille as the governor, Francis advanced on Pavia, the main mass of French troops arrived at Pavia in the last days of October. By 2 November, Anne de Montmorency had crossed the Ticino River and invested the city from the south, inside were about 9,000 men, mainly mercenaries whom Antonio de Leyva was able to pay only by melting the church plate. A period of skirmishing and artillery bombardments followed, and several breaches had been made in the walls by mid-November, in early December, a Spanish force commanded by Ugo de Moncada landed near Genoa, intending to interfere in a conflict between pro-Valois and pro-Habsburg factions in the city. Francis dispatched a force under the Marquis of Saluzzo to intercept them. Confronted by the more numerous French and left without support by the arrival of a pro-Valois fleet commanded by Andrea Doria. Francis then signed a agreement with Pope Clement VII, who pledged not to assist Charles in exchange for Franciss assistance with the conquest of Naples. Against the advice of his commanders, Francis detached a portion of his forces under the Duke of Albany. In January 1525, Lannoy was reinforced by the arrival of Georg Frundsberg with 15,000 fresh landsknechts from Germany, by 2 February, Lannoy was only a few miles from Pavia. Francis had encamped the majority of his forces in the walled park of Mirabello outside the city walls. Skirmishing and sallies by the garrison continued through the month of February, the times given here are taken from Konstams reconstruction of the battle. On the evening of 23 February, Lannoys imperial troops, which had been encamped outside the east wall of the park, at the same time, the Imperial artillery began a bombardment of the French siege lines—which had become routine during the extended siege—in order to conceal Lannoys movementBattle of Pavia – Battle of Pavia by Joachim Patinir
11. The Red Eminence – Cardinal Armand Jean du Plessis, Duke of Richelieu and Fronsac, commonly referred to as Cardinal Richelieu, was a French clergyman, nobleman, and statesman. He was consecrated as a bishop in 1607 and was appointed Foreign Secretary in 1616, Richelieu soon rose in both the Catholic Church and the French government, becoming a cardinal in 1622, and King Louis XIIIs chief minister in 1624. He remained in office until his death in 1642, he was succeeded by Cardinal Mazarin, Cardinal de Richelieu was often known by the title of the kings Chief Minister or First Minister. He sought to consolidate power and crush domestic factions. By restraining the power of the nobility, he transformed France into a strong and his chief foreign policy objective was to check the power of the Austro-Spanish Habsburg dynasty, and to ensure French dominance in the Thirty Years War that engulfed Europe. Although he was a cardinal, he did not hesitate to make alliances with Protestant rulers in attempting to achieve his goals. While a powerful figure, events like the Day of the Dupes show that in fact he very much depended on the kings confidence to keep this power. As alumnus of the University of Paris and headmaster of the Collège de Sorbonne, Richelieu was also famous for his patronage of the arts, most notably, he founded the Académie Française, the learned society responsible for matters pertaining to the French language. Richelieu is also known by the sobriquet lÉminence rouge, from the red shade of a cardinals clerical dress and this in part allowed the colony to eventually develop into the heartland of Francophone culture in North America. He is also a character in The Three Musketeers by Alexandre Dumas. Born in Paris, Armand du Plessis was the fourth of five children, at the age of nine, young Richelieu was sent to the College of Navarre in Paris to study philosophy. Thereafter, he began to train for a military career and his private life seems to have been typical of a young officer of the era, in 1605, aged twenty, he was treated by Théodore de Mayerne for gonorrhea. King Henry III had rewarded Richelieus father for his participation in the Wars of Religion by granting his family the bishopric of Luçon. The family appropriated most of the revenues of the bishopric for private use, they were, however, challenged by clergymen, to protect the important source of revenue, Richelieus mother proposed to make her second son, Alphonse, the bishop of Luçon. Alphonse, who had no desire to become a bishop, became instead a Carthusian monk, thus, it became necessary that the younger Richelieu join the clergy. He had strong interests, and threw himself into studying for his new post. In 1606 King Henry IV nominated Richelieu to become Bishop of Luçon, as Richelieu had not yet reached the canonical minimum age, it was necessary that he journey to Rome for a special dispensation from the Pope. This secured, Richelieu was consecrated bishop in April 1607, soon after he returned to his diocese in 1608, Richelieu was heralded as a reformerThe Red Eminence – Portrait of Cardinal Richelieu, 1633–40, Philippe de Champaigne, National Gallery, London
12. Carl Bernstein – Carl Bernstein is an American investigative journalist and author. While a young reporter for The Washington Post in 1972, Bernstein was teamed up with Bob Woodward and these scandals led to numerous government investigations and the eventual resignation of President Richard Nixon. The work of Woodward and Bernstein was called maybe the single greatest reporting effort of all time by longtime journalism figure Gene Roberts, Bernsteins career since Watergate has continued to focus on the theme of the use and abuse of power via books and magazine articles. He has also done reporting for television and opinion commentary and he attended Montgomery Blair High School in Silver Spring, Maryland, where he worked as circulation and exchange manager for the schools newspaper Silver Chips. He began his career at the age of 16 when he became a copyboy for The Washington Star. The Star, however, unofficially required a degree to write for the paper. Because he had dropped out from the University of Maryland and did not intend to finish, while there, he won first prize in New Jerseys press association for investigative reporting, feature writing, and news on a deadline. In 1966, Bernstein left New Jersey and began reporting for the Washington Post, on a Saturday in June 1972, Bernstein was assigned, along with Bob Woodward, to cover a break-in at the Watergate office complex that had occurred earlier the same morning. In the series of stories followed, Bernstein and Woodward eventually connected the burglars to a massive slush fund. Bernstein was the first to suspect that President Nixon was involved, Bernstein and Woodwards discoveries led to further investigations of Nixon, and on August 9,1974, amid hearings by the House Judiciary Committee, Nixon resigned in order to avoid facing impeachment. In 1974, two years after the Watergate burglary and two months before Nixon resigned, Bernstein and Woodward released the book All the Presidents Men. The book drew upon the notes and research accumulated while writing articles about the scandal for the Post, in 1975 it was turned into a movie starring Dustin Hoffman as Bernstein and Robert Redford as Woodward. A second book, The Final Days, was published by Bernstein, Bernstein left the Washington Post in 1977 and began investigating a secret relationship between the CIA and American media during the Cold War. He spent a year researching the article, which was published as a 25 and he then began working for ABC News. Between 1980 and 1984, Bernstein was the networks Washington Bureau Chief, two years after leaving ABC News, Bernstein released the book Loyalties, A Sons Memoir, in which he revealed that his parents had been members of the Communist Party of America. The assertion shocked some because even J. Edgar Hoover had tried, following Iraqs invasion of Kuwait in 1990, Bernstein went to Iraq to cover the events for Time magazine. In a special report several weeks before the Gulf War began, Bernstein revealed the discontent and he was subsequently expelled from the country and flown out to Egypt. In 1992, also for Time, Bernstein wrote a cover story publicizing the alliance between Pope John Paul II and President Ronald Reagan, later, along with Vatican expert Marco Politi, he published a papal biography entitled His HolinessCarl Bernstein – Bernstein in November 2007
13. Charles I (Spain) – Charles V was ruler of both the Spanish Empire from 1516 and the Holy Roman Empire from 1519, as well as of the Habsburg Netherlands from 1506. He voluntarily stepped down from these and other positions by a series of abdications between 1554 and 1556, through inheritance, he brought together under his rule extensive territories in western, central, and southern Europe, and the Spanish colonies in the Americas and Asia. As a result, his domains spanned nearly four square kilometers and were the first to be described as the empire on which the sun never sets. Charles was the heir of three of Europes leading dynasties, the Houses of Valois-Burgundy, Habsburg, and Trastámara and he inherited the Burgundian Netherlands and the Franche-Comté as heir of the House of Valois-Burgundy. From his own dynasty, the Habsburgs, he inherited Austria and he was also elected to succeed his Habsburg grandfather, Maximilian I, as Holy Roman Emperor, a title held by the Habsburgs since 1440. Charles was the first king to rule Castile and Aragon simultaneously in his own right, the personal union, under Charles, of the Holy Roman Empire with the Spanish Empire resulted in the closest Europe would come to a universal monarchy since the death of Louis the Pious. France recovered and the wars continued for the remainder of Charless reign, enormously expensive, they led to the development of the first modern professional army in Europe, the Tercios. The struggle with the Ottoman Empire was fought in Hungary and the Mediterranean, after seizing most of eastern and central Hungary in 1526, the Ottomans’ advance was halted at their failed Siege of Vienna in 1529. A lengthy war of attrition, conducted on his behalf by his younger brother Ferdinand, in the Mediterranean, although there were some successes, Charles was unable to prevent the Ottomans’ increasing naval dominance and the piratical activity of the Barbary Corsairs. Charles opposed the Reformation and in Germany he was in conflict with the Protestant Princes of the Schmalkaldic League who were motivated by religious and political opposition to him. Once the rebellions were quelled the essential Castilian and Burgundian territories remained mostly loyal to Charles throughout his rule, Charles’s Spanish dominions were the chief source of his power and wealth, and they became increasingly important as his reign progressed. In the Americas, Charles sanctioned the conquest by Castillian conquistadors of the Aztec, Castillian control was extended across much of South and Central America. The resulting vast expansion of territory and the flows of South American silver to Castile had profound long term effects on Spain. Charles was only 56 when he abdicated, but after 34 years of rule he was physically exhausted and sought the peace of a monastery. Upon Charles’s abdications, the Holy Roman Empire was inherited by his younger brother Ferdinand, the Spanish Empire, including the possessions in the Netherlands and Italy, was inherited by Charles’s son Philip II. The two empires would remain allies until the 18th century, Charles was born in 1500 as the eldest son of Philip the Handsome and Joanna of Castile in the Flemish city of Ghent, which was part of the Habsburg Netherlands. The culture and courtly life of the Burgundian Low Countries were an important influence in his early life and he was tutored by William de Croÿ, and also by Adrian of Utrecht. He also gained a decent command of German, though he never spoke it as well as French, a witticism sometimes attributed to Charles is, I speak Spanish to God, Italian to women, French to men and German to my horseCharles I (Spain) – Charrles V by Titian, 1548. Alte Pinakothek, Munich, Germany
14. Base democracy – Direct democracy is a form of democracy in which people decide policy initiatives directly. This differs from the majority of democracies, which are representative democracies. Direct democracy is similar to, but distinct from, representative democracy, two leading forms of direct democracy are participatory democracy and deliberative democracy. Semi direct democracies in which representatives administer day-to-day governance, but the citizens remain the sovereign, the first two forms—referendums and initiatives—are examples of direct legislation. Compulsory referendum subjects the legislation drafted by political elites to a popular vote. This is the most common form of direct legislation, popular referendum empowers citizens to make a petition that calls existing legislation to a citizens vote. Institutions specify the frame for a valid petition and the number of signatures required. This form of direct democracy effectively grants the voting public a veto on laws adopted by the elected legislature, initiatives may be direct or indirect, With the direct initiative, a successful proposition is placed directly on the ballot to be subject to vote. Such a form of initiative is utilized by Switzerland for constitutional amendments. Power of Recall gives the public the power to elected officials from office before the end of their term. Some of the most important modern thinkers who were inspired by the concept of democracy are Cornelius Castoriadis, Hannah Arendt. The earliest known direct democracy is said to be the Athenian democracy in the 5th century BC, although it was not a democracy, women, foreigners. There were only about 30,000 male citizens, but several thousand of them were active in each year. Modern democracies, being representative, not direct, do not resemble the Athenian system, also relevant to the history of direct democracy is the history of Ancient Rome, specifically the Roman Republic, beginning around 509 BC. Rome displayed many aspects of democracy, both direct and indirect, from the era of Roman monarchy all the way to the collapse of the Roman Empire. As to direct democracy, the ancient Roman Republic had a system of citizen lawmaking, or citizen formulation and passage of law, and a citizen veto of legislature-made law. Many historians mark the end of the Republic with the passage of a law named the Lex Titia,27 November 43 BC, modern-era citizen lawmaking began in the towns of Switzerland in the 13th century. In 1847, the Swiss added the statute referendum to their national constitution and they soon discovered that merely having the power to veto Parliaments laws was not enoughBase democracy – A Landsgemeinde, or assembly, of the Canton of Glarus, on 7 May 2006, Switzerland.
15. Democratic representative – Representative democracy is a type of democracy founded on the principle of elected officials representing a group of people, as opposed to direct democracy. Representative democracy is often presented as the most efficient form of democracy possible in mass societies and it arguably allows for efficient ruling by a sufficiently small number of people on behalf of the larger number. Government efficiency can be judged based on metric of cost effectiveness, representatives voting on behalf of the people allows for a monetary benefit as there is lessened use of polling stations, vote counters, etc. The government is responsible for paying for the wages of the representatives. This system of governance is also time efficient as decisions can be made by a select few and it is a system in which people elect their lawmakers, who are then held accountable to them for their activity within government. It has been described by political theorists including Robert A Dahl, Gregory Houston. In it the power is in the hands of the representatives who are elected by the people in elections. Representatives are elected by the public, as in elections for the national legislature. Elected representatives may hold the power to other representatives, presidents, or other officers of the government or of the legislature. The constitution may also provide for some deliberative democracy or direct popular measures, however, these are not always binding and usually require some legislative action—legal power usually remains firmly with representatives. Their wishes ought to have great weight with him, their opinion, high respect, their business, unremitted attention. It is his duty to sacrifice his repose, his pleasures, his satisfactions, to theirs, and above all, ever, and in all cases, to prefer their interest to his own. But his unbiassed opinion, his judgment, his enlightened conscience, he ought not to sacrifice to you, to any man. These he does not derive from your pleasure, no, nor from the law and they are a trust from Providence, for the abuse of which he is deeply answerable. Your representative owes you, not his only, but his judgment. The Roman Republic was the first government in the world to have a representative government. In Britain, Simon de Montfort is remembered as one of the fathers of representative government for holding two famous parliaments, the first, in 1258, stripped the King of unlimited authority and the second, in 1265, included ordinary citizens from the towns. Later, in the 17th century, the Parliament of England pioneered some of the ideas and systems of liberal democracy culminating in the Glorious Revolution, the American Revolution led to the creation of a new Constitution of the United States in 1787Democratic representative – Countries designated "electoral democracies" in Freedom House's 2015 survey "Freedom in the World", covering the year 2014.
16. State of Milan – The Duchy of Milan was a constituent state of the Holy Roman Empire in northern Italy. It was created in 1395, when it included twenty-six towns, during much of its existence, it was wedged between Savoy to the west, Venice to the east, the Swiss Confederacy to the north, and separated from the Mediterranean by Genoa to the south. The Duchy eventually fell to Habsburg Austria with the Treaty of Baden, after the defeat of Napoleon, the Congress of Vienna of 1815 restored many other states which he had destroyed, but not the Duchy of Milan. Instead, its territory became part of the Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia. In 1859, Lombardy was ceded to the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia, the House of Visconti had ruled Milan since 1277, in which year Ottone Visconti defeated Napoleone della Torre. The Duchy of Milan as a state of the Holy Roman Empire was created on 1 May 1395 and it was this diploma that installed Visconti as Duke of Milan and Count of Pavia. At its foundation the duchy included 26 towns and spanned from the hills of Montferrat to the Lagoons of Venice, Milan thus became one of the five major states of the Italian peninsula in the 15th century. When the last Visconti Duke, Filippo Maria, died in 1447 without a heir, the Milanese declared the so-called Ambrosian Republic. In 1498, the Duke of Orleans became King of France as Louis XII and he invaded in 1499 and soon ousted Lodovico Sforza. The French ruled the duchy until 1512, when they were ousted by the Swiss, Massimiliano reign did not last very long. The French, now under Francis I, invaded the area in 1515, the French took Massimiliano as their prisoner. The French were again out in 1521, this time by the Austrians. In 1535, Francesco died without heirs, the question of succession again arose, with both the emperor and the King of France claiming the duchy, leading to more wars. The Duchy of Parma was created in 1545 from a part of the Duchy of Milan south of the Po River, as a fief for Pope Paul IIIs illegitimate son, Pier Luigi Farnese, the emperor held the duchy throughout, eventually investing it on his son Philip. The possession of the duchy by Spain was finally recognized by the French in the Treaty of Cateau-Cambrésis in 1559, the Duchy of Milan remained in Spanish hands until the War of the Spanish Succession, when the Austrians invaded it. The Treaty of Baden, which ended the war in 1714, the duchy remained in Austrian hands until it was overrun by the French army of Napoleon Bonaparte in 1796. The duchy was ceded by Austria in the Treaty of Campo Formio in 1797, after the defeat of Napoleon, based on the decisions of the Congress of Vienna on 9 June 1815, the Duchy of Milan was not restored. The Duchy instead became part of the Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia, a constituent of the Austrian Empire and this kingdom ceased to exist when the remaining portion of it was annexed to the Kingdom of Italy in 1866State of Milan – Flag
17. Virgilio Gonzalez – When the conspiracy was discovered and investigated by the U. S. Congress, the Nixon administrations resistance to its probes led to a constitutional crisis. The term Watergate, by metonymy, has come to encompass an array of clandestine and those activities included such dirty tricks as bugging the offices of political opponents and people of whom Nixon or his officials were suspicious. The scandal also resulted in the indictment of 69 people, with trials or pleas resulting in 48 being found guilty, the affair began with the arrest of five men for breaking and entering into the DNC headquarters at the Watergate complex on Saturday, June 17,1972. In July 1973, evidence mounted against the Presidents staff, including testimony provided by staff members in an investigation conducted by the Senate Watergate Committee. The investigation revealed that President Nixon had a system in his offices. After a protracted series of court battles, the U. S. Supreme Court unanimously ruled that the president was obliged to release the tapes to government investigators. The tapes revealed that Nixon had attempted to cover up activities that took place after the break-in, facing virtually certain impeachment in the House of Representatives and equally certain conviction by the Senate, Nixon resigned the presidency on August 9,1974. On September 8,1974, his successor, Gerald Ford, the name Watergate and the suffix -gate have since become synonymous with political and non-political scandals in the United States. According to Dean, this marked the scene of the worst political scandal of the twentieth century. Mitchell viewed the plan as unrealistic, Liddy was nominally in charge of the operation, but has since insisted that he was duped by Dean and at least two of his subordinates. These included former CIA officers E. Howard Hunt and James McCord, in May, McCord assigned former FBI agent Alfred C. Baldwin III to carry out the wiretapping and monitor the telephone conversations afterward. McCord testified that he selected Baldwins name from a registry published by the Society of Former Special Agents of the FBI to work for the Committee to Re-elect the President, Baldwin first served as bodyguard to Martha Mitchell, the wife of John Mitchell, who was living in Washington. Baldwin accompanied Martha Mitchell to Chicago, Martha did not like Baldwin and described him as the gauchest character Ive ever met. The Committee replaced Baldwin with another security man, the room 419 was booked in the name of McCord’s company. At behest of G. Gordon Liddy and E. Howard Hunt, McCord and his team of burglars prepared for their first Watergate break-in, two phones inside the offices of the DNC headquarters were said to have been wiretapped. The FBI found no evidence that OBriens phone was bugged, however, it was determined that an effective listening device had been installed in Olivers phone. Despite the success in installing the devices, the Committee agents soon determined that they needed to be repaired. They planned a burglary in order to take care of thisVirgilio Gonzalez – Watergate complex
18. 'merica – Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography, climate and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci'merica – Native Americans meeting with Europeans, 1764
19. Eugenio Polgovsky – Eugenio Polgovsky is a filmmaker and visual artist. He works as director, cinematographer, editor, sound designer and producer of his films, Polgovsky is known for the Mexican documentaries Tropic of Cancer and Los Herederos The Inheritors. He is the first filmmaker invited in the history of Trinity College, Cambridge, Polgovsky is founder of Tecolote Films in Mexico City. He has received 4 Ariel, Mexican Academy Awards and more than 20 International awards for his films, including the Joris Ivens Award in Cinema Du Réel, París 2005. His personal cinematography enchained with a meticulous and original editing explore the backgrounds of the Mexican reality, the MoMa of NY presented his film Tropic of Cancer as part of a selection of the region’s most innovative contemporary films. On the year 2014 he won his 4th Ariel Mexican Academy Award for the best Short Documentary Film Un Salto de Vida, about the dramatic pollution of the Santiago river in Jalisco and a family that fight against corruption and impunity of the factories. Polgovsky has been recognized with over 30 awards in his different skills, editing, photography, in 2010 was invited to the Flaherty Seminar in Colgate US to present his filmography and attended a presentation of his films in Cambridge UK. Documental Koehler, Robert Agrarian Utopias/Dystopias, The New Nonfiction Cinema Scope, working Methods, The Robert Flaherty Film Seminar. Le Monde, Sept.20,2011 Dans le champ de haricots, THE INHERITORS, For María and José, All Work and No Play. Eugenio Polgovsky Films Official website, www. tecolotefilms. com French webpage Les Enfants Heritiers Polgovsky - Berlinale Polgovsky Rotterdam Int. Film Festival Los Herederos Hubert Bals, Bright Future Semaine de la Critique, Cannes 2005 Trópico de Cáncer Tropic of Cancer - Sundance 2005 Variety - The InheritorsEugenio Polgovsky – Polgovsky at the Berlinale, 2009
20. "Existential" Angst – While the predominant value of existentialist thought is commonly acknowledged to be freedom, its primary virtue is authenticity. Many existentialists have also regarded traditional systematic or academic philosophies, in style and content, as too abstract and remote from concrete human experience. Søren Kierkegaard is generally considered to have been the first existentialist philosopher and he proposed that each individual—not society or religion—is solely responsible for giving meaning to life and living it passionately and sincerely, or authentically. Existentialism became popular in the years following World War II, and strongly influenced many disciplines besides philosophy, including theology, drama, art, literature, and psychology. The term is seen as a historical convenience as it was first applied to many philosophers in hindsight. In fact, while existentialism is generally considered to have originated with Kierkegaard, Sartre posits the idea that what all existentialists have in common is the fundamental doctrine that existence precedes essence, as scholar Frederick Copleston explains. Sartre himself, in a lecture delivered in 1945, described existentialism as the attempt to draw all the consequences from a position of consistent atheism and this assertion comes from two sources. The Norwegian philosopher Erik Lundestad refers to the Danish philosopher Fredrik Christian Sibbern, Sibbern is supposed to have had two conversations in 1841, the first with Welhaven and the second with Kierkegaard. This was then brought to Kierkegaard by Sibbern, the second claim comes from the Norwegian historian Rune Slagstad, who claims to prove that Kierkegaard himself said the term existential was borrowed from the poet. He strongly believes that it was Kierkegaard himself who said that Hegelians do not study philosophy existentially, on the other hand, the Norwegian historian Anne-Lise Seip is critical of Slagstad, and believes the statement in fact stems from the Norwegian literary historian Cathrinus Bang. The actual life of the individuals is what constitutes what could be called their true essence instead of there being an arbitrarily attributed essence others use to define them, thus, human beings, through their own consciousness, create their own values and determine a meaning to their life. However, an existentialist philosopher would say such a wish constitutes an inauthentic existence - what Sartre would call bad faith, instead, the phrase should be taken to say that people are defined only insofar as they act and that they are responsible for their actions. For example, someone who acts cruelly towards other people is, by that act, furthermore, by this action of cruelty, such persons are themselves responsible for their new identity. This is as opposed to their genes, or human nature, as Sartre writes in his work Existentialism is a Humanism. Man first of all exists, encounters himself, surges up in the world—and defines himself afterwards. Of course, the positive, therapeutic aspect of this is also implied, A person can choose to act in a different way. Here it is clear that since humans can choose to be either cruel or good, they are, in fact. Sartres definition of existentialism was based on Heideggers magnum opus Being and this way of living, Heidegger called average everydayness"Existential" Angst – From left to right, top to bottom: Kierkegaard, Dostoyevsky, Nietzsche, Sartre
21. Fibbies – The Federal Bureau of Investigation is the domestic intelligence and security service of the United States, which simultaneously serves as the nations prime federal law enforcement agency. Operating under the jurisdiction of the U. S. Department of Justice, Intelligence Community and reports to both the Attorney General and the Director of National Intelligence. A leading U. S. counterterrorism, counterintelligence, and criminal investigative organization, although many of the FBIs functions are unique, its activities in support of national security are comparable to those of the British MI5 and the Russian FSB. At an FBI field office, a senior-level FBI officer concurrently serves as the representative of the Director of National Intelligence. Despite its domestic focus, the FBI also maintains a significant international footprint and these overseas offices exist primarily for the purpose of coordination with foreign security services and do not usually conduct unilateral operations in the host countries. The FBI can and does at times carry out secret activities overseas, just as the CIA has a domestic function. The FBI was established in 1908 as the Bureau of Investigation and its name was changed to the Federal Bureau of Investigation in 1935. The FBI headquarters is the J. Edgar Hoover Building, located in Washington, in the fiscal year 2012, the Bureaus total budget was approximately $8.12 billion. In 1896, the National Bureau of Criminal Identification was founded, the 1901 assassination of President William McKinley created an urgent perception that America was under threat from anarchists. The Departments of Justice and Labor had been keeping records on anarchists for years, the Justice Department had been tasked with the regulation of interstate commerce since 1887, though it lacked the staff to do so. It had made little effort to relieve its staff shortage until the breakage of the Oregon land fraud scandal at approximately the turn of the 20th Century, President Roosevelt instructed Attorney General Charles Bonaparte to organize an autonomous investigative service that would report only to the Attorney General. Bonaparte reached out to other agencies, including the Secret Service, for personnel, on May 27,1908, the Congress forbade this use of Treasury employees by the Justice Department, citing fears that the new agency would serve as a secret police department. Again at Roosevelts urging, Bonaparte moved to organize a formal Bureau of Investigation, the Bureau of Investigation was created on July 26,1908, after the Congress had adjourned for the summer. Attorney General Bonaparte, using Department of Justice expense funds, hired thirty-four people, including veterans of the Secret Service. Its first Chief was Stanley Finch, Bonaparte notified the Congress of these actions in December 1908. The bureaus first official task was visiting and making surveys of the houses of prostitution in preparation for enforcing the White Slave Traffic Act, or Mann Act, in 1932, the bureau was renamed the United States Bureau of Investigation. The following year it was linked to the Bureau of Prohibition, in the same year, its name was officially changed from the Division of Investigation to the present-day Federal Bureau of Investigation, or FBI. J. Edgar Hoover served as Director from 1924 to 1972, a combined 48 years with the BOI, DOI, Hoover was substantially involved in most major cases and projects that the FBI handled during his tenureFibbies – J. Edgar Hoover, Director from 1924 to 1972.
22. List of classics of political philosophy – In a vernacular sense, the term political philosophy often refers to a general view, or specific ethic, political belief or attitude, about politics, synonymous to the term political ideology. Chinese political philosophy dates back to the Spring and Autumn period, Chinese political philosophy was developed as a response to the social and political breakdown of the country characteristic of the Spring and Autumn period and the Warring States period. The major philosophies during the period, Confucianism, Legalism, Mohism, Agrarianism and Taoism, philosophers such as Confucius, Mencius, and Mozi, focused on political unity and political stability as the basis of their political philosophies. Confucianism advocated a hierarchical, meritocratic government based on empathy, loyalty, Legalism advocated a highly authoritarian government based on draconian punishments and laws. Mohism advocated a communal, decentralized government centered on frugality and ascetism, the Agrarians advocated a peasant utopian communalism and egalitarianism. Legalism was the dominant political philosophy of the Qin Dynasty, but was replaced by State Confucianism in the Han Dynasty, prior to Chinas adoption of communism, State Confucianism remained the dominant political philosophy of China up to the 20th century. Western political philosophy originates in the philosophy of ancient Greece, where political philosophy dates back to at least Plato, ancient Greece was dominated by city-states, which experimented with various forms of political organization, grouped by Plato into four categories, timocracy, tyranny, democracy and oligarchy. One of the first, extremely important classical works of philosophy is Platos Republic. Roman political philosophy was influenced by the Stoics and the Roman statesman Cicero, Indian political philosophy evolved in ancient times and demarcated a clear distinction between nation and state religion and state. The constitutions of Hindu states evolved over time and were based on political and legal treatises, the institutions of state were broadly divided into governance, administration, defense, law and order. Mantranga, the governing body of these states, consisted of the King, Prime Minister, Commander in chief of army. The Prime Minister headed the committee of ministers along with head of executive, chanakya, 4th century BC Indian political philosopher. Another influential extant Indian treatise on philosophy is the Sukra Neeti. An example of a code of law in ancient India is the Manusmṛti or Laws of Manu, the early Christian philosophy of Augustine of Hippo was heavily influenced by Plato. Augustine also preached that one was not a member of his or her city, augustines City of God is an influential work of this period that attacked the thesis, held by many Christian Romans, that the Christian view could be realized on Earth. Thomas Aquinas meticulously dealt with the varieties of law, according to Aquinas, there are four kinds of law, Eternal law Divine positive law Natural law Human law Aquinas never discusses the nature or categorization of canon law. There is scholarly debate surrounding the place of law within the Thomistic jurisprudential framework. Aquinas was an influential thinker in the Natural Law traditionList of classics of political philosophy – Plato (left) and Aristotle (right), from a detail of The School of Athens, a fresco by Raphael. Plato's Republic and Aristotle's Politics secured the two Greek philosophers as two of the most influential political philosophers.
23. Francesco Mochi – Francesco Mochi was an Italian early-Baroque sculptor active mostly in Rome and Orvieto. He was born in Montevarchi and died in Rome and he moved to Rome around 1599 and continued his training in the studio of the Venetian-trained sculptor Camillo Mariani. Mochi was a contemporary of Gian Lorenzo Berninis father, Pietro and his first major work was the Annunciation of the Virgin by the Angel, composed of two statues. A fanfare raising sculpture from its slumber, as Rudolph Wittkower called it, it prefigures the baroque with its restrained emotiveness, Mochi was one of the few seventeenth-century sculptors who was also a master bronze-caster. He made two masterly equestrian bronze statues of Ranuccio and Alessandro Farnese in Piazza Cavalli, Piacenza, Ranuccio Farnese, 1612–20, and Alessandro Farnese, 1620–29, are among the high points of his career. He returned from Piacenza to Rome, where he found Bernini fully in charge of major commissions, and his late Roman works are the Christ Receiving Baptism, Taddeus, and Saints Peter and Paul, and Saint Martha for the Barberini family chapel at SantAndrea della Valle. The other three are François Duquesnoys, Berninis, and Andrea Bolgis, of the four, Mochis is the least appropriate to its site and topic, the most idiosyncratic and original. Berninis Longinus is an intermediary between the sober but contorting classicism of Bolgi and Duquesnoy and the dynamism of Mochi. Mochis passionate depiction appears oversteps the decorum of the place, the other statues exude the equanimity of passionate triumphal Catholicism, celebrated here in the center of the mother church. The frantic pitch of the Veronica seems to attempt to storm into the circle of dramatic setpieces, Mochi, in a letter pleading for completion of his payments, remarked that he had laboured con ogni studio in order to stamp his old age with a memorable work. Mochis modern reinterpretation stems in part from interest in him that was renewed by the exhibition Francesco Mochi 1580-16541981 Wittkower, Art and Architecture in Italy, 1600-1750. Biographic entry WGA entry The Vatican, spirit and art of Christian Rome, a book from The Metropolitan Museum of Art Libraries, which contains a good deal of material on MochiFrancesco Mochi – Painterly effects in a bas-relief panel of Mochi's equestrian monument to Ranuccio Farnese (Piacenza).
24. Four Years' War – The Italian War of 1521–26, sometimes known as the Four Years War, was a part of the Italian Wars. The war pitted Francis I of France and the Republic of Venice against the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, Henry VIII of England, and the Papal States. The conflict arose from animosity over the election of Charles as Emperor in 1519–20, the war broke out across Western Europe late in 1521, when a French–Navarrese expedition attempted to reconquer Navarre while a French army invaded the Low Countries. A Spanish army drove the Navarrese forces back into the Pyrenees, and other Imperial forces attacked northern France, at the Battle of Bicocca on 27 April 1522, Imperial and Papal forces defeated the French, driving them from Lombardy. Following the battle, fighting spilled onto French soil, while Venice made a separate peace. The English invaded France in 1523, while Charles de Bourbon, alienated by Franciss attempts to seize his inheritance, betrayed Francis, a French attempt to regain Lombardy in 1524 failed and provided Bourbon with an opportunity to invade Provence at the head of a Spanish army. Francis himself led an attack on Milan in 1525, his disastrous defeat at the Battle of Pavia. Only a few weeks after his release, however, he repudiated the terms of the treaty, although the Italian Wars would continue for another three decades, they would end with France having failed to regain any substantial territories in Italy. By 1518, the peace that had prevailed in Europe after the Battle of Marignano was beginning to crumble. The major powers were outwardly friendly, pledging by the Treaty of London to come to the aid of any of the signatories that was attacked and they were divided, however, on the question of the Imperial succession. The Holy Roman Emperor, Maximilian I, intending for a Habsburg to succeed him, began to campaign on behalf of Charles of Spain, maximilians death in 1519 brought the Imperial election to the forefront of European politics. Pope Leo X, threatened by the presence of Spanish troops a mere forty miles from the Vatican, the prince-electors themselves, with the exception of Frederick of Saxony, who refused to countenance the campaigning, promised their support to both candidates at once. The final outcome, however, was not determined by the exorbitant bribes and he was crowned Holy Roman Emperor on 23 October 1520, by which point he already controlled both the Spanish crown and the hereditary Burgundian lands in the Low Countries. Cardinal Wolsey, hoping to increase Henry VIIIs influence on the continent, Henry and Francis staged an extravagant meeting at the Field of the Cloth of Gold. Immediately afterwards, Wolsey entertained Charles in Calais, in December, the French began to plan for war. Francis did not wish to openly attack Charles because Henry had announced his intention to intervene against the first party to break the tenuous peace, instead, he turned to more covert support for incursions into German and Spanish territory. One attack would be made on the Meuse River, under the leadership of Robert de la Marck, simultaneously, a French-Navarrese army would advance through Navarre after reconquering St-Jean-Pied-de-Port. Charles was meanwhile preoccupied with the issue of Martin Luther, whom he confronted at the Diet of Worms in March 1521, the Emperor viewed Catholicism as a natural way of binding the diverse principalities of the Holy Roman Empire to himFour Years' War – The Battle of Pavia by an unknown Flemish artist (oil on panel, 16th century)
25. Johanna "Hannah" Arendt – Johanna Hannah Arendt was a German-born Jewish American political theorist. She escaped Europe during the Holocaust, becoming an American citizen and her works deal with the nature of power and the subjects of politics, direct democracy, authority, and totalitarianism. The Hannah Arendt Prize is named in her honor, Arendt was born into a secular family of German Jews in Linden, the daughter of Martha and Paul Arendt. She grew up in Königsberg and Berlin, at the University of Marburg, she studied philosophy with Martin Heidegger. Arendts family was assimilated and she later remembered, With us from Germany. You can hardly realize how serious we were about it, Arendt came to define her Jewish identity negatively after encountering antisemitism as an adult. Arendt later wrote about Varnhagen that she was my very closest woman friend, during the philosophy course taught by Heidegger, she fell in love with her married professor, and a relationship began. In 1929, when Heidegger failed to recognize her at a station, Arendt was devastated, writing, When I was a small child. I had read the tale about Dwarf Nose, whose nose gets so long nobody recognizes him anymore. My mother pretended that had happened to me, I still vividly recall the blind terror with which I kept crying, but I am your child, I am your Hannah. —That is what it was like today. In 1929, in Berlin, she married Günther Stern, later known as Günther Anders, the dissertation was published in 1929. In 1932, Arendt was deeply troubled by reports that Heidegger was speaking at National Socialist meetings, Heidegger wrote back to her and in his letter did not seek to deny the rumors, and merely assured her that his feelings for her were unchanged. Arendt was prevented from habilitating because she was Jewish and she researched antisemitism for some time before being arrested and briefly imprisoned by the Gestapo in 1933. While in France, she worked to support and aid Jewish refugees, in 1937, she was stripped of her German citizenship. In 1940, she married the German poet and Marxist philosopher Heinrich Blücher, like many others, Arendt was able to leave Gurs after a few weeks, and left France in 1941 with her husband and her mother, traveling via Portugal to the United States. They relied on visas illegally issued by the American diplomat Hiram Bingham, varian Fry, another American humanitarian, paid for their travel and helped obtain the visas. Upon arriving in New York, Arendt became active in the German-Jewish community, from 1941 to 1945, she wrote a column for the German-language Jewish newspaper Aufbau. From 1944, she directed research for the Commission of European Jewish Cultural Reconstruction, during World War II, Arendt worked for Youth Aliyah, a Zionist organization, which saved thousands of children from the Holocaust and settled them in the British Mandate of PalestineJohanna "Hannah" Arendt – Hannah Arendt from a 1988 German stamp among the Women in German history series
26. Lingua italiana – By most measures, Italian, together with Sardinian, is the closest to Latin of the Romance languages. Italian is a language in Italy, Switzerland, San Marino, Vatican City. Italian is spoken by minorities in places such as France, Montenegro, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Crimea and Tunisia and by large expatriate communities in the Americas. Many speakers are native bilinguals of both standardized Italian and other regional languages, Italian is the fourth most studied language in the world. Italian is a major European language, being one of the languages of the Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe. It is the third most widely spoken first language in the European Union with 65 million native speakers, including Italian speakers in non-EU European countries and on other continents, the total number of speakers is around 85 million. Italian is the working language of the Holy See, serving as the lingua franca in the Roman Catholic hierarchy as well as the official language of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta. Italian is known as the language of music because of its use in musical terminology and its influence is also widespread in the arts and in the luxury goods market. Italian has been reported as the fourth or fifth most frequently taught foreign language in the world, Italian was adopted by the state after the Unification of Italy, having previously been a literary language based on Tuscan as spoken mostly by the upper class of Florentine society. Its development was influenced by other Italian languages and to some minor extent. Its vowels are the second-closest to Latin after Sardinian, unlike most other Romance languages, Italian retains Latins contrast between short and long consonants. As in most Romance languages, stress is distinctive, however, Italian as a language used in Italy and some surrounding regions has a longer history. What would come to be thought of as Italian was first formalized in the early 14th century through the works of Tuscan writer Dante Alighieri, written in his native Florentine. Dante is still credited with standardizing the Italian language, and thus the dialect of Florence became the basis for what would become the language of Italy. Italian was also one of the recognised languages in the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Italy has always had a dialect for each city, because the cities. Those dialects now have considerable variety, as Tuscan-derived Italian came to be used throughout Italy, features of local speech were naturally adopted, producing various versions of Regional Italian. Even in the case of Northern Italian languages, however, scholars are not to overstate the effects of outsiders on the natural indigenous developments of the languagesLingua italiana – Dante Alighieri (above) and Petrarch (below) were influential in establishing their Tuscan dialect as the most prominent literary language in all of Italy in the Late Middle Ages
27. Imanuel Kant – Immanuel Kant was a German philosopher who is considered a central figure in modern philosophy. Kant took himself to have effected a Copernican revolution in philosophy and his beliefs continue to have a major influence on contemporary philosophy, especially the fields of metaphysics, epistemology, ethics, political theory, and aesthetics. Politically, Kant was one of the earliest exponents of the idea that peace could be secured through universal democracy. He believed that this will be the outcome of universal history. Kant wanted to put an end to an era of futile and speculative theories of human experience, Kant argued that our experiences are structured by necessary features of our minds. In his view, the shapes and structures experience so that, on an abstract level. Among other things, Kant believed that the concepts of space and time are integral to all human experience, as are our concepts of cause, Kant published other important works on ethics, religion, law, aesthetics, astronomy, and history. These included the Critique of Practical Reason, the Metaphysics of Morals, which dealt with ethics, and the Critique of Judgment, Immanuel Kant was born in 1724 in Königsberg, Prussia. His mother, Anna Regina Reuter, was born in Königsberg to a father from Nuremberg. His father, Johann Georg Kant, was a German harness maker from Memel, Immanuel Kant believed that his paternal grandfather Hans Kant was of Scottish origin. Kant was the fourth of nine children, baptized Emanuel, he changed his name to Immanuel after learning Hebrew. Young Kant was a solid, albeit unspectacular, student and he was brought up in a Pietist household that stressed religious devotion, humility, and a literal interpretation of the Bible. His education was strict, punitive and disciplinary, and focused on Latin and religious instruction over mathematics, despite his religious upbringing and maintaining a belief in God, Kant was skeptical of religion in later life, various commentators have labelled him agnostic. Common myths about Kants personal mannerisms are listed, explained, and refuted in Goldthwaits introduction to his translation of Observations on the Feeling of the Beautiful and Sublime. It is often held that Kant lived a strict and disciplined life. He never married, but seemed to have a social life — he was a popular teacher. He had a circle of friends whom he met, among them Joseph Green. A common myth is that Kant never traveled more than 16 kilometres from Königsberg his whole life, in fact, between 1750 and 1754 he worked as a tutor in Judtschen and in Groß-ArnsdorfImanuel Kant – Immanuel Kant
28. Spanish colonial – The Spanish Empire was one of the largest empires in history. The Spanish Empire became the foremost global power of its time and was the first to be called the empire on which the sun never sets, the Spanish Empire originated during the Age of Discovery after the voyages of Christopher Columbus. Following the Spanish–American War of 1898, Spain ceded its last colonies in the Caribbean and its last African colonies were granted independence or abandoned during Decolonisation of Africa finishing in 1976. The unity did not mean uniformity, nevertheless, some historians assert that Portugal was part of the Spanish monarchy at the time, while others draw a clear distinction between the Portuguese and Spanish empires. During the 15th century, Castile and Portugal became territorial and commercial rivals in the western Atlantic. The conquest was completed with the campaigns of the armies of the Crown of Castile between 1478 and 1496, when the islands of Gran Canaria, La Palma, and Tenerife were subjugated. The Portuguese tried in vain to keep secret their discovery of the Gold Coast in the Gulf of Guinea, chronicler Pulgar wrote that the fame of the treasures of Guinea spread around the ports of Andalusia in such way that everybody tried to go there. Worthless trinkets, Moorish textiles, and above all, shells from the Canary and Cape Verde islands were exchanged for gold, slaves, ivory and Guinea pepper. The Crown officially organized this trade with Guinea, every caravel had to get a government license, the treaty delimited the spheres of influence of the two countries, establishing the principle of the Mare clausum. It was confirmed in 1481 by the Pope Sixtus IV, in the papal bull Æterni regis, thus, the limitations imposed by the Alcáçovas treaty were overcome and a new and more balanced worlds division would be reached at Tordesillas between both emerging maritime powers. Seven months before the treaty of Alcaçovas, King John II of Aragon died, Ferdinand and Isabella drove the last Moorish king out of Granada in 1492 after a ten-year war. The Catholic Monarchs then negotiated with Christopher Columbus, a Genoese sailor attempting to reach Cipangu by sailing west, Castile was already engaged in a race of exploration with Portugal to reach the Far East by sea when Columbus made his bold proposal to Isabella. Columbus discoveries inaugurated the Spanish colonization of the Americas and these actions gave Spain exclusive rights to establish colonies in all of the New World from north to south, as well as the easternmost parts of Asia. The treaty of Tordesillas was confirmed by Pope Julius II in the bull Ea quae pro bono pacis on 24 January 1506, Spains expansion and colonization was driven by economic influences, a yearning to improve national prestige, and a desire to spread Catholicism into the New World. The Catholic Monarchs had developed a strategy of marriages for their children in order to isolate their long-time enemy, the Spanish princes married the heirs of Portugal, England and the House of Habsburg. Following the same strategy, the Catholic Monarchs decided to support the Catalan-Aragonese house of Naples against Charles VIII of France in the Italian Wars beginning in 1494. As King of Aragon, Ferdinand had been involved in the struggle against France and Venice for control of Italy, these conflicts became the center of Ferdinands foreign policy as king. Only a year later, Ferdinand became part of the Holy League against France and this war was less of a success than the war against Venice, and in 1516, France agreed to a truce that left Milan in its control and recognized Spanish control of Upper NavarreSpanish colonial – Columbus and the Catholic Monarchs (The return of Columbus to Spain).
29. Battle of Chile – Traditionally, the beginning of the war is dated as September 18,1810. A declaration of independence was issued by Chile on February 12,1818 and formally recognized by Spain in 1844. The Chilean War of Independence was part of the more aroused Spanish American wars of independence, Independence did not have unanimous support among Chileans, who were divided between independentists and royalists. What started as a movement among elites against the colonial power. Traditionally, the process is divided into three stages, the Patria Vieja, 1810–1814, the Reconquista, 1814–1817, and the Patria Nueva, 1817–1823. In May 1808 the overthrow of Charles IV and Ferdinand VII, their replacement by Joseph Bonaparte, in the meantime, Chile was facing its own internal political problems. Governor Guzmán had suddenly died in February of that year and the crown had not been able to appoint a new governor before the invasion, since her father and brother were being held prisoners in France, she regarded herself as the heiress of her captured family. Allegedly among her plan was to send armies to occupy Buenos Aires and northern Argentina, brigadier García Carrasco was a man of crude and authoritarian manners, who managed in a very short time to alienate the criollo elites under his command. Already in Chile, as in most of Latin America, there had some independence agitation but minimal. In 1809, Governor García Carrasco himself was implicated in a flagrant case of corruption that managed to destroy remnants of moral authority he or his office had left. From that moment on the pressure for his removal began to build, in June 1810 news arrived from Buenos Aires that Napoleon Bonapartes forces had conquered Andalusia and laid siege to Cádiz, the last redoubt against the French on Spanish soil. Moreover, the Supreme Central Junta, which had governed the Empire for the past two years, had abolished itself in favor of a Regency Council, among those arrested were José Antonio de Rojas, Juan Antonio Ovalle and Bernardo de Vera y Pintado. Inspired by the May Revolution in Argentina, the movement had also propagated through the criollo elite. They resented the illegal arrests and, together with the news that Cádiz was all that was left of a free Spain, count Toro Zambrano was, by all standards, a very unorthodox selection. He was an old man already and moreover a criollo as opposed to a peninsular. Immediately after his appointment in July, the juntistas began to lobby him in order to obtain the formation of a junta. In August the Royal Appeals Court took a loyalty oath to the Regency Council in front of a massive audience. After vacillating for some time over which party to follow, Toro Zambrano finally agreed to hold an open Cabildo meeting in Santiago to discuss the issue, the date was set for September 18,1810 at 11 AMBattle of Chile – Romanticized painting of the 1814 Battle of Rancagua by Pedro Subercaseaux
30. Independence of Peru – Because of this the viceroy often had the support of the Lima oligarchy, who saw their elite interests threatened by popular rebellion and were opposed to the new commercial class in Buenos Aires. During the first decade 1800s Peru had been a stronghold for royalists, among the most important events during the war was the proclamation of independence of Peru by José de San Martín on July 28,1821. During the Peninsular War central authority in the Spanish Empire was lost, after success of the royalist armies, Abascal annexed Upper Peru to the viceroyalty, which benefited the Lima merchants as trade from the silver-rich region was now directed to the Pacific. Because of this, Peru remained strongly royalist and participated in the reforms implemented by the Cádiz Cortes. Peru was represented at the first session of the Cortes by seven deputies, therefore, Peru became the second to last redoubt of the Spanish Monarchy in South America, after Upper Peru. Peru eventually succumbed to patriot armies after the continental campaigns of José de San Martín. Some of the early Spanish conquistadors that explored Peru made the first attempts for independence from the Spanish crown and they tried to liberate themselves from the Viceroyalty, who governed for the king of Castile. Throughout the eighteenth century, there were several uprisings against colonial rule. Some of these uprisings became true rebellions and it is debated whether these movements should be considered as precedents of the emancipation that was led by chiefs, Peruvian towns, and other countries in the American continent. The independence of Peru was an important chapter in the Hispano-American wars of independence, the campaign of Sucre in Upper Peru concluded in April 1825, and in November of the same year Mexico obtained the surrender of the Spanish bastion of San Juan de Ulúa in North America. The Spanish strongholds in Callao and Chiloé in South America fell in January 1826, Spain renounced all their continental American territories ten years later in 1836 leaving very little of its vast empire intact. Despite the royalist tendencies of Peru, junta movements did emerge, there were two short-lived uprisings in the southern city of Tacna in 1811 and 1813. One significant movement, led by Natives in Huánuco, began on February 22,1812 and it involved various leaders, including curacas and township magistrates, but was suppressed within a few weeks. More enduring was the rebellion of Cuzco from 1814 to 1815, the rebellion began in a confrontation between the Constitutional Cabildo and the Audiencia of Cuzco over the administration of the city. Cabildo officials and their allies were arrested by the Audiencia, Criollo leaders appealed to retired brigadier Mateo Pumacahua, who was curaca of Chinchero, and decades earlier had been instrumental in suppressing the rebellion of Túpac Amaru II. Pumacahua joined the Criollo leaders in forming a junta on August 3 in Cuzco, in 1814, the first expedition was successful in reconquering Chile after winning the Battle of Rancagua. In 1817 following the royalist defeat in the Battle of Chacabuco, initially it was successful in the Second Battle of Cancha Rayada, the expedition was finally defeated by José de San Martín in the Battle of Maipú. To begin the liberation of Peru, Argentina and Chile signed a treaty on February 5,1819 to prepare for the invasion, General José de San Martín believed that the liberation of Argentina wouldnt be secure until the royalist stronghold in Peru was defeatedIndependence of Peru – The Battle of Ayacucho Painting by Antonio Herrera Toro
31. Demographics of Indiana – Indiana /ɪndiˈænə/ is a U. S. state located in the midwestern and Great Lakes regions of North America. Indiana is the 38th largest by area and the 16th most populous of the 50 United States and its capital and largest city is Indianapolis. Indiana was admitted to the United States as the 19th U. S. state on December 11,1816, before becoming a territory, varying cultures of indigenous peoples and historic Native Americans inhabited Indiana for thousands of years. Indiana has an economy with a gross state product of $298 billion in 2012. Indiana has several areas with populations greater than 100,000. The states name means Land of the Indians, or simply Indian Land and it also stems from Indianas territorial history. On May 7,1800, the United States Congress passed legislation to divide the Northwest Territory into two areas and named the section the Indiana Territory. In 1816, when Congress passed an Enabling Act to begin the process of establishing statehood for Indiana, a resident of Indiana is officially known as a Hoosier. The first inhabitants in what is now Indiana were the Paleo-Indians, divided into small groups, the Paleo-Indians were nomads who hunted large game such as mastodons. They created stone tools made out of chert by chipping, knapping and flaking, the Archaic period, which began between 5000 and 4000 BC, covered the next phase of indigenous culture. The people developed new tools as well as techniques to cook food, such new tools included different types of spear points and knives, with various forms of notches. They made ground-stone tools such as axes, woodworking tools. During the latter part of the period, they built mounds and middens. The Archaic period ended at about 1500 BC, although some Archaic people lived until 700 BC, afterward, the Woodland period took place in Indiana, where various new cultural attributes appeared. During this period, the people created ceramics and pottery, an early Woodland period group named the Adena people had elegant burial rituals, featuring log tombs beneath earth mounds. In the middle portion of the Woodland period, the Hopewell people began developing long-range trade of goods, nearing the end of the stage, the people developed highly productive cultivation and adaptation of agriculture, growing such crops as corn and squash. The Woodland period ended around 1000 AD, the Mississippian culture emerged, lasting from 1000 until the 15th century, shortly before the arrival of Europeans. During this stage, the people created large urban settlements designed according to their cosmology, with mounds and plazas defining ceremonialDemographics of Indiana – State sign, Interstate 65
32. Wildlife of Indonesia – Indonesia, officially the Republic of Indonesia, is a unitary sovereign state and transcontinental country located mainly in Southeast Asia with some territories in Oceania. Situated between the Indian and Pacific oceans, it is the worlds largest island country, with more than seventeen thousand islands. At 1,904,569 square kilometres, Indonesia is the worlds 14th-largest country in terms of area and worlds 7th-largest country in terms of combined sea. It has an population of over 260 million people and is the worlds fourth most populous country. The worlds most populous island, Java, contains more than half of the countrys population, Indonesias republican form of government includes an elected legislature and president. Indonesia has 34 provinces, of which five have Special Administrative status and its capital and countrys most populous city is Jakarta, which is also the most populous city in Southeast Asia and the second in Asia. The country shares land borders with Papua New Guinea, East Timor, other neighbouring countries include Singapore, Vietnam, the Philippines, Australia, Palau, and the Indian territory of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Despite its large population and densely populated regions, Indonesia has vast areas of wilderness that support the second highest level of biodiversity. The country has abundant natural resources like oil and natural gas, tin, copper, agriculture mainly produces rice, palm oil, tea, coffee, cacao, medicinal plants, spices and rubber. Indonesias major trading partners are Japan, United States, China, the Indonesian archipelago has been an important region for trade since at least the 7th century, when Srivijaya and then later Majapahit traded with China and India. Local rulers gradually absorbed foreign cultural, religious and political models from the early centuries CE, Indonesian history has been influenced by foreign powers drawn to its natural resources. Indonesia consists of hundreds of native ethnic and linguistic groups. The largest – and politically dominant – ethnic group are the Javanese, a shared identity has developed, defined by a national language, ethnic diversity, religious pluralism within a Muslim-majority population, and a history of colonialism and rebellion against it. Indonesias national motto, Bhinneka Tunggal Ika, articulates the diversity that shapes the country, Indonesias economy is the worlds 16th largest by nominal GDP and the 8th largest by GDP at PPP, the largest in Southeast Asia, and is considered an emerging market and newly industrialised country. Indonesia has been a member of the United Nations since 1950, Indonesia is a member of the G20 major economies and World Trade Organization. The name Indonesia derives from the Greek name of the Indós, the name dates to the 18th century, far predating the formation of independent Indonesia. In 1850, George Windsor Earl, an English ethnologist, proposed the terms Indunesians—and, his preference, in the same publication, one of his students, James Richardson Logan, used Indonesia as a synonym for Indian Archipelago. However, Dutch academics writing in East Indies publications were reluctant to use Indonesia, they preferred Malay Archipelago, the Netherlands East Indies, popularly Indië, the East, and InsulindeWildlife of Indonesia – A Borobudur ship carved on Borobudur, c. 800 CE. Indonesian outrigger boats may have made trade voyages to the east coast of Africa as early as the 1st century CE.
33. JK Rawling – Joanne Jo Rowling, OBE, FRSL, pen names J. K. Rowling and Robert Galbraith, is a British novelist, screenwriter and film producer best known as the author of the Harry Potter fantasy series. The books have gained attention, won multiple awards. There were six sequels, the last, Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows, Rowling has lived a rags to riches life story, in which she progressed from living on state benefits to multi-millionaire status within five years. She is the United Kingdoms best-selling living author, with sales in excess of £238M, the 2016 Sunday Times Rich List estimated Rowlings fortune at £600 million, ranking her as the joint 197th richest person in the UK. Time magazine named her as a runner-up for its 2007 Person of the Year, noting the social, moral, in October 2010, Rowling was named the Most Influential Woman in Britain by leading magazine editors. She has supported charities including Comic Relief, One Parent Families, Multiple Sclerosis Society of Great Britain, although she writes under the pen name J. K. Rowling, her name, before her remarriage, was simply Joanne Rowling. Anticipating that the audience of young boys might not want to read a book written by a woman. As she had no name, she chose K as the second initial of her pen name. Following her marriage, she has used the name Joanne Murray when conducting personal business. During the Leveson Inquiry she gave evidence under the name of Joanne Kathleen Rowling and her entry in Whos Who lists her name also as Joanne Kathleen Rowling. Rowling was born to Peter James Rowling, a Rolls-Royce aircraft engineer, and Anne Rowling and her parents first met on a train departing from Kings Cross Station bound for Arbroath in 1964. They married on 14 March 1965, One of her maternal great-grandfathers, Dugald Campbell, was Scottish, born in Lamlash on the Isle of Arran. Her mothers paternal grandfather, Louis Volant, was French, and was awarded the Croix de Guerre for exceptional bravery in defending the village of Courcelles-le-Comte during the First World War. Rowling originally believed he had won the Légion dhonneur during the war, as she said when she received it herself in 2009. She later discovered the truth when featured in an episode of the UK genealogy series Who Do You Think You Are. in which she found out it was a different Louis Volant who won the Legion of Honour. Rowlings sister Dianne was born at their home when Rowling was 23 months old, the family moved to the nearby village Winterbourne when Rowling was four. She attended St Michaels Primary School, a school founded by abolitionist William Wilberforce and her headmaster at St Michaels, Alfred Dunn, has been suggested as the inspiration for the Harry Potter headmaster Albus Dumbledore. As a child, Rowling often wrote stories which she frequently read to her sisterJK Rawling – Rowling at the White House Easter Egg Roll, 2010
34. Jorge Batlle – Jorge Luis Batlle Ibáñez was a politician and lawyer from Uruguay, a member of the Colorado Party. He served as the President of Uruguay from 2000 to 2005, Dr. Jorge Batlle became Uruguayan president on 1 March 2000, after having been elected the previous year by popular vote. He was the fourth Uruguayan President belonging to the Batlle family, one of whom was his own father, Batlle was born in 1927, son of Luis Batlle Berres and Matilde Ibáñez Tálice. He has two siblings, Luis and Matilde and his ancestors include the 19th century Uruguayan presidents Jose Batlle y Ordonez and Lorenzo Batlle. He was also by that time a member of the body of his Party. He unsuccessfully ran for president in 1966, and was part of a scandal in 1968. He ran for president again in 1971, without success, during the period of civilian-military administration in Uruguay, Dr. Batlle did not occupy any legislative or official position, having been banned from political activity by decree. He was detained on several occasions and he did preside over the Legislative General Assembly in February 1985, when the first democratically elected Congress was seated after the military interregnum. He has a very active legislative record, Dr. Batlle was also a leading promoter and drafter of two Constitutional Amendments, one in 1966 and the other more recently in 1996. He was defeated a third time in the 1994 presidential elections, Batlle took office at a particularly difficult moment for Uruguay, as an economic depression led the country close to sovereign default, and a third of the population below the poverty line. US president George H. W. Bush helped him to prevent default with $1.5 billion in credit and his administration had to deal with a foot-and-mouth disease outbreak, which threatened access of Uruguayan beef to international markets. Before the end of his term, Uruguay had re-gained disease-free status, Batlle firmly backed MERCOSUR, which he saw as instrumental for an open regional integration into the world economy. He favoured strengthening MERCOSUR by forming associations such as the one envisaged in the so-called 4+1 agreement with the United States. He maintained close ties with the US at a time when the Pink tide in Latin America was marked by several regional governments that distanced themselves from the US. He had a conflict with Cuba, as he criticised the human rights record of the Castros regime. He proposed the legalization of cocaine, as a way to reduce the political clout of drug cartels and he was also in favour of the creation of the Free Trade Association of the Americas. As president, Batlle was firmly set against protectionism and subsidies of any kind, Jorge Batlle stayed active in politics after the end of his presidency. He criticised the Uruguayan presidents that succeeded him through newspapers columns, Jorge Batlle fainted and struck his head during an event at the Colorado partyJorge Batlle – Jorge Batlle in 2003.
35. Jupiter's day – Thursday is the day of the week following Wednesday and before Friday. According to the ISO8601 international standard adopted in most western countries, in countries that use the Sunday-first convention, Thursday is defined as the fifth day of the week. It is the day of the week in the Judeo-Christian liturgical calendar. It is often abbreviated to Th or Thu, see Names of the days of the week for more on naming conventions. The name is derived from Old English Þūnresdæg and Middle English Thuresday meaning Thors Day and it was named after the Norse god of Thunder, Thor. Thunor, Donar and Thor are derived from the name of the Germanic god of thunder, Thunraz, Estonians did not work on Thursdays and Thursday nights were called evenings of Tooru. Some sources say Estonians used to gather in holy woods on Thursday evenings, in most Romance languages, the day is named after the Roman god Jupiter, who was the god of sky and thunder. In Latin, the day was known as Iovis Dies, Jupiters Day and this is also reflected in the p-Celtic Welsh dydd Iau. The astrological and astronomical sign of the planet Jupiter is sometimes used to represent Thursday, finnish and Northern Sami, both non-Germanic languages, uses the borrowing Torstai and Duorastat. In the extinct Polabian Slavic language, it was perundan, Perun being the Slavic equivalent of Thor, there are a number of modern names imitating the naming of Thursday after an equivalent of Jupiter in local tradition. In most of the languages of India, the word for Thursday is Guruvara – vara meaning day and guru being the style for Bṛhaspati, guru to the gods, in Thai, the word is Wan Pharuehatsabodi – referring to the Hindu deity Bṛhaspati, also associated with Jupiter. En was an old Illyrian deity and in his honor in the Albanian language Thursday is called Enjte, in the Nahuatl language, Thursday is Tezcatlipotōnal meaning day of Tezcatlipoca. In Slavic languages and in Chinese, this name is fourth. Hungarian uses a Slavic loanword csütörtök, in ancient Chinese, it is 木曜日. In Estonian its neljapäev, meaning day or fourth day in a week. The Baltic languages also use the fourth day. Greek uses a number for this day, Πέμπτη Pémpti fifth, as does Portuguese, quinta-feira fifth day, Hebrew, יום חמישי often written יום ה, in Catholic liturgy, Thursday is referred to in Latin as feria quinta. Icelandic also uses the fifth dayJupiter's day – Painting depicting the English god Thunor (the Norse Thor), after whom Thursday is named, by Mårten Eskil Winge, 1872
36. Hediegger – Martin Heidegger was a German philosopher and a seminal thinker in the Continental tradition and philosophical hermeneutics. According to the Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, he is acknowledged to be one of the most original. His first and best known book, Being and Time, though unfinished, is one of the philosophical works of the 20th century. Heidegger approached the question through an inquiry into the being that has an understanding of Being, and asks the question about it, namely, Human being, for Heidegger thinking is thinking about things originally discovered in our everyday practical engagements. The consequence of this is that our capacity to think cannot be the most central quality of our being because thinking is a reflecting upon this more original way of discovering the world. Heideggers later work includes criticisms of technologys instrumentalist understanding in the Western tradition as enframing, treating all of Nature as a reserve on call for human purposes. Heidegger was born in rural Meßkirch, Germany, the son of Johanna, raised a Roman Catholic, he was the son of the sexton of the village church that adhered to the First Vatican Council of 1870, which was observed mainly by the poorer class of Meßkirch. Heidegger was short and sinewy, with piercing eyes. He enjoyed outdoor pursuits, being proficient at skiing. In the two following, he worked first as an unsalaried Privatdozent. He served as a soldier during the year of World War I, working behind a desk. During the 1930s, critics of Heideggers espousal of a Nazi-style rhetoric of martial manliness noted the unheroic nature of his service in WWI, in 1923, Heidegger was elected to an extraordinary Professorship in Philosophy at the University of Marburg. His colleagues there included Rudolf Bultmann, Nicolai Hartmann, and Paul Natorp, Heideggers students at Marburg included Hans-Georg Gadamer, Hannah Arendt, Karl Löwith, Gerhard Krüger, Leo Strauss, Jacob Klein, Gunther Anders, and Hans Jonas. Following on from Aristotle, he began to develop in his lectures the main theme of his philosophy, the question of the sense of being. He extended the concept of subject to the dimension of history and concrete existence, which he found prefigured in such Christian thinkers as Saint Paul, Augustine of Hippo, Luther and he also read the works of Dilthey, Husserl, and Max Scheler. In 1927, Heidegger published his main work Sein und Zeit, when Husserl retired as Professor of Philosophy in 1928, Heidegger accepted Freiburgs election to be his successor, in spite of a counter-offer by Marburg. Heidegger remained at Freiburg im Breisgau for the rest of his life, declining a number of later offers and his students at Freiburg included Arendt, Günther Anders, Hans Jonas, Karl Löwith, Charles Malik, Herbert Marcuse and Ernst Nolte. Emmanuel Levinas attended his lecture courses during his stay in Freiburg in 1928, Heidegger was elected rector of the University on 21 April 1933, and joined the National Socialist German Workers Party on 1 MayHediegger – Martin Heidegger
37. Nazy – National Socialism, more commonly known as Nazism, is the ideology and practice associated with the 20th-century German Nazi Party and Nazi Germany, as well as other far-right groups. Nazism subscribed to theories of racial hierarchy and Social Darwinism, identifying Germans as part of what Nazis regarded as an Aryan or Nordic master race and it aimed to overcome social divisions and create a homogeneous society, unified on the basis of racial purity. The term National Socialism arose out of attempts to create a nationalist redefinition of socialism, the Nazi Partys precursor, the Pan-German nationalist and anti-Semitic German Workers Party, was founded on 5 January 1919. By the early 1920s, Adolf Hitler assumed control of the organisation, following the Holocaust and German defeat in World War II, only a few fringe racist groups, usually referred to as neo-Nazis, still describe themselves as following National Socialism. The full name of Adolf Hitlers party was Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei, the shorthand Nazi was formed from the first two syllables of the German pronunciation of the word national. The term was in use before the rise of the NSDAP as a colloquial and derogatory word for a peasant, characterizing an awkward. It derived from Ignaz, being a version of Ignatius, a common name in Bavaria. Opponents seized on this and shortened the first word of the name, Nationalsozialistische. The NSDAP briefly adopted the Nazi designation, attempting to reappropriate the term, the use of Nazi Germany, Nazi regime, and so on was popularised by German exiles abroad. From them, the spread into other languages and was eventually brought back to Germany after World War II. In English, Nazism is a name for the ideology the party advocated. The majority of scholars identify Nazism in practice as a form of far-right politics, far-right themes in Nazism include the argument that superior people have a right to dominate over other people and purge society of supposed inferior elements. Adolf Hitler and other proponents officially portrayed Nazism as being neither left- nor right-wing, but the politicians of the Right deserve exactly the same reproach. It was through their miserable cowardice that those ruffians of Jews who came into power in 1918 were able to rob the nation of its arms, a major inspiration for the Nazis were the far-right nationalist Freikorps, paramilitary organisations that engaged in political violence after World War I. The Nazis stated the alliance was purely tactical and there remained substantial differences with the DNVP, the Nazis described the DNVP as a bourgeois party and called themselves an anti-bourgeois party. After the elections in 1932, the alliance broke after the DNVP lost many of its seats in the Reichstag, the Nazis denounced them as an insignificant heap of reactionaries. The DNVP responded by denouncing the Nazis for their socialism, their violence. Kaiser Wilhelm II, who was pressured to abdicate the throne and flee into exile amidst an attempted communist revolution in Germany, there were factions in the Nazi Party, both conservative and radicalNazy – Foreground, left to right: Führer Adolf Hitler; Hermann Göring; Minister of Propaganda Joseph Goebbels; Rudolf Hess
38. Makiavelo – Niccolò Machiavelli, or more formally Niccolò di Bernardo dei Machiavelli, was a Florentine Renaissance historian, politician, diplomat, philosopher, humanist, and writer. He has often called the founder of modern political science. He was for years a senior official in the Florentine Republic, with responsibilities in diplomatic. He also wrote comedies, carnival songs, and poetry and his personal correspondence is renowned in the Italian language. He was secretary to the Second Chancery of the Republic of Florence from 1498 to 1512 and he wrote his most renowned work The Prince in 1513. Machiavellianism is a widely used term to characterize unscrupulous politicians of the sort Machiavelli described most famously in The Prince. Machiavelli described immoral behavior, such as dishonesty and killing innocents, as being normal and he even seemed to endorse it in some situations. The book itself gained notoriety when some readers claimed that the author was teaching evil, the term Machiavellian is often associated with political deceit, deviousness, and realpolitik. In one place for example he noted his admiration for the selfless Roman dictator Cincinnatus, Machiavelli was born in Florence, Italy, the third child and first son of attorney Bernardo di Niccolò Machiavelli and his wife, Bartolomea di Stefano Nelli. Machiavelli married Marietta Corsini in 1502, political-military alliances continually changed, featuring condottieri, who changed sides without warning, and the rise and fall of many short-lived governments. Machiavelli was taught grammar, rhetoric, and Latin and it is thought that he did not learn Greek even though Florence was at the time one of the centres of Greek scholarship in Europe. In 1494 Florence restored the republic, expelling the Medici family that had ruled Florence for some sixty years, shortly thereafter, he was also made the secretary of the Dieci di Libertà e Pace. In the first decade of the century, he carried out several diplomatic missions. The pretext of defending Church interests was used as a justification by the Borgias. Other excursions to the court of Louis XII and the Spanish court influenced his writings such as The Prince, between 1503 and 1506, Machiavelli was responsible for the Florentine militia. He distrusted mercenaries and instead staffed his army with citizens, a policy that was to be repeatedly successful, under his command, Florentine citizen-soldiers defeated Pisa in 1509. However, Machiavellis success did not last, in the wake of the siege, Soderini resigned as Florentine head of state and left in exile. The experience would, like Machiavellis time in foreign courts and with the Borgia, after the Medici victory, the Florentine city-state and the republic were dissolved, and Machiavelli was deprived of office in 1512Makiavelo – Portrait of Niccolò Machiavelli by Santi di Tito
39. New Yawk – The City of New York, often called New York City or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2015 population of 8,550,405 distributed over an area of about 302.6 square miles. Located at the tip of the state of New York. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy and has described as the cultural and financial capital of the world. Situated on one of the worlds largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, the five boroughs – Brooklyn, Queens, Manhattan, The Bronx, and Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898. In 2013, the MSA produced a gross metropolitan product of nearly US$1.39 trillion, in 2012, the CSA generated a GMP of over US$1.55 trillion. NYCs MSA and CSA GDP are higher than all but 11 and 12 countries, New York City traces its origin to its 1624 founding in Lower Manhattan as a trading post by colonists of the Dutch Republic and was named New Amsterdam in 1626. The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790. It has been the countrys largest city since 1790, the Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the Americas by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is a symbol of the United States and its democracy. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world, the names of many of the citys bridges, tapered skyscrapers, and parks are known around the world. Manhattans real estate market is among the most expensive in the world, Manhattans Chinatown incorporates the highest concentration of Chinese people in the Western Hemisphere, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is one of the most extensive metro systems worldwide, with 472 stations in operation. Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, and Rockefeller University, during the Wisconsinan glaciation, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth. The ice sheet scraped away large amounts of soil, leaving the bedrock that serves as the foundation for much of New York City today. Later on, movement of the ice sheet would contribute to the separation of what are now Long Island and Staten Island. The first documented visit by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown and he claimed the area for France and named it Nouvelle Angoulême. Heavy ice kept him from further exploration, and he returned to Spain in August and he proceeded to sail up what the Dutch would name the North River, named first by Hudson as the Mauritius after Maurice, Prince of OrangeNew Yawk – Clockwise, from top: Midtown Manhattan, Times Square, the Unisphere in Queens, the Brooklyn Bridge, Lower Manhattan with One World Trade Center, Central Park, the headquarters of the United Nations, and the Statue of Liberty
40. Departement de Paris – Paris is the capital and most populous city of France. It has an area of 105 square kilometres and a population of 2,229,621 in 2013 within its administrative limits, the agglomeration has grown well beyond the citys administrative limits. By the 17th century, Paris was one of Europes major centres of finance, commerce, fashion, science, and the arts, and it retains that position still today. The aire urbaine de Paris, a measure of area, spans most of the Île-de-France region and has a population of 12,405,426. It is therefore the second largest metropolitan area in the European Union after London, the Metropole of Grand Paris was created in 2016, combining the commune and its nearest suburbs into a single area for economic and environmental co-operation. Grand Paris covers 814 square kilometres and has a population of 7 million persons, the Paris Region had a GDP of €624 billion in 2012, accounting for 30.0 percent of the GDP of France and ranking it as one of the wealthiest regions in Europe. The city is also a rail, highway, and air-transport hub served by two international airports, Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Paris-Orly. Opened in 1900, the subway system, the Paris Métro. It is the second busiest metro system in Europe after Moscow Metro, notably, Paris Gare du Nord is the busiest railway station in the world outside of Japan, with 262 millions passengers in 2015. In 2015, Paris received 22.2 million visitors, making it one of the top tourist destinations. The association football club Paris Saint-Germain and the rugby union club Stade Français are based in Paris, the 80, 000-seat Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, is located just north of Paris in the neighbouring commune of Saint-Denis. Paris hosts the annual French Open Grand Slam tennis tournament on the red clay of Roland Garros, Paris hosted the 1900 and 1924 Summer Olympics and is bidding to host the 2024 Summer Olympics. The name Paris is derived from its inhabitants, the Celtic Parisii tribe. Thus, though written the same, the name is not related to the Paris of Greek mythology. In the 1860s, the boulevards and streets of Paris were illuminated by 56,000 gas lamps, since the late 19th century, Paris has also been known as Panam in French slang. Inhabitants are known in English as Parisians and in French as Parisiens and they are also pejoratively called Parigots. The Parisii, a sub-tribe of the Celtic Senones, inhabited the Paris area from around the middle of the 3rd century BC. One of the areas major north-south trade routes crossed the Seine on the île de la Cité, this place of land and water trade routes gradually became a townDepartement de Paris – In the 1860s Paris streets and monuments were illuminated by 56,000 gas lamps, making it literally "The City of Light."
41. Oil painter – Oil painting is the process of painting with pigments with a medium of drying oil as the binder. Commonly used drying oils include linseed oil, poppy seed oil, walnut oil, the choice of oil imparts a range of properties to the oil paint, such as the amount of yellowing or drying time. Certain differences, depending on the oil, are visible in the sheen of the paints. An artist might use different oils in the same painting depending on specific pigments and effects desired. The paints themselves also develop a particular consistency depending on the medium, the oil may be boiled with a resin, such as pine resin or frankincense, to create a varnish prized for its body and gloss. Its practice may have migrated westward during the Middle Ages, Oil paint eventually became the principal medium used for creating artworks as its advantages became widely known. In recent years, water miscible oil paint has come to prominence and, to some extent, water-soluble paints contain an emulsifier that allows them to be thinned with water rather than paint thinner, and allows very fast drying times when compared with traditional oils. Traditional oil painting techniques often begin with the artist sketching the subject onto the canvas with charcoal or thinned paint, Oil paint is usually mixed with linseed oil, artist grade mineral spirits, or other solvents to make the paint thinner, faster or slower-drying. A basic rule of oil paint application is fat over lean and this means that each additional layer of paint should contain more oil than the layer below to allow proper drying. If each additional layer contains less oil, the painting will crack. This rule does not ensure permanence, it is the quality and type of oil leads to a strong. There are many media that can be used with the oil, including cold wax, resins. These aspects of the paint are closely related to the capacity of oil paint. Traditionally, paint was transferred to the surface using paintbrushes. Oil paint remains wet longer than other types of artists materials, enabling the artist to change the color. At times, the painter might even remove a layer of paint. This can be done with a rag and some turpentine for a time while the paint is wet, Oil paint dries by oxidation, not evaporation, and is usually dry to the touch within a span of two weeks. It is generally dry enough to be varnished in six months to a year, art conservators do not consider an oil painting completely dry until it is 60 to 80 years oldOil painter – Mona Lisa, Leonardo da Vinci, c. 1503–06
42. Gene finding – In computational biology gene prediction or gene finding refers to the process of identifying the regions of genomic DNA that encode genes. This includes protein-coding genes as well as RNA genes, but may also include prediction of other elements such as regulatory regions. Gene finding is one of the first and most important steps in understanding the genome of a species once it has been sequenced, in its earliest days, gene finding was based on painstaking experimentation on living cells and organisms. Today, with comprehensive genome sequence and powerful computational resources at the disposal of the research community, determining that a sequence is functional should be distinguished from determining the function of the gene or its product. Gene prediction is one of the key steps in genome annotation, following sequence assembly, gene prediction is closely related to the so-called target search problem investigating how DNA-binding proteins locate specific binding sites within the genome. Given an mRNA sequence, it is trivial to derive a unique genomic DNA sequence from which it had to have been transcribed, given a protein sequence, a family of possible coding DNA sequences can be derived by reverse translation of the genetic code. Once candidate DNA sequences have been determined, it is a relatively straightforward algorithmic problem to efficiently search a target genome for matches, complete or partial, and exact or inexact. Given a sequence, local alignment algorithms such as BLAST, FASTA, matches can be complete or partial, and exact or inexact. The success of this approach is limited by the contents and accuracy of the sequence database, a high degree of similarity to a known messenger RNA or protein product is strong evidence that a region of a target genome is a protein-coding gene. However, to apply this approach systemically requires extensive sequencing of mRNA, thus, to collect extrinsic evidence for most or all of the genes in a complex organism requires the study of many hundreds or thousands of cell types, which presents further difficulties. For example, some genes may be expressed only during development as an embryo or fetus. Despite these difficulties, extensive transcript and protein sequence databases have been generated for human as well as other important model organisms in biology, such as mice and yeast. For example, the RefSeq database contains transcript and protein sequence from different species. It is, however, likely that these databases are both incomplete and contain small but significant amounts of erroneous data, in prokaryotes its essential to consider horizontal gene transfer when searching for gene sequence homology. An additional important factor underused in current gene detection tools is existence of gene clusters—operons in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, most popular gene detectors treat each gene in isolation, independent of others, which is not biologically accurate. Ab Initio gene prediction is a method based on gene content. These signs can be categorized as either signals, specific sequences that indicate the presence of a gene nearby, or content. Ab initio gene finding might be accurately characterized as gene predictionGene finding – Structure of an eukaryotic gene
43. Prosper Colonna – Prospero Colonna, sometimes referred to as Prosper Colonna, was an Italian condottiero in the service of the Papal States and the Holy Roman Empire during the Italian Wars. A member of the ancient noble family of the Colonna, he was born in Civita Lavinia, near Velletri and he was a cousin of Fabrizio Colonna. His first notable action as a leader was in 1484. After some other battle deeds, Prospero, who had joined Cardinal Giuliano della Roveres party, was imprisoned in Castel SantAngelo by Pope Alexander VI, once freed, he was soon imprisoned again for his allegiance to Charles VIII of France during his invasion of Italy. In the end, the King of France was victorious against the Pope and entered Rome, backed by Prospero and Fabrizio Colonna, during the brief French rule over the Kingdom of Naples, Prospero obtained the duchy of Traetto and the county of Forlì. However, when Charles returned beyond the Alps, Prospero helped King Ferdinand II of Naples to evict the French viceroy from Naples, the situation changed again with the new French invasion of Louis XII. While the Neapolitan king Frederick IV fled to the island of Ischia, Fabrizio and they were defeated and imprisoned in the Castel Nuovo of Naples. They were also excommunicated by Alexander VI, who took their castles in the Lazio, eventually ransomed, both cousins then entered the service of the Spanish general Gonzalo Fernández de Córdoba, viceroy of Naples. Prospero Colonna had an important role in the Spanish victory at Cerignola, after Alexander VIs death, he was also able to take back his territories in the Lazio. He commanded the cavalry at the Battle of Garigliano. Prospero then added Itri, Sperlonga, Ceccano and Sonnino to his fiefs and he married Covella di Sanseverino, who gave him an heir, Vespasiano. Confident in the constancy of the lady of his affections, Prospero took for his companion a gentleman of low degree, to whom she unfortunately transferred the love he thought was his own. In 1515, he was commander of the forces of Pope Leo X in north-western Italy near Villafranc when the army of Francis I, King of France, crossed the Alps preparatory to the Battle of Marignano. In a surprising and humiliating raid, Colonna and his staff were captured by a French cavalry force led by the Chevalier Bayard, as he was taken, he said of France, It is a country I have always wanted to visit. Continuing in the service of the Pope, Colonna gained a victory against France in northern Italy in 1522. His health was declining, however, and he died in 1523 in lHôtel Clemenceau at MilanProsper Colonna – Prospero Colonna.
44. Senate of Venice – It was based in the lagoon communities of the historically prosperous city of Venice. It was a leading European economic and trading power during the Middle Ages, the Venetian city state was founded as a safe haven for people escaping persecution in mainland Europe after the fall of the Roman Empire. In its early years, it prospered on the salt trade, in subsequent centuries, the city state established a thalassocracy. It dominated trade on the Mediterranean Sea, including commerce between Asia, Europe and North Africa, the Venetian navy was used in the Crusades. Venice achieved territorial conquests along the Adriatic Sea, the city became home to an extremely wealthy merchant class, who patronized renowned art and architecture along the citys lagoons. Venetian merchants were influential financiers in Europe, the city was also the birthplace of great European explorers, including Marco Polo, as well as the classical music composer Vivaldi. The republic was ruled by the Doge, who was elected by members of the Great Council of Venice, the ruling class was an oligarchy of merchants and aristocrats. Venice and other Italian maritime republics played a key role in fostering capitalism, Venetian citizens generally supported the system of governance. The city-state enforced strict laws and employed ruthless tactics in its prisons, the opening of new trade routes to the Americas and the East Indies via the Atlantic Ocean marked the beginning of Venices decline as a maritime republic. The city state suffered defeats from the navy of the Ottoman Empire, in 1797, the country was colonized by Austria and France, following an invasion by Napoleon Bonaparte. Venice became a part of a unified Italy in the 19th century and it was formally known as the Most Serene Republic of Venice and is often referred to as La Serenissima, in reference to its title as one of the Most Serene Republics. He was the first historical Doge of Venice, whichever the case, the first doges had their power base in Heraclea. Ursuss successor, Deusdedit, moved his seat from Heraclea to Malamocco in the 740s and he was the son of Ursus and represented the attempt of his father to establish a dynasty. Such attempts were more commonplace among the doges of the first few centuries of Venetian history. They desired to remain well-connected to the Empire, another faction, republican in nature, believed in continuing along a course towards practical independence. The other main faction was pro-Frankish, supported mostly by clergy, they looked towards the new Carolingian king of the Franks, Pepin the Short, as the best provider of defence against the Lombards. A minor, pro-Lombard faction was opposed to close ties with any of these further-off powers, the successors of Obelerio inherited a united Venice. By the Pax Nicephori, the two emperors had recognised that Venice belonged to the Byzantine sphere of influence, many centuries later, the Venetians claimed that the treaty had recognised Venetian de facto independence, but the truth of this claim is doubted by modern scholarsSenate of Venice – Sack of Constantinople
45. Roma (city) – Rome is a special comune and the capital of Italy. Rome also serves as the capital of the Lazio region, with 2,873,598 residents in 1,285 km2, it is also the countrys largest and most populated comune and fourth-most populous city in the European Union by population within city limits. It is the center of the Metropolitan City of Rome, which has a population of 4.3 million residents, the city is located in the central-western portion of the Italian Peninsula, within Lazio, along the shores of the Tiber. Romes history spans more than 2,500 years, while Roman mythology dates the founding of Rome at only around 753 BC, the site has been inhabited for much longer, making it one of the oldest continuously occupied sites in Europe. The citys early population originated from a mix of Latins, Etruscans and it was first called The Eternal City by the Roman poet Tibullus in the 1st century BC, and the expression was also taken up by Ovid, Virgil, and Livy. Rome is also called the Caput Mundi, due to that, Rome became first one of the major centres of the Italian Renaissance, and then the birthplace of both the Baroque style and Neoclassicism. Famous artists, painters, sculptors and architects made Rome the centre of their activity, in 1871 Rome became the capital of the Kingdom of Italy, and in 1946 that of the Italian Republic. Rome has the status of a global city, Rome ranked in 2014 as the 14th-most-visited city in the world, 3rd most visited in the European Union, and the most popular tourist attraction in Italy. Its historic centre is listed by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site, monuments and museums such as the Vatican Museums and the Colosseum are among the worlds most visited tourist destinations with both locations receiving millions of tourists a year. Rome hosted the 1960 Summer Olympics and is the seat of United Nations Food, however, it is a possibility that the name Romulus was actually derived from Rome itself. As early as the 4th century, there have been alternate theories proposed on the origin of the name Roma. There is archaeological evidence of occupation of the Rome area from approximately 14,000 years ago. Evidence of stone tools, pottery and stone weapons attest to about 10,000 years of human presence, several excavations support the view that Rome grew from pastoral settlements on the Palatine Hill built above the area of the future Roman Forum. Between the end of the age and the beginning of the Iron age. However, none of them had yet an urban quality, nowadays, there is a wide consensus that the city was gradually born through the aggregation of several villages around the largest one, placed above the Palatine. All these happenings, which according to the excavations took place more or less around the mid of the 8th century BC. Despite recent excavations at the Palatine hill, the view that Rome has been indeed founded with an act of will as the legend suggests in the middle of the 8th century BC remains a fringe hypothesis. Traditional stories handed down by the ancient Romans themselves explain the earliest history of their city in terms of legend and mythRoma (city)
46. Elench – Socrates was a classical Greek philosopher credited as one of the founders of Western philosophy. He is a figure known chiefly through the accounts of classical writers, especially the writings of his students Plato and Xenophon. Platos dialogues are among the most comprehensive accounts of Socrates to survive from antiquity, though it is unclear the degree to which Socrates himself is hidden behind his best disciple, nothing written by Socrates remains extant. As a result, information about him and his philosophies depends upon secondary sources, furthermore, close comparison between the contents of these sources reveals contradictions, thus creating concerns about the possibility of knowing in-depth the real Socrates. This issue is known as the Socratic problem, or the Socratic question, to understand Socrates and his thought, one must turn primarily to the works of Plato, whose dialogues are thought the most informative source about Socrates life and philosophy, and also Xenophon. These writings are the Sokratikoi logoi, or Socratic dialogues, which consist of reports of conversations apparently involving Socrates, as for discovering the real-life Socrates, the difficulty is that ancient sources are mostly philosophical or dramatic texts, apart from Xenophon. There are no straightforward histories, contemporary with Socrates, that dealt with his own time, a corollary of this is that sources that do mention Socrates do not necessarily claim to be historically accurate, and are often partisan. For instance, those who prosecuted and convicted Socrates have left no testament, historians therefore face the challenge of reconciling the various evidence from the extant texts in order to attempt an accurate and consistent account of Socrates life and work. The result of such an effort is not necessarily realistic, even if consistent, amid all the disagreement resulting from differences within sources, two factors emerge from all sources pertaining to Socrates. It would seem, therefore, that he was ugly, also, Xenophon, being an historian, is a more reliable witness to the historical Socrates. It is a matter of debate over which Socrates it is whom Plato is describing at any given point—the historical figure. As British philosopher Martin Cohen has put it, Plato, the idealist, offers an idol, a Saint, a prophet of the Sun-God, a teacher condemned for his teachings as a heretic. It is also clear from other writings and historical artefacts, that Socrates was not simply a character, nor an invention, the testimony of Xenophon and Aristotle, alongside some of Aristophanes work, is useful in fleshing out a perception of Socrates beyond Platos work. The problem with discerning Socrates philosophical views stems from the perception of contradictions in statements made by the Socrates in the different dialogues of Plato and these contradictions produce doubt as to the actual philosophical doctrines of Socrates, within his milieu and as recorded by other individuals. Aristotle, in his Magna Moralia, refers to Socrates in words which make it patent that the virtue is knowledge was held by Socrates. Within the Metaphysics, he states Socrates was occupied with the search for moral virtues, however, in The Clouds, Aristophanes portrays Socrates as accepting payment for teaching and running a sophist school with Chaerephon. Also, in Platos Apology and Symposium, as well as in Xenophons accounts, more specifically, in the Apology, Socrates cites his poverty as proof that he is not a teacher. Two fragments are extant of the writings by Timon of Phlius pertaining to Socrates, although Timon is known to have written to ridicule, details about the life of Socrates can be derived from three contemporary sources, the dialogues of Plato and Xenophon, and the plays of AristophanesElench – A bust of Socrates in the Louvre
47. Rise of the Argentine Republic – The rise of the Argentine Republic was a process that took place in the first half of the 19th century in South America. The Republic has its origins in the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, the King of Spain appointed a viceroy to oversee the governance of the colony. The 1810 May Revolution deposed the viceregal representative and, along with the Argentine war of independence, all proposals to organize a local monarchy failed, and no local monarch was ever crowned. The national organization saw disputed about the type of relation that Buenos Aires should maintain with the other provinces, the supporters of each project would wage the Argentine Civil Wars as the Unitarians and Federals. Some provinces of the former viceroyalty tried to secede, some of them remained as independent countries up to modern day, two unitarian constitutions were promulgated and then rejected, the definitive one would be the federal Argentine Constitution of 1853, which is still in force. The first political event that shaped the country of Argentina was the creation of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata. The Viceroyalty sought to complement the existing trade routes with new ones, the new system would not work as expected, as Spain soon diverted most of its resources to the Napoleonic wars. Trade with the Americas was lowered, and when Britain got a clear naval supremacy with the battle of Trafalgar, the American and French Revolutions gave room to the Age of Enlightenment, a new era of ideas that rejected the absolute monarchies and favored liberalism instead. Both in Spain and the Americas, people longed for a new type of government, the ill-fated British invasions of the Río de la Plata set a precedent in weakening the monarchic authority. Liniers would be appointed viceroy later, and this appointment would be confirmed by the Spanish king afterwards and this was the first time that the viceroy was deposed by local institutions, and not by the Spanish king himself. The 1808 Peninsular War was trigered by an event of huge political weight, the Supreme Central and Governing Junta of the Kingdom claimed sovereignty, and waged the war against the French. The viceroyalty was divided in political factions with different political opinions about the legitimacy of the Junta. Conservatives thought that, in terms, the Junta should be acknowledged as the king would be. A group influenced by the French ideas thought instead that the Junta lacked the kings authority, the first one to take this ideas into action was Francisco Javier de Elío, governor of the Banda Oriental, with an enmity with viceroy Liniers. Elío appointed himself as the head of a Junta in Montevideo, however, he did not declare the independence of the Banda Oriental, nor rejected completely Liniers authority. He was allied with Martín de Álzaga in Buenos Aires, who organized a mutiny against Liniers and his project was to replace Liniers with a Junta, ruling nominally in the name of Ferdinand VII, and declare independence once Spain was completely invaded by the French forces. The mutiny, however, was defeated by military bodies supporting Liniers, the failed mutiny increased the power of criollos in the society, the peninsular military bodies, who supported the mutiny, were disbanded, and the only remaining ones were those of criollos. Carlota Joaquina, sister of Ferdinand VII, was the wife of the Portuguese prince regent, as she avoided the capture of the Spanish royal family, she attempted to take charge of the Spanish viceroyalties as regentRise of the Argentine Republic – Baltasar Hidalgo de Cisneros, the last viceroy ruling in Buenos Aires.
48. U.T.C – Coordinated Universal Time, abbreviated to UTC, is the primary time standard by which the world regulates clocks and time. It is within about 1 second of mean time at 0° longitude. It is one of closely related successors to Greenwich Mean Time. For most purposes, UTC is considered interchangeable with GMT, the first Coordinated Universal Time was informally adopted on 1 January 1960. This change also adopted leap seconds to simplify future adjustments, a number of proposals have been made to replace UTC with a new system that would eliminate leap seconds, but no consensus has yet been reached. Leap seconds are inserted as necessary to keep UTC within 0.9 seconds of universal time, see the Current number of leap seconds section for the number of leap seconds inserted to date. The official abbreviation for Coordinated Universal Time is UTC and this abbreviation arose from a desire by the International Telecommunication Union and the International Astronomical Union to use the same abbreviation in all languages. English speakers originally proposed CUT, while French speakers proposed TUC, the compromise that emerged was UTC, which conforms to the pattern for the abbreviations of the variants of Universal Time. Time zones around the world are expressed using positive or negative offsets from UTC, the westernmost time zone uses UTC−12, being twelve hours behind UTC, the easternmost time zone, theoretically, uses UTC+12, being twelve hours ahead of UTC. In 1995, the nation of Kiribati moved those of its atolls in the Line Islands from UTC-10 to UTC+14 so that the country would all be on the same day. UTC is used in internet and World Wide Web standards. The Network Time Protocol, designed to synchronise the clocks of computers over the internet, computer servers, online services and other entities that rely on having a universally accepted time use UTC as it is more specific than GMT. If only limited precision is needed, clients can obtain the current UTC from a number of official internet UTC servers, for sub-microsecond precision, clients can obtain the time from satellite signals. UTC is also the standard used in aviation, e. g. for flight plans. Weather forecasts and maps all use UTC to avoid confusion about time zones, the International Space Station also uses UTC as a time standard. Amateur radio operators often schedule their radio contacts in UTC, because transmissions on some frequencies can be picked up by many time zones, UTC is also used in digital tachographs used on large goods vehicles under EU and AETR rules. UTC divides time into days, hours, minutes and seconds, days are conventionally identified using the Gregorian calendar, but Julian day numbers can also be used. Each day contains 24 hours and each hour contains 60 minutes, the number of seconds in a minute is usually 60, but with an occasional leap second, it may be 61 or 59 insteadU.T.C – Key concepts
49. Soviet Union – The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991. It was nominally a union of national republics, but its government. The Soviet Union had its roots in the October Revolution of 1917 and this established the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic and started the Russian Civil War between the revolutionary Reds and the counter-revolutionary Whites. In 1922, the communists were victorious, forming the Soviet Union with the unification of the Russian, Transcaucasian, Ukrainian, following Lenins death in 1924, a collective leadership and a brief power struggle, Joseph Stalin came to power in the mid-1920s. Stalin suppressed all opposition to his rule, committed the state ideology to Marxism–Leninism. As a result, the country underwent a period of rapid industrialization and collectivization which laid the foundation for its victory in World War II and postwar dominance of Eastern Europe. Shortly before World War II, Stalin signed the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact agreeing to non-aggression with Nazi Germany, in June 1941, the Germans invaded the Soviet Union, opening the largest and bloodiest theater of war in history. Soviet war casualties accounted for the highest proportion of the conflict in the effort of acquiring the upper hand over Axis forces at battles such as Stalingrad. Soviet forces eventually captured Berlin in 1945, the territory overtaken by the Red Army became satellite states of the Eastern Bloc. The Cold War emerged by 1947 as the Soviet bloc confronted the Western states that united in the North Atlantic Treaty Organization in 1949. Following Stalins death in 1953, a period of political and economic liberalization, known as de-Stalinization and Khrushchevs Thaw, the country developed rapidly, as millions of peasants were moved into industrialized cities. The USSR took a lead in the Space Race with Sputnik 1, the first ever satellite, and Vostok 1. In the 1970s, there was a brief détente of relations with the United States, the war drained economic resources and was matched by an escalation of American military aid to Mujahideen fighters. In the mid-1980s, the last Soviet leader, Mikhail Gorbachev, sought to reform and liberalize the economy through his policies of glasnost. The goal was to preserve the Communist Party while reversing the economic stagnation, the Cold War ended during his tenure, and in 1989 Soviet satellite countries in Eastern Europe overthrew their respective communist regimes. This led to the rise of strong nationalist and separatist movements inside the USSR as well, in August 1991, a coup détat was attempted by Communist Party hardliners. It failed, with Russian President Boris Yeltsin playing a role in facing down the coup. On 25 December 1991, Gorbachev resigned and the twelve constituent republics emerged from the dissolution of the Soviet Union as independent post-Soviet statesSoviet Union – Vladimir Lenin addressing a crowd with Trotsky, 1920
50. 1970-060A – The Venera 7 was a Soviet spacecraft, part of the Venera series of probes to Venus. When it landed on the Venusian surface, it became the first spacecraft to land on another planet, the probe was launched from Earth on August 17,1970, at 05,38 UTC. It consisted of a bus based on the 3MV system. During the flight to Venus two in-course corrections were made using the buss on-board KDU-414 engine and it entered the atmosphere of Venus on December 15,1970. The lander remained attached to the bus during the initial stages of atmospheric entry to allow the bus to cool the lander to −8 °C for as long as possible. The lander was ejected once atmospheric buffeting broke the interplanetary buss lock-on with Earth, the parachute opened at a height of 60 km and atmospheric testing began with results showing the atmosphere to be 97% carbon dioxide. The parachute appeared to fail during the descent, resulting in a descent more rapid than planned, as a result the lander struck the surface of Venus at about 16.5 metres per second at 05,37,10 UTC. The probe appeared to go silent on impact but recording tapes kept rolling, a few weeks later, upon a review of the tapes, another 23 minutes of very weak signals were found on them. The spacecraft had landed on Venus and probably bounced onto its side, the probe transmitted information to Earth for 53 minutes, which included 20 minutes from the surface. It was found that the temperature at the surface of Venus was 475 °C ° ±20 ° C, the pressure corresponded to approximately 900 m below sea level. The probe provided information about the surface of Venus, which could not be seen through a veil of atmosphere. The spacecraft definitively confirmed that humans cannot survive on the surface of Venus, list of missions to Venus Timeline of artificial satellites and space probes Venera 7 NASA NSSDC Master Catalog Data Plumbing the Atmosphere of Venus1970-060A – Venera 7
51. William Felt – William Mark Felt, Sr. was a Federal Bureau of Investigation special agent who retired as the Bureaus Deputy Director in 1973. After keeping secret for 30 years his involvement with reporters Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein, Felt admitted on May 31,2005, to being the Watergate scandals whistleblower, Deep Throat. Felt worked in several FBI field offices prior to his promotion to the Bureaus headquarters in Washington, while serving as Associate Director, Felt provided The Washington Post with critical information that eventually led to the resignation of President Richard M. Nixon in 1974. He was ordered to pay a fine, but was pardoned by President Ronald Reagan during his appeal, in 2006, he published an update of his 1979 autobiography, The FBI Pyramid. His last book, written with John OConnor, is titled A G-Mans Life, on June 14,2012, the FBI released Felts personnel file at the agency, covering the period from 1941 to 1978. It also released files pertaining to a threat made against Felt in 1956. Born on August 17,1913, in Twin Falls, Idaho, Felt was the son of carpenter and building contractor Mark Earl Felt and his wife and his paternal grandfather was a Free Will Baptist minister. His maternal grandparents were born in Canada and Scotland, through his maternal grandfather, Felt was related to Revolutionary War general Nicholas Herkimer. He received a BA in 1935, Felt went to Washington, D. C. to work in the office of Democratic U. S. In 1938, Felt married Audrey Robinson of Gooding, Idaho and she had come to Washington to work at the Bureau of Internal Revenue, and they were wed by the chaplain of the United States House of Representatives, the Rev. Sheara Montgomery. Audrey, who died in 1984, and Felt had two children, Joan and Mark, Felt stayed on with Popes successor in the Senate, David Worth Clark. Felt attended the George Washington University Law School at night, earned his law degree in 1940, upon graduation, Felt took a position at the Federal Trade Commission but did not enjoy the work. Felt wrote in his memoir, My research, which required days of travel and hundreds of interviews, most people did use toilet tissue. Most people did not appreciate being asked about it and that was when I started looking for other employment. He applied for a job with the FBI in November 1941 and was accepted and his first day at the Bureau was January 26,1942. FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover often moved Bureau agents around so they would have wide experience, Felt observed that Hoover wanted every agent to get into any field office at any time. Since he had never been transferred and did not have a family, after completing sixteen weeks of training at the FBI Academy at Quantico, Virginia, and FBI Headquarters in Washington, DC. Felt was first assigned to Texas, working in the offices in Houston and San AntonioWilliam Felt – W. Mark Felt