1. 17 March 1861 – As of the start of 1861, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. January 1 Benito Juárez captures Mexico City, First steam-powered carousel recorded, in Bolton, England. January 2 – Friedrich Wilhelm IV of Prussia dies and is succeeded by Wilhelm I, january 3 – American Civil War, Delaware votes not to secede from the Union. January 9 – American Civil War, Mississippi becomes the state to secede from the Union. January 10 – American Civil War, Florida secedes from the Union, january 11 – American Civil War, Alabama secedes from the Union. January 12 – American Civil War, Major Robert Anderson sends dispatches to Washington, january 19 – American Civil War, Georgia secedes from the Union. January 21 – American Civil War, Jefferson Davis resigns from the United States Senate, january 26 – American Civil War, Louisiana secedes from the Union. January 29 – Kansas is admitted as the 34th U. S. state, february 1 – American Civil War, Texas secedes from the Union. February 4 – American Civil War, In Montgomery, Alabama, february 8 – American Civil War, The Confederate States of America are formed, comprising the first seven break-away States. February 9 – American Civil War, Jefferson Davis is elected the Provisional President of the Confederate States of America by the Weed Convention at Montgomery, february 11 American Civil War, The U. S. House unanimously passes a resolution guaranteeing non-interference with slavery in any state. About 850 convicts at Chatham Dockyard in England take over their prison in a riot, february 13 – Italian unification, The Siege of Gaeta, stronghold of the Neapolitan King Francis II, is ended by Piedmontese forces. February 18 – American Civil War, In Montgomery, Alabama, february 20 – In Britain, storms damage the Crystal Palace and cause the collapse of the steeple of Chichester Cathedral. February 23 – President-elect Abraham Lincoln arrives secretly in Washington, D. C. after an attempt in Baltimore. February 24 – Battle of Ky Hoa, the French and the Spanish defeat the Vietnamese, february 27 – Russian troops fire upon a crowd in Warsaw protesting Russian rule over Poland, killing 5 protesters. February 28 – Colorado is organized as a United States territory, march 2 Nevada is organized as a United States territory. American Civil War, Texas is admitted to the Confederate States of America, march 3 – Emancipation reform of 1861, Serfdom is abolished in the Russian Empire. March 4 Abraham Lincoln is sworn in as President of the United States, American Civil War, The Stars and Bars is adopted as the flag of the Confederate States of America. March 10 – El Hadj Umar Tall seizes the city of Ségou, march 11 – American Civil War, The Constitution of the Confederate States of America is adopted17 March 1861 – March 4: Lincoln inaugurated
2. 1865 – As of the start of 1865, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. January 4 – The New York Stock Exchange opens its first permanent headquarters at 10-12 Broad near Wall Street in New York City, january 15 – American Civil War, United States forces capture Fort Fisher. January 31 Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution passes narrowly in the House of Representatives, American Civil War, Confederate General Robert E. Lee becomes general-in-chief. February – American Civil War, Columbia, South Carolina burns as Confederate forces flee from advancing Union forces, february 3 – Leaders from Union and Confederacy discuss peace terms at the Hampton Roads Conference. February 21 – John Deere receives a patent for ploughs, february 22 – Tennessee adopts a new constitution that abolishes slavery. March 3 – The U. S. Congress authorizes formation of the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, March 4 – Abraham Lincoln is sworn in for a second term as President of the United States. March 4 – Washington College and Jefferson College are merged to form Washington & Jefferson College, March 13 – American Civil War, The Confederate States of America agrees to the use of African American troops. March 18 – American Civil War, The Congress of the Confederate States of America adjourns for the last time. March 19 – American Civil War, The Battle of Bentonville begins, by the end of the battle on March 21 the Confederate forces retreat from Four Oaks, North Carolina. March 25 The Claywater Meteorite explodes just before reaching ground level in Vernon County, Wisconsin, American Civil War, In Virginia, Confederate forces capture Fort Stedman from the Union. Lees army suffers heavy casualties during the battle of Fort Stedman—about 2,900, after the battle, Lees defeat is only a matter of time. April 1 – American Civil War – Battle of Five Forks, In Petersburg, Virginia, april 2 – American Civil War, Confederate President Jefferson Davis and most of his Cabinet flee the Confederate capital of Richmond, Virginia, which is taken by Union troops the next day. April 6 – German chemicals producer Badische Anilin- und Sodafabrik is founded in Mannheim, doctors move the unconscious President to a bed in a house across the street. United States Secretary of State William H. Seward and his family are attacked in his home by Lewis Powell, april 15 – President Lincoln dies early this morning from his gunshot wound. Vice President Andrew Johnson becomes President of the United States, upon Lincolns death, Johnson is sworn in later that morning. April 18 – Confederate President Jefferson Davis and his entire cabinet arrive in Charlotte, april 21 – German Chemicals producer BASF moves its headquarters and factories from Mannheim to the Hemshof District of Ludwigshafen. April 26 American Civil War, Confederate States Army General Joseph E. Johnston surrenders to Union Army Major General William Tecumseh Sherman at Durham Station, Union cavalry corner John Wilkes Booth in a Virginia barn, and cavalryman Boston Corbett shoots the assassin dead. April 27 The steamboat Sultana, carrying 2,300 passengers, explodes and sinks in the Mississippi River, killing 1,800, governor of New York Reuben Fenton signs a bill formally creating Cornell University in the United States1865 – January 15: Union captures Fort Fisher.
3. 1892 – As of the start of 1892, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. January 1 – Ellis Island begins accommodating immigrants to the United States, January 15 –James Naismiths rules for basketball are published for the first time in the Springfield YMCA International Training Schools newspaper, in an article titled A New Game. February 18 – Pennsauken Township, New Jersey is incorporated, February 27 – Rudolf Diesel applies for a patent on his compression ignition engine. February 29 – St. Petersburg, Florida is incorporated, march 1 – Theodoros Deligiannis ends his term as Prime Minister of Greece and Konstantinos Konstantopoulos takes office. March 6–8 – Exclusive Agreement, Rulers of the Trucial States sign an agreement by which they become de facto British protectorates, march 11 – First basketball game ever played in public, between students and faculty at the Springfield YMCA. The final score is 5–1 in favor of the students, with the goal for the faculty being scored by Amos Alonzo Stagg. A crowd of 200 spectators watches the game, march 13 – Ernest Louis, a grandson of Queen Victoria, becomes Grand Duke of Hesse and the Rhine on the death of his father, Grand Duke Louis IV. March 15 – The Liverpool Football Club is founded by John Houlding, Houlding decides to form his own team after Everton leaves Anfield in an argument over rent. March 18 – Sir Frederick Stanley announces his intention to donate the Stanley Cup, march 20 – The first ever French rugby championship final takes place in Paris. Pierre de Coubertin referees the match, which Racing Club de France wins 4–3 over Stade Français, march 31 – The worlds first fingerprinting bureau is formally opened by the Buenos Aires Chief of Police, it has been operating unofficially since the previous year. April – The Johnson County War breaks out between small farmers and large ranchers in Wyoming, April 15 – The General Electric Company is established through the merger of the Thomson-Houston Company and the Edison General Electric Company. April 29 – Redondo Beach, California, USA is founded, may 7 – The Cook Islands issue their first postage stamps. May 19 – Battle of Yemoja River, British troops defeat Ijebu infantry in modern-day Nigeria, may 20 – Last broad gauge Down train from Paddington on Great Western Railway. May 22 – The British conquest of Ijebu Ode marks a major extension of power into the Nigerian interior. May 24 – Prince George becomes Duke of York, may 28 – In San Francisco, John Muir organizes the Sierra Club. June 4 – Abercrombie & Fitch is established by David T. Abercrombie, june 5 – An oil fire in Oil City, Pennsylvania, kills 130 people. June 7 – Homer Plessy is arrested for sitting on the car in Louisiana. June 11 – The Limelight Department, later one of the worlds first film studios, is established in Melbourne1892 – February 27: Rudolf Diesel 's patent.
4. 1904 – As of the start of 1904, the Gregorian calendar was 13 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. January 7 – The distress signal CQD is established, only to be replaced 2 years later by SOS, january 12 – Henry Ford sets a new automobile land speed record of 91.37 mph. January 16 – The first large-scale bodybuilding competition in America takes place at Madison Square Garden in New York City, january 18 – The Herero Rebellion in German South-West Africa begins. January 23 – The Ålesund Fire destroys most buildings in the town of Ålesund, Norway, february 7 – The Great Baltimore Fire in Baltimore, Maryland, destroys over 1,500 buildings in 30 hours. February 8–9 – Battle of Port Arthur, A surprise Japanese naval attack on Port Arthur in Manchuria starts the Russo-Japanese War, february 10 – Roger Casement publishes his account of Belgian atrocities in the Congo. February 17 – Puccinis opera Madama Butterfly, with a theme of Japan–United States relations. On May 28 a revised version opens in Brescia to huge success, february 23 – For $10 million, the United States gains control of the Panama Canal Zone. February 28 – Sport Lisboa e Benfica is founded in Portugal, march 3 – Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany becomes the first person to make a political recording of a document, using Thomas Edisons cylinder. March 4 – Russo-Japanese War, Russian troops in Korea retreat toward Manchuria, march 26 –80,000 demonstrators gather in Hyde Park, London, to protest against the importation of Chinese labourers to South Africa by the British government. March 31 – British expedition to Tibet – Battle of Guru, April 8 The Entente Cordiale is signed between the UK and France. Longacre Square in Midtown Manhattan is renamed Times Square after The New York Times, aleister Crowley begins writing Liber Al vel Legis, better known as The Book of the Law, a text central to Thelema. He completes this task on April 10, April 19 – The Great Toronto Fire destroys much of that citys downtown, but there are no fatalities. April 27 – The Australian Labor Party becomes the first such party to gain national government, April 30 – The Louisiana Purchase Exposition Worlds Fair opens in St. Louis, Missouri. May 4 United States Army engineers begin work on the Panama Canal, German football club FC Schalke 04 is established. May 5 Pitching against the Philadelphia Athletics, Cy Young of the Boston Americans throws the first perfect game in the era of baseball. British expedition to Tibet, Hundreds of Tibetans attack the British camp at Changlo and, for a while, hold the advantage before being defeated by superior weapons and losing at least 200 men. May 9 – Great Western Railway of England 3700 Class 3440 City of Truro becomes the first railway locomotive to exceed 100 mph. May 15– The Russian minelayer Amur lays a minefield about 15 miles off Port Arthur and sinks Japans battleships Hatsuse,15,000 tons, with 496 crew, may 21 – The International Federation of Association Football, FIFA, is established1904 – February 7: Aftermath of the Great Baltimore Fire.
5. 1905 – As of the start of 1905, the Gregorian calendar was 13 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. As the second year of the massive Russo-Japanese War began, more than 100,000 died in the largest world battles of that era, Canada and the U. S. expanded west, with the Alberta and Saskatchewan provinces and the founding of Las Vegas. January 1 – The Trans-Siberian Railway officially opens after its completion on July 21,1904, january 2 – Russo-Japanese War, The Russian Army surrenders at Port Arthur in Qing dynasty China. January 5 – The play The Scarlet Pimpernel opens at the New Theatre in London and begins a run of 122 performances, january 26 Russian Revolution of 1905, The Imperial Russian Army opens fire on demonstrators in Riga, Governorate of Livonia, killing 73 and injuring 200 people. The Cullinan Diamond is found near Pretoria, South Africa, at the Premier Mine, february 12 – In Christchurch, New Zealand, the Cathedral of the Blessed Sacrament is opened. February 16 – At Haulbowline Base in Ireland, two explosions on board HM Submarine A5, due to gasoline fumes after refueling, kill six of the eleven crew, february 17 – At Fremantle, the R. M. S. Orizaba is wrecked, but all 160 passengers and the mail are saved, february 20 – Russo-Japanese War, The Battle of Mukden begins in Manchuria. February 23 – Rotary International is founded, march 1 – Australian Conservative leader Richard Butler takes office as Premier of South Australia. March 3 – Tsar Nicholas II of Russia agrees to create an elected assembly, march 4 – Theodore Roosevelt is sworn in for a full term as President of the United States. March 5 – Russo-Japanese War, Russian troops begin to retreat from Mukden after losing 100,000 troops in 3 days, march 10 Russo-Japanese War, The Japanese capture of Mukden completes the rout of Russian armies in Manchuria. Cassie Chadwick is sentenced for 14 years in Cleveland, Ohio for fraud, chelsea F. C. is founded in London. March 13 – Mata Hari introduces her dance act in Paris. March 20 – Grover Shoe Factory disaster, A boiler explosion, building collapse and fire in Brockton, march 31 – Wilhelm II, German Emperor asserts German equality with France in Morocco, triggering the Tangier or First Moroccan Crisis. April – Albert Einstein works on the theory of relativity as well as the theory of Brownian motion. April 1 – Penny Post established between the United Kingdom and Australia, april 2 – The Simplon Tunnel is officially opened through the Alps. April 3 – Boca Junior, as known for football club of Argentina. April 4 – In India, the 1905 Kangra earthquake hits the Kangra Valley, kills 20,000, april 6 – Lochner v. New York, The Supreme Court of the United States invalidates New Yorks 8-hour-day law. April 14 – Erik Gustaf Boström resigns as the Prime Minister of Sweden and his Minister without Portfolio, Johan Ramstedt, becomes the new Prime Minister of Sweden1905 – The Bloody Sunday massacre of Russian demonstrators, at the Winter Palace in Saint Petersburg.
6. 1909 – As of the start of 1909, the Gregorian calendar was 13 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. January 5 – Colombia recognizes the independence of Panama, january 16 – Ernest Shackletons expedition claims to have found the magnetic South Pole. January 24 – The White Star Liner RMS Republic sinks the day after a collision with SS Florida, in the first recorded use of the CQD emergency radio signal for a large passenger vessel, one person, a male passenger, is lost on the Republic. January 28 – The last United States troops leave Cuba after being there since the Spanish–American War of 1898, february 5 – Leo Baekeland announces the creation of bakelite hard thermosetting plastic. March 4 – William Howard Taft is sworn in as President of the United States, march 10 – The Anglo-Siamese Treaty of 1909 is signed in Bangkok. March 18 – Einar Dessau uses a radio transmitter, becoming the first radio broadcaster. March 21 – The remains of the Báb are placed in the Baháí Shrine of the Báb on Mount Carmel in Haifa, march 31 – Serbia accepts Austrian control over Bosnia and Herzegovina. April 4 – The association football team Sport Club Internacional is founded in Porto Alegre, april 6 – Robert Peary, Matthew Henson, and four Inuit explorers, Ootah, Ooqueah, Seegloo, and Egigingwah, come within a few miles of the North Pole. April 11 – The city of Tel Aviv is founded by the Jewish community on the outskirts of Jaffa, april 13 – Ottoman countercoup begins in the Ottoman Empire. April 14 – Adana massacre, Ottoman Turks kill 15, 000–30,000 Armenian Christians in the Adana Vilayet, april 18 – Joan of Arc is beatified in Rome. April 19 – The Anglo-Persian Oil Company, modern-day BP, is incorporated, april 27 – Sultan of the Ottoman Empire Abdul Hamid II is overthrown and succeeded by his brother, Mehmed V. He is sent to the Ottoman port city of Thessaloniki the next day, may 13–30 – First Giro dItalia bicycle race, starting and finishing in Milan, Luigi Ganna is the winner. June 2 – French forces capture Abéché, capital of the Wadai Empire in central Africa, june 15 – Representatives from England, Australia and South Africa meet at Lords Cricket Ground and form the Imperial Cricket Conference. July 16 – A revolution forces Mohammad Ali Shah of the Qajar dynasty to abdicate in favor of his son Ahmad Shah Qajar and he proceeds to leave Persia for Imperial Russia, reportedly seeking the assistance of Nicholas II of Russia in regaining the throne. July 25 – Louis Blériot is the first man to fly across the English Channel in a heavier-than-air craft, july 25–August 2 – Tragic Week, The city of Barcelona experiences a workers uprising. August 2 – The United States Army Signal Corp Division purchases the worlds first military airplane, august 8 – Max Heindel formally founds the Rosicrucian Fellowship in Seattle, United States. August 12 – Indianapolis Motor Speedway opens in the United States, september 4 – Japan and China sign the Jiandao/Gando Treaty, which gives Japan a way to receive railroad concessions in Manchuria. October 8 – An earthquake in the Zagreb area leads Andrija Mohorovičić to identify the Mohorovičić discontinuity, october 12 - The association football team Coritiba is founded in Curitiba, Brazil1909 – U Thant
7. Taisho 3 – As of the start of 1914, the Gregorian calendar was 13 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. January 1 – The St. Petersburg–Tampa Airboat Line in the United States starts services between St. Abram C, pheil, mayor of St. Petersburg, is the first airline passenger and over 3,000 people witness the first departure. January 5 – Ford Motor Company announces an eight-hour workday and a wage of $5. January 8 – A railway strike is declared in the Transvaal, January 9 – The Phi Beta Sigma fraternity is founded by African American students at Howard University in Washington, D. C. January 11 – The Sakurajima volcano in Japan begins to erupt, the lava flows cause the island which it forms to be linked to the Ōsumi Peninsula. February 2 – Charlie Chaplin makes his film début in the comedy short Making a Living, february 7 – Release of Charlie Chaplins second film, the Keystone comedy Kid Auto Races at Venice, in which his character of The Tramp is introduced to audiences. February 8 – The Luxembourg national football team has its first victory, beating France 5–4 in a match, for the first. February 10 – Release of the film Hearts Adrift, the name of Mary Pickford, february 12 – In Washington, D. C. the first stone of the Lincoln Memorial is put into place. February 13 – Copyright, In New York City the American Society of Composers, Authors and Publishers is established to protect the copyrighted musical compositions of its members, february 17 – Karl Staaff steps down as Prime Minister of Sweden in the aftermath of the Courtyard Crisis. He is replaced by the public official Hjalmar Hammarskjöld, father of Dag Hammarskjöld, february 26 – The ocean liner that will become HMHS Britannic, sister to the RMS Titanic, is launched at the Harland and Wolff shipyards in Belfast. February 28 – Autonomous Republic of Northern Epirus proclaimed by ethnic Greeks in Northern Epirus, march 1 – The Republic of China joins the Universal Postal Union. March 6 – Founding of FK Vojvodina football club in Novi Sad, march 7 – Prince William of Wied arrives in Albania to begin his reign. March 8 – First transfer of aircraft to Don Muang Royal Thai Air Force Base, march 10 – Suffragette Mary Richardson damages Velázquez painting Rokeby Venus in Londons National Gallery with a meat chopper. March 17 – Green beer is invented by Dr. Thomas H. Curtin and displayed at the Schnorrer Club of Morrisania in the Bronx, march 27 – Belgian surgeon Albert Hustin makes the first successful non-direct blood transfusion, using anticoagulants. March 29 – Katherine Routledge and her husband arrive in Easter Island to make the first true study of it, april 4–September 27 – Komagata Maru incident, Voyage of the Komagata Maru from India to Canada. Due to Canadian regulations designed to exclude Asian immigrants the boat is not allowed to dock in Vancouver and is forced to return to Calcutta with all its passengers, april 9 – Tampico Affair, involving United States Navy sailors in Mexico. April 11 Canadian Margaret C. MacDonald is appointed Matron-in-Chief of the Canadian Nursing service band, alpha Rho Chi, a professional architecture fraternity, is founded in the Hotel Sherman in Chicago. April 14–18 – First International Criminal Police Congress held in Monaco,24 countries are represented including some from Asia, Europe, and the Americas, the Dean of the Paris Law School is presidentTaisho 3 – This picture is usually associated with the arrest of Gavrilo Princip, although some believe it depicts Ferdinand Behr, a bystander.
8. Taisho 8 – As of the start of 1919, the Gregorian calendar was 13 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. January 1 The Czechoslovak Legions occupy much of the free city of Pressburg. HMY Iolaire sinks off the coast of Scotland,206 die, edsel Ford succeeds his father as head of the Ford Motor Company. January 5 Spartacist uprising, Socialist demonstrations in Berlin, Germany turn into an attempted communist revolution, in Germany, the German Workers Party, predecessor of the Nazi Party, is formed by merger of Anton Drexlers Committee of Independent Workmen with journalist Karl Harrers Political Workers Circle. January 7 The beginning of the Tragic Week in Argentina, an anarchist uprising in Buenos Aires, Estonian War of Independence, With Soviet Russian forces just 40 km of the capital Tallinn, Estonian forces start a general and successful counter-offensive against the Red Army. January 9 – Friedrich Ebert orders the Freikorps into action in Berlin, January 10–12 – The Freikorps attacks Spartacist supporters around Berlin. January 13 – Workers councils in Berlin end the general strike, January 14 – Estonian War of Independence, Estonian forces liberate Tartu from the Red Army. January 15 Rosa Luxemburg and Karl Liebknecht are murdered following the Spartacist uprising, great Molasses Flood, A wave of molasses released from an exploding storage tank sweeps through Boston, Massachusetts, killing 21 and injuring 150. January 16 The Eighteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, authorizing Prohibition, is ratified, pianist Ignacy Jan Paderewski becomes the second Prime Minister of Poland. January 18 World War I, The Paris Peace Conference opens at the Palace of Versailles, Estonian War of Independence, Estonian forces liberate Narva, expelling the Red Army from Northern Estonia. Bentley Motors Limited is founded in England, January 19 The Monarchy of the North is established in Northern Portugal. January 21 Dáil Éireann meets for the first time in the Mansion House, in the first shots of the Anglo-Irish War, two Royal Irish Constabulary men are killed in an ambush at Soloheadbeg in Tipperary. Gojong, the first emperor of the Korean Empire, dies, January 23 – The Khotin Uprising breaks out in Khotyn, Ukraine. January 25 – The League of Nations is founded in Paris, January 31 – Battle of George Square, The British Army is called in to deal with riots during negotiations over working hours in Glasgow, Scotland. February 1 – Estonian War of Independence, Estonian forces liberate Valga and Võru, february 3 – Soviet troops occupy Ukraine. February 4-5 – Pressburg becomes capital of Slovakia, february 6 – The Seattle General Strike begins in the United States, affecting over 65,000 workers. February 11 Friedrich Ebert is elected first President of Germany by the Weimar National Assembly, the Seattle General Strike ends when Federal troops are summoned by the State of Washingtons Attorney General. February 12 – Ethnic Germans and Hungarian inhabitants of Pressburg start a protest against its incorporation into Czechoslovakia, february 14 – The Polish–Soviet War begins with the Battle of Bereza KartuskaTaisho 8 – January 1: Iolaire sinks.
9. Imperial territory of Alsace-Lorraine – The Alsatian part lay in the Rhine Valley on the west bank of the Rhine River and east of the Vosges Mountains. The Lorraine section was in the upper Moselle valley to the north of the Vosges, the territory was made up of 93% of Alsace and 26% of Lorraine, the remaining portions of these regions continued to be part of France. For historical reasons, specific legal dispositions are still applied in the territory in the form of a local law, in relation to its special legal status, since its reversion to France following World War I, the territory has been referred to administratively as Alsace-Moselle. Alsace-Lorraine had an area of 14,496 km2. France long sought to attain and preserve its boundaries, which are the Pyrenees to the southwest, the Alps to the southeast. These strategic claims led to the annexation of territories located west of the Rhine river in the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation. The transfer was controversial even among the Germans, The German Chancellor, Otto von Bismarck, was opposed to it. Some German industrialists did not want the competition from Alsatian industries, from an ethnic perspective, the transfer involved people who for the most part spoke Alemannic German dialects. From a military perspective, by early 1870s standards, shifting the frontier away from the Rhine would give the Germans a strategic buffer against feared future French attacks, however, domestic politics in the new Reich may have been decisive. Although it was led by Prussia, the new German Empire was a decentralized federal state. As recently as the 1866 Austro-Prussian War, these states had been Prussias enemies, in the new Empires constitution, both states, but especially Bavaria, had been given concessions with regard to local autonomy, including partial control of their military forces. For this reason, the Prussian General Staff argued that it was necessary for the Reichs frontier with France to be under direct Prussian control, thus, by annexing Alsace-Lorraine, Berlin was able to avoid complications with Baden and Bavaria on such matters as new fortifications. Memories of the Napoleonic Wars were still fresh in the 1870s. In the years before 1870, it is arguable that the Germans feared the French more than the French feared the Germans. Many Germans at the thought that the creation of the new Empire in itself would be enough to earn permanent French enmity. Any additional enmity that would be earned from territorial concessions was downplayed as marginal, the annexed area consisted of the northern part of Lorraine, along with Alsace. The rest of the département of Meurthe was joined with the westernmost part of Moselle which had escaped German annexation to form the new département of Meurthe-et-Moselle, in 1900,11. 6% of the population of Alsace-Lorraine spoke French as their first language. That small francophone areas were affected, was used in France to denounce the new border as hypocrisy and this should only change with the First World War in 1914Imperial territory of Alsace-Lorraine – Alsatians leaving newly annexed Alsace for France.
10. Armando Diaz – Armando Diaz, 1st Duke of the Victory, OSSA, OSML, OMS, OCI was an Italian general and a Marshal of Italy. He is mostly known for his role as Chief of Staff of the Regio Esercito during World War I. Born in Naples to a father of distant Spanish heritage, and an Italian mother, Diaz began his career as a student at the Military Academy of Turin. He was a colonel commanding the 93rd infantry during the Italo-Turkish War, on the outbreak of World War I, he was assigned to the high command as head of the units operations under General Luigi Cadorna. He was promoted to 2-star general in June,1916, and assumed the command of the 49th division, the Battle of Caporetto, in October 1917, was disastrous to the army, and on 8 November 1917 he was called to succeed Cadorna as chief of general staff. Having recovered what remained of the army, he organized the resistance in 1917 on the Monte Grappa massif and along the Piave River, which successfully halted the Austrian offensive. In summer of 1918 he oversaw the victory in the Battle of the Piave River and later that led the Italian troops in the Battle of Vittorio Veneto. With his famous Bollettino della Vittoria he communicated the rout of the Austrian army, on 1 November 1921 Diaz was in Kansas City to attend the groundbreaking ceremony for the Liberty Memorial that was being constructed there. Also present that day were Lieutenant General Baron Jacques of Belgium, Admiral David Beatty of Great Britain, Marshal Ferdinand Foch of France, one of the main speakers was Vice President Calvin Coolidge of the United States. In 1935 bas-reliefs of Jacques, Foch, Diaz, and Pershing by sculptor Walker Hancock were added to the memorial, after the war Armando Diaz was appointed as a senator. In 1921 he was ennobled by King Victor Emmanuel III and given the title of 1st Duca della Vittoria. Benito Mussolini named him Minister of War, and he was promoted to Field Marshal, upon retirement, in 1924, he was given the honor of Marshal of Italy. Diaz died in Rome in 1928, he was buried in the church of Santa Maria degli Angeli e dei Martiri, next to Admiral Paolo Thaon di RevelArmando Diaz – The Honourable Armando Diaz OSSA OSML OMS OCI
11. Heavy artillery – Artillery is a class of large military weapons built to fire munitions far beyond the range and power of infantrys small arms. Early artillery development focused on the ability to breach fortifications, and led to heavy, as technology improved, lighter, more mobile field artillery developed for battlefield use. This development continues today, modern self-propelled artillery vehicles are highly mobile weapons of great versatility providing the largest share of an armys total firepower, in its earliest sense, the word artillery referred to any group of soldiers primarily armed with some form of manufactured weapon or armour. In common speech, the artillery is often used to refer to individual devices, along with their accessories and fittings. However, there is no generally recognised generic term for a gun, howitzer, mortar, and so forth, the United States uses artillery piece, the projectiles fired are typically either shot or shell. Shell is a widely used term for a projectile, which is a component of munitions. By association, artillery may also refer to the arm of service that customarily operates such engines, in the 20th Century technology based target acquisition devices, such as radar, and systems, such as sound ranging and flash spotting, emerged to acquire targets, primarily for artillery. These are usually operated by one or more of the artillery arms, Artillery originated for use against ground targets—against infantry, cavalry and other artillery. An early specialist development was coastal artillery for use against enemy ships, the early 20th Century saw the development of a new class of artillery for use against aircraft, anti-aircraft guns. Artillery is arguably the most lethal form of land-based armament currently employed, the majority of combat deaths in the Napoleonic Wars, World War I, and World War II were caused by artillery. In 1944, Joseph Stalin said in a speech that artillery was the God of War, although not called as such, machines performing the role recognizable as artillery have been employed in warfare since antiquity. The first references in the historical tradition begin at Syracuse in 399 BC. From the Middle Ages through most of the era, artillery pieces on land were moved by horse-drawn gun carriages. In the contemporary era, the artillery and crew rely on wheeled or tracked vehicles as transportation, Artillery used by naval forces has changed significantly also, with missiles replacing guns in surface warfare. The engineering designs of the means of delivery have likewise changed significantly over time, in some armies, the weapon of artillery is the projectile, not the equipment that fires it. The process of delivering fire onto the target is called gunnery, the actions involved in operating the piece are collectively called serving the gun by the detachment or gun crew, constituting either direct or indirect artillery fire. The term gunner is used in armed forces for the soldiers and sailors with the primary function of using artillery. The gunners and their guns are usually grouped in teams called either crews or detachments, several such crews and teams with other functions are combined into a unit of artillery, usually called a battery, although sometimes called a companyHeavy artillery – French naval piece of the late 19th century
12. Battle of Solstizio – The Second Battle of the Piave River, fought between 15 and 23 June 1918, was a decisive victory for the Italian Army during World War I. The Central Powers failure was, as the Allies had anticipated and its full significance was not appreciated in Italy, but Erich Ludendorff, on hearing the news, have reported to say had the sensation of defeat for the first time. It could be considered, in fact, as the beginning of the end of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, with the exit of Russia from the war in 1917, Austria-Hungary was now able to devote significant forces to the Italian Front and to receive reinforcements from their German allies. In the autumn of 1917, the Germans and Austrians had defeated the Italians at the Battle of Caporetto, after Caporetto the Italians were reinforced by six French infantry divisions and five British infantry divisions as well as sizeable air contingents. Italys defeat at Caporetto led to General Luigi Cadornas dismissal and General Armando Diaz replaced him as Chief of staff of the Italian Army, Diaz set up a strong defense line along the Piave. Up until this point in the war, the Italian army had been fighting alone against the Central Powers, with the defeat at Caporetto, France and Britain sent small reinforcements on the Italian front. The Austro-Hungarian Army had also undergone a change in command. After Caporetto, the Austro-Hungarian offensive has put many Italian cities, including Venice and Verona, austrias army had since then longed to achieve these strategic prizes and force Italy into an armistice. Conrad wanted an attack from the South Tyrolean Alps towards the Asiago Plateau, Boroević first favored a defensive action, but then when pressed preferred a frontal attack along the Piave River. Straußenburg himself was in favour of an attack on the part of the front leading to Brescia. The preparation of the began in February 1918, after a meeting in Bolzano between the Austrian and German high commands. There were also innovations on the Italian side, moreover,13 divisions, equipped with 6000 trucks, were organized in a central reserve, ready to be sent where it was needed. Boroević launched the first assault, moving South along the Adriatic Coast, to make matters worse, the swollen Piave isolated a great number of units on the west bank of the river, which made of them an easy target for the Italian fire. An estimated 20,000 Austro-Hungarian soldiers drowned trying to reach the east bank. On 19 June Diaz, counterattacked and hit Boroević in the flank inflicting heavy casualties, in the meantime Conrad attacked along the Italian lines west of Boroević on the Asiago Plateau, with the objective of capturing Vicenza. His forces gained ground, but came upon stiff resistance by Italian units,40,000 casualties were added to the Austrian total. Lacking supplies and facing attacks by armored units, the Austro-Hungarians were ordered to retreat by Emperor Karl, by 23 June, the Italians recaptured all territory on the southern bank of the Piave and the battle was over. Moreover, once the Italian Army crossed the river, they would have to face the same problems as the AustriansBattle of Solstizio – Map of the Battle of the Piave River
13. Twelfth Battle of Isonzo – The Battle of Caporetto in 1917, took place from 24 October to 19 November 1917, near the town of Kobarid, on the Austro-Italian front of World War I. The battle was named after the Italian name of the town, Austro-Hungarian forces, reinforced by German units, were able to break into the Italian front line and rout the Italian forces opposing them. The battle was a demonstration of the effectiveness of the use of stormtroopers, the use of poison gas by the Germans also played a key role in the collapse of the Italian Second Army. In August 1917 Paul von Hindenburg decided that to keep the Austro-Hungarians in the war, erich Ludendorff was opposed to this but was overruled. In September three experts from the Imperial General Staff, led by the chemist Otto Hahn, went to the Isonzo front to find a suitable for a gas attack. They proposed attacking the quiet Caporetto sector, where a road ran west through a mountain valley to the Venetian plain. The Austro-Hungarian Army Group Boroević, commanded by Svetozar Boroević, was prepared for the offensive, in addition, a new 14th Army was formed with nine Austrian and six German divisions, commanded by the German Otto von Below. The Italians inadvertently helped by providing weather information over their radio, foul weather delayed the attack for two days but on 24 October there was no wind and the front was misted over. Knowing that their gas masks could protect them only for two hours or less, the defenders fled for their lives, though 500–600 were still killed, then the front was quiet until 06,00 when all the Italian wire and trenches to be attacked were bombarded by mortars. At 06,41,2,200 guns opened fire, at 08,00 two large mines were detonated under strong points on the heights bordering the valley and the infantry attacked. Soon they penetrated the almost undefended Italian fortifications in the valley and they made good use of the new German model 08/15 Maxim light machine gun, light trench mortars, mountain guns, flamethrowers and hand grenades. The attackers in the valley marched almost unopposed along the excellent road toward Italy, the Italian army beat back the attackers on either side of the sector where the central column attacked, but Belows successful central penetration threw the entire Italian army into disarray. Forces had to be moved along the Italian front in an attempt to stem von Belows breakout, at this point, the entire Italian position was threatened. The Italian 2nd Army commander Luigi Capello was commanding while bedridden with fever, realizing that his forces were ill-prepared for this attack and were being routed, Capello requested permission to withdraw back to the Tagliamento. He was overruled by Cadorna who believed that the Italian force could regroup, finally, on 30 October 1917, Cadorna ordered the majority of the Italian force to retreat to the other side of the Tagliamento. It took the Italians four full days to cross the river, by 2 November, a German division had established a bridgehead on the Tagliamento. About this time, however, the success of the attack caught up with them. The German and Austro-Hungarian supply lines were stretched to breaking point, even before the battle, Germany was struggling to feed and supply its armies in the fieldTwelfth Battle of Isonzo – Battle of Caporetto and Italian retreat.
14. Battle of vittorio veneto – The Battle of Vittorio Veneto was fought from 24 October to 3 November 1918 near Vittorio Veneto on the Italian Front during World War I. The Italian victory marked the end of the war on the Italian Front, secured the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, some Italian authors see Vittorio Veneto as the final culmination of the Risorgimento nationalist movement, in which Italy was unified. Diaz reorganized the troops, blocked the advance by implementing defense in depth and mobile reserves. In June 1918, a large Austro-Hungarian offensive, aimed at breaking the Piave River defensive line and delivering a decisive blow to the Italian Army, was launched. The whole offensive, the Battle of the Piave River, came to worse than nothing, Allied forces totaled 57 infantry divisions, including 51 Italian,3 British,2 French,1 Czechoslovak and the 332nd US Infantry Regiment, along with supporting arms. The Austro-Hungarian army was equal in strength with 61 infantry divisions, the Italian armies in the mountains were merely to hold the front line and follow up the enemy when he retreated. The task of opening the attack and taking on the strongest positions fell to Fourth Army on the Grappa, lord Cavans army consisted of two British and two Italian divisions and they too were expected to cross the Piave by breaking the Austrian defenses at Papadopoli Island. Third Army was simply to hold the lower Piave and cross the river when enemy resistance was broken, ninth Army, which contained the Czechoslovak Division and the 332nd US Infantry Regiment as well two Italian divisions, was held in reserve. The Allies had 600 aircraft to gain air superiority in the final offensive. The Allies, 7th Italian Army, between the Stelvio and the shore of Lake Garda. 2 Army corps 1st Italian Army, from the west bank of the Lake Garda to the Val dAstico,3 Army corps 6th Italian Army, from the plateau of Asiago to the left bank of the Brenta. 3 Army corps 4th Italian Army, Monte Grappa to Cima Palon,3 army corps 4 assault groups 1 regiment of cavalry. 12th Franco-Italian Army, from Monte Tomba up to the bridges of Vidor on the Piave,1 Italian Army corps 12th French Army Corps. 8th Italian Army, along the Piave, from Vidor to Priula Bridge,4 Army corps The assault corps of General Francesco Saverio Grazioli. 10th British-Italian Army along the Piave from Ponte Priula to Ponte di Piave,1 Italian Army corps 2 divisions of the 14th British Corps of the British General James Melville Babington. 3rd Italian Army, from Ponte di Piave to the sea,2 Army Corps 2 assault units 3 cavalry regiments 332nd_Infantry_Regiment_ 9th Italian Army, in reserve. The plan was for the British 7th Division to occupy the northern half of Papadopoli while the Italian 11th Corps took the southern half, the British troops detailed for the night attack were the 2/1 Honourable Artillery Company and the 1/ Royal Welch Fusiliers. These troops were helpless to negotiate such a torrent as the Piave, for the sake of silence the HAC used only their bayonets until the alarm was raised, and soon seized their half of the islandBattle of vittorio veneto – Battle of Vittorio Veneto
15. Bedlis – Bitlis is a city in eastern Turkey and the capital of Bitlis Province. The city is located at an elevation of 1,545 metres,15 km from Lake Van, in the valley of the Bitlis River. The local economy is based on agricultural products which include fruits, grain. Industry is fairly limited, and deals mainly with leatherworking, manufacture of products as well as weaving and dyeing of coarse cloth. Bitlis is connected to urban centres by road, including Tatvan on Lake Van,25 km to the northeast, and the cities of Muş,100 km northwest. The climate of Bitlis can be harsh, with long winters, summers are hot, and often humid. The origin of the name Bitlis is not known, a popular folk etymology explanation, without historical basis, is that it is derived from Lis/Batlis, the name of a general said to have built Bitlis castle by the order of Alexander the Great. To Armenians, it was known as Balalesa or Baghaghesh, according to one popular Armenian folk story, on a cold, wintry day a donkey left its stable and wandered down the valley below. The donkey died of the temperatures and was only discovered in the spring, once the ice had melted, thus, it received the name Pagh Esh. Baghesh was one of the most important cities of the Kingdom of Armenias province of Aghdznik, some medieval Armenian writers, such as Anania Shirakatsi and Vardan Areveltsi, later mention it as a part of the canton of Bznunik. The fortress guarded the Baghesh Pass, which linked the southern reaches of the Armenian Plateau to northern Mesopotamia, the Arabs conquered Baghesh at the end of the seventh century and it eventually became the capital of the Zurārid emirs of Aghdznik. Because it was on an important trade route, it prospered greatly, the next two centuries, however, marked a turbulent period in the towns history. In his 929-30 campaign against the Kaysites, the Byzantine general John Curcuas was able to capture and it was also ruled by Ayyubid, Khwarezm Shahs, Sultanate of Rûm and Ilkhanate. Bitlis was a Kurdish emirate from the 13th to the 19th century, though often subordinate to a succession of larger powers that ruled the Van region, it always maintained a measure of independence. In the 14th century its emirs, the Kurdish Rusaki family, were vassals of the Karakoyunlu and the territory also consisted of several smaller emirates, Ahlat, Mush. The emir of Bitlis submitted to Timur in 1394, but later helped the re-establishment of Karakoyunlu control in the region, after the collapse of the Karakoyunlu state, the Bitlis emirate disintegrated. However, in the 1470s it took the Aq Qoyunlu three successive sieges to capture Bitlis and in 1494/95 the Ruzaki recaptured the town, Armenians formed a large part of the citys population. A number of monasteries were permitted to be built by the Kurdish emirs and during the fifteenth century, Bitlis was forced to accept a Persian governor during the invasion of the Safavid Shah Ismail, but sided with the Ottoman forces as they approached the regionBedlis – Bitlis Views
16. Balkan Front – The prime cause of World War I was the hostility between Serbia and Austria-Hungary. Consequently, some of the earliest fighting took place between Serbia and Austria-Hungary, Serbia held out against Austria-Hungary for more than a year before it was conquered in late 1915. Dalmatia was a region during World War I that both Italy and Serbia intended to seize from Austria-Hungary. Italy entered the war in 1915 upon agreeing to the Treaty of London that guaranteed Italy a substantial portion of Dalmatia, Allied diplomacy was able to bring Romania into the war in 1916 but this proved disastrous for the Romanians. Shortly after they joined the war, a combined German, Austrian and Bulgarian offensive conquered two-thirds of their country in a campaign which ended in December 1916. However, the Romanian and Russian armies managed to stabilize the front, the Serbian Army was successfully able to rebuff the larger Austro-Hungarian Army due to Russias assisting invasion from the north. In 1915 the Austro-Hungarian Empire placed additional soldiers in the front while succeeding to engage Bulgaria as an ally. Shortly after the Serbian forces were attacked both the north and east, forcing a retreat to Greece. Despite the loss, the retreat was successful and the Serbian Army remained operational in Greece with an established base. Romania before the war was an ally of Austria-Hungary but, like Italy, the Romanian government finally chose to side with the Allies in August 1916, the main reason for this was that they wanted the occupation and annexation of Transylvania, to the Kingdom of Romania. The war started as a disaster for Romania. Before the year was out, the Germans, Hungarians, Austrians, Bulgarians and Ottomans had conquered Wallachia and Dobruja –, in 1917, re-trained and re-supplied, the Romanian Army, together with a disintegrating Russian Army, were successful in containing the German advance into Moldavia. In May 1918, after the German advance in Ukraine and Russia signing the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, Romania, surrounded by the Central Powers forces, had no other choice but to sue for peace. After the Vardar Offensive on the Macedonian Front knocked Bulgaria out of the war, prior to direct intervention in World War I, Italy occupied the port of Vlorë in Albania in December 1914. Upon entering the war, Italy spread its occupation to region of southern Albania beginning in the autumn 1916, Italian forces in 1916 recruited Albanian irregulars to serve alongside them. Italy with permission of the Allied command, occupied Northern Epirus on 23 August 1916, in June 1917, Italy proclaimed central and southern Albania as a protectorate of Italy while Northern Albania was allocated to the states of Serbia and Montenegro. By 31 October 1918, French and Italian forces expelled the Austro-Hungarian Army from Albania, Dalmatia was a strategic region during World War I that both Italy and Serbia intended to seize from Austria-Hungary. From 5–6 November 1918, Italian forces were reported to have reached Lissa, Lagosta, Sebenico, in 1918, Admiral Enrico Millo declared himself Italys Governor of DalmatiaBalkan Front – The Balkan Peninsula.
17. Scape goat – A scapegoat is a person or animal which takes on the sins of others, or is unfairly blamed for problems. The concept originally comes from Leviticus, in which a goat is designated to be cast into the desert with the sins of the community, other ancient societies had similar practices. In psychology and sociology, the practice of selecting someone as a scapegoat has led to the concept of scapegoating, and Aaron shall place lots upon the two goats, one lot For the Lord, and the other lot, For Azazel. The word scapegoat is an English translation of the Hebrew azazel which occurs in Leviticus 16,8, the lexicographer Gesenius and Brown–Driver–Briggs Hebrew Lexicon give la-azazel as a reduplicative intensive of the stem azel remove, hence la-azazel, for entire removal. This reading is supported by the Greek Old Testament translation as the sender away, alternatively, broadly contemporary with the Septuagint, the pseudepigraphical Book of Enoch may preserve Azazel as the name of a fallen angel. English Christian Bible versions traditionally follow the translation of the Septuagint, william Tyndale rendered the Latin as scape goat in his 1530 Bible. Several modern versions however either follow the reading as a demon, Azazel, or footnote for Azazel. as an alternative reading. Jewish sources in the Talmud give the etymology of azazel as a compound of az, strong or rough, and el, mighty, that the goat was sent from the most rugged or strongest of mountains. From the Targums onwards the term azazel was also seen by some commentators as the name of a Hebrew demon, angelic force. The two readings are still disputed today, a concept superficially similar to the biblical scapegoat is attested in two ritual texts in archives at Ebla of the 24th century BC. They were connected with ritual purification on the occasion of the kings wedding, in them, a she-goat with a silver bracelet hung from her neck was driven forth into the wasteland of Alini, we in the report of the ritual involves the whole community. Such elimination rites, in which an animal, without confession of sins, is the vehicle of evils that are chased from the community are widely attested in the Ancient Near East. The scholia refer to the pharmakos being killed, but many scholars reject this, once a year, on Yom Kippur, the Cohen Gadol sacrificed a bull as a sin offering to atone for sins he may have committed unintentionally throughout the year. Subsequently he took two goats and presented them at the door of the tabernacle, two goats were chosen by lot, one to be for YHWH, which was offered as a blood sacrifice, and the other to be the scapegoat to be sent away into the wilderness. The blood of the goat was taken into the Holy of Holies behind the sacred veil and sprinkled on the mercy seat. In Christianity, especially in Protestantism, this process prefigures the sacrifice of Christ on the cross through which God has been propitiated and sins can be expiated. Christians believe that sinners who own their guilt and confess their sins, exercising faith and trust in the person, Seventh-day Adventist Christians understand this symbolism differently. As the Azazel Goat was understood by some Christians of the reformation to represent Satan, since the second goat was sent away to perish, the word scapegoat has developed to indicate a person who is blamed and punished for the sins of othersScape goat – The Scapegoat by William Holman Hunt, 1854.
18. Effects of world war i – The aftermath of World War I saw drastic political, cultural, economic, and social change across Europe, Asia, Africa, and even in areas outside those that were directly involved. As Germany was dependent on imports, it is estimated that 523,000 civilians had lost their lives. N. P. Howard, of the University of Sheffield, the continuation of the blockade after the fighting ended, as author Robert Leckie wrote in Delivered From Evil, did much to torment the Germans. Driving them with the fury of despair into the arms of the devil, the terms of the Armistice did allow food to be shipped into Germany, but the Allies required that Germany provide the means to do so. The German government was required to use its reserves, being unable to secure a loan from the United States. Further, Marks states that despite the problems facing the Allies, from the German government, gläser further claims that during the early months of 1919, while the main relief effort was being planned, France provided food shipments to Bavaria and the Rhineland. She further claims that the German government delayed the effort by refusing to surrender their merchant fleet to the Allies. Finally, she concludes that the success of the relief effort had in effect deprived the of a credible threat to induce Germany to sign the Treaty of Versailles. Food shipments, furthermore, had been dependent on Allied goodwill. Other treaties ended the belligerent relationships of the United States and the other Central Powers, included in the 440 articles of the Treaty of Versailles were the demands that Germany officially accept responsibility for starting the war and pay economic reparations. Historians continue to argue about the impact the 1918 flu pandemic had on the outcome of the war and it has been posited that the Central Powers may have been exposed to the viral wave before the Allies. The resulting casualties having greater effect, having been incurred during the war, when the extent of the epidemic was realized, the respective censorship programs of the Allies and Central Powers limited the publics knowledge regarding the true extent of the disease. Because Spain was neutral, their media was free to report on the Flu and this misunderstanding led to contemporary reports naming it the Spanish flu. A significant precursor virus was harbored in birds, and mutated to pigs that were kept near the front, the exact number of deaths is unknown but about 50 million people are estimated to have died from the influenza outbreak worldwide. The dissolution of the German, Russian, Austro-Hungarian and Ottoman empires created a number of new countries in eastern Europe and the Middle East. Some of them, such as Czechoslovakia and Poland, had substantial ethnic minorities who were not fully satisfied with the new boundaries that cut them off from fellow ethnics. For example, Czechoslovakia had Germans, Poles, Ruthenians and Ukrainians, Slovaks, the League of Nations sponsored various Minority Treaties in an attempt to deal with the problem, but with the decline of the League in the 1930s, these treaties became increasingly unenforceable. One consequence of the redrawing of borders and the political changes in the aftermath of the war was the large number of European refugeesEffects of world war i – William Orpen 's The Signing of Peace in the Hall of Mirrors: the signing of the Treaty of Versailles in the Hall of Mirrors at the Palace of Versailles in 1919
19. The patriarchal city – Constantinople was the capital city of the Roman/Byzantine Empire, and also of the brief Latin, and the later Ottoman empires. It was reinaugurated in 324 AD from ancient Byzantium as the new capital of the Roman Empire by Emperor Constantine the Great, after whom it was named, Constantinople was famed for its massive and complex defences. The first wall of the city was erected by Constantine I, Constantinople never truly recovered from the devastation of the Fourth Crusade and the decades of misrule by the Latins. The origins of the name of Byzantion, more known by the later Latin Byzantium, are not entirely clear. The founding myth of the city has it told that the settlement was named after the leader of the Megarian colonists, Byzas. The later Byzantines of Constantinople themselves would maintain that the city was named in honour of two men, Byzas and Antes, though this was likely just a play on the word Byzantion. During this time, the city was also called Second Rome, Eastern Rome, and Roma Constantinopolitana. As the city became the remaining capital of the Roman Empire after the fall of the West, and its wealth, population, and influence grew. In the language of other peoples, Constantinople was referred to just as reverently, the medieval Vikings, who had contacts with the empire through their expansion in eastern Europe used the Old Norse name Miklagarðr, and later Miklagard and Miklagarth. In Arabic, the city was sometimes called Rūmiyyat al-kubra and in Persian as Takht-e Rum, in East and South Slavic languages, including in medieval Russia, Constantinople was referred to as Tsargrad or Carigrad, City of the Caesar, from the Slavonic words tsar and grad. This was presumably a calque on a Greek phrase such as Βασιλέως Πόλις, the modern Turkish name for the city, İstanbul, derives from the Greek phrase eis tin polin, meaning into the city or to the city. In 1928, the Turkish alphabet was changed from Arabic script to Latin script, in time the city came to be known as Istanbul and its variations in most world languages. In Greece today, the city is still called Konstantinoúpolis/Konstantinoúpoli or simply just the City, apart from this, little is known about this initial settlement, except that it was abandoned by the time the Megarian colonists settled the site anew. A farsighted treaty with the emergent power of Rome in c.150 BC which stipulated tribute in exchange for independent status allowed it to enter Roman rule unscathed. The site lay astride the land route from Europe to Asia and the seaway from the Black Sea to the Mediterranean, and had in the Golden Horn an excellent and spacious harbour. He would later rebuild Byzantium towards the end of his reign, in which it would be briefly renamed Augusta Antonina, fortifying it with a new city wall in his name, Constantine had altogether more colourful plans. Rome was too far from the frontiers, and hence from the armies and the imperial courts, yet it had been the capital of the state for over a thousand years, and it might have seemed unthinkable to suggest that the capital be moved to a different location. Constantinople was built over 6 years, and consecrated on 11 May 330, Constantine divided the expanded city, like Rome, into 14 regions, and ornamented it with public works worthy of an imperial metropolisThe patriarchal city – Constantinople in the Byzantine era
20. Queen of the battlefield – Infantry is the general branch of an army that engages in military combat on foot. As the troops who engage with the enemy in close-ranged combat, infantry units bear the largest brunt of warfare, Infantry can enter and maneuver in terrain that is inaccessible to military vehicles and employ crew-served infantry weapons that provide greater and more sustained firepower. In English, the 16th-century term Infantry describes soldiers who walk to the battlefield, and there engage, fight, the term arose in Sixteenth-Century Spain, which boasted one of the first professional standing armies seen in Europe since the days of Rome. It was common to appoint royal princes to military commands, and the men under them became known as Infanteria. in the Canadian Army, the role of the infantry is to close with, and destroy the enemy. In the U. S. Army, the closes with the enemy, by means of fire and maneuver, in order to destroy or capture him, or to repel his assault by fire, close combat. In the U. S. Marine Corps, the role of the infantry is to locate, close with, and destroy the enemy fire and maneuver. Beginning with the Napoleonic Wars of the early 19th century, artillery has become a dominant force on the battlefield. Since World War I, combat aircraft and armoured vehicles have become dominant. In 20th and 21st century warfare, infantry functions most effectively as part of a combined arms team including artillery, armour, Infantry relies on organized formations to be employed in battle. These have evolved over time, but remain a key element to effective infantry development and deployment, until the end of the 19th century, infantry units were for the most part employed in close formations up until contact with the enemy. This allowed commanders to control of the unit, especially while maneuvering. The development of guns and other weapons with increased firepower forced infantry units to disperse in order to make them less vulnerable to such weapons. This decentralization of command was made possible by improved communications equipment, among the various subtypes of infantry is Medium infantry. This refers to infantry which are heavily armed and armored than heavy infantry. In the early period, medium infantry were largely eliminated due to discontinued use of body armour up until the 20th century. In the United States Army, Stryker Infantry is considered Medium Infantry, since they are heavier than light infantry, Infantry doctrine is the concise expression of how infantry forces contribute to campaigns, major operations, battles, and engagements. It is a guide to action, not a set of hard, doctrine provides a very common frame of reference across the military forces, allowing the infantry to function cooperatively in what are now called combined arms operations. Doctrine helps standardise operations, facilitating readiness by establishing common ways of accomplishing infantry tasks, doctrine links theory, history, experimentation, and practiceQueen of the battlefield – Early 20th-century infantry: The Royal Irish Rifles at the Battle of the Somme (July–November 1916) during the First World War (1914–18).
21. Fokker DR-1 – The Fokker Dr. I was a World War I fighter aircraft built by Fokker-Flugzeugwerke. The Dr. I saw widespread service in the spring of 1918 and it became famous as the aircraft in which Manfred von Richthofen gained his last 19 victories, and in which he was killed on 21 April 1918. In February 1917, the Sopwith Triplane began to appear over the Western Front, despite its single Vickers machine gun armament, the Sopwith swiftly proved itself superior to the more heavily armed Albatros fighters then in use by the Luftstreitkräfte. In April 1917, Anthony Fokker viewed a captured Sopwith Triplane while visiting Jasta 11, upon his return to the Schwerin factory, Fokker instructed Reinhold Platz to build a triplane, but gave him no further information about the Sopwith design. Initial tests revealed that the V.4 had unacceptably high control forces resulting from the use of unbalanced ailerons, instead of submitting the V.4 for a type test, Fokker produced a revised prototype designated V.5. The most notable changes were the introduction of horn-balanced ailerons and elevators, the V.5 also featured interplane struts, which were not necessary from a structural standpoint, but which minimized wing flexing. On 14 July 1917, Idflieg issued an order for 20 pre-production aircraft, the V.5 prototype, serial 101/17, was tested to destruction at Adlershof on 11 August 1917. The first two pre-production triplanes were designated F. I, in accord with Idfliegs early class prefix for triplanes, the two aircraft were sent to Jastas 10 and 11 for combat evaluation, arriving at Markebeeke, Belgium on 28 August 1917. Richthofen first flew 102/17 on 1 September 1917 and shot two enemy aircraft in the next two days. He reported to the Kogenluft that the F. I was superior to the Sopwith Triplane, Richthofen recommended that fighter squadrons be reequipped with the new aircraft as soon as possible. The remaining pre-production aircraft, designated Dr. I, were delivered to Jasta 11, Idflieg issued a production order for 100 triplanes in September, followed by an order for 200 in November. Apart from the leading edge of the tailplane, these aircraft were almost identical to the F. I. The primary distinguishing feature was the addition of wingtip skids, which proved necessary because the aircraft was tricky to land, in October, Fokker began delivering the Dr. I to squadrons within Richthofens Jagdgeschwader I. Compared to the Albatros and Pfalz fighters, the Dr. I offered exceptional maneuverability, though the ailerons were not very effective, the rudder and elevator controls were light and powerful. Rapid turns, especially to the right, were facilitated by the triplanes marked directional instability, vizefeldwebel Franz Hemer of Jasta 6 said, The triplane was my favorite fighting machine because it had such wonderful flying qualities. I could let myself stunt – looping and rolling – and could avoid an enemy by diving with perfect safety, the triplane had to be given up because although it was very maneuverable, it was no longer fast enough. As Hemer noted, the Dr. I was considerably slower than contemporary Allied fighters in level flight and in a dive. While initial rate of climb was excellent, performance fell off dramatically at higher altitudes because of the low compression of the Oberursel Ur. II, as the war continued, chronic shortages of castor oil made rotary operation increasingly difficultFokker DR-1 – Fokker Dr.I
22. War of the Mountains 1915-1918 – The Italian Front was a series of battles at the border between Austria-Hungary and Italy, fought between 1915 and 1918 in World War I. Fighting along the front displaced much of the population, of which several thousand died from malnutrition. The Allied victory at Vittorio Veneto and the disintegration of Austria-Hungary ended the military operations, moreover, Austria-Hungary omitted to consult Italy before sending the ultimatum to Serbia and refused to discuss compensation due according to the art. By the 1910s, the expansionist ideas of this movement were taken up by a significant part of the Italian political elite. The annexation of those Austrian territories that were inhabited by Italians, became the main Italian war goal, however, of around 1.5 million people living in those areas, 45% were Italian speakers, while the rest were Slovenes, Germans and Croats. In northern Dalmatia, which was also among the Italian war aims, on 23 May, Italy declared war on Austria-Hungary. Italys entry was engineered in secret by the 1915 Treaty of London, set up between the British Foreign Secretary Edward Grey, the Italian Foreign Minister Sidney Sonnino and the French Foreign Minister Jules Cambon. On February 16,1915, despite concurrent negotiations with Austria, the final choice was aided by the arrival of news in March of Russian victories in the Carpathians. The Treaty of London was concluded on April 26 binding Italy to fight within one month, not until May 4 did Salandra denounce the Triple Alliance in a private note to its signatories. During the Italo-Turkish War in Libya, the Italian military suffered equipment, at the opening of the campaign, Austro-Hungarian troops occupied and fortified high ground of the Julian Alps and Karst Plateau, but the Italians initially outnumbered their opponents three-to-one. An Italian offensive aimed to cross the Soča river, take the fortress town of Gorizia. This offensive opened the first Battles of the Isonzo, because the Austrian forces occupied higher ground, Italians conducted difficult offensives while climbing. The Italian forces therefore failed to drive much beyond the river, despite a professional officer corps, severely under-trained Italian units lacked morale. Also many troops deeply disliked the newly appointed Italian commander, general Luigi Cadorna, moreover, preexisting equipment and munition shortages slowed progress and frustrated all expectations for a Napoleonic style breakout. Like most contemporaneous militaries, the Italian army primarily used horses for transport but struggled, the Italians recuperated, rearmed with 1200 heavy guns, and then on 18 October 1915 launched Third Battle of the Isonzo, another attack. Forces of Austria-Hungary again repulsed this Italian offensive, which concluded on 4 November without resulting gains, the Italians again launched another offensive on 10 November, the Fourth Battle of the Isonzo. Italian Armies in the North East of the country, the offensive began on 11 March 1916 with 15 divisions, and resulted in no gain. Later in 1916, four more battles along the Isonzo river erupted, the Sixth Battle of the Isonzo, launched by the Italians in August, resulted in a success greater than the previous attacksWar of the Mountains 1915-1918 – From left to right: Ortles, autumn 1917; Fort Verena, June 1915; Mount Paterno, 1915; Carso, 1917; Toblach, 1915.
23. World War I (Eastern Front) – It stretched from the Baltic Sea in the north to the Black Sea in the south, included most of Eastern Europe and stretched deep into Central Europe as well. The term contrasts with Western Front, which was being fought in Belgium, in the opening months of the war, the Imperial Russian Army attempted an invasion of eastern Prussia in the northwestern theater, only to be beaten back by the Germans after some initial success. At the same time, in the south, they successfully invaded Galicia, in Russian Poland, the Germans failed to take Warsaw. But by 1915, the German and Austro-Hungarian armies were on the advance, dealing the Russians heavy casualties in Galicia and in Poland, Grand Duke Nicholas was sacked from his position as the commander-in-chief and replaced by the Tsar himself. Several offensives against the Germans in 1916 failed, including Lake Naroch Offensive, however, General Aleksei Brusilov oversaw a highly successful operation against Austria-Hungary that became known as the Brusilov Offensive, which saw the Russian Army make large gains. The Kingdom of Romania entered the war in August 1916, the Entente promised the region of Transylvania in return for Romanian support. The Romanian Army invaded Transylvania and had successes, but was forced to stop and was pushed back by the Germans and Austro-Hungarians when Bulgaria attacked them in the south. Meanwhile, a revolution occurred in Russia in February 1917, Tsar Nicholas II was forced to abdicate and a Russian Provisional Government was founded, with Georgy Lvov as its first leader, who was eventually replaced by Alexander Kerensky. The newly formed Russian Republic continued to fight the war alongside Romania, Kerensky oversaw the July Offensive, which was largely a failure and caused a collapse in the Russian Army. The new government established by the Bolsheviks signed the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk with the Central Powers, taking it out of the war and making large territorial concessions. Romania was also forced to surrender and signed a similar treaty, the front in the east was much longer than that in the west. This had an effect on the nature of the warfare. While World War I on the Western Front developed into trench warfare and this was because the greater length of the front ensured that the density of soldiers in the line was lower so the line was easier to break. Once broken, the communication networks made it difficult for the defender to rush reinforcements to the rupture in the line. Propaganda was a key component of the culture of World War I and it was most commonly deployed through the state-controlled media to glorify the homeland and demonize the enemy. Propaganda often took the form of images which portrayed stereotypes from folklore about the enemy or from glorified moments from the nations history, on the Eastern Front, propaganda took many forms such as opera, film, spy fiction, theater, spectacle, war novels and graphic art. Across the Eastern Front the amount of used in each country varied from state to state. Propaganda took many forms within each country and was distributed by different groupsWorld War I (Eastern Front) – Clockwise from top left: Carpathian Mountains, 1915; German soldiers in Kiev, March 1918; the Russian ship Slava, October 1917; Russian infantry, 1914; Romanian infantry.
24. Cause of war – War is a state of armed conflict between societies. It is generally characterized by extreme aggression, destruction, and mortality, an absence of war is usually called peace. Warfare refers to the activities and characteristics of types of war. Total war is warfare that is not restricted to legitimate military targets. While some scholars see war as a universal and ancestral aspect of human nature, as concerns a belligerents losses in proportion to its prewar population, the most destructive war in modern history may have been the Paraguayan War. In 2013 war resulted in 31,000 deaths, down from 72,000 deaths in 1990, in 2003, Richard Smalley identified war as the sixth biggest problem facing humanity for the next fifty years. Another byproduct of some wars is the prevalence of propaganda by some or all parties in the conflict, the word is related to the Old Saxon werran, Old High German werran, and the German verwirren, meaning “to confuse”, “to perplex”, and “to bring into confusion”. In German, the equivalent is Krieg, the Spanish, Portuguese, the scholarly study of war is sometimes called polemology, from the Greek polemos, meaning war, and -logy, meaning the study of. Studies of war by military theorists throughout military history have sought to identify the philosophy of war, asymmetric warfare is a conflict between two populations of drastically different levels of military capability or size. Biological warfare, or germ warfare, is the use of weaponized biological toxins or infectious agents such as bacteria, viruses, chemical warfare involves the use of weaponized chemicals in combat. Poison gas as a weapon was principally used during World War I. Civil war is a war between forces belonging to the nation or political entity. Conventional warfare is declared war between states in which nuclear, biological, or chemical weapons are not used or see limited deployment, cyberwarfare involves the actions by a nation-state or international organization to attack and attempt to damage another nations information systems. Information warfare is the application of force on a large scale against information assets and systems, against the computers. Nuclear warfare is warfare in which weapons are the primary, or a major. War of aggression is a war for conquest or gain rather than self-defense, the earliest recorded evidence of war belongs to the Mesolithic cemetery Site 117, which has been determined to be approximately 14,000 years old. About forty-five percent of the skeletons there displayed signs of violent death, since the rise of the state some 5,000 years ago, military activity has occurred over much of the globe. The advent of gunpowder and the acceleration of technological advances led to modern warfareCause of war – The War by Tadeusz Cyprian (1949), a photograph in the collection of the National Museum in Warsaw showing ruins of Warsaw's Napoleon Square in the aftermath of World War II.
25. Field fortifications – The most famous use of trench warfare is the Western Front in World War I. It has become a byword for stalemate, attrition, sieges, Trench warfare occurred when a revolution in firepower was not matched by similar advances in mobility, resulting in a grueling form of warfare in which the defender held the advantage. On the Western Front in 1914–18, both sides constructed elaborate trench and dugout systems opposing each other along a front, protected from assault by barbed wire, mines, the area between opposing trench lines was fully exposed to artillery fire from both sides. Attacks, even if successful, often sustained severe casualties, with the development of armoured warfare, emphasis on trench warfare has declined, but still occurs where battle-lines become static. Field works are as old as armies, Roman legions, when in the presence of an enemy, entrenched camps nightly when on the move. In the early modern era they were used to block possible lines of advance and they played a pivotal role in manoeuvring that took place before the Battle of Blenheim. The lines were captured by the French in 1707 and demolished, the French built the 19-kilometre-long Lines of Weissenburg during the War of the Spanish Succession under the orders of the Duke of Villars in 1706. These were to remain in existence for just over 100 years and were last manned during Napoleons Hundred Days, the French built the Lines of Ne Plus Ultra during the winter of 1710–1711, which have been compared to the trenches of World War I. They ran from Arras to Cambrai and Valenciennes where they linked up with existing defensive lines fronted by the river Sambre and they were breached in the 1711 campaign season by the Duke of Marlborough through a magnificent piece of manoeuvring. During the Peninsular War, the British and Portuguese constructed the Lines of Torres Vedras in 1809 and 1810, nor were fortifications restricted to European powers. British casualty rates of up to 45 percent, such as at the Battle of Ohaeawai in 1845, proved contemporary firepower was insufficient to dislodge defenders from a trench system. Fundamentally, as the range and rate of fire of rifled small arms increased and this was only made more lethal by the introduction of rapid-firing artillery, exemplified by the French 75, and high explosive fragmentation rounds. The increases in firepower had outstripped the ability of infantry to cover the ground between firing lines, and the ability of armour to withstand fire and it would take a revolution in mobility to change that. Trench warfare is associated with the First World War of 1914–18. Both sides concentrated on breaking up attacks and on protecting their own troops by digging deep into the ground. Trench warfare was conducted on other fronts, including Italy. Trench warfare has become a symbol of the futility of war. To the French, the equivalent is the attrition of the Battle of Verdun in which the French Army suffered 380,000 casualties, Trench warfare is associated with mass slaughter in appalling conditionsField fortifications – Lines of Torres Vedras
26. Central Nations – The Central Powers, consisting of Germany, Austria-Hungary, the Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria – hence also known as the Quadruple Alliance – was one of the two main factions during World War I. It faced and was defeated by the Allied Powers that had formed around the Triple Entente, the Powers origin was the alliance of Germany and Austria-Hungary in 1879. The Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria did not join until after World War I had begun, the Central Powers consisted of the German Empire and the Austro-Hungarian Empire at the beginning of the war. The Ottoman Empire joined the Central Powers later in 1914, in 1915, the Kingdom of Bulgaria joined the alliance. The name Central Powers is derived from the location of these countries, finland, Azerbaijan, and Lithuania joined them in 1918 before the war ended and after the Russian Empire collapsed. When Russia enacted a general mobilization, Germany viewed the act as provocative, the Russian government promised Germany that its general mobilization did not mean preparation for war with Germany but was a reaction to the events between Austria-Hungary and Serbia. The German government regarded the Russian promise of no war with Germany to be nonsense in light of its general mobilization, and Germany, in turn, mobilized for war. On August 1, Germany sent an ultimatum to Russia stating that since both Germany and Russia were in a state of military mobilization, a state of war existed between the two countries. After Germany declared war on Russia, France with its alliance with Russia prepared a general mobilization in expectation of war, on 3 August 1914, Germany responded to this action by declaring war on France. This plan was hoped to gain victory against the French. Belgium was a country and would not accept German forces crossing its territory. Germany disregarded Belgian neutrality and invaded the country to launch an offensive towards Paris, europe Upon its founding in 1871, the German Empire controlled Alsace-Lorraine as an imperial territory incorporated from France after the Franco-Prussian War. It was held as part of Germanys sovereign territory, Africa Germany held multiple African colonies at the time of World War I. All of Germanys African colonies were invaded and occupied by Allied forces during the war, cameroon, German East Africa, and German Southwest Africa were German colonies in Africa. Togoland was a German protectorate in Africa, Asia The Kiautschou Bay concession was a German dependency in East Asia leased from China in 1898. It was occupied by Japanese forces following the Siege of Tsingtao, Pacific German New Guinea was a German protectorate in the Pacific. It was occupied by Australian forces in 1914, German Samoa was a German protectorate following the Tripartite Convention. It was occuiped by the New Zealand Expeditionary Force in 1914, Austria-Hungary regarded the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand as being orchestrated with the assistance of SerbiaCentral Nations – Leaders of the Central Powers (left to right):
27. The Ottoman Empire – After 1354, the Ottomans crossed into Europe, and with the conquest of the Balkans the Ottoman Beylik was transformed into a transcontinental empire. The Ottomans ended the Byzantine Empire with the 1453 conquest of Constantinople by Mehmed the Conqueror, at the beginning of the 17th century the empire contained 32 provinces and numerous vassal states. Some of these were later absorbed into the Ottoman Empire, while others were granted various types of autonomy during the course of centuries. With Constantinople as its capital and control of lands around the Mediterranean basin, while the empire was once thought to have entered a period of decline following the death of Suleiman the Magnificent, this view is no longer supported by the majority of academic historians. The empire continued to maintain a flexible and strong economy, society, however, during a long period of peace from 1740 to 1768, the Ottoman military system fell behind that of their European rivals, the Habsburg and Russian Empires. While the Empire was able to hold its own during the conflict, it was struggling with internal dissent. Starting before World War I, but growing increasingly common and violent during it, major atrocities were committed by the Ottoman government against the Armenians, Assyrians and Pontic Greeks. The word Ottoman is an anglicisation of the name of Osman I. Osmans name in turn was the Turkish form of the Arabic name ʿUthmān, in Ottoman Turkish, the empire was referred to as Devlet-i ʿAlīye-yi ʿOsmānīye, or alternatively ʿOsmānlı Devleti. In Modern Turkish, it is known as Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti, the Turkish word for Ottoman originally referred to the tribal followers of Osman in the fourteenth century, and subsequently came to be used to refer to the empires military-administrative elite. In contrast, the term Turk was used to refer to the Anatolian peasant and tribal population, the term Rūmī was also used to refer to Turkish-speakers by the other Muslim peoples of the empire and beyond. In Western Europe, the two names Ottoman Empire and Turkey were often used interchangeably, with Turkey being increasingly favored both in formal and informal situations and this dichotomy was officially ended in 1920–23, when the newly established Ankara-based Turkish government chose Turkey as the sole official name. Most scholarly historians avoid the terms Turkey, Turks, and Turkish when referring to the Ottomans, as the power of the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum declined in the 13th century, Anatolia was divided into a patchwork of independent Turkish principalities known as the Anatolian Beyliks. One of these beyliks, in the region of Bithynia on the frontier of the Byzantine Empire, was led by the Turkish tribal leader Osman, osmans early followers consisted both of Turkish tribal groups and Byzantine renegades, many but not all converts to Islam. Osman extended the control of his principality by conquering Byzantine towns along the Sakarya River and it is not well understood how the early Ottomans came to dominate their neighbours, due to the scarcity of the sources which survive from this period. One school of thought which was popular during the twentieth century argued that the Ottomans achieved success by rallying religious warriors to fight for them in the name of Islam, in the century after the death of Osman I, Ottoman rule began to extend over Anatolia and the Balkans. Osmans son, Orhan, captured the northwestern Anatolian city of Bursa in 1326 and this conquest meant the loss of Byzantine control over northwestern Anatolia. The important city of Thessaloniki was captured from the Venetians in 1387, the Ottoman victory at Kosovo in 1389 effectively marked the end of Serbian power in the region, paving the way for Ottoman expansion into EuropeThe Ottoman Empire – Battle of Nicopolis in 1396. Painting from 1523.
28. Romanov Empire – The Russian Empire was a state that existed from 1721 until it was overthrown by the short-lived February Revolution in 1917. One of the largest empires in history, stretching over three continents, the Russian Empire was surpassed in landmass only by the British and Mongol empires. The rise of the Russian Empire happened in association with the decline of neighboring powers, the Swedish Empire, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, Persia. It played a role in 1812–14 in defeating Napoleons ambitions to control Europe. The House of Romanov ruled the Russian Empire from 1721 until 1762, and its German-descended cadet branch, with 125.6 million subjects registered by the 1897 census, it had the third-largest population in the world at the time, after Qing China and India. Like all empires, it included a large disparity in terms of economics, ethnicity, there were numerous dissident elements, who launched numerous rebellions and assassination attempts, they were closely watched by the secret police, with thousands exiled to Siberia. Economically, the empire had an agricultural base, with low productivity on large estates worked by serfs. The economy slowly industrialized with the help of foreign investments in railways, the land was ruled by a nobility from the 10th through the 17th centuries, and subsequently by an emperor. Tsar Ivan III laid the groundwork for the empire that later emerged and he tripled the territory of his state, ended the dominance of the Golden Horde, renovated the Moscow Kremlin, and laid the foundations of the Russian state. Tsar Peter the Great fought numerous wars and expanded an already huge empire into a major European power, Catherine the Great presided over a golden age. She expanded the state by conquest, colonization and diplomacy, continuing Peter the Greats policy of modernisation along West European lines, Tsar Alexander II promoted numerous reforms, most dramatically the emancipation of all 23 million serfs in 1861. His policy in Eastern Europe involved protecting the Orthodox Christians under the rule of the Ottoman Empire and that connection by 1914 led to Russias entry into the First World War on the side of France, Britain, and Serbia, against the German, Austrian and Ottoman empires. The Russian Empire functioned as a monarchy until the Revolution of 1905. The empire collapsed during the February Revolution of 1917, largely as a result of failures in its participation in the First World War. Perhaps the latter was done to make Europe recognize Russia as more of a European country, Poland was divided in the 1790-1815 era, with much of the land and population going to Russia. Most of the 19th century growth came from adding territory in Asia, Peter I the Great introduced autocracy in Russia and played a major role in introducing his country to the European state system. However, this vast land had a population of 14 million, grain yields trailed behind those of agriculture in the West, compelling nearly the entire population to farm. Only a small percentage lived in towns, the class of kholops, close to the one of slavery, remained a major institution in Russia until 1723, when Peter I converted household kholops into house serfs, thus including them in poll taxationRomanov Empire – Peter the Great officially renamed the Tsardom of Russia the Russian Empire in 1721, and himself its first emperor. He instituted the sweeping reforms and oversaw the transformation of Russia into a major European power.
29. Wilhelminian Germany – The German Empire was the historical German nation state that existed from the unification of Germany in 1871 to the abdication of Kaiser Wilhelm II in 1918, when Germany became a federal republic. The German Empire consisted of 26 constituent territories, with most being ruled by royal families and this included four kingdoms, six grand duchies, five duchies, seven principalities, three free Hanseatic cities, and one imperial territory. Although Prussia became one of kingdoms in the new realm, it contained most of its population and territory. Its influence also helped define modern German culture, after 1850, the states of Germany had rapidly become industrialized, with particular strengths in coal, iron, chemicals, and railways. In 1871, it had a population of 41 million people, and by 1913, a heavily rural collection of states in 1815, now united Germany became predominantly urban. During its 47 years of existence, the German Empire operated as an industrial, technological, Germany became a great power, boasting a rapidly growing rail network, the worlds strongest army, and a fast-growing industrial base. In less than a decade, its navy became second only to Britains Royal Navy, after the removal of Chancellor Otto von Bismarck by Wilhelm II, the Empire embarked on a bellicose new course that ultimately led to World War I. When the great crisis of 1914 arrived, the German Empire had two allies, Italy and the Austro-Hungarian Empire, Italy, however, left the once the First World War started in August 1914. In the First World War, German plans to capture Paris quickly in autumn 1914 failed, the Allied naval blockade caused severe shortages of food. Germany was repeatedly forced to send troops to bolster Austria and Turkey on other fronts, however, Germany had great success on the Eastern Front, it occupied large Eastern territories following the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk. German declaration of unrestricted submarine warfare in early 1917 was designed to strangle the British, it failed, but the declaration—along with the Zimmermann Telegram—did bring the United States into the war. Meanwhile, German civilians and soldiers had become war-weary and radicalised by the Russian Revolution and this failed, and by October the armies were in retreat, Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire had collapsed, Bulgaria had surrendered and the German people had lost faith in their political system. After at first attempting to control, causing massive uprisings. This left a republic to manage a devastated and unsatisfied populace, the German Confederation had been created by an act of the Congress of Vienna on 8 June 1815 as a result of the Napoleonic Wars, after being alluded to in Article 6 of the 1814 Treaty of Paris. German nationalism rapidly shifted from its liberal and democratic character in 1848, called Pan-Germanism and he envisioned a conservative, Prussian-dominated Germany. The war resulted in the Confederation being partially replaced by a North German Confederation in 1867, the new constitution and the title Emperor came into effect on 1 January 1871. During the Siege of Paris on 18 January 1871, William accepted to be proclaimed Emperor in the Hall of Mirrors at the Palace of Versailles. The second German Constitution was adopted by the Reichstag on 14 April 1871 and proclaimed by the Emperor on 16 April, the political system remained the sameWilhelminian Germany
30. Administrative divisions of Italy – Italy, officially the Italian Republic, is a unitary parliamentary republic in Europe. Located in the heart of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with France, Switzerland, Austria, Slovenia, San Marino, Italy covers an area of 301,338 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate and Mediterranean climate. Due to its shape, it is referred to in Italy as lo Stivale. With 61 million inhabitants, it is the fourth most populous EU member state, the Italic tribe known as the Latins formed the Roman Kingdom, which eventually became a republic that conquered and assimilated other nearby civilisations. The legacy of the Roman Empire is widespread and can be observed in the distribution of civilian law, republican governments, Christianity. The Renaissance began in Italy and spread to the rest of Europe, bringing a renewed interest in humanism, science, exploration, Italian culture flourished at this time, producing famous scholars, artists and polymaths such as Leonardo da Vinci, Galileo, Michelangelo and Machiavelli. The weakened sovereigns soon fell victim to conquest by European powers such as France, Spain and Austria. Despite being one of the victors in World War I, Italy entered a period of economic crisis and social turmoil. The subsequent participation in World War II on the Axis side ended in defeat, economic destruction. Today, Italy has the third largest economy in the Eurozone and it has a very high level of human development and is ranked sixth in the world for life expectancy. The country plays a prominent role in regional and global economic, military, cultural and diplomatic affairs, as a reflection of its cultural wealth, Italy is home to 51 World Heritage Sites, the most in the world, and is the fifth most visited country. The assumptions on the etymology of the name Italia are very numerous, according to one of the more common explanations, the term Italia, from Latin, Italia, was borrowed through Greek from the Oscan Víteliú, meaning land of young cattle. The bull was a symbol of the southern Italic tribes and was often depicted goring the Roman wolf as a defiant symbol of free Italy during the Social War. Greek historian Dionysius of Halicarnassus states this account together with the legend that Italy was named after Italus, mentioned also by Aristotle and Thucydides. The name Italia originally applied only to a part of what is now Southern Italy – according to Antiochus of Syracuse, but by his time Oenotria and Italy had become synonymous, and the name also applied to most of Lucania as well. The Greeks gradually came to apply the name Italia to a larger region, excavations throughout Italy revealed a Neanderthal presence dating back to the Palaeolithic period, some 200,000 years ago, modern Humans arrived about 40,000 years ago. Other ancient Italian peoples of undetermined language families but of possible origins include the Rhaetian people and Cammuni. Also the Phoenicians established colonies on the coasts of Sardinia and Sicily, the Roman legacy has deeply influenced the Western civilisation, shaping most of the modern worldAdministrative divisions of Italy – The Colosseum in Rome, built c. 70 – 80 AD, is considered one of the greatest works of architecture and engineering of ancient history.
31. Luigi Cadorna – Marshal of Italy Luigi Cadorna, OSML, OMS, OCI was an Italian General and Marshal of Italy, most famous for being the Chief of Staff of the Italian Army during the first part of World War I. Luigi Cadorna was born to General Raffaele Cadorna in Verbania Pallanza, in 1860 Cardona became a student at the Teuliè Military School in Milan. At fifteen he entered the Turin Military Academy, upon graduation he was commissioned as a second lieutenant of artillery in 1868. In 1870, as an officer in the 2nd Regiment of Artillery, as major he was appointed to the staff of General Pianell, afterwards taking the post of Chief of Staff of the Verona Divisional Command. As Colonel commanding the 10th Regiment of Bersaglieri from 1892 Cadorna acquired a reputation for strict discipline and he wrote a manual of infantry tactics which laid stress on the doctrine of the offensive. Promoted to lieutenant general in 1898 Cadorna subsequently held a number of senior staff, on the eve of Italys entry into World War he was close to peace-time retirement age and had a history of differences with his political and military superiors. Cadorna had been offered the post of Chief of Staff for the first time in 1908 and he was again offered the position in July 1914, as the Triple Entente and Central Powers girded for war. When Italy entered the war in May 1915 on the side of the Entente, Cadorna fielded thirty-six infantry divisions composed of 875,000 men, Cadorna inherited a difficult political and military situation. The government of Premier Antonio Salandra favored initial neutrality over Italys treaty commitments under the Triple Alliance, Cadorna was accordingly obliged to reverse long established strategic plans while discovering that the army was ill-prepared for war against Austria-Hungary and Germany. In particular large numbers of men and quantities of equipment had been deployed to Tripolitania leaving the home army disorganized, Cadorna launched four offensives in 1915, all along the Isonzo River. The goal of these offensives was the fortress of Gorizia, the capture of which would permit the Italian armies to pivot south and march on Trieste, all four offensives failed, resulting in some 250,000 Italian casualties for little material gain. Cadorna would ultimately fight eleven battles on the Isonzo between 1915 and 1917, additional forces were arrayed along the Trentino salient, attacking treaty commitments as towards Rovereto, Trento, and Bolzano. The terrain along the Isonzo and Trentino was completely unsuited for offensive warfare–mountainous and broken, on 24 October 1917 a combined Austro-Hungarian/German army struck across the Soča at Kobarid and by 12 November had advanced all the way to the Piave River. Cadorna himself had been on leave for most of October and his subordinate was seriously ill. The Italian Army fled in disarray and seemed on the verge of collapse,275,000 soldiers surrendered. Italys allies Britain and France sent eleven divisions to reinforce the Italian front, the General was relieved of command on 9 November 1917. The new Italian Prime Minister Vittorio Orlando appointed the respected General Armando Diaz as Chief of General Staff, Cadorna was reassigned as the Italian representative to the Allied Supreme War Council set up in Versailles. The Italian forces thereafter rallied behind the Piave and Monte Grappa and, with the help of the Allied divisions, after the war, there was an enquiry held by the Italian government to investigate the defeat at CaporettoLuigi Cadorna – General Luigi Cadorna
32. Country Luxembourg – Luxembourg /ˈlʌksəmbɜːrɡ/, officially the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, is a landlocked country in western Europe. It is bordered by Belgium to the west and north, Germany to the east and its culture, people and languages are highly intertwined with its neighbours, making it essentially a mixture of French and Germanic cultures. It comprises two regions, the Oesling in the north as part of the Ardennes massif. With an area of 2,586 square kilometres, it is one of the smallest sovereign states in Europe, Luxembourg had a population of 524,853 in October 2012, ranking it the 8th least-populous country in Europe. As a representative democracy with a monarch, it is headed by a Grand Duke, Henri, Grand Duke of Luxembourg. Luxembourg is a country, with an advanced economy and the worlds highest GDP per capita. Luxembourg is a member of the European Union, OECD, United Nations, NATO, and Benelux, reflecting its political consensus in favour of economic, political. The city of Luxembourg, which is the capital and largest city, is the seat of several institutions. Luxembourg served on the United Nations Security Council for the years 2013 and 2014, around this fort, a town gradually developed, which became the centre of a state of great strategic value. In the 14th and early 15th centuries, three members of the House of Luxembourg reigned as Holy Roman Emperors, in the following centuries, Luxembourgs fortress was steadily enlarged and strengthened by its successive occupants, the Bourbons, Habsburgs, Hohenzollerns and the French. After the defeat of Napoleon in 1815, Luxembourg was disputed between Prussia and the Netherlands and this arrangement was revised by the 1839 First Treaty of London, from which date Luxembourgs full independence is reckoned. In 1842 Luxembourg joined the German Customs Union, the King of the Netherlands remained Head of State as Grand Duke of Luxembourg, maintaining a personal union between the two countries until 1890. At the death of William III, the throne of the Netherlands passed to his daughter Wilhelmina and this allowed Germany the military advantage of controlling and expanding the railways there. In August 1914, Imperial Germany violated Luxembourgs neutrality in the war by invading it in the war against France and this allowed Germany to use the railway lines, while at the same time denying them to France. Nevertheless, despite the German occupation, Luxembourg was allowed to maintain much of its independence, in 1940, after the outbreak of World War II, Luxembourgs neutrality was again violated when the Wehrmacht of Nazi Germany entered the country, entirely without justification. A government in exile based in London supported the Allies, sending a group of volunteers who participated in the Normandy invasion. Luxembourg was liberated in September 1944, and became a member of the United Nations in 1945. Luxembourgs neutral status under the constitution formally ended in 1948, in 2005, a referendum on the EU treaty establishing a constitution for Europe was heldCountry Luxembourg – Historic map (undated) of Luxembourg city's fortifications
33. German Ocean – The North Sea is a marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean located between Great Britain, Scandinavia, Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium, and France. An epeiric sea on the European continental shelf, it connects to the ocean through the English Channel in the south and it is more than 970 kilometres long and 580 kilometres wide, with an area of around 570,000 square kilometres. The North Sea has long been the site of important European shipping lanes as well as a major fishery, the North Sea was the centre of the Vikings rise. Subsequently, the Hanseatic League, the Netherlands, and the British each sought to dominate the North Sea and thus the access to the markets, as Germanys only outlet to the ocean, the North Sea continued to be strategically important through both World Wars. The coast of the North Sea presents a diversity of geological and geographical features, in the north, deep fjords and sheer cliffs mark the Norwegian and Scottish coastlines, whereas in the south it consists primarily of sandy beaches and wide mudflats. Due to the population, heavy industrialization, and intense use of the sea and area surrounding it. In the southwest, beyond the Straits of Dover, the North Sea becomes the English Channel connecting to the Atlantic Ocean, in the east, it connects to the Baltic Sea via the Skagerrak and Kattegat, narrow straits that separate Denmark from Norway and Sweden respectively. In the north it is bordered by the Shetland Islands, and connects with the Norwegian Sea, the North Sea is more than 970 kilometres long and 580 kilometres wide, with an area of 570,000 square kilometres and a volume of 54,000 cubic kilometres. Around the edges of the North Sea are sizeable islands and archipelagos, including Shetland, Orkney, the North Sea receives freshwater from a number of European continental watersheds, as well as the British Isles. A large part of the European drainage basin empties into the North Sea including water from the Baltic Sea, the largest and most important rivers flowing into the North Sea are the Elbe and the Rhine – Meuse watershed. Around 185 million people live in the catchment area of the rivers discharging into the North Sea encompassing some highly industrialized areas, for the most part, the sea lies on the European continental shelf with a mean depth of 90 metres. The only exception is the Norwegian trench, which extends parallel to the Norwegian shoreline from Oslo to a north of Bergen. It is between 20 and 30 kilometres wide and has a depth of 725 metres. The Dogger Bank, a vast moraine, or accumulation of unconsolidated glacial debris and this feature has produced the finest fishing location of the North Sea. The Long Forties and the Broad Fourteens are large areas with uniform depth in fathoms. These great banks and others make the North Sea particularly hazardous to navigate, the Devils Hole lies 200 miles east of Dundee, Scotland. The feature is a series of trenches between 20 and 30 kilometres long,1 and 2 kilometres wide and up to 230 metres deep. Other areas which are less deep are Cleaver Bank, Fisher Bank, the International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the North Sea as follows, On the SouthwestGerman Ocean – North Sea
34. Gertrud Margarete Zelle – Margaretha Zelle was born in Leeuwarden, in the province of Friesland in the Netherlands. She was the eldest of four children of Adam Zelle and his first wife Antje van der Meulen, despite rumours, Zelle had no Asian or Middle Eastern ancestry and both her parents were Dutch, with her mother additionally being of Frisian descent. Soon after Margarethas father went bankrupt in 1889, her parents divorced and her father remarried in Amsterdam on 9 February 1893 to Susanna Catharina ten Hoove, by whom he had no children. The family fell apart, and Margaretha moved to live with her godfather, Mr. Visser, subsequently, she studied to be a kindergarten teacher in Leiden, but when the headmaster began to flirt with her conspicuously, she was removed from the institution by her offended godfather. A few months later, she fled to her uncles home in The Hague. At 18, Zelle answered an advertisement in a Dutch newspaper placed by Dutch Colonial Army Captain Rudolf MacLeod, Zelle married MacLeod in Amsterdam on 11 July 1895. He was the son of Captain John Brienen MacLeod and Dina Louisa, the marriage enabled her to move into the Dutch upper class, and her finances were placed on a sound footing. They moved to Malang on the east side of the island of Java, traveling out on SS Prinses Amalia in May 1897, the marriage was an overall disappointment. MacLeod was an alcoholic and regularly beat his wife, who was twenty years younger and he also openly kept a concubine, a socially accepted practice in the Dutch East Indies at that time. The disenchanted Zelle abandoned him temporarily, moving in with Van Rheedes and she studied the Indonesian traditions intensively for several months and joined a local dance company during that time. In 1897, she revealed her name of Mata Hari, Malay for sun. At MacLeods urging, Zelle returned to him, but his behavior did not change and she escaped her circumstances by studying the local culture. In 1899, their children fell violently ill from complications relating to the treatment of syphilis contracted from their parents, some sources maintain that one of MacLeods enemies may have poisoned a supper to kill both of their children. After moving back to the Netherlands, the couple separated on 30 August 1902. The divorce became final in 1906, Zelle was awarded custody of Jeanne. MacLeod was legally required to pay support, which he never did, making very difficult for Zelle. During a visit of Jeanne with her father, MacLeod decided not to return Jeanne to her mother, Zelle did not have resources to fight the situation and accepted it, believing that while McLeod had been an abusive husband, he had always been a good father. Jeanne later died at the age of 21, also possibly from complications relating to syphilis, in 1903, Zelle moved to Paris, where she performed as a circus horse rider using the name Lady MacLeod, much to the disapproval of the Dutch MacLeodsGertrud Margarete Zelle – Mata Hari on a 1906 postcard
35. Tzar Nicholas II – Nicholas II was the last Emperor of Russia, ruling from 1 November 1894 until his forced abdication on 15 March 1917. His reign saw the fall of the Russian Empire from being one of the foremost great powers of the world to economic, Soviet historiography portrayed Nicholas as a weak and incompetent leader, whose decisions led to military defeats and the deaths of millions of his subjects. The Anglo-Russian Entente, designed to counter German attempts to influence in the Middle East. Nicholas approved the Russian mobilisation on 30 July 1914, which led to Germany declaring war on Russia on 1 August 1914 and it is estimated that around 3,300,000 Russians were killed in World War I. Following the February Revolution of 1917, Nicholas abdicated on behalf of himself and his son, Nicholas, the recovered remains of the Imperial Family were finally re-interred in St. Petersburg, eighty years to the day on 17 July 1998. In 1981, Nicholas, his wife and their children were canonized as martyrs by the Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia, located in New York City. On 15 August 2000 Nicholas and his family were canonized as passion bearers, Nicholas was born in the Alexander Palace in Saint Petersburg, Russian Empire, the eldest son of Emperor Alexander III and Empress Maria Feodorovna of Russia. He had five siblings, Alexander, George, Xenia, Michael. Nicholas often referred to his father nostalgically in letters after Alexanders death in 1894 and he was also very close to his mother, as revealed in their published letters to each other. His paternal grandparents were Emperor Alexander II and Empress Maria Alexandrovna of Russia and his maternal grandparents were King Christian IX and Queen Louise of Denmark. Nicholas was of primarily German and Danish descent, his last ethnically Russian ancestor being Grand Duchess Anna Petrovna, Nicholas was related to several monarchs in Europe. His mothers siblings included Kings Frederik VIII of Denmark and George I of Greece, Nicholas, his wife Alexandra, and Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany were all first cousins of King George V of the United Kingdom. Nicholas was also a first cousin of both King Haakon VII and Queen Maud of Norway, as well as King Constantine I of Greece, Tsar Nicholas II was the first cousin-once-removed of Grand Duke Nicholas Nikolaevich. To distinguish between them the Grand Duke was often known within the Imperial family as Nikolasha and Nicholas the Tall, while the Tsar was Nicholas the Short. In his childhood, Nicholas, his parents and siblings made annual visits to the Danish royal palaces of Fredensborg and Bernstorff to visit his grandparents, the king and queen. The visits also served as family reunions, as his mothers siblings would come from the United Kingdom, Germany. It was there in 1883, that he had a flirtation with one of his English first cousins, in 1873, Nicholas also accompanied his parents and younger brother, two-year-old George, on a two-month, semi-official visit to England. In London, Nicholas and his family stayed at Marlborough House, as guests of his Uncle Bertie and Aunt Alix, the Prince and Princess of Wales, where he was spoiled by his uncleTzar Nicholas II – Tsar Nicholas II, in the uniform of a Royal Navy Admiral of the Fleet, c. 1909
36. Plavis (river) – The Piave is a river in northern Italy. It begins in the Alps and flows southeast for 220 kilometres into the Adriatic Sea near the city of Venice, one of its tributaries is the Boite. In 1809 it was the scene of a battle during the Napoleonic Wars, in 1918, during World War I, it was the scene of Battle of the Piave River, the last major Austro-Hungarian attack on the Italian Front, which failed. The Battle of the Piave was the battle of World War I on the Italian Front. The river is called in Italy Fiume Sacro alla Patria and is mentioned in the patriotic song La leggenda del Piave. North of the city of Venice along the Piave river valley is the Denominazione di origine controllata zone that makes up the Veneto wine region known as the Piave DOC. Here both red and white wine is produced, mostly as varietal wines, with Merlot being the dominant grape of the region. Among the other grapes grown in the region are Cabernet Sauvignon, Cabernet franc, Pinot blanc, Pinot grigio, Pinot nero, Raboso, Friulano, Verduzzo Trevigiano and Verduzzo Friulano. The finished wines also must meet a minimum alcohol level—11. 5% for all varieties except Merlot and Friulano which only need to reach 11% alcohol by volume. A separate riserva bottling for the red varieties are permitted provided the wine is aged at least two years prior to release and attain a minimum alcohol level of at least 12. 5%. Site of italian newspaper Il Piave Official website of Consorzio Tutela Vini del Piave DOC - Consorzio Vini VeneziaPlavis (river) – Pave
37. First Battle of Monte Grappa – The Italian Army was in all-out retreat after the Austrian autumn offensive of 1917. The Italian Chief of the general staff general Luigi Cadorna had ordered to construct fortified defenses around the Monte Grappa summit to make the range an impregnable fortress. The Austrians, with help from the German Armys Alpenkorps, failed to take the summit during the first battle of Monte Grappa from November 11,1917 to December 23,1917. The German and Austro-Hungarian supply lines had in fact become overstreched and he also allowed his local commanders much more room for manoeuvre than his predecessor, which resulted in a more elastic and effective Italian defense. Thus the Italian front along the Piave river was stabilized and the Austrians failed to enter the plains beyond, caporetto, una battaglia e un enigma. Monte Grappa Monte Grappa Second Battle of Monte Grappa Third Battle of Monte GrappaFirst Battle of Monte Grappa – View from the summit towards the Austrian positions
38. The Marne – The Battle of the Marne was a World War I battle fought from 7–12 September 1914. It resulted in an Allied victory against the German Army, the battle was the culmination of the German advance into France and pursuit of the Allied armies which followed the Battle of the Frontiers in August and had reached the eastern outskirts of Paris. The Battle of the Marne was a victory for the Allies, the Battle of the Frontiers is a general name for all the operations of the French armies from 7 August to 13 September. A series of encounter battles began between the German, French and Belgian armies on the German-French frontier and in southern Belgium on 4 August 1914, Liège was occupied by the Germans on 7 August. The first units of the British Expeditionary Force landed in France, the Battle of Mulhouse was the first French offensive of World War I. The French captured Mulhouse, until forced out by a German counter-attack on 11 August, on 12 August, the Battle of Haelen was fought by German and Belgian cavalry and infantry, resulting in a Belgian defensive success. The BEF completed its move of four divisions and a division to France on 16 August. The Belgian government withdrew from Brussels on 18 August, the main French offensive, the Battle of Lorraine, began with the Battles of Morhange and Sarrebourg advances by the First Army on Sarrebourg and the Second Army towards Morhange. Château-Salins near Morhange was captured on 17 August and Sarrebourg the next day, the German 6th and 7th Armies counter-attacked on 20 August, and the Second Army was forced back from Morhange and the First Army was repulsed at Sarrebourg. The German armies crossed the border and advanced on Nancy, but were stopped to the east of the city. The Belgian 4th Division, the part of the Belgian army not to retreat to the defensive lines around Antwerp, dug in to defend Namur. Further west, the French Fifth Army had concentrated on the Sambre by 20 August, facing north on either side of Charleroi and east towards Namur, additional support was given to the Belgians at Namur by the French 45th Infantry Brigade. On the left, the Cavalry Corps of General Sordet linked up with the BEF at Mons, to the south, the French retook Mulhouse on 19 August and then withdrew. By 20 August, a German counter-offensive in Lorraine had begun, an offensive by the French Third and Fourth Armies through the Ardennes began on 20 August in support of the French invasion of Lorraine. The opposing armies met in thick fog, the French mistook the German troops for screening forces, on 22 August, the Battle of the Ardennes began with French attacks, which were costly to both sides and forced the French into a disorderly retreat late on 23 August. The Third Army recoiled towards Verdun, pursued by the 5th Army, Mulhouse was recaptured again by German forces and the Battle of the Meuse, caused a temporary halt of the German advance. At the Battle of Mons, the BEF attempted to hold the line of the Mons–Condé Canal against the advancing German 1st Army. The British were eventually forced to withdraw due to being outnumbered by the Germans and the retreat of the French Fifth ArmyThe Marne – French soldiers on manoeuvres in 1914.
39. First Great War – World War I, also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. More than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, were mobilised in one of the largest wars in history and it was one of the deadliest conflicts in history, and paved the way for major political changes, including revolutions in many of the nations involved. The war drew in all the worlds great powers, assembled in two opposing alliances, the Allies versus the Central Powers of Germany and Austria-Hungary. These alliances were reorganised and expanded as more nations entered the war, Italy, Japan, the trigger for the war was the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary, by Yugoslav nationalist Gavrilo Princip in Sarajevo on 28 June 1914. This set off a crisis when Austria-Hungary delivered an ultimatum to the Kingdom of Serbia. Within weeks, the powers were at war and the conflict soon spread around the world. On 25 July Russia began mobilisation and on 28 July, the Austro-Hungarians declared war on Serbia, Germany presented an ultimatum to Russia to demobilise, and when this was refused, declared war on Russia on 1 August. Germany then invaded neutral Belgium and Luxembourg before moving towards France, after the German march on Paris was halted, what became known as the Western Front settled into a battle of attrition, with a trench line that changed little until 1917. On the Eastern Front, the Russian army was successful against the Austro-Hungarians, in November 1914, the Ottoman Empire joined the Central Powers, opening fronts in the Caucasus, Mesopotamia and the Sinai. In 1915, Italy joined the Allies and Bulgaria joined the Central Powers, Romania joined the Allies in 1916, after a stunning German offensive along the Western Front in the spring of 1918, the Allies rallied and drove back the Germans in a series of successful offensives. By the end of the war or soon after, the German Empire, Russian Empire, Austro-Hungarian Empire, national borders were redrawn, with several independent nations restored or created, and Germanys colonies were parceled out among the victors. During the Paris Peace Conference of 1919, the Big Four imposed their terms in a series of treaties, the League of Nations was formed with the aim of preventing any repetition of such a conflict. This effort failed, and economic depression, renewed nationalism, weakened successor states, and feelings of humiliation eventually contributed to World War II. From the time of its start until the approach of World War II, at the time, it was also sometimes called the war to end war or the war to end all wars due to its then-unparalleled scale and devastation. In Canada, Macleans magazine in October 1914 wrote, Some wars name themselves, during the interwar period, the war was most often called the World War and the Great War in English-speaking countries. Will become the first world war in the sense of the word. These began in 1815, with the Holy Alliance between Prussia, Russia, and Austria, when Germany was united in 1871, Prussia became part of the new German nation. Soon after, in October 1873, German Chancellor Otto von Bismarck negotiated the League of the Three Emperors between the monarchs of Austria-Hungary, Russia and GermanyFirst Great War – Clockwise from the top: The aftermath of shelling during the Battle of the Somme, Mark V tanks cross the Hindenburg Line, HMS Irresistible sinks after hitting a mine in the Dardanelles, a British Vickers machine gun crew wears gas masks during the Battle of the Somme, Albatros D.III fighters of Jagdstaffel 11
40. West Prussia – The territory was included within Reichsgau Danzig-West Prussia from 1939–45, after which it became part of Poland. West Prussia is also used as a name for the region in historical context from the 13th century to 1945. Due to immigration and cultural changes, the population became mixed over centuries and consisted of Germans, Kashubians, Poles, as well as Slovincians, Huguenots, Mennonites, most of the territory of West Prussia is today part of Poland’s Pomeranian Voivodeship, whose capital is Gdańsk. The province became a Land of the Polish Crown within the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth by the 1569 Union of Lublin, East Prussia around Königsberg, on the other hand, remained with the State of the Teutonic Knights, who were reduced to vassals of the Polish kings. Their territory was secularised to the Duchy of Prussia according to the 1525 Treaty of Kraków, ruled in personal union with the Imperial Margraviate of Brandenburg from 1618, the Hohenzollern rulers of Brandenburg-Prussia were able to remove the Polish suzerainty by the 1657 Treaty of Wehlau. This development turned out to be fatal to the Polish monarchy, in the 1772 First Partition of Poland the Prussian king Frederick the Great took the occasion to annex most of Royal Prussia. Further annexed areas of Greater Poland and Kuyavia in the formed the Netze District. The Partition Sejm ratified the cession on 30 September 1773, thereafter Frederick styled himself King of Prussia rather than King in Prussia. The Polish administrative and legal code was replaced by the Prussian system, both Protestant and Roman Catholic teachers taught in West Prussia, and teachers and administrators were encouraged to be able to speak both German and Polish. Frederick II of Prussia also advised his successors to learn Polish, despite this, Frederick II looked askance upon many of his new citizens. He considered West Prussia less civilized than Colonial Canada and compared the Poles to the Iroquois, in a letter to his brother Henry, Frederick wrote about the province that it is a very good and advantageous acquisition, both from a financial and a political point of view. In order to excite less jealousy I tell everyone that on my travels I have seen just sand, pine trees, heath land and Jews. Despite that there is a lot of work to be done, there is no order, and no planning, Frederick invited German immigrants to redevelop the province. Many German officials also regarded the Poles with contempt, according to the Polish historian Jerzy Surdykowski, Frederick the Great introduced 300,000 German colonists. According to Christopher Clark 54 percent of the areas and 75 percent of the urban population were German-speaking Protestants. Further Polish areas were annexed in the Second Partition of Poland in 1793, now including the cities of Danzig, some of the areas of Greater Poland annexed in 1772 that formed the Netze District were added to West Prussia in 1793 as well. After the final defeat of Napoleon in 1815, Danzig, Kulm, in 1815 the province was administratively subdivided into the Regierungsbezirke Danzig and Marienwerder. From 1824-1878 West Prussia was combined with East Prussia to form the Province of Prussia, however, after the region became part of the German Empire in 1871 during the unification of Germany, it was subjected to measures aimed at Germanization of Polish-speaking areasWest Prussia – Acquisitions of Polish land for Germanization by the Prussian Commission of Colonization
41. Ethical cleansing – Ethnic cleansing is the systematic forced removal of ethnic or religious groups from a given territory by a more powerful ethnic group, with the intent of making it ethnically homogeneous. The forces applied may be forms of forced migration, intimidation, as well as mass murder. An antecedent to the term is the Greek word andrapodismos, which was used in ancient texts to describe atrocities that accompanied Alexander the Greats conquest of Thebes in 335 BC. In the early 1900s, regional variants of the term could be found among the Czechs, the Poles, the French, a 1913 Carnegie Endowment report condemning the actions of all participants in the Balkan Wars contained various new terms to describe brutalities committed toward ethnic groups. During World War II, the euphemism čišćenje terena was used by the Croatian Ustaše to describe military actions in which non-Croats were purposely killed or otherwise uprooted from their homes. Viktor Gutić, a senior Ustaše leader, was one of the first Croatian nationalists on record to use the term as a euphemism for committing atrocities against Serbs. This process was repeated on a larger scale in 1939–41. During The Holocaust, Nazi Germany pursued a policy of ensuring that Europe was cleansed of Jews, according to Israeli historian Benny Morris, the term cleansing was used in Israeli military documents dating to the 1948 Israeli–Arab war, referring to the expulsion of Arabs from Israel. In the 1980s, the Soviets used the term ethnic cleansing to describe the violence in Nagorno-Karabakh. At around the time, the Yugoslav media used it to describe what they alleged was an Albanian nationalist plot to force all Serbs to leave Kosovo. It was widely popularized by the Western media during the Bosnian War, the first recorded mention of its use in the Western media can be traced back to an article in The New York Times dated 15 April 1992, in a quote by an anonymous Western diplomat. Those practices constitute crimes against humanity and can be assimilated to specific war crimes, furthermore, such acts could also fall within the meaning of the Genocide Convention. As a category, ethnic cleansing encompasses a continuum or spectrum of policies, in the words of Andrew Bell-Fialkoff, thnic cleansing defies easy definition. At one end it is virtually indistinguishable from forced emigration and population exchange while at the other it merges with deportation, at the most general level, however, ethnic cleansing can be understood as the expulsion of a population from a given territory. The term ethnic cleansing has frequently employed to refer to the events in Bosnia. General Assembly resolution 47/121 referred in its Preamble to the abhorrent policy of ethnic cleansing and it can only be a form of genocide within the meaning of the Convention, if it corresponds to or falls within one of the categories of acts prohibited by Article II of the Convention. The expulsion of a group or part of a group does not in itself suffice for genocide, there is no international treaty that specifies a specific crime of ethnic cleansing. There are however situations, such as the expulsion of Germans after World War II, timothy V. Waters argues that if similar circumstances arise in the future, this precedent would allow the ethnic cleansing of other populations under international lawEthical cleansing – The Chios Massacre refers to the slaughter of tens of thousands of Greeks on the island of Chios by Ottoman troops in 1822.
42. Royal Army (Italy) – The Royal Italian Army was the army of the Kingdom of Italy from the unification of Italy in 1861 to the birth of the Italian Republic in 1946. In World War II the Royal Army fought first as part of the Axis, after the monarchy ended, the army changed its name to become the Italian Army. The Regio Esercito dates from the proclamation of the Kingdom of Italy, on 4 May 1861, Manfredo Fanti signed the creation decree, by which the new army was to replace the previous Armata Sarda and the Army of the Two Sicilies. On 20 September 1870, the IV Corps captured Rome, which had remained under Papal control up until then, on 8 February 1885, a corps of fewer than 1,000 soldiers landed at Massaua, Eritrea, starting the creation of an Italian colonial empire. The Italian advance was halted by a defeat at the Battle of Adwa by Ethiopian forces. The following year, as part of the Italian collaboration with the pacification program after the revolt against the Turkish domination in Cyprus. On 14 July 1900, another force was constituted to suppress the Boxer Rebellion in China in defense of the European protectorates. On 3 October 1911, Italy invaded Libya as part of the Italo-Turkish War, the war against the Ottoman Empire ended with the signing of the First Treaty of Lausanne in Ouchy, near Lausanne, Switzerland. The Royal Italian Armys first experience with modern warfare was in World War I, the war was fought mostly on the Italian Front in Northern Italy, costing the Italian Army serious casualties, including some 700,000 dead. The Regio Esercito was one of the largest ground forces in World War II, many Italian divisions were reinforced by a MVSN Gruppo di Assalto of two battalions due to the small size of the divisions. In 1943, Italy surrendered and split into the Italian Social Republic, which fielded its own army, the Kingdom was ultimately replaced by the Italian Republic in 1946, and the Royal Army accordingly changed its name to become the Esercito ItalianoRoyal Army (Italy) – War Flag of the Regio Esercito
43. North Anatolia – The Black Sea Region is a geographical region of Turkey. 4,137,166 people live in cities and 4,301,747 people in villages and this makes it the only one of the seven regions of Turkey in which more people live in rural rather than urban areas. The Black Sea region has a steep, rocky coast with rivers that cascade through the gorges of the coastal ranges, a few larger rivers, those cutting back through the Pontic Mountains, have tributaries that flow in broad, elevated basins. The higher slopes facing northwest tend to be densely forested, because of these natural conditions, the Black Sea coast historically has been isolated from Anatolia. The mild, damp climate of the Black Sea coast makes commercial farming profitable. Running from Zonguldak in the west to Rize in the east, the Samsun area, close to the midpoint, is a major tobacco-growing region, east of it are numerous citrus groves. East of Samsun, the area around Trabzon is world-renowned for the production of hazelnuts, all cultivable areas, including mountain slopes wherever they are not too steep, are sown or used as pasture. The western part of the Black Sea region, especially the Zonguldak area, is a center of coal mining, the North Anatolian Mountains in the north are an interrupted chain of folded highlands that generally parallel the Black Sea coast. In the west, the mountains tend to be low, with elevations rarely exceeding 1,500 meters, lengthy, trough-like valleys and basins characterize the mountains. Rivers flow from the mountains toward the Black Sea, the southern slopes—facing the Anatolian Plateau—are mostly unwooded, but the northern slopes contain dense growths of both deciduous and evergreen trees. Black Sea region has a climate, with high and evenly distributed rainfall the year round. At the coast, summers are warm and humid, and winters are cool, the Black Sea coast receives the greatest amount of precipitation and is the only region of Turkey that receives high precipitation throughout the year. The eastern part of that coast averages 2,500 millimeters annually which is the highest precipitation in the country, snowfall is quite common between the months of December and March, snowing for a week or two, and it can be heavy once it snows. The water temperature in the whole Turkish Black Sea coast is always cool and fluctuates between 8° and 20 °C throughout the yearNorth Anatolia – Panoramic view of the Pontic Mountains in the region.>
44. Government of the Kingdom of Italy – The state was founded as a result of the unification of Italy under the influence of the Kingdom of Sardinia, which can be considered its legal predecessor state. Italy declared war on Austria in alliance with Prussia in 1866, Italian troops entered Rome in 1870, ending more than one thousand years of Papal temporal power. Italy entered into a Triple Alliance with Germany and Austria-Hungary in 1882, victory in the war gave Italy a permanent seat in the Council of the League of Nations. Fascist Italy is the era of National Fascist Party rule from 1922 to 1943 with Benito Mussolini as head of government, according to Payne, Fascist regime passed through several relatively distinct phases. The first phase was nominally a continuation of the parliamentary system, then came the second phase, the construction of the Fascist dictatorship proper from 1925 to 1929. The third phase, with activism, was 1929–34. The war itself was the phase with its disasters and defeats. Italy was allied with Nazi Germany in World War II until 1943 and it switched sides to the Allies after ousting Mussolini and shutting down the Fascist party in areas controlled by the Allied invaders. Shortly after the war, civil discontent led to the referendum of 1946 on whether Italy would remain a monarchy or become a republic. Italians decided to abandon the monarchy and form the Italian Republic, the Kingdom of Italy claimed all of the territory which is modern-day Italy. The development of the Kingdoms territory progressed under Italian re-unification until 1870, the state for a long period of time did not include Trieste or Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol, which are in Italy today, and only annexed them in 1919. After the Second World War, the borders of present-day Italy were founded, the Kingdom of Italy was theoretically a constitutional monarchy. Executive power belonged to the monarch, as executed through appointed ministers, two chambers of parliament restricted the monarchs power—an appointive Senate and an elective Chamber of Deputies. The kingdoms constitution was the Statuto Albertino, the governing document of the Kingdom of Sardinia. In theory, ministers were responsible to the king. However, in practice, it was impossible for an Italian government to stay in office without the support of Parliament, members of the Chamber of Deputies were elected by plurality voting system elections in uninominal districts. A candidate needed the support of 50% of those voting, and of 25% of all enrolled voters, if not all seats were filled on the first ballot, a runoff was held shortly afterwards for the remaining vacancies. After a brief multinominal experimentation in 1882, proportional representation into large, regional, Socialists became the major party, but they were unable to form a government in a parliament split into three different factions, with Christian Populists and classical liberalsGovernment of the Kingdom of Italy – Italian unification process.
45. U K – The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom or Britain, is a sovereign country in western Europe. Lying off the north-western coast of the European mainland, the United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state—the Republic of Ireland. The Irish Sea lies between Great Britain and Ireland, with an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world and the 11th-largest in Europe. It is also the 21st-most populous country, with an estimated 65.1 million inhabitants, together, this makes it the fourth-most densely populated country in the European Union. The United Kingdom is a monarchy with a parliamentary system of governance. The monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 6 February 1952, other major urban areas in the United Kingdom include the regions of Birmingham, Leeds, Glasgow, Liverpool and Manchester. The United Kingdom consists of four countries—England, Scotland, Wales, the last three have devolved administrations, each with varying powers, based in their capitals, Edinburgh, Cardiff and Belfast, respectively. The relationships among the countries of the UK have changed over time, Wales was annexed by the Kingdom of England under the Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542. A treaty between England and Scotland resulted in 1707 in a unified Kingdom of Great Britain, which merged in 1801 with the Kingdom of Ireland to form the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain, there are fourteen British Overseas Territories. These are the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, British influence can be observed in the language, culture and legal systems of many of its former colonies. The United Kingdom is a country and has the worlds fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP. The UK is considered to have an economy and is categorised as very high in the Human Development Index. It was the worlds first industrialised country and the worlds foremost power during the 19th, the UK remains a great power with considerable economic, cultural, military, scientific and political influence internationally. It is a nuclear weapons state and its military expenditure ranks fourth or fifth in the world. The UK has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946 and it has been a leading member state of the EU and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. However, on 23 June 2016, a referendum on the UKs membership of the EU resulted in a decision to leave. The Acts of Union 1800 united the Kingdom of Great Britain, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland have devolved self-governmentU K – Stonehenge, in Wiltshire, was erected around 2500 BC.
46. The Russian Revolution – The Russian Revolution was a pair of revolutions in Russia in 1917, which dismantled the Tsarist autocracy and led to the eventual rise of the Soviet Union. The Russian Empire collapsed with the abdication of Emperor Nicholas II, in the second revolution that October, the Provisional Government was removed and replaced with a communist state. The February Revolution was a revolution focused around Petrograd, then capital of Russia, in the chaos, members of the Imperial parliament assumed control of the country, forming the Russian Provisional Government. The army leadership felt they did not have the means to suppress the revolution, the February Revolution took place in the context of heavy military setbacks during the First World War, which left much of the Russian Army in a state of mutiny. During this chaotic period there were frequent mutinies, protests and many strikes, when the Provisional Government chose to continue fighting the war with Germany, the Bolsheviks and other socialist factions campaigned for stopping the conflict. The Bolsheviks turned workers militias under their control into the Red Guards over which they exerted substantial control, the Bolsheviks appointed themselves as leaders of various government ministries and seized control of the countryside, establishing the Cheka to quash dissent. To end Russia’s participation in the First World War, the Bolshevik leaders signed the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk with Germany in March 1918, soon after, civil war erupted among the Reds, the Whites, the independence movements and the non-Bolshevik socialists. It continued for years, during which the Bolsheviks defeated both the Whites and all rival socialists. In this way, the Revolution paved the way for the creation of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics in 1922, the Russian Revolution of 1905 was said to be a major factor to the February Revolutions of 1917. The events of Bloody Sunday triggered a line of protests, a council of workers called the St. Petersburg Soviet was created in all this chaos, and the beginning of a communist political protest had begun. World War I prompted a Russian outcry directed at Tsar Nicholas II and it was another major factor contributing to the retaliation of the Russian Communists against their royal opponents. However, the problems were merely administrative, and not industrial as Germany was producing great amounts of munitions whilst constantly fighting on two major battlefronts, the war also developed a weariness in the city, owing to a lack of food in response to the disruption of agriculture. Food scarcity had become a problem in Russia, but the cause of this did not lie in any failure of the harvests. As a result, they tended to hoard their grain and to revert to subsistence farming, thus the cities were constantly short of food. At the same time rising prices led to demands for wages in the factories. The outcome of all this, however, was a criticism of the government rather than any war-weariness. The original fever of excitement, which had caused the name of St. Heavy losses during the war also strengthened thoughts that Tsar Nicholas II was unfit to rule, the Liberals were now better placed to voice their complaints, since they were participating more fully through a variety of voluntary organizationsThe Russian Revolution – Bolshevik forces marching on Red Square
47. Herzogtum Schleswig – The region is also called Sleswick in English. Roman sources place the homeland of the Jute tribe north of the river Eider and that of the Angles to its south, who in turn abutted the neighbouring Saxons. During the early Viking Age, Haithabu - Scandinavias biggest trading centre - was located in this region and its construction, and in particular its great expansion around 737, has been interpreted as an indication of the emergence of a unified Danish state. In May 1931 scientists of the National Museum of Denmark announced the finding of eighteen Viking graves with the remains of eighteen men in them, the discovery came during excavations in Schleswig. The skeletons indicated that the men were bigger proportioned than twentieth-century Danish men, each of the graves was laid out from east to west. Researchers surmised that the bodies were entombed in wooden coffins originally, towards the end of the Early Middle Ages, Schleswig formed part of the historical Lands of Denmark as Denmark unified out of a number of petty chiefdoms in the 8th to 10th centuries. The southern boundary of Denmark in the region of the Eider River, the Treaty of Heiligen was signed in 811 between the Danish King Hemming and Charlemagne, by which the border was established at the Eider. During the 10th century there were wars between East Francia and Denmark. In 1027, Conrad II and Canute the Great again settled their mutual border at the Eider. In 1115, king Niels created his nephew Canute Lavard - a son of his predecessor Eric I - Earl of Schleswig, in the 1230s, Southern Jutland was allotted as an appanage to Abel Valdemarsen, Canutes great-grandson, a younger son of Valdemar II of Denmark. Feuds and marital alliances brought the Abel dynasty into a connection with the German Duchy of Holstein by the 15th century. The latter was a subordinate to the Holy Roman Empire. The title Duke of Schleswig was inherited in 1460 by the kings of Norway who were also regularly elected kings of Denmark simultaneously. This was an anomaly – a king holding a ducal title, the title and anomaly survived presumably because it was already co-regally held by the kings sons. Between 1544 and 1713/20 the ducal reign had become a condominium, with the royal House of Oldenburg, a third branch in the condominium, the short-lived House of Haderslev, was already extinct in 1580 by the time of John the Elder. On the west coast the Danish diocese of Ribe stopped about 5 km north of the present border and this line corresponds remarkably well with the present border. In the 17th century a series of wars between Denmark and Sweden—which Denmark lost—devastated the region economically, however the nobility responded with a new agricultural system that restored prosperity. In the period 1600 to 1800 the region experienced the growth of manorialism of the common in the rye-growing regions of eastern GermanyHerzogtum Schleswig – Danish Map of Southern Jutland (1918)
48. Slesvig-Holstein – Schleswig-Holstein is the northernmost of the 16 states of Germany, comprising most of the historical duchy of Holstein and the southern part of the former Duchy of Schleswig. Its capital city is Kiel, other cities are Lübeck. Also known in more dated English as Sleswick-Holsatia, the Danish name is Slesvig-Holsten, the Low German name is Sleswig-Holsteen, historically, the name can also refer to a larger region, containing both present-day Schleswig-Holstein and the former South Jutland County in Denmark. The term Holstein derives from Old Saxon Holseta Land, originally, it referred to the central of the three Saxon tribes north of the River Elbe, Tedmarsgoi, Holstein and Sturmarii. The area of the tribe of the Holsts was between the Stör River and Hamburg, and after Christianization, their church was in Schenefeld. Saxon Holstein became a part of the Holy Roman Empire after Charlemagnes Saxon campaigns in the eighth century. Since 811, the frontier of Holstein was marked by the River Eider. The term Schleswig comes from the city of Schleswig, around 1100, the Duke of Saxony gave Holstein, as it was his own country, to Count Adolf I of Schauenburg. Schleswig and Holstein have at different times belonged in part or completely to either Denmark or Germany, the exception is that Schleswig had never been part of Germany until the Second Schleswig War in 1864. For many centuries, the King of Denmark was both a Danish Duke of Schleswig and a German Duke of Holstein, essentially, Schleswig was either integrated into Denmark or was a Danish fief, and Holstein was a German fief and once a sovereign state long ago. Both were for centuries ruled by the kings of Denmark. In the church, following the reformation, German was used in the part of Schleswig. This would later prove decisive for shaping national sentiments in the population, the administration of both duchies was conducted in German, despite the fact that they were governed from Copenhagen. The German national awakening that followed the Napoleonic Wars gave rise to a popular movement in Holstein. This development was paralleled by an equally strong Danish national awakening in Denmark and this movement called for the complete reintegration of Schleswig into the Kingdom of Denmark and demanded an end to discrimination against Danes in Schleswig. The ensuing conflict is called the Schleswig-Holstein Question. e. Not only in the Kingdom of Denmark, but also to Danes living in Schleswig, furthermore, they demanded protection for the Danish language in Schleswig. A liberal constitution for Holstein was not seriously considered in Copenhagen and these demands were rejected by the Danish government in 1848, and the Germans of Holstein and southern Schleswig rebelledSlesvig-Holstein – Kiel is the state's capital and largest city.
49. Poecilonym – A synonym is a word or phrase that means exactly or nearly the same as another word or phrase in the same language. Words that are synonyms are said to be synonymous, and the state of being a synonym is called synonymy, the word comes from Ancient Greek sýn and ónoma. An example of synonyms are the words begin, start, commence, words can be synonymous when meant in certain senses, even if they are not synonymous in all of their senses. For example, if one talks about a time or an extended time, long. Some academics call the former type cognitive synonyms to distinguish them from the latter type, some lexicographers claim that no synonyms have exactly the same meaning because etymology, orthography, phonic qualities, ambiguous meanings, usage, etc. make them unique. Different words that are similar in meaning usually differ for a reason, feline is more formal than cat, long and extended are only synonyms in one usage, synonyms are also a source of euphemisms. In the figurative sense, two words are said to be synonymous if they have the same connotation. a widespread impression that. Metonymy can sometimes be a form of synonymy, as when, for example, thus a metonym is a type of synonym, and the word metonym is a hyponym of the word synonym. The analysis of synonymy, polysemy, hyponymy, and hypernymy is inherent to taxonomy and it has applications in pedagogy and machine learning, because they rely on word-sense disambiguation and schema. Synonyms can be any part of speech, as long as both words belong to the part of speech. Such like, he expired means the same as he died, in English, many synonyms emerged in the Middle Ages, after the Norman conquest of England. While Englands new ruling class spoke Norman French, the lower classes continued to speak Old English, thus, today we have synonyms like the Norman-derived people, liberty and archer, and the Saxon-derived folk, freedom and bowman. For more examples, see the list of Germanic and Latinate equivalents in English, the purpose of a thesaurus is to offer the user a listing of similar or related words, these are often, but not always, synonyms. The word poecilonym is a synonym of the word synonym. It is not entered in most major dictionaries and is a curiosity or piece of trivia for being a word because of its meta quality as a synonym of synonym. Antonyms are words with opposite or nearly opposite meanings, for example, hot ↔ cold, large ↔ small, thick ↔ thin, synonym ↔ antonym Hypernyms and hyponyms are words that refer to, respectively, a general category and a specific instance of that category. For example, vehicle is a hypernym of car, and car is a hyponym of vehicle, homophones are words that have the same pronunciation, but different meanings. For example, witch and which are homophones in most accents, homographs are words that have the same spelling, but have different pronunciationsPoecilonym – Synonym list in cuneiform on a clay tablet, Neo-Assyrian period. Ref: K.4375.
50. Department of Somme – Somme is a department of France, located in the north of the country and named after the Somme river. It is part of the Hauts-de-France region, the north central area of the Somme was the site of a series of battles during World War I. Particularly significant was the 1916 Battle of the Somme, the 1346 Battle of Crécy, a major English victory early in the Hundred Years War, also took place in this department. The Somme department is in the current region of Hauts-de-France and is surrounded by the departments of Pas-de-Calais, Nord, Aisne, Oise, in the northwest, it has a coast on the English Channel. The main rivers are the Somme and its tributaries as well as the Bresle, at the beginning of the First World War, during the Race to the Sea of September and November 1914, the Somme became the site of the Battle of Albert. The line settled around the town of Thiepval and remained there until July 1916, the Allies had originally intended the Somme to be the site of one of several simultaneous major offensives by Allied powers against the Central Powers in 1916. However, before these offensives could begin, the Germans attacked first, as this battle dragged on, the purpose of the Somme campaign shifted from striking a decisive blow against Germany to drawing German forces away from Verdun and relieving the Allied forces there. By its end the losses on the Somme had exceeded those at Verdun, while Verdun would bite deep in the national consciousness of France for generations, the Somme would have the same effect on generations of Britons. The battle is best remembered for its first day,1 July 1916, on which the British suffered 57,420 casualties, as terrible as the battle was for the British Empire troops who suffered there, it naturally affected the other nationalities as well. One German officer, General D. Swaha, famously described it as the grave of the German field army. By the end of the battle, the British had learned lessons in modern warfare while the Germans had suffered irreplaceable losses. British historian Sir James Edmonds stated, It is not too much to claim that the foundations of the victory on the Western Front were laid by the Somme offensive of 1916. The Somme experienced war twice more in the First and Second Battles of the Somme of 1918Department of Somme – Prefecture building of the Somme department, in Amiens
51. Sopwith Aviation – Sopwith aircraft were also used in varying numbers by the French, Belgian, and American air services during the War. In April 1919 the company was re-named Sopwith Aviation & Engineering Company Limited, in September 1920 the company entered voluntary liquidation after a move to build motorcycles failed. The patents and assets were bought by a new company H. G, a small factory subsequently opened in Woolston, Hampshire in 1914. During the First World War, the company more than 16,000 aircraft. Many more of the aircraft were made by subcontractors rather than by Sopwiths themselves. These included Fairey, Clayton and Shuttleworth, William Beardmore and Company and Ruston Proctor. Towards the end of the war, Sopwith took out a lease on National Aircraft Factory No.2, the company were able to greatly increase production of Snipe, Dolphin and Salamander fighter planes as a result. At the beginnning of the war the company had 200 employees this had reached 6,000 employees by the Armistice, at a meeting of creditors held in October 1920 it was explained that although the company had previously accumulated a surplus of £900,000 in 1918. Following a slump in the sale of motorcycles the company had liabilities of £705,430, the amount of excess profit duty was being disputed by the company which had already paid £450,000 in duty. The meeting concluded that the best result would be to sell the business as a going concern, the Ham factory which was included in 38 acres of freehold land was sold to Leyland Motors. The newly formed H. G Hawker Engineering Company obtained the Sopwith patent rights, upon the liquidation of the Sopwith company, Tom Sopwith himself, together with Harry Hawker, Fred Sigrist and Bill Eyre, immediately formed H. G. Hawker Engineering, forerunner of the Hawker Aircraft and Hawker Siddeley lineage, Sopwith was Chairman of Hawker Siddeley until his retirement. These later jet types were manufactured in the factory buildings used to produce Sopwith Snipes in 1918 as Hawker Aircraft bought the Ham Factory when Leylands lease expired. Initially, Tom Sopwith himself, assisted by his personal mechanic Fred Sigrist. A float-equipped version of this won the Schneider Trophy in 1914. The landplane version was used by both the RNAS and RFC at the start of the war, with higher power and floats, the type evolved into the Sopwith Baby, which was a workhorse of the RNAS for much of the First World War. In 1916, Herbert Smith became Chief Engineer of the Sopwith company, soon after came the small and agile single-seat Scout, which quickly became better known as the Pup because of its obvious descent from the 1½ Strutter. The Pup and 1½ Strutter were the first successful British tractor fighters equipped with a gear to allow a machine gun to fire through the rotating propellerSopwith Aviation – Thomas Sopwith, circa 1910
52. TF1 (trench fighter) – The Sopwith Camel was a British First World War single-seat biplane fighter aircraft introduced on the Western Front in 1917. It had been developed by the Sopwith Aviation Company as a successor to the earlier Sopwith Pup, the Camel was powered by a single rotary engine and was armed with twin synchronized machine guns. Though proving difficult to handle, it provided for a level of manoeuvrability to an experienced pilot. In total, Camel pilots have been credited with the shooting down of 1,294 enemy aircraft, the Camel also saw use as a two-seat trainer aircraft. In January 1920, the last aircraft of the type were withdrawn from RAF service and it was recognised that the new fighter would need to be faster and have a heavier armament. The design effort to produce this successor, initially designated as the Sopwith F.1, was headed by Sopwiths chief designer, early in its development, the new aircraft was simply referred to as the Big Pup. A metal fairing over the gun breeches, intended to protect the guns from freezing at altitude, however, the Camel name never had any official status in regards to the aircraft. On 22 December 1916, the prototype Camel was first flown by Harry Hawker at Brooklands, Weybridge, Surrey, in May 1917, the first production contract for an initial batch of 250 Camels was issued by the British War Office. Throughout 1917, a total of 1,325 Camels were manufactured, by the time that production of the type came to an end, approximately 5,490 Camels of all types had been built. In early 1918, production of the navalised Ships Camel 2F.1 began, while possessing some clear similarities with the Pup, it was furnished with a noticeably bulkier fuselage. In addition to the guns, a total of four Cooper bombs could be carried for ground attack purposes. The upper wing featured a central section for the purpose of providing improved upwards visibility for the pilot. Production Camels were powered by various engines, most commonly either the Clerget 9B or the Bentley BR1. In order to evade a potential manufacturing bottleneck being imposed upon the aircraft in the event of an engine shortage. Unlike the preceding Pup and Triplane, the Camel was considered to be difficult to fly, the Camel soon gained an unfortunate reputation with pilots. Many inexperienced pilots would crash on take-off when the fuel load usually carried pushed the aircrafts centre of gravity beyond the rearmost safe limits. When in level flight, the Camel was markedly tail-heavy, the aircraft could be rigged so that at higher altitudes it could be flown hands off. A stall immediately resulted in a dangerous spin, at length, with the assistance of Lieut Morgan, who managed our workshops, I took the main tank out of several Camels and replaced with a smaller one, which enabled us to fit in dual controlTF1 (trench fighter) – Camel
53. List of Emperors of the Ottoman Empire – The sultans of the Ottoman Empire, made up solely of the members of the Ottoman dynasty, ruled over the transcontinental empire from its inception in 1299 to its dissolution in 1922. At its height, the Ottoman Empire spanned from Hungary in the north to Yemen in the south, the Ottoman Empires early years have been the subject of varying narratives due to the difficulty of discerning fact from legend. The empire came into existence at the end of the thirteenth century, according to later, often unreliable Ottoman tradition, Osman was a descendant of the Kayı tribe of the Oghuz Turks. The eponymous Ottoman dynasty he founded endured for six centuries through the reigns of 36 sultans, the Ottoman Empire disappeared as a result of the defeat of the Central Powers with whom it had allied itself during World War I. The Ottoman Empire was an absolute monarchy during much of its existence and he was theoretically responsible only to God and Gods law, of which he was the chief executor. His heavenly mandate was reflected in Islamic titles such as shadow of God on Earth, all offices were filled by his authority, and every law was issued by him in the form of a decree called firman. He was the military commander and had the official title to all land. Osman son of Ertuğrul was the first ruler of the Ottoman state, newly enthroned Ottoman rulers were girded with the Sword of Osman, an important ceremony that served as the equivalent of European monarchs coronation. A non-girded sultan was not eligible to have his children included in the line of succession, although absolute in theory and in principle, the sultans powers were limited in practice. Political decisions had to take account the opinions and attitudes of important members of the dynasty. Constitutionalism was only established during the reign Abdul Hamid II, who became the empires last absolute ruler. Although Abdul Hamid II abolished the parliament and the constitution to return to rule in 1878. Since 2009, the head of the House of Osman and pretender to the defunct Ottoman throne has been Bayezid Osman, the table below lists Ottoman sultans, as well as the last Ottoman caliph, in chronological order. The tughras were the seals or signatures used by Ottoman sultans. They were displayed on all official documents as well as on coins, the Notes column contains information on each sultans parentage and fate. For earlier rulers, there is usually a gap between the moment a sultans reign ended and the moment his successor was enthroned. Because of the infighting and numerous fratricides that occurred, a death date therefore did not always coincide with the accession date of his successor. In 1617, the law of succession changed from survival of the fittest to a system based on agnatic seniority and this in turn explains why from the 17th century onwards a deceased sultan was rarely succeeded by his own son, but usually by an uncle or brotherList of Emperors of the Ottoman Empire – Suleiman the Magnificent (1520–1566)
54. African theater of World War I – German colonies in Africa had been acquired in the 1880s and were not well defended. They were also surrounded by territories controlled by Britain, France, Belgium, Colonial military forces in Africa were relatively small, poorly equipped and had been created to maintain internal order, rather than conduct military operations against other colonial forces. Most of the European warfare in Africa during the 19th century had been conducted against African societies to enslave people and later to conquer territory. When news of the outbreak of war reached European colonialists in Africa, an editorial in the East African Standard on 22 August argued that Europeans in Africa should not fight each other but instead collaborate, to maintain the repression of the indigenous population. Attacks on German coaling stations and wireless stations were considered to be important to clear the seas of German commerce raiders, the Zaian War was fought between France and the Zaian confederation of Berber tribes in Morocco between 1914 and 1921. Morocco had become a French protectorate in 1912 and the French army extended French influence eastwards through the Middle Atlas mountains towards French Algeria, by 1914 the French had 80,000 troops in Morocco. Two-thirds of the French troops were withdrawn from 1914–1915 for service in France, lyautey, the French governor, reorganised his forces and pursued a forward policy rather than passive defence. The German submarine U–35 torpedoed and sank a steamer, HMS Tara, u-35 surfaced, sank the coastguard gunboat Abbas and badly damaged Nur el Bahr with its deck gun. On 14 November the Sanussi attacked an Egyptian position at Sollum and on the night of 17 November, next night a monastery at Sidi Barrani,48 miles beyond Sollum, was occupied by 300 Muhafizia and on the night of 19 November, a coastguard was killed. An Egyptian post was attacked 30 miles east of Sollum on 20 November, the British withdrew from Sollum to Mersa Matruh,120 miles further east, which had better facilities for a base, and the Western Frontier Force was created. On 11 December, a British column sent to Duwwar Hussein was attacked along the Matruh–Sollum track and in the Affair of Wadi Senba, drove the Senussi out of the wadi. The reconnaissance continued and on 13 December at Wadi Hasheifiat, the British were attacked again and held up until artillery came into action in the afternoon, the British returned to Matruh until 25 December and then made a night advance to surprise the Sanussi. At the Affair of Wadi Majid, the Sanussi were defeated but were able to withdraw to the west, air reconnaissance found more Senussi encampments in the vicinity of Matruh at Halazin, which was attacked on 23 January, in the Affair of Halazin. The Senussi fell back skilfully and then attempted to envelop the British flanks, the British were pushed back on the flanks as the centre advanced and defeated the main body of Senussi, who were again able to withdraw. In February 1916, the Western Frontier Force was reinforced and a British column was sent west along the coast to re-capture Sollum, air reconnaissance discovered a Senussi encampment at Agagia, which was attacked in the Action of Agagia on 26 February. The Senussi were defeated and then intercepted by the Dorset Yeomanry as they withdrew, the British lost half their horses and 58 of 184 men but prevented the Senussi from slipping away. Jaafar Pasha, the commander of the Senussi forces on the coast, was captured and Sollum was re-occupied by British forces on 14 March 1916, which concluded the coastal campaign. On 11 February 1916 Ahmed Sharif as-Senussi, leader of the Senussi order in Cyrenaica, occupied the oasis at Bahariya, the oasis at Farafra was occupied at the same time and then the Senussi moved on to the oasis at Dakhla on 27 FebruaryAfrican theater of World War I – German trenches in Garua in Kamerun
55. Fronts of the Ottoman Empire (World War I) – The Middle Eastern theatre of World War I saw action between 29 October 1914 and 30 October 1918. There were five main campaigns, the Sinai and Palestine Campaign, the Mesopotamian Campaign, the Caucasus Campaign, the Persian Campaign, there were also several minor campaigns, the Senussi Campaign, Arab Campaign, and South Arabia Campaign. Both sides used local asymmetrical forces in the region, in addition, the Assyrians joined the Allies following the Assyrian genocide, instigating the Assyrian war of independence. The Turkish Ottomans had the support of Kurds, Turcomans, Circassians, Chechens, the theatre covered the largest territory of all theatres in the war. The Armenians attended the Trabzon Peace Conference which resulted in the Treaty of Batum on 4 June 1918. The Ottomans accepted the Armistice of Mudros with the Allies on 30 October 1918, the Ottoman Empire joined the Central Powers through the secret Ottoman-German Alliance, which was signed on 2 August 1914. Success in this region would force the Russians to divert troops from the Polish, German advisors with the Ottoman armies supported the campaign for this reason. From an economic perspective, the Ottoman, or rather German, Germany established an Intelligence Bureau for the East on the eve of World War I. The bureau was involved in intelligence-gathering and subversive missions to Persia and Egypt, if these nations were to be removed from Western influence, Enver envisioned a cooperation between these newly established Turkic states. Envers project conflicted with European interests which played out as struggles between several key imperial powers, the Ottomans also threatened Britains communications with India and the East via the Suez Canal. The Germans hoped to seize the Canal for the Central Powers, the British feared that the Ottomans might attack and capture the Middle East oil fields. The British Royal Navy depended upon oil from the deposits in southern Persia. Marriott summarizes the British debates on strategy for the Near East and Balkan theatre, The War in that presents many problems. The Russians viewed the Caucasus Front as secondary to the Eastern Front and they feared a campaign into the Caucasus aimed at retaking Kars which had been taken from the Ottoman Empire during the Russo-Turkish War, and the port of Batum. The Russian Imperial government planned to replace the Muslim population of Northern Anatolia, the Armenian national liberation movement sought to establish an Armenian state within the Armenian Highlands. The Armenian Revolutionary Federation achieved this goal later in the war, none of these entities were long lasting. The Caucasus Campaign extended from the Caucasus to eastern Asia Minor, reaching as far as Trabzon, Bitlis, Mush, the warfare on land was accompanied by actions undertaken by the Russian Navy in the Black Sea region of the Ottoman Empire. The Ottoman Empire and German Empire fought each other at Batumi after the arrival of the German Caucasus Expedition whose prime aim was to secure oil suppliesFronts of the Ottoman Empire (World War I) – Gallipoli Campaign, April 1915.
56. Antanta – Historians continue to debate the importance of the alliance system in igniting the Great War. At the start of World War I in 1914, all three Triple Entente members entered it as Allies of World War I against the Central Powers, Germany and Austria-Hungary. The situation in the Balkans and the 1878 Treaty of Berlin, in an attempt to stop Russia from allying with France, Bismarck signed the secret Reinsurance Treaty with Russia in 1887. It assured that both parties would remain neutral toward each other if war broke out, after the Reinsurance Treaty was not renewed in 1890, Russias leaders grew alarmed at the countrys diplomatic isolation and entered into the Franco-Russian Alliance in 1894. In 1904 Britain and France signed a series of agreements, the Entente cordiale, the Entente heralded the end of British neutrality in Europe. It was partly a response to growing German antagonism, as expressed in the expansion of the Kaiserliche Marine into a fleet that could threaten the supremacy of the Royal Navy. The Entente, in contrast to the Triple Alliance or the Franco-Russian Alliance, was not an alliance of mutual defence, as British Foreign Office Official Eyre Crowe minuted, The fundamental fact of course is that the Entente is not an alliance. For purposes of ultimate emergencies it may be found to have no substance at all. For the Entente is nothing more than a frame of mind, in 1907 Britain and Russia signed an agreement called the Anglo-Russian Convention of 1907 to stop both countries rivalry in Central Asia, The Great Game. In the last decade of the century, Britain continued its policy of splendid isolation. However, by the early 1900s the German threat increased dramatically, some in Britain thought it was in need of allies. The Tangier Crisis later encouraged co-operation between the two countries from their fear of apparent German expansionism. Russia was defeated in the Russo-Japanese War, which resulted in concern over Russian imperialism. France was already allied to Russia in the Dual Alliance, Britain was frightened about the rising threat of German imperialism. Kaiser Wilhelm II had announced to the world his intentions to create a global German empire, Britain, traditionally having control of the seas, saw this as a serious threat to its own empire and navy. During the Franco-Prussian War of 1870–1871, Prussia defeated the Second French Empire, in the Treaty of Frankfurt, Prussia forced France to cede Alsace-Lorraine to the new German Empire. Ever since, relations had been at an all time low, France, worried about the escalating military development of Germany, began building up its own war industries and army to deter to German aggression. As another measure, France developed a bond with Russia by ratifying the Franco-Russian AllianceAntanta – A 1914 Russian poster in which the upper inscription reads "agreement". The uncertain Britannia (right) and Marianne (left) look to the determined Mother Russia (centre) to lead them in the coming war.
57. Delta of the Vistula – The Vistula is the longest and largest river in Poland, at 1,047 kilometres in length. The drainage basin area of the Vistula is 194,424 km2, the remainder is in Belarus, Ukraine and Slovakia. The Vistula rises at Barania Góra in the south of Poland,1,220 meters above sea level in the Silesian Beskids, where it begins with the White Little Vistula and the Black Little Vistula. It empties into the Vistula Lagoon or directly into the Gdańsk Bay of the Baltic Sea with a delta, the name was first recorded by Pomponius Mela in AD40 and by Pliny in AD77 in his Natural History. Mela names the river Vistula, Pliny uses Vistla, the root of the name Vistula is Indo-European *u̯eis- to ooze, flow slowly and is found in many European rivernames. The diminutive endings -ila, -ula, were used in many Indo-European languages, in writing about the Vistula River and its peoples, Ptolemy uses the Greek spelling Ouistoula. Other ancient sources spell it Istula, ammianus Marcellinus refers to the Bisula, note the absence of the -t-. Jordanes uses Viscla, while the Anglo-Saxon poem Widsith refers to it as the Wistla, the Vistula river basin covers 194,424 square kilometres, its average altitude rising to 270 metres above sea level. In addition, the majority of its basin is located at heights of 100 to 200 m above sea level. The highest point of the basin lies at 2,655 metres. The asymmetry of the basin is 73–27%. The most recent glaciation of the Pleistocene epoch, which ended around 10,000 BC, is called the Vistulian glaciation or Weichselian glaciation in regard to north-central Europe. The river forms a delta called the Żuławy Wiślane around the town of Biała Góra near Sztum, about 50 km from the mouth. In the city of Gdańsk the Head of the Leniwka branch separates again into the Szkarpawa branch, the so-called Dead Wisła divides again into the Przegalinie branch flowing into Gdańsk Bay. Until the 14th century the Vistula was divided into an eastern branch, the Elbląg Vistula, and the smaller western branch. Since 1371 the Vistula of Gdańsk is the main artery. After the flood in 1840 an additional branch formed called the Śmiała Wisła, in 1890 through 1895, additional waterworks were carried out up the Świbna. The history of the River Vistula and her valley spans over 2 million years, the river is connected to the geological period called the Quaternary, in which distinct cooling of the climate took placeDelta of the Vistula – Confluence of the Narew and the Vistula at Modlin, Poland
58. Tailspin – A spin is a special category of stall resulting in autorotation about the vertical axis and a shallow, rotating, downward path. Spins can be entered intentionally or unintentionally, from any flight attitude if the aircraft has sufficient yaw while at the stall point, either situation causes the aircraft to autorotate toward the stalled wing due to its higher drag and loss of lift. Spins are characterized by high angle of attack, an airspeed below the stall on at least one wing, recovery may require a specific and counterintuitive set of actions in order to avoid a crash. A spin differs from a dive in which neither wing is stalled. A spiral dive is not a type of spin because neither wing is stalled, in the early years of flight, a spin was frequently referred to as a tailspin. A method used to control a spin before it develops is a maneuver called the falling leaf. Many types of airplane will only spin if the pilot simultaneously yaws, under these circumstances, one wing will stall, or stall more deeply than the other. The wing that stalls first will drop, increasing its angle of attack, at least one wing must be stalled for a spin to occur. The other wing will rise, decreasing its angle of attack, the difference in lift between the two wings causes the aircraft to roll, and the difference in drag causes the aircraft to continue yawing. One common scenario that can lead to a spin is a skidding uncoordinated turn toward the runway during the landing sequence. A pilot who is overshooting the turn to final approach may be tempted to apply more rudder to increase the rate of turn, the result is twofold, the nose of the airplane drops below the horizon and the bank angle increases due to rudder roll. Reacting to these changes, the pilot then begins to pull the elevator control aft while applying opposite aileron to decrease bank angle. Taken to its extreme, this can result in a turn with sufficient angle of attack to cause the aircraft to stall. This is called a stall, and is very dangerous if it happens at low altitude where the pilot has little time to recover. In order to avoid this scenario, pilots are taught the importance of always making coordinated turns and they may simply choose to make the final turn earlier and shallower to prevent an overshoot of the runway center line and provide a larger margin of safety. Certificated, light, single-engine airplanes must meet criteria regarding stall. Spins are often entered intentionally for training, flight testing, or aerobatics, in aircraft that are capable of recovering from a spin, the spin has four phases. Some aircraft are difficult or impossible to recover from a spin, at low altitude spin recovery may also be impossible before impacting terrain, making low and slow aircraft especially vulnerable to spin related accidentsTailspin – An aircraft in a descending spin.