1. Fronte italiano (1915-1918) – The Italian Front was a series of battles at the border between Austria-Hungary and Italy, fought between 1915 and 1918 in World War I. Fighting along the front displaced much of the population, of which several thousand died from malnutrition. The Allied victory at Vittorio Veneto and the disintegration of Austria-Hungary ended the military operations, moreover, Austria-Hungary omitted to consult Italy before sending the ultimatum to Serbia and refused to discuss compensation due according to the art. By the 1910s, the expansionist ideas of this movement were taken up by a significant part of the Italian political elite. The annexation of those Austrian territories that were inhabited by Italians, became the main Italian war goal, however, of around 1.5 million people living in those areas, 45% were Italian speakers, while the rest were Slovenes, Germans and Croats. In northern Dalmatia, which was also among the Italian war aims, on 23 May, Italy declared war on Austria-Hungary. Italys entry was engineered in secret by the 1915 Treaty of London, set up between the British Foreign Secretary Edward Grey, the Italian Foreign Minister Sidney Sonnino and the French Foreign Minister Jules Cambon. On February 16,1915, despite concurrent negotiations with Austria, the final choice was aided by the arrival of news in March of Russian victories in the Carpathians. The Treaty of London was concluded on April 26 binding Italy to fight within one month, not until May 4 did Salandra denounce the Triple Alliance in a private note to its signatories. During the Italo-Turkish War in Libya, the Italian military suffered equipment, at the opening of the campaign, Austro-Hungarian troops occupied and fortified high ground of the Julian Alps and Karst Plateau, but the Italians initially outnumbered their opponents three-to-one. An Italian offensive aimed to cross the Soča river, take the fortress town of Gorizia. This offensive opened the first Battles of the Isonzo, because the Austrian forces occupied higher ground, Italians conducted difficult offensives while climbing. The Italian forces therefore failed to drive much beyond the river, despite a professional officer corps, severely under-trained Italian units lacked morale. Also many troops deeply disliked the newly appointed Italian commander, general Luigi Cadorna, moreover, preexisting equipment and munition shortages slowed progress and frustrated all expectations for a Napoleonic style breakout. Like most contemporaneous militaries, the Italian army primarily used horses for transport but struggled, the Italians recuperated, rearmed with 1200 heavy guns, and then on 18 October 1915 launched Third Battle of the Isonzo, another attack. Forces of Austria-Hungary again repulsed this Italian offensive, which concluded on 4 November without resulting gains, the Italians again launched another offensive on 10 November, the Fourth Battle of the Isonzo. Italian Armies in the North East of the country, the offensive began on 11 March 1916 with 15 divisions, and resulted in no gain. Later in 1916, four more battles along the Isonzo river erupted, the Sixth Battle of the Isonzo, launched by the Italians in August, resulted in a success greater than the previous attacksFronte italiano (1915-1918) – From left to right: Ortles, autumn 1917; Fort Verena, June 1915; Mount Paterno, 1915; Carso, 1917; Toblach, 1915.
2. Prima battaglia dell'Isonzo – The First Battle of the Isonzo was fought between the Armies of Italy and Austria-Hungary on the Italian Front in World War I, between 23 June and 7 July 1915. The aim of the Italian Army was to drive the Austrians away from its positions along the Soča. Although the Italians enjoyed a 2,1 numeric superiority, their offensive failed because the Italian commander, Luigi Cadorna, the Austrians had the advantage of fighting from uphill positions barricaded with barbed wire which were able to easily resist the Italian assault. The Italians had some early successes and they partially took Monte Nero, took Monte Colowrat, and captured the heights around Plezzo. However, they were unable to dislodge the Austro-Hungarian troops from the ground between Tolmino and the Isonzo, which would later form a launching off point for the Caporetto Offensive. The heaviest fighting occurred around Gorizia, in addition to the natural defenses of the river and mountains, bastions were created at Oslavia and Podgora. The fighting at Gorizia consisted of urban combat interspersed with artillery fire. Italian troops, such as the Italian Re and Casale Brigades, were able to advance as far as the suburbs and they made small footholds at Adgrado and Redipuglia on the Karst Plateau south of Gorizia but were unable to do much else. Roma,1923 Österreich-Ungarns letzter Krieg 1914-1918 Band II Verlag der Militärwissenschftlichen Mitteilungen Wien 1931-1933 Anton Graf Bossi-Fedrigotti, stocker Verlag, Graz 1977 http, //www. worldwar1. com/itafront/ison1915. htm Macdonald, John, and Željko Cimprič. Caporetto and the Isonzo Campaign, The Italian Front, 1915-1918, barnsley, South Yorkshire, Pen & Sword Military,2011. ISBN9781848846715 OCLC774957786 Page, Thomas Nelson, Italy and the World War, new York, Charles Scribners Sons, Full Text Available Online. Schindler, John R. Isonzo, The Forgotten Sacrifice of the Great War, First Battle of the Isonzo,1915 at FirstWorldWar. com Battlefield Maps, Italian Front 11 battles at the Isonzo The Walks of Peace in the Soča Region Foundation. The Foundation preserves, restores and presents the historical and cultural heritage of the First World War in the area of the Isonzo Front for the study, tourist, the Kobarid Museum Društvo Soška Fronta Pro Hereditate - extensive sitePrima battaglia dell'Isonzo – Eleven Battles of the Isonzo June 1915 — September 1917
3. Seconda battaglia dell'Isonzo – The Second Battle of the Isonzo was fought between the armies of the Kingdom of Italy and of Austria-Hungary in the Italian Front in World War I, between 18 July and 3 August 1915. The major role was assigned to the Duke of Savoys Third Army, the insufficiency of war material – from rifles, to artillery shells to shears to cut the barbed wire – nullified their numerical superiority caused by the recent arrival of 290,000 Italian soldiers. On the Karst Plateau took place a series of hand-to-hand fights involving the Italian Second and Third Armies. Bayonets, swords, knives, and various scrap metal and debris were all used in the terrifying melee, the Hungarian 20th division lost two-thirds of its effectives and was routed, partly because of the successive attacks and partly because of the unfavourable terrain. The Mount San Michele was briefly held by Italian forces, but a counterattack by Colonel Richter, commanding a group of elite regiments. In the northern section of the front, in the Julian Alps, the Italians managed to conquer Mount Batognica over Kobarid, the battle wore out on its own when both sides ran out of ammunition for both light arms and artillery. The total casualties during the three weeks were about 91,000 men, of which 43,000 Italians and 48,000 Austro-Hungarians, caporetto and the Isonzo Campaign, The Italian Front, 1915-1918. Barnsley, South Yorkshire, Pen & Sword Military,2011, ISBN9781848846715 OCLC774957786 Schindler, John R. Isonzo, The Forgotten Sacrifice of the Great War. The Foundation preserves, restores and presents the historical and cultural heritage of the First World War in the area of the Isonzo Front for the study, tourist, the Kobarid Museum Društvo Soška Fronta Pro Hereditate – extensive siteSeconda battaglia dell'Isonzo – Eleven Battles of the Isonzo June 1915 – September 1917
4. Terza battaglia dell'Isonzo – The Third Battle of the Isonzo was fought from 18 October through 3 November 1915 between the armies of Italy and Austria-Hungary. The main objectives were to take the Austro-Hungarian bridgeheads at Bovec and Tolmin, cadornas tactic, of deploying his forces evenly along the entire Soča, proved indecisive. The Austro-Hungarians took advantage of the small areas of attack to concentrate their firepower on those areas. Thanks to the low profile held by Boroevićs forces, the Austrians were able to hold their positions with heavy casualties and this battle showed Boroevićs tactical brilliance despite the limited scope of the front. The lull in action lasted barely two weeks after which the Italian offensive started anew, caporetto and the Isonzo Campaign, The Italian Front, 1915-1918. Barnsley, South Yorkshire, Pen & Sword Military,2011, ISBN9781848846715 OCLC774957786 Schindler, John R. Isonzo, The Forgotten Sacrifice of the Great War. Bauer, E.1985, Der Lowe vom Isonzo, Feldmarschall Svetozar Boroević de Bojna, graz Boroević, S.1923, O vojni proti Italiji. Italiano,1916, Addestramento della fanteria al combattimento, tipografia del Senato Battlefield Maps, Italian Front 11 battles at the Isonzo The Walks of Peace in the Soča Region Foundation. The Foundation preserves, restores and presents the historical and cultural heritage of the First World War in the area of the Isonzo Front for the study, tourist, the Kobarid Museum Društvo Soška Fronta Pro Hereditate - extensive siteTerza battaglia dell'Isonzo – Eleven Battles of the Isonzo June 1915 — September 1917
5. Quarta battaglia dell'Isonzo – The Fourth Battle of the Isonzo was fought between the armies of Kingdom of Italy and those of Austria-Hungary on the Italian Front in World War I, between November 10 and December 2,1915. In contrast to the other three Battles of the Isonzo, this lasted a short amount of time, and is sometimes considered a continuation of the previous offensive. Most of the clash concentrated in the direction of Gorizia and on the Kras Plateau, the 2nd Italian Army, aiming to Gorizia, was able to capture the hilly area around Oslavia and San Floriano del Collio overlooking the Soča and the town of Gorizia. The Third Army, covering the rest of the front up to the sea, launched a series of large, mount Sei Busi, already the scene of bitter fighting, was attacked five times by the Italian forces, always in vain. The intensity of the fighting increased until the end of November, in the first fifteen days of December, however, the fighting was reduced to small scale skirmishes as opposed to the massive frontal assaults that characterized the previous phases of the battle. An unsigned truce arrived together with the first great cold in the mountains of the Kras and this reason led the Germans to intervene on the Italian front but only starting from the Eleventh Battle of the Isonzo. Battles of the Isonzo Scipio Slataper Macdonald, John, and Željko Cimprič, caporetto and the Isonzo Campaign, The Italian Front, 1915-1918. Barnsley, South Yorkshire, Pen & Sword Military,2011, ISBN9781848846715 OCLC774957786 Schindler, John R. Isonzo, The Forgotten Sacrifice of the Great War. FirstWorldWar. Com, The Battles of the Isonzo, 1915-17 Battlefield Maps, the Foundation preserves, restores and presents the historical and cultural heritage of the First World War in the area of the Isonzo Front for the study, tourist and educational purposes. The Kobarid Museum Društvo Soška Fronta Pro Hereditate - extensive siteQuarta battaglia dell'Isonzo – Eleven Battles of the Isonzo June 1915 — September 1917
6. Quinta battaglia dell'Isonzo – The Fifth Battle of the Isonzo was fought from March 9–15,1916 between the armies of the Kingdom of Italy and those of Austria-Hungary. The Italians, under pressure from the French commanders, had decided to launch another offensive on the Soča River. The attack was a result of the allied Chantilly Conference of December 1915, the attacks ordered by Cadorna for the 2nd and 3rd Italian armies as demonstrations against the enemy, proved to be less bloody than those previously. The battles were fought on the Karst plateau, with the objective of taking Gorizia, along certain parts of the front, especially around Gorizia, skirmishes continued between enemy platoons until March 30 and beyond, in a protracted struggle that produced no clear victor. With the Fifth Battle of the Isonzo over the Italians now had to plan another assault, Cadorna put his sixth offensive on the drawing board after hearing promises of resupply from Italys Allies. Isonzo, The Forgotten Sacrifice of the Great War, firstWorldWar. Com, The Battles of the Isonzo, 1915–17 Battlefield Maps, Italian Front 11 battles at the Isonzo The Walks of Peace in the Soča Region Foundation. The Foundation preserves, restores and presents the historical and cultural heritage of the First World War in the area of the Isonzo Front for the study, tourist, the Kobarid Museum Društvo Soška Fronta Pro Hereditate – extensive siteQuinta battaglia dell'Isonzo – Eleven Battles of the Isonzo June 1915 – September 1917
7. Battaglia degli Altipiani – It was an unexpected attack that took place near Asiago in the province of Vicenza after the Fifth Battle of the Isonzo. Commemorating this battle and the killed in World War I is the Asiago War Memorial. His request was denied because Germany was not yet at war with Italy, the 11th Austro-Hungarian Army, under the command of Count Viktor Dankl, would carry out the offensive followed by the 3rd Army under Hermann Kövess. It was not so easy, however, because the Italians had deployed in the area about 250,000 troops, on May 15,1916,2,000 Austrian artillery guns opened a heavy barrage against the Italian lines, setting Trentino afire. The Austrian infantry attacked along a 50 km front, the Italian wings stood their ground, but the center yielded, and the Austrians broke through, reaching the beginning of the Venetian plain. With Vicenza about 30 km away, all the Italian forces on the Isonzo faced outflanking, cadorna hastily sent reinforcements to the First Army, and deployed the newly formed Fifth Army under Pietro Frugoni to engage the enemy in case they succeeded in entering the plain. However, on June 4, the Russians unexpectedly took the initiative in Galicia, although they were effectively countered by German and Austro-Hungarian troops, Hötzendorf was forced quickly to withdraw half of his divisions from Trentino. With that, the Strafexpedition could no longer be sustained and the Austrians retired from many of their positions, Italian troops in the region were increased to 400,000 to counter the Austrian positions. Although the Strafexpedition had been checked, it had consequences in Italy, the Salandra Cabinet fellBattaglia degli Altipiani – The remaining alpine vegetation after the attack on Asiago.
8. Nona battaglia dell'Isonzo – The Ninth Battle of the Isonzo was an Italian offensive against Austria-Hungary in the course World War I. The battle started with an attack on Vrtojba and the northern, with the ninth battle fought from 1–4 November 1916 the combined casualty total from the three linked battles proved sufficiently heavy to ensure that each attack was of short duration. The Italians suffered 75,000 casualties and the Austro-Hungarians 63,000, as always along the Soča, the Austro-Hungarian Armys command of the mountainous terrain provided a formidable natural barrier to the Italians attempts to achieve a breakthrough. Cadorna had intended to ensure such a breakthrough in the wake of the capture of Gorizia during the Sixth Battle of the Isonzo, neither side could particularly afford the casualties suffered but the Austro-Hungarians in particular were finding their defensive lines increasingly stretched. Realising this they continued to call upon their German ally to provide military assistance within the sector, when the Germans finally assented and constructed a combined force in time for the Twelfth Battle of Isonzo, the results were dramatic. Operations renewed afresh with the Tenth Battle of the Isonzo on 12 May 1917, Isonzo, The Forgotten Sacrifice of the Great War. FirstWorldWar. Com, The Battles of the Isonzo, 1915-17 Battlefield Maps, the Foundation preserves, restores and presents the historical and cultural heritage of the First World War in the area of the Isonzo Front for the study, tourist and educational purposes. The Kobarid Museum Društvo Soška Fronta Pro Hereditate - extensive siteNona battaglia dell'Isonzo – Eleven Battles of the Isonzo June 1915 — September 1917
9. Decima battaglia dell'Isonzo – The Tenth Battle of the Isonzo was an Italian offensive against Austria-Hungary during World War I. For while it was clear that the Austro-Hungarian Army was suffering in what had become a war of attrition, casualties suffered to date were tremendous and with each renewed battle tended to be higher on the Italian attackers side. The UKs new Prime Minister, David Lloyd George, had believed that the war could not be won on the Western Front alone. Consequently, Nivelle dispatched Ferdinand Foch to meet with Cadorna and discuss their possible options, the agreed plan was duly invoked - too late - in late October 1917 in the wake of the Italians disastrous performance at Caporetto in the Twelfth Battle of the Isonzo. With the contingency plan arranged the French pressed Cadorna to launch an offensive of his own along the Soča to generally co-ordinate with their own large-scale Aisne Offensive. Cadorna agreed and the tenth Isonzo offensive was launched with an artillery bombardment on 10 May 1917. The Italians, deploying 38 divisions - against only 14 of the Austro-Hungarians - switched tactics once again, the previous three Isonzo battles had seen Cadorna concentrate short, sharp initiatives against closely defined targets, generally aimed at extending their sole bridgehead east of Gorizia. This time the Italians returned to the Kras plateau south-east of Gorizia, the second aim of the offensive was to conquer Mount Škabrijel, thus opening the way to the Vipava Valley. By the close of May the Italian army had advanced to within 15 km of Trieste almost reaching the town of Duino. Some fighting also took place in the sections of the front in the Julian Alps. Casualties continued to be high,157,000 Italian losses were sustained, with morale in the Italian army plunging Cadorna planned one further breakthrough attempt as he massed the greatest number of divisions and artillery yet along the Soča river. Accordingly, the Eleventh Battle of the Isonzo was initiated some two months later on 19 August 1917, Isonzo, The Forgotten Sacrifice of the Great War. FirstWorldWar. Com, The Battles of the Isonzo, 1915-17 Battlefield Maps, the Foundation preserves, restores and presents the historical and cultural heritage of the First World War in the area of the Isonzo Front for the study, tourist and educational purposes. The Kobarid Museum Društvo Soška Fronta Pro Hereditate - extensive siteDecima battaglia dell'Isonzo – Eleven Battles of the Isonzo June 1915 – September 1917
10. Battaglia del monte Ortigara – The Battle of Mount Ortigara was fought from 10 to 25 June 1917 between the Italian and Austro-Hungarian armies for possession of Mount Ortigara, in the Asiago Plateau. The battle was prepared with considerable means concentrated on a segment of the front just a few kilometers long. The arc formed by the lines was such as to favor the Austrian artillery. The Italian lines were overcrowded, which made it difficult to maneuver, the Austrians expected the offensive, so there was no surprise. The attack began on 10 June and after fierce and bloody fightings the Italian 52nd Alpine Division managed to capture the top of Mount Ortigara, the Austro-Hungarian command promptly sent many trained reinforcements. On 25 June, the 11 Italian battalions guarding the summit were attacked by Austrian shock troops which retook it, the 52nd Division alone suffered about half the Italian casualties. General Ettore Mambretti, commander of the Sixth Army, was considered responsible for the heavy casualties, a letter from a young soldier, written on the eve of the battle, is part of the museum of the Asiago War Memorial. The Italian Army and the First World WarBattaglia del monte Ortigara – Mount Ortigara summit
11. Undicesima battaglia dell'Isonzo – The Eleventh Battle of the Isonzo was a World War I battle fought by the Italian and Austro-Hungarian Armies on the Italian Front between 18 August and 12 September 1917. On the Soča River, Luigi Cadorna, the Italian Chief of Staff, the attack was carried forth from a front from Tolmin to the Adriatic Sea. After fierce and deadly fightings, the Italian Second Army, led by General Capello, pushed back Boroevićs Isonzo Armee, conquering the Bainsizza, other positions were taken by the Duke of Aostas Third Army. However, Mount Saint Gabriel and Mount Hermada turned out to be impregnable, after the battle, the Austro-Hungarians were exhausted, and could not have withstood another attack. Fortunately for them, so were the Italians, who could not find the necessary for another assault. So the final result of the battle was an inconclusive bloodbath, moreover, the end of the battle left the Italian Second Army split in two parts across the Soča, a weak point that proved to be decisive in the subsequent Twelfth Battle of the Isonzo. To commemorate the participation of the Royal Bavarian Infantry Lifeguards Regiment, schindler, John R. Isonzo, The Forgotten Sacrifice of the Great War. Eleventh Battle of the Isonzo FirstWorldWar. Com, The Battles of the Isonzo, 1915-17 Battlefield Maps, the Foundation preserves, restores and presents the historical and cultural heritage of the First World War in the area of the Isonzo Front for the study, tourist and educational purposes. The Kobarid Museum Društvo Soška Fronta Pro Hereditate - extensive siteUndicesima battaglia dell'Isonzo – Eleventh Battle of the Isonzo
12. Battaglia di Caporetto – The Battle of Caporetto in 1917, took place from 24 October to 19 November 1917, near the town of Kobarid, on the Austro-Italian front of World War I. The battle was named after the Italian name of the town, Austro-Hungarian forces, reinforced by German units, were able to break into the Italian front line and rout the Italian forces opposing them. The battle was a demonstration of the effectiveness of the use of stormtroopers, the use of poison gas by the Germans also played a key role in the collapse of the Italian Second Army. In August 1917 Paul von Hindenburg decided that to keep the Austro-Hungarians in the war, erich Ludendorff was opposed to this but was overruled. In September three experts from the Imperial General Staff, led by the chemist Otto Hahn, went to the Isonzo front to find a suitable for a gas attack. They proposed attacking the quiet Caporetto sector, where a road ran west through a mountain valley to the Venetian plain. The Austro-Hungarian Army Group Boroević, commanded by Svetozar Boroević, was prepared for the offensive, in addition, a new 14th Army was formed with nine Austrian and six German divisions, commanded by the German Otto von Below. The Italians inadvertently helped by providing weather information over their radio, foul weather delayed the attack for two days but on 24 October there was no wind and the front was misted over. Knowing that their gas masks could protect them only for two hours or less, the defenders fled for their lives, though 500–600 were still killed, then the front was quiet until 06,00 when all the Italian wire and trenches to be attacked were bombarded by mortars. At 06,41,2,200 guns opened fire, at 08,00 two large mines were detonated under strong points on the heights bordering the valley and the infantry attacked. Soon they penetrated the almost undefended Italian fortifications in the valley and they made good use of the new German model 08/15 Maxim light machine gun, light trench mortars, mountain guns, flamethrowers and hand grenades. The attackers in the valley marched almost unopposed along the excellent road toward Italy, the Italian army beat back the attackers on either side of the sector where the central column attacked, but Belows successful central penetration threw the entire Italian army into disarray. Forces had to be moved along the Italian front in an attempt to stem von Belows breakout, at this point, the entire Italian position was threatened. The Italian 2nd Army commander Luigi Capello was commanding while bedridden with fever, realizing that his forces were ill-prepared for this attack and were being routed, Capello requested permission to withdraw back to the Tagliamento. He was overruled by Cadorna who believed that the Italian force could regroup, finally, on 30 October 1917, Cadorna ordered the majority of the Italian force to retreat to the other side of the Tagliamento. It took the Italians four full days to cross the river, by 2 November, a German division had established a bridgehead on the Tagliamento. About this time, however, the success of the attack caught up with them. The German and Austro-Hungarian supply lines were stretched to breaking point, even before the battle, Germany was struggling to feed and supply its armies in the fieldBattaglia di Caporetto – Battle of Caporetto and Italian retreat.
13. Prima battaglia del Piave – The Italian Army was in all-out retreat after the Austrian autumn offensive of 1917. The Italian Chief of the general staff general Luigi Cadorna had ordered to construct fortified defenses around the Monte Grappa summit to make the range an impregnable fortress. The Austrians, with help from the German Armys Alpenkorps, failed to take the summit during the first battle of Monte Grappa from November 11,1917 to December 23,1917. The German and Austro-Hungarian supply lines had in fact become overstreched and he also allowed his local commanders much more room for manoeuvre than his predecessor, which resulted in a more elastic and effective Italian defense. Thus the Italian front along the Piave river was stabilized and the Austrians failed to enter the plains beyond, caporetto, una battaglia e un enigma. Monte Grappa Monte Grappa Second Battle of Monte Grappa Third Battle of Monte GrappaPrima battaglia del Piave – View from the summit towards the Austrian positions
14. Battaglia del solstizio – The Second Battle of the Piave River, fought between 15 and 23 June 1918, was a decisive victory for the Italian Army during World War I. The Central Powers failure was, as the Allies had anticipated and its full significance was not appreciated in Italy, but Erich Ludendorff, on hearing the news, have reported to say had the sensation of defeat for the first time. It could be considered, in fact, as the beginning of the end of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, with the exit of Russia from the war in 1917, Austria-Hungary was now able to devote significant forces to the Italian Front and to receive reinforcements from their German allies. In the autumn of 1917, the Germans and Austrians had defeated the Italians at the Battle of Caporetto, after Caporetto the Italians were reinforced by six French infantry divisions and five British infantry divisions as well as sizeable air contingents. Italys defeat at Caporetto led to General Luigi Cadornas dismissal and General Armando Diaz replaced him as Chief of staff of the Italian Army, Diaz set up a strong defense line along the Piave. Up until this point in the war, the Italian army had been fighting alone against the Central Powers, with the defeat at Caporetto, France and Britain sent small reinforcements on the Italian front. The Austro-Hungarian Army had also undergone a change in command. After Caporetto, the Austro-Hungarian offensive has put many Italian cities, including Venice and Verona, austrias army had since then longed to achieve these strategic prizes and force Italy into an armistice. Conrad wanted an attack from the South Tyrolean Alps towards the Asiago Plateau, Boroević first favored a defensive action, but then when pressed preferred a frontal attack along the Piave River. Straußenburg himself was in favour of an attack on the part of the front leading to Brescia. The preparation of the began in February 1918, after a meeting in Bolzano between the Austrian and German high commands. There were also innovations on the Italian side, moreover,13 divisions, equipped with 6000 trucks, were organized in a central reserve, ready to be sent where it was needed. Boroević launched the first assault, moving South along the Adriatic Coast, to make matters worse, the swollen Piave isolated a great number of units on the west bank of the river, which made of them an easy target for the Italian fire. An estimated 20,000 Austro-Hungarian soldiers drowned trying to reach the east bank. On 19 June Diaz, counterattacked and hit Boroević in the flank inflicting heavy casualties, in the meantime Conrad attacked along the Italian lines west of Boroević on the Asiago Plateau, with the objective of capturing Vicenza. His forces gained ground, but came upon stiff resistance by Italian units,40,000 casualties were added to the Austrian total. Lacking supplies and facing attacks by armored units, the Austro-Hungarians were ordered to retreat by Emperor Karl, by 23 June, the Italians recaptured all territory on the southern bank of the Piave and the battle was over. Moreover, once the Italian Army crossed the river, they would have to face the same problems as the AustriansBattaglia del solstizio – Map of the Battle of the Piave River
15. Battaglia del San Matteo – The Battle of San Matteo took place in the late summer of 1918 on the Punta San Matteo during World War I. It was regarded as the highest battle in history until it was surpassed in 1999 by the Kargil Conflict at 5600m, at the beginning of 1918 Austro-Hungarian troops set up a fortified position with small artillery pieces on the top of the San Matteo Peak. The base of the lies at 2800m altitude and it takes a four-hour ice climb up a glacier to reach the top. From this position, they were able to shell the road to the Gavia Pass, on August 13,1918, a small group of Italian Alpini conducted a surprise attack on the peak, successfully taking the fortified position. Half of the Austro-Hungarian soldiers were taken prisoner, the other fled to lower positions. On September 3,1918 the Austro-Hungarian forces launched operation Gemse, the Italians, who already considered the mountain lost, began a counter-bombardment of the fortified positions, causing many victims among both the defending Italian and the Austro-Hungarian troops. The Austro-Hungarians lost 17 men in the battle and the Italians 10, the counterattack would be the last Austro-Hungarian victory in World War I. The Armistice of Villa Giusti, concluded on November 3,1918 at 15,00 at Villa Giusti ended the Alpine War in these mountains on November 4,1918 at 1500 h. In the summer of 2004, the bodies of three Kaiserschützen were found at 3400m, near the peak. Kaiserschützen Arnaldo Berni Georg Bönisch Die toten Augen im Berg Der Spiegel 30 March 2004Battaglia del San Matteo – Italian monument dedicated to the victims of the battle, on the way to the Gavia Pass
16. Battaglia di Vittorio Veneto – The Battle of Vittorio Veneto was fought from 24 October to 3 November 1918 near Vittorio Veneto on the Italian Front during World War I. The Italian victory marked the end of the war on the Italian Front, secured the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, some Italian authors see Vittorio Veneto as the final culmination of the Risorgimento nationalist movement, in which Italy was unified. Diaz reorganized the troops, blocked the advance by implementing defense in depth and mobile reserves. In June 1918, a large Austro-Hungarian offensive, aimed at breaking the Piave River defensive line and delivering a decisive blow to the Italian Army, was launched. The whole offensive, the Battle of the Piave River, came to worse than nothing, Allied forces totaled 57 infantry divisions, including 51 Italian,3 British,2 French,1 Czechoslovak and the 332nd US Infantry Regiment, along with supporting arms. The Austro-Hungarian army was equal in strength with 61 infantry divisions, the Italian armies in the mountains were merely to hold the front line and follow up the enemy when he retreated. The task of opening the attack and taking on the strongest positions fell to Fourth Army on the Grappa, lord Cavans army consisted of two British and two Italian divisions and they too were expected to cross the Piave by breaking the Austrian defenses at Papadopoli Island. Third Army was simply to hold the lower Piave and cross the river when enemy resistance was broken, ninth Army, which contained the Czechoslovak Division and the 332nd US Infantry Regiment as well two Italian divisions, was held in reserve. The Allies had 600 aircraft to gain air superiority in the final offensive. The Allies, 7th Italian Army, between the Stelvio and the shore of Lake Garda. 2 Army corps 1st Italian Army, from the west bank of the Lake Garda to the Val dAstico,3 Army corps 6th Italian Army, from the plateau of Asiago to the left bank of the Brenta. 3 Army corps 4th Italian Army, Monte Grappa to Cima Palon,3 army corps 4 assault groups 1 regiment of cavalry. 12th Franco-Italian Army, from Monte Tomba up to the bridges of Vidor on the Piave,1 Italian Army corps 12th French Army Corps. 8th Italian Army, along the Piave, from Vidor to Priula Bridge,4 Army corps The assault corps of General Francesco Saverio Grazioli. 10th British-Italian Army along the Piave from Ponte Priula to Ponte di Piave,1 Italian Army corps 2 divisions of the 14th British Corps of the British General James Melville Babington. 3rd Italian Army, from Ponte di Piave to the sea,2 Army Corps 2 assault units 3 cavalry regiments 332nd_Infantry_Regiment_ 9th Italian Army, in reserve. The plan was for the British 7th Division to occupy the northern half of Papadopoli while the Italian 11th Corps took the southern half, the British troops detailed for the night attack were the 2/1 Honourable Artillery Company and the 1/ Royal Welch Fusiliers. These troops were helpless to negotiate such a torrent as the Piave, for the sake of silence the HAC used only their bayonets until the alarm was raised, and soon seized their half of the islandBattaglia di Vittorio Veneto – Battle of Vittorio Veneto
17. Operazioni navali nel mare Adriatico (1914-1918) – Considered a relatively secondary part of the naval warfare of World War I, it nonetheless tied down significant forces. These small navy vessels sank two Austrian battleships in 1918, SMS Viribus Unitis and Szent István, on 6 August 1914 an Anglo-French naval agreement was signed, giving France leadership of naval operations in the Mediterranean. One day after the French declaration of war against Austria-Hungary on 11 August and he had orders to sail with all available French and British ships, pass into the Adriatic Sea, and undertake whatever operations he thought best against Austrian ports. Lapeyrère decided to surprise Austrian vessels enforcing a blockade of Montenegro, the main Allied force comprised the French battleships Courbet and Jean Bart, and the cruiser Jurien de la Gravière. Two French squadrons of pre-dreadnoughts, two squadrons of cruisers, and five squadrons were held back in support. The British support group comprised two armored cruisers and three destroyer divisions, the Anglo-French force succeeded in cutting off and sinking the old Austro-Hungarian light cruiser SMS Zenta off Bar on 16 August in the Battle of Antivari. Throughout most of late August most of the action was simple bombardment of Serbian, on 9 August, the pre-dreadnought SMS Monarch shelled the French radio station at Budva, while the destroyer SMS Panther shelled Mount Lovćen. On 17 August, Monarch shelled a Montenegrin radio station off Bar, meanwhile, a French squadron shelled Austrian troops on Prevlaka. Both the French and the Austrians spent much of this time laying extensive minefields throughout the waters of the Adriatic. Mostly this was done by destroyers, and at night, several steamships ran afoul of these mines and either sunk or were damaged. In July, the German battlecruiser SMS Goeben sailed to Triest from Pola and she and the German cruiser SMS Breslau had been anchored there since the beginning of the summer. On 1 August, Goeben and Breslau rendezvoused at Brindisi, then headed for Messina to take on coal and they left for Constantinople on 6 August, shadowed by the British cruiser HMS Gloucester. Goeben and Breslau briefly engaged HMS Gloucester and the chase was abandoned by the British, by 10 August, both German warships were safely in the Dardanelles and heading for Turkey. In November, the French submarine Cugnot managed to slip into the Bocche di Cattaro as far as Topla Bay but was chased out by the Austrian destroyer SMS Blitz, and the torpedo boat Tb 57T. Later that month, the French submarine Curie raided the barrage of Pola to wait for her chance to intrude. Two days later, on 20 December, during an attempt to sneak into the harbor she got entangled in an anti-submarine net, forced to surface for fresh air, she was sunk by the Austrian destroyer SMS Magnet and Tb 63T, with three casualties. The Austrians raised the wreck between December 1914 and February 1915 and it was then repaired and commissioned as U-14 in June 1915. On 21 December, the submarine U-12 scored one hit on the French battleship Jean Bart off Sazan IslandOperazioni navali nel mare Adriatico (1914-1918) – Austro-Hungarian dreadnoughts at Pola.