1. Archeologia – Archaeology, or archeology, is the study of human activity through the recovery and analysis of material culture. The archaeological record consists of artifacts, architecture, biofacts or ecofacts, Archaeology can be considered both a social science and a branch of the humanities. In North America, archaeology is considered a sub-field of anthropology, archaeologists study human prehistory and history, from the development of the first stone tools at Lomekwi in East Africa 3.3 million years ago up until recent decades. Archaeology as a field is distinct from the discipline of palaeontology, Archaeology is particularly important for learning about prehistoric societies, for whom there may be no written records to study. Prehistory includes over 99% of the human past, from the Paleolithic until the advent of literacy in societies across the world, Archaeology has various goals, which range from understanding culture history to reconstructing past lifeways to documenting and explaining changes in human societies through time. The discipline involves surveying, excavation and eventually analysis of data collected to learn more about the past, in broad scope, archaeology relies on cross-disciplinary research. Archaeology developed out of antiquarianism in Europe during the 19th century, Archaeology has been used by nation-states to create particular visions of the past. Nonetheless, today, archaeologists face many problems, such as dealing with pseudoarchaeology, the looting of artifacts, a lack of public interest, the science of archaeology grew out of the older multi-disciplinary study known as antiquarianism. Antiquarians studied history with attention to ancient artifacts and manuscripts. Tentative steps towards the systematization of archaeology as a science took place during the Enlightenment era in Europe in the 17th and 18th centuries, in Europe, philosophical interest in the remains of Greco-Roman civilization and the rediscovery of classical culture began in the late Middle Age. Antiquarians, including John Leland and William Camden, conducted surveys of the English countryside, one of the first sites to undergo archaeological excavation was Stonehenge and other megalithic monuments in England. John Aubrey was a pioneer archaeologist who recorded numerous megalithic and other monuments in southern England. He was also ahead of his time in the analysis of his findings and he attempted to chart the chronological stylistic evolution of handwriting, medieval architecture, costume, and shield-shapes. Excavations were also carried out in the ancient towns of Pompeii and Herculaneum and these excavations began in 1748 in Pompeii, while in Herculaneum they began in 1738. The discovery of entire towns, complete with utensils and even human shapes, however, prior to the development of modern techniques, excavations tended to be haphazard, the importance of concepts such as stratification and context were overlooked. The father of archaeological excavation was William Cunnington and he undertook excavations in Wiltshire from around 1798, funded by Sir Richard Colt Hoare. Cunnington made meticulous recordings of neolithic and Bronze Age barrows, one of the major achievements of 19th century archaeology was the development of stratigraphy. The idea of overlapping strata tracing back to successive periods was borrowed from the new geological and paleontological work of scholars like William Smith, James Hutton, the application of stratigraphy to archaeology first took place with the excavations of prehistorical and Bronze Age sitesArcheologia – Roman ruins, Lausanne, Switzerland.
2. Tomba – A grave is a location where a dead body is buried. Graves are usually located in special areas set aside for the purpose of burial, such as graveyards or cemeteries. In some religions, it is believed that the body must be burned for the soul to survive, in others, the formal use of a grave involves several steps with associated terminology. Grave cut The excavation that formed the grave, excavations vary from a shallow scraping, to removal of topsoil to a depth of 6 feet, or more where a vault or burial chamber is to be constructed. Excavated soil The material dug up when the grave is excavated and it is often piled up close to the grave for backfilling and then returned to the grave to cover it. As soil decompresses when excavated and space is occupied by the burial not all the volume of soil fits back in the hole, in cemeteries this may end up as a thick layer of soil overlying the original ground surface. Burial or interment The body may be placed in a coffin or other container, in a range of positions, by itself or in a multiple burial. Burial vault A vault is a structure built within the grave to receive the body. It may be used to prevent crushing of the remains, allow for multiple burials such as a vault, retrieval of remains for transfer to an ossuary. Grave backfill The soil returned to the grave cut following burial and this material may contain artifacts derived from the original excavation and prior site use, deliberately placed goods or artifacts or later material. The fill may be level with the ground or mounded. Monument or marker Headstones are best known, but they can be supplemented by decorative edging, foot stones, posts to support items, in Europe this was often accompanied with a depiction of their family coat of arms. Later graveyards have been replaced by cemeteriesTomba – Grave with burial vault awaiting coffin
3. Regno di Macedonia – Macedonia or Macedon was an ancient kingdom on the periphery of Archaic and Classical Greece, and later the dominant state of Hellenistic Greece. The kingdom was founded and at first ruled by the royal Argead dynasty, the reign of Philip II saw the rise of Macedonia, during which the kingdom rose to control the entire Greek world. With a reformed army containing phalanxes wielding the sarissa pike, Philip II defeated the old powers of Athens and Thebes in the decisive Battle of Chaeronea in 338 BC, Sparta was kept isolated and was occupied a century later by Antigonus III Doson. Alexander then led a roughly decade-long campaign of conquest against the Achaemenid Empire, in the ensuing wars of Alexander the Great, he overthrew the Achaemenid Empire and conquered a territory that stretched as far as the Indus River. For a brief period, his Macedonian empire was the most powerful in the world – the definitive Hellenistic state, Greek arts and literature flourished in the new conquered lands and advances in philosophy, engineering, and science were spread throughout much of the ancient world. Of particular importance were the contributions of Aristotle, who had been imported as tutor to Alexander, important cities such as Pella, Pydna, and Amphipolis were involved in power struggles for control of the territory. New cities were founded, such as Thessalonica by the usurper Cassander, Macedonias decline began with the Macedonian Wars and the rise of Rome as the leading Mediterranean power. At the end of the Second Macedonian War in 168 BC, a short-lived revival of the monarchy during the Third Macedonian War in 150–148 BC ended with the establishment of the Roman province of Macedonia. The name Macedonia comes from the ethnonym Μακεδόνες, which itself is derived from the ancient Greek adjective μακεδνός, meaning tall and it also shares the same root as the noun μάκρος, meaning length in both ancient and modern Greek. The name is believed to have meant either highlanders, the tall ones. Robert S. P. Beekes supports that both terms are of Pre-Greek substrate origin and cannot be explained in terms of Indo-European morphology. Contradictory legends state that either Perdiccas I of Macedon or Caranus of Macedon were the founders of the Argead dynasty, the kingdom of Macedonia was situated along the Haliacmon and Axius rivers in Lower Macedonia, north of Mount Olympus. Historian Malcolm Errington posits the theory one of the earliest Argead kings must have established Aigai as their capital in the mid-7th century BC. Prior to the 4th century BC, the kingdom covered a region corresponding to the western. Achaemenid Persian hegemony over Macedonia was briefly interrupted by the Ionian Revolt, although Macedonia enjoyed a large degree of autonomy and was never made a satrapy of the Achaemenid Empire, it was expected to provide troops for the Achaemenid army. Following the Greek victory at Salamis in 480 BC, Alexander I was employed as an Achaemenid diplomat to strike a treaty and alliance with Athens. Soon afterwards the Achaemenid forces were forced to withdraw from mainland Europe, although initially a Persian vassal, Alexander I of Macedon fostered friendly diplomatic relations with his former Greek enemies, the Athenian and Spartan-led coalition of Greek city-states. Two separate wars were fought against Athens between 433 and 431 BC, spurred by an Athenian alliance with a brother and cousin of Perdiccas II who had rebelled against himRegno di Macedonia – The entrance to one of the royal tombs at Vergina, a UNESCO World Heritage site.
4. XX secolo – The 20th century was a century that began on January 1,1901 and ended on December 31,2000. It was the tenth and final century of the 2nd millennium and it is distinct from the century known as the 1900s, which began on January 1,1900 and ended on December 31,1999. It saw great advances in communication and medical technology that by the late 1980s allowed for near-instantaneous worldwide computer communication, the term short twentieth century was coined to represent the events from 1914 to 1991. It took all of history up to 1804 for the worlds population to reach 1 billion, world population reached 2 billion estimates in 1927, by late 1999. Globally approximately 45% of those who were married and able to have children used contraception, 40% of pregnancies were unplanned, the century had the first global-scale total wars between world powers across continents and oceans in World War I and World War II. The century saw a shift in the way that many people lived, with changes in politics, ideology, economics, society, culture, science, technology. The 20th century may have seen more technological and scientific progress than all the other centuries combined since the dawn of civilization, terms like ideology, world war, genocide, and nuclear war entered common usage. It was a century that started with horses, simple automobiles, and freighters but ended with high-speed rail, cruise ships, global commercial air travel and the space shuttle. Horses, Western societys basic form of transportation for thousands of years, were replaced by automobiles and buses within a few decades. Humans explored space for the first time, taking their first footsteps on the Moon, mass media, telecommunications, and information technology made the worlds knowledge more widely available. Advancements in medical technology also improved the health of many people, rapid technological advancements, however, also allowed warfare to reach unprecedented levels of destruction. World War II alone killed over 60 million people, while nuclear weapons gave humankind the means to annihilate itself in a short time, however, these same wars resulted in the destruction of the Imperial system. For the first time in history, empires and their wars of expansion and colonization ceased to be a factor in international affairs, resulting in a far more globalized. The last time major powers clashed openly was in 1945, and since then, technological advancements during World War I changed the way war was fought, as new inventions such as tanks, chemical weapons, and aircraft modified tactics and strategy. After more than four years of warfare in western Europe, and 20 million dead. The regime of Tsar Nicholas II was overthrown during the conflict, Russia became the first communist state, at the beginning of the period, Britain was the worlds most powerful nation, having acted as the worlds policeman for the past century. Meanwhile, Japan had rapidly transformed itself into an advanced industrial power. Its military expansion into eastern Asia and the Pacific Ocean culminated in an attack on the United StatesXX secolo – The Earth as seen from Apollo 17. The second half of the 20th century saw humankind's first space exploration.
5. Piazza Cordusio – Piazza Cordusio is a square in central Milan, Italy. The piazza takes its name from the Cors Ducis which was found in the square during Longobard times and it is well known for its several turn-of-the-19th-century Neoclassical, eclectic and Art Nouveau buildings, banks and post offices. Piazzale Cordusio hosts the Cordusio metro station and is the point of the elegant pedestrian Via Dante which leads to the imposing medieval Castello Sforzesco. Opposite to Via Dante, Cordusio borders onto Piazza Mercanti, former city centre in the Middle Ages and this palace is the main one in the square, and was built by architect Luca Beltrami from 1897 to 1901. It is the headquarter of the mega-finance corporation Assicurazioni Generali. It has a tower with a dome. The palace of the Credito Italiano, which is an eclectic building. Another semi-circular building similar in style to that of the Credito Italiano and it was the old stock exchange of Milan, until it was transferred to the more modern Palazzo Mezzanotte in Piazza Affari. Currently it hosts the main post office in Milan and this is a metal and stone statue which stands in the middle of the piazzale and is meant to depict the great literary figure Giuseppe Parini. It was constructed by Luca BeltramiPiazza Cordusio – The busy and grandiose Piazzale Cordusio.
6. PolyGram – PolyGram was a Dutch entertainment company, a division of Seagram. It started as a record label recording company founded by Philips. The name was chosen to reflect the Siemens interest Polydor Records, the company traced its origins through Deutsche Grammophon back to the inventor of the flat disk gramophone, Emil Berliner. Later on, PolyGram expanded into the largest global entertainment company, creating film, in May 1998, it was sold to Seagram which owned MCA Inc. PolyGram Music Group was merged into Universal Music Group, and PolyGram Filmed Entertainment was merged into Universal Pictures. When the new company faced difficulties, its parent Seagram was sold in large part to Vivendi. Vivendi is the current owner of UMG, in February 2017, Polygram Entertainment was re-launched as the film & television division of Universal Music Group. In 1929, Decca Records licensed record shop owner H. W. Van Zoelen as a distributor in the Netherlands, by 1931, his company Hollandsche Decca Distributie had become exclusive Decca distributor for all of the Netherlands and its colonies. Over the course of the 1930s, HDD put together its own facilities for A&R, recording, HDD was commercially successful during World War II because of the absence of American and British competition. Van Zoelen wanted to sell to Philips so that HDD would have sufficient financial backing when their major competitors returned after the war and this led Philips to purchase HDD in 1942. Philips labs were developing magnetic tape and LPs, and they could support eventual new formats, after the war, Philips built a large factory in Doetinchem to produce 78 rpm records. During the late 1940s, Philips combined its various businesses into Philips Phonografische Industrie. PPIs early growth was based on alliances, a merger was first proposed with Decca of London in late 1945, but was rejected by Edward Lewis, Deccas owner. In the early 1950s, Philips set itself the goal of making PPI the largest record company in Europe, PPIs second attempt at a merger was with Deutsche Grammophon Gesellschaft. DGG, owned by Siemens AG, and well known for its repertoire, had been the German licensee for Decca from 1935. PPI and DGG finally merged in 1962, the alliance with DGG still left PPI without repertoire in Britain or the United States. But in 1951, after Columbia had failed to renew its international distribution agreement with EMI, Columbia became PPIs distributor within the US. This agreement ran until 1961 when Columbia set up its own European network, PPI signed a worldwide distribution deal with Mercury Records in 1961PolyGram – Divisions and subsidiaries
7. Cappella Colleoni – The Cappella Colleoni is a church and mausoleum in Bergamo in northern Italy. The site chosen was that of the sacristy of the church of Santa Maria Maggiore. The façade is characterized by the use of tarsia and polychrome marble decorations in white, red, over the main portal is a rose window, flanked by two medallions portraying Julius Caesar and Trajan. The upper part of the basement has nine plaques with reliefs of Biblical stories, the four pilasters of the windows flanking the portal are surmounted by statues of the Virtues. The upper part of the façade has a loggia in Romanesque style, the interior includes a square hall and a smaller room housing the high altar. The tomb of Bartolomeo Colleoni is on the wall facing the entrance, the whole complex is surrounded by a triumphal arch. Amadeo himself executed the monument of Medea Colleoni. Located on the wall, it has a statue of the Deposition from the Cross in high relief. The tomb was transferred here in 1892 from Urgnano, the presbytery has a high altar sculpted by Bartolomeo Manni in 1676, housing statues of the three saints to whom the chapel is dedicated, John, Mark and Bartholomew, by Pietro Lombardo. The upswept cornice is supported by Solomonic columns, the altar table, to a design by Leopoldo Pollack, is supported by angels carved by Grazioso Rusca. Notable are the frescoes of the dome, depicting Episodes of the Lives of St. Mark, John the Baptist and Bartholomew, for centuries it was believed that the condottieres remains had been buried elsewhere, as the sarcophagus appeared empty. On November 21,1969, however, they were discovered in Colleonis tomb in a wooden coffin, akademie-Verlag Berlin https, //arthistory. ucr. edu/fama-and-virtus/ Complete description Tiepolos frescoesCappella Colleoni – Colleoni Chapel
8. Toy Story 3 - La grande fuga – Toy Story 3 is a 2010 American 3D computer-animated comedy-drama film, the third installment in the Toy Story series, and the sequel to Toy Story 2. It was produced by Pixar Animation Studios and released by Walt Disney Pictures, the film was released in theaters June 18,2010, and played worldwide from June through October in the Disney Digital 3-D, RealD, and IMAX 3D formats. Toy Story 3 was the first film to be released theatrically with Dolby Surround 7.1 sound, the plot focuses on the toys Woody, Buzz Lightyear, and their friends dealing with an uncertain future as their owner, Andy, prepares to leave for college. Like its predecessors, Toy Story 3 received critical acclaim upon release and it became the second Pixar film and third animated film overall to receive an Academy Award nomination for Best Picture. The film received four more Academy Award nominations for Best Adapted Screenplay, Best Sound Editing, Best Animated Feature, a sequel, Toy Story 4, directed by Lasseter is scheduled to be released on June 21,2019. 17-year-old Andy is about to leave for college, and his toys have not been played with for years and he intends to take only Woody with him, and puts Buzz Lightyear, Jessie and the other toys in a trash bag to be stored in the attic. Andys mother mistakenly takes the bag to the curb for garbage pickup, the toys escape and, believing Andy intended to throw them away, decide to climb into a donation box with Barbie bound for Sunnyside Daycare. Woody follows them, but is unable to convince them of the mistake, Andys toys are welcomed by the other toys at Sunnyside, and are given a tour of the seemingly idyllic play-setting by Lots-O-Huggin Bear, Big Baby, and Ken. The toys choose to stay, except Woody, who attempts to return to Andy and she takes Woody home and plays with him along with her other toys, which are well-treated. Meanwhile, at Sunnyside, a group of toddlers plays roughly with Andys toys, Buzz seeks out Lotso to request to have them moved to the older childrens room, but Lotso refuses. At the same time, Mrs. Potato Head, through an eye she inadvertently left in Andys room, however, before they can leave, Andys toys are imprisoned by Lotsos gang, guarded by Buzz, whom Lotso switched to Demo Mode. At Bonnies house, a toy clown named Chuckles explains to Woody that he, Lotso, when the toys were accidentally left behind by Daisys family during a trip, they made their way back to her house, only to find that Lotso had been replaced. Woody returns to Sunnyside and learns from a Chatter Telephone toy that there is one way out of the daycare. Woody and Andys other toys execute their plan but accidentally reset Buzz to Spanish mode instead of his old persona, Buzz promptly allies himself with Woody and falls in love with Jessie. The toys reach a dumpster, but are cornered by Lotso, as a garbage truck approaches, Woody reveals what he learned about Lotso and tosses Daisys ownership tag, which Chuckles had kept, to Big Baby. Lotso destroys the tag and says that toys are meant to be discarded, as the toys try to leave, Lotso pulls Woody into the dumpster just as the truck collects the trash. The rest of Andys toys fall into the back of the truck while trying to rescue him, the truck deposits the toys at a landfill, where they find themselves on a conveyor belt leading to an incinerator. Woody and Buzz help Lotso reach an emergency button, only for Lotso to abandon themToy Story 3 - La grande fuga – Theatrical release poster
9. The Dark Side of the Moon – The Dark Side of the Moon is the eighth album by English rock band Pink Floyd, released on 1 March 1973 by Harvest Records. It thematically explores conflict, greed, the passage of time, and mental illness, developed during live performances, an early version was premiered several months before recording began, new material was recorded in two sessions in 1972 and 1973 at Abbey Road in London. The group used some advanced recording techniques at the time, including multitrack recording, analogue synthesizers were prominent in several tracks, and snippets from recorded interviews with Pink Floyds road crew and others provided philosophical quotations throughout. Engineer Alan Parsons was responsible for many distinctively notable sonic aspects, the album was an immediate commercial and critical success, it topped the Billboard Top LPs & Tapes chart for a week and remained in the chart for 741 weeks from 1973 to 1988. With an estimated 45 million copies sold, it is Pink Floyds most commercially successful album and it has been remastered and re-released twice, and covered in its entirety by several other acts. It produced two singles, Money and Us and Them, and is the bands most popular album among fans and critics, following Meddle in 1971, Pink Floyd assembled for an upcoming tour of Britain, Japan and the United States in December of that year. Rehearsing in Broadhurst Gardens in London, there was the prospect of a new album. In a band meeting at drummer Nick Masons home in Camden, the band had explored a similar idea with 1969s The Man and The Journey. In an interview for Rolling Stone, guitarist David Gilmour said, I think we all thought –, There was definitely a feeling that the words were going to be very clear and specific. Generally, all four members agreed that Waters album concept unified by a theme was a good idea. The band rehearsed at a warehouse in London owned by The Rolling Stones and they also purchased extra equipment, which included new speakers, a PA system, a 28-track mixing desk with four quadraphonic outputs, and a custom-built lighting rig. However, after discovering that that title had already used by another band, Medicine Head. The new material premièred at The Dome in Brighton, on 20 January 1972, michael Wale of The Times described the piece as. It was so understanding and musically questioning. Derek Jewell of The Sunday Times wrote The ambition of the Floyds artistic intention is now vast. Melody Maker was, however, less enthusiastic, Musically, there were great ideas. However, the tour was praised by the public. The bands lengthy tour through Europe and North America gave them the opportunity to make improvements to the scaleThe Dark Side of the Moon – The Dark Side of the Moon
10. NOFX – NOFX /ˌnoʊɛfˈɛks/ is an American punk rock band from Los Angeles, California. They were formed in 1983 by vocalist/bassist Fat Mike and guitarist Eric Melvin, drummer Erik Sandin joined NOFX shortly after, and El Hefe joined the band in 1991 to play lead guitar and trumpet, rounding out the current line-up. NOFXs mainstream success was signified by a growing interest in punk rock during the 1990s, NOFX has released thirteen studio albums, sixteen extended plays and a number of seven-inch singles. The band rose to popularity with their studio album Punk in Drublic. Their latest studio album, First Ditch Effort, was released on October 7,2016, the group has sold over 8 million records worldwide, making them one of the most successful independent bands of all time. NOFX broadcast their own show on Fuse TV entitled NOFX, Backstage Passport, in 1983, guitarist Eric Melvin met bassist/vocalist Mike Burkett and started the band under the name NO-FX, after a Boston hardcore punk band called Negative FX. At this time, they were joined by drummer Erik Smelly Sandin, nOFXs first recording was a demo from 1984, entitled Thalidomide Child produced by Germs drummer Don Bolles, which did not sell many copies, but is now an incredibly rare collectors item. Fat Mike once claimed that no copies existed and it was announced in 2011 that the demo would be re-released and in 2012 it finally saw a release. The group released its debut extended play NOFX on Mystic Records in 1985. Mystics Mark Wilkins, who handled promotion on their first national tour with Dr. Know told Wild Times I knew those guys had something special. In the middle of the tour Dr. Knows van broke down forcing them to quit the tour but NOFX kept on going and that was very rare and in my mind an example of the kind of discipline it takes to be successful. The bands line-up had undergone a number of changes, however, for a year, Erik Smelly Sandin left the band and was replaced by Scott Sellers, and later by Scott Aldahl. Dave Allen was in the band for four months, until he died in a car accident. In 1986, the released the extended play So What If Were on Mystic. Dave Casillas joined the band on guitar in 1987 and was featured on the extended play The P. M. R. C. Can Suck on This, attacking the PMRCs campaign for music censorship, the original cover was an edited S&M photo, the cover for the re-released version was changed to a photo of Eric Melvin. Prior to the release of Liberal Animation, a compilation of 14 early NOFX songs was released on Mystic Records, the album was self-titled, and featured the songs from the NOFX and So What If Were on Mystic. extended plays. The album is rare and only printed around 1,000 copiesNOFX – NOFX
11. Rancid – Rancid is an American punk rock band formed in Berkeley, California in 1991. Over their 26-year career, Rancid remained signed to an independent record label and retained much of its original fan-base, Rancid has had only a few lineup changes since its inception, with Armstrong and Freeman being the only constant members. Their current lineup consists of Armstrong on guitar and vocals, Freeman on bass and vocals, Lars Frederiksen on guitar and vocals, the band was formed by Armstrong, Freeman, and former drummer Brett Reed, who left the band in 2006 and was replaced by Steineckert. Frederiksen joined Rancid in 1993 when the band was searching for a guitar player. The band has sold over four million records worldwide, making it one of the most successful independent punk rock groups of all time. The band rose to fame in 1994 with its studio album, Lets Go. In the following year, Rancid released its highly successful album and its next four albums — Life Wont Wait, Rancid, Indestructible and Let the Dominoes Fall — were also critically acclaimed, though not as successful as. And Out Come the Wolves. Rancid released. Honor Is All We Know, their first studio album in five years and they are currently working on a new album. Childhood friends Tim Armstrong and Matt Freeman grew up together in the small, working-class town of Albany, California, the two had been playing together in the influential ska punk band Operation Ivy from 1987 to 1989. The band became popular in the scene at 924 Gilman Street. When Operation Ivy broke up, Armstrong and Freeman decided to form a new band, and formed a ska band called Downfall. They then started a punk band called Generator, which also disbanded shortly after. They also started the ska influenced Dance Hall Crashers, though left the band shortly after it was formed, during this time, Armstrong was struggling with alcoholism, and to keep him focused on other interests, Freeman suggested they form a new band. In 1991, they recruited Armstrongs roommate Brett Reed as their drummer, a few months after the bands inception, Rancid began performing around the Berkeley area, and quickly developed a fan following. Rancids first recorded release was a 1992 EP for Operation Ivys old label Lookout, shortly after releasing the extended play, the band left Lookout. and was signed to Bad Religion guitarist Brett Gurewitzs record label, Epitaph Records. Rancid released its debut album through Epitaph in 1993. While Rancid was writing for an album, Billie Joe Armstrong joined them to co-write the song Radio. Tim had previously asked Lars Frederiksen to be Rancids second guitarist, after Billie Joe turned down the request, Frederiksen changed his mind and joined RancidRancid – Rancid performing live; from left to right: Matt Freeman, Tim Armstrong and Lars Frederiksen
12. Status Quo – Status Quo are an English rock band known for their brand of boogie rock. The group originated in The Spectres, founded by schoolboys Francis Rossi, after a number of lineup changes, which included the introduction of Rick Parfitt in 1967, the band became The Status Quo in 1967 and Status Quo in 1969. They have had over 60 chart hits in the UK, more than any rock band, including Pictures of Matchstick Men in 1968, Whatever You Want in 1979. Twenty-two of these reached the Top 10 in the UK Singles Chart, in July 1985 the band opened Live Aid at Wembley Stadium with Rockin All Over the World. In 1991, Status Quo received a Brit Award for Outstanding Contribution to Music, Status Quo starred in their first feature film, Bula Quo. which was released to cinemas in July 2013. The film coincided with the release of the soundtrack album Bula Quo. which peaked at number 10 in the UK Albums Chart, the first single from the album, Bula Bula Quo was released in June 2013, and is Status Quos one hundredth single release. Status Quo was formed in 1962 under the name The Scorpions by Francis Rossi and Alan Lancaster at Sedgehill Comprehensive School, Catford, along with classmates Jess Jaworski, Rossi and Lancaster played their first gig at the Samuel Jones Sports Club in Dulwich, London. In 1963, Key was replaced by John Coghlan and the changed name to The Spectres. In 1965, when Rossi, Lancaster, and Jaworski had reached the end of their education, Jaworski opted to leave the band. They began writing their own material and later that year met Rick Parfitt who was playing with a band called The Highlights. By the end of 1965, Rossi and Parfitt, who had close friends. On 18 July 1966, The Spectres signed a deal with Piccadilly Records. All three singles failed to make an impact on the charts, the band secured an appearance on BBC Radios Saturday Club, but in June their next single, Almost But Not Quite There, underperformed. The following month saw Parfitt, at the request of manager Pat Barlow, shortly after Parfitts recruitment, in August 1967, the band officially became Status Quo. In January 1968 released the psychedelic-flavoured Pictures of Matchstick Men, although Status Quos albums have been released in the United States throughout their career, they never achieved the same level of success as they have in their home country. Though the follow-up was the single, Black Veils of Melancholy, they had a hit again the same year with a pop song penned by Marty Wilde, Ice in the Sun. After the breakthrough, the management hired Bob Young as a roadie. Over the years Young became one of the most important songwriting partners for Status Quo, in addition to playing harmonica with them on stage, Lynes left the band in 1970 and was replaced in the studio by guests including keyboard player Jimmy Horowitz and Tom ParkerStatus Quo – Left-to-right: Rick Parfitt, Francis Rossi, John "Rhino" Edwards and Andy Bown in 2005
13. Thin Lizzy – Thin Lizzy are a rock band formed in Dublin, Ireland in 1969. Two of the members, drummer Brian Downey and bass guitarist and lead vocalist Phil Lynott. Lynott led the group throughout their career of twelve studio albums. Thin Lizzys most successful songs, Whiskey in the Jar, Jailbreak, after Lynotts death in 1986, various incarnations of the band emerged over the years based initially around guitarists Scott Gorham and John Sykes, though Sykes left the band in 2009. Gorham later continued with a new line-up including Downey, Lynott, Thin Lizzys de facto leader, was composer or co-composer of almost all of the bands songs, and the first black Irishman to achieve commercial success in the field of rock music. Thin Lizzy boasted some of the most critically acclaimed guitarists throughout their history, with Downey and Lynott as the section, on the drums. As well as being multiracial, the band drew their members not only from both sides of the Irish border but also both the Catholic and Protestant communities during The Troubles. Their music reflects a range of influences, including blues, soul music, psychedelic rock, and traditional Irish folk music. Rolling Stone magazine describes the band as distinctly hard rock, far apart from the braying mid-70s metal pack, Thin Lizzy plan to reunite for occasional concerts. Two of the members of Thin Lizzy, bass guitarist and vocalist Phil Lynott and drummer Brian Downey. Lynott, born 20 August 1949 in West Bromwich, England to an Irish mother Philomena, Downey, born 27 January 1951, is a Dublin native. Lynott joined a band, The Black Eagles, as vocalist in 1963. In 1967, Lynott was asked to join Skid Row by bass guitarist Brush Shiels, after a disappointing television appearance in June 1969, Shiels fired Lynott, although they remained on good terms and Shiels subsequently taught Lynott to play bass guitar. Lynott then formed Orphanage with Downey on drums after Downeys previous band, Bell later moved to Dublin and joined an Irish showband named The Dreams, but left in 1969 with a view to forming a rock band. An acquaintance of Bells, Belfast organist Eric Wrixon, also a member of Them, had also moved to Dublin and joined the showband circuit. Lynott was not playing guitar at this time, but Bell was particularly impressed by Downey. When Bell asked if they would consider forming a band together, Downey was initially sceptical and they agreed on condition that Lynott play bass guitar as well as sing, and that the band would perform some of Lynotts compositions. Wrixon was also included as organist, making the initial line-up a quartet, the bands name came from a character in The Dandy called Tin Lizzie, which they adjusted to Thin Lizzy as a playful reference to the local dialect, in which thin would be pronounced as tinThin Lizzy – Thin Lizzy at the Manchester Apollo, 1983. L to R: John Sykes, Phil Lynott, Scott Gorham, and Darren Wharton; Brian Downey not visible.
14. Talete – Thales of Miletus was a pre-Socratic Greek/Phoenician philosopher, mathematician and astronomer from Miletus in Asia Minor. He was one of the Seven Sages of Greece, Thales is recognized for breaking from the use of mythology to explain the world and the universe, and instead explaining natural objects and phenomena by theories and hypothesis, i. e. science. Aristotle reported Thales hypothesis that the principle of nature and the nature of matter was a single material substance. In mathematics, Thales used geometry to calculate the heights of pyramids and he is the first known individual to use deductive reasoning applied to geometry, by deriving four corollaries to Thales theorem. He is the first known individual to whom a mathematical discovery has been attributed, the ancient source, Apollodorus of Athens, writing during the 2nd century BCE, thought Thales was born about the year 625 BCE. The dates of Thales life are not exactly known, but are roughly established by a few events mentioned in the sources. According to Herodotus Thales predicted the eclipse of May 28,585 BC. Diogenes Laërtius quotes the chronicle of Apollodorus of Athens as saying that Thales died at the age of 78 during the 58th Olympiad and attributes his death to heat stroke while watching the games. Plutarch had earlier told this version, Solon visited Thales and asked him why he remained single, nevertheless, several years later, anxious for family, he adopted his nephew Cybisthus. Thales involved himself in many activities, taking the role of an innovator, some say that he left no writings, others say that he wrote On the Solstice and On the Equinox. Diogenes Laërtius quotes two letters from Thales, one to Pherecydes of Syros, offering to review his book on religion, Thales identifies the Milesians as Athenian colonists. He was aware of the existence of the lodestone, and was the first to be connected to knowledge of this in history, according to Aristotle, Thales thought lodestones had souls, because iron is attracted to them. According to Hieronymus, historically quoted by Diogenes Laertius, Thales found the height of pyramids by comparison between the lengths of the shadows cast by a person and by the pyramids, several anecdotes suggest Thales was not just a philosopher, but also a businessman. A story, with different versions, recounts how Thales achieved riches from an olive harvest by prediction of the weather, in one version, he bought all the olive presses in Miletus after predicting the weather and a good harvest for a particular year. Thales’ political life had mainly to do with the involvement of the Ionians in the defense of Anatolia against the power of the Persians. In neighbouring Lydia, a king had come to power, Croesus and he had conquered most of the states of coastal Anatolia, including the cities of the Ionians. The story is told in Herodotus, the war endured for five years, but in the sixth an eclipse of the Sun spontaneously halted a battle in progress. It seems that Thales had predicted this solar eclipse, the Seven Sages were most likely already in existence, as Croesus was also heavily influenced by Solon of Athens, another sageTalete – Thales of Miletus
15. Eulero – He also introduced much of the modern mathematical terminology and notation, particularly for mathematical analysis, such as the notion of a mathematical function. He is also known for his work in mechanics, fluid dynamics, optics, astronomy, Euler was one of the most eminent mathematicians of the 18th century, and is held to be one of the greatest in history. He is also considered to be the most prolific mathematician of all time. His collected works fill 60 to 80 quarto volumes, more than anybody in the field and he spent most of his adult life in Saint Petersburg, Russia, and in Berlin, then the capital of Prussia. A statement attributed to Pierre-Simon Laplace expresses Eulers influence on mathematics, Read Euler, read Euler, Leonhard Euler was born on 15 April 1707, in Basel, Switzerland to Paul III Euler, a pastor of the Reformed Church, and Marguerite née Brucker, a pastors daughter. He had two sisters, Anna Maria and Maria Magdalena, and a younger brother Johann Heinrich. Soon after the birth of Leonhard, the Eulers moved from Basel to the town of Riehen, Paul Euler was a friend of the Bernoulli family, Johann Bernoulli was then regarded as Europes foremost mathematician, and would eventually be the most important influence on young Leonhard. Eulers formal education started in Basel, where he was sent to live with his maternal grandmother. In 1720, aged thirteen, he enrolled at the University of Basel, during that time, he was receiving Saturday afternoon lessons from Johann Bernoulli, who quickly discovered his new pupils incredible talent for mathematics. In 1726, Euler completed a dissertation on the propagation of sound with the title De Sono, at that time, he was unsuccessfully attempting to obtain a position at the University of Basel. In 1727, he first entered the Paris Academy Prize Problem competition, Pierre Bouguer, who became known as the father of naval architecture, won and Euler took second place. Euler later won this annual prize twelve times, around this time Johann Bernoullis two sons, Daniel and Nicolaus, were working at the Imperial Russian Academy of Sciences in Saint Petersburg. In November 1726 Euler eagerly accepted the offer, but delayed making the trip to Saint Petersburg while he applied for a physics professorship at the University of Basel. Euler arrived in Saint Petersburg on 17 May 1727 and he was promoted from his junior post in the medical department of the academy to a position in the mathematics department. He lodged with Daniel Bernoulli with whom he worked in close collaboration. Euler mastered Russian and settled life in Saint Petersburg. He also took on a job as a medic in the Russian Navy. The Academy at Saint Petersburg, established by Peter the Great, was intended to improve education in Russia, as a result, it was made especially attractive to foreign scholars like EulerEulero – Portrait by Jakob Emanuel Handmann (1756)
16. Attalo I – Attalus I, surnamed Soter ruled Pergamon, an Ionian Greek polis, first as dynast, later as king, from 241 BC to 197 BC. He was the cousin and the adoptive son of Eumenes I, whom he succeeded. He was the son of Attalus and his wife Antiochis and this victory, celebrated by the triumphal monument at Pergamon and the liberation from the Gallic terror which it represented, earned for Attalus the name of Soter, and the title of king. A courageous and capable general and loyal ally of Rome, he played a significant role in the first and second Macedonian Wars, Attalus was a protector of the Greek cities of Anatolia and viewed himself as the champion of Greeks against barbarians. During his reign he established Pergamon as a power in the Greek East. He died in 197 BC, shortly before the end of the war, at the age of 72. He and his wife were admired for their rearing of their four sons and he was succeeded as king by his son Eumenes II. Little is known about Attalus early life and he was born a Greek, the son of Attalus, and Antiochis. Attalus was a child when his father died, sometime before 241 BC, after which he was adopted by Eumenes I. Attalus mother, Antiochis, was related to the Seleucid royal family with her marriage to Attalus father likely arranged by Philetaerus to solidify his power. This would be consistent with the conjecture that Attalus father had been Philetaerus heir designate, according to the 2nd century AD Greek writer Pausanias, the greatest of his achievements was the defeat of the Gauls. Since the time of Philetaerus, the first Attalid ruler, the Galatians had posed a problem for Pergamon, indeed for all of Asia Minor, Eumenes I had, along with other rulers, dealt with the Galatians by paying these tributes. Attalus however refused to pay them, being the first such ruler to do so, as a consequence, the Galatians set out to attack Pergamon. The victory brought Attalus legendary fame, for right soon the son of Cronos Shall raise a helper, the dear son of a bull reared by Zeus Who on all the Gauls shall bring a day of destruction. Pausanias adds that by son of a bull the oracle meant Attalus, king of Pergamon, on the acropolis of Pergamon was erected a triumphal monument, which included the famous sculpture the Dying Gaul, commemorating this battle. Attalus defeated the Gauls and Antiochus at the battle of Aphrodisium, as a result of these victories, Attalus gained control over all of Seleucid Asia Minor north of the Taurus Mountains. Achaeus, who had accompanied Seleucus III, assumed control of the army and he was offered and refused the kingship in favor of Seleucus IIIs younger brother Antiochus III the Great, who then made Achaeus governor of Seleucid Asia Minor north of the Taurus. Within two years Achaeus had recovered all the lost Seleucid territories, shut up Attalus within the walls of Pergamon, and assumed the title of kingAttalo I – A Hellenistic portrait bust of Attalus I king of Pergamon
17. Carlo II d'Inghilterra – Charles II was king of England, Scotland and Ireland. He was king of Scotland from 1649 until his deposition in 1651, Charles IIs father, Charles I, was executed at Whitehall on 30 January 1649, at the climax of the English Civil War. Cromwell defeated Charles II at the Battle of Worcester on 3 September 1651, Cromwell became virtual dictator of England, Scotland and Ireland, and Charles spent the next nine years in exile in France, the Dutch Republic and the Spanish Netherlands. A political crisis followed the death of Cromwell in 1658 resulted in the restoration of the monarchy. On 29 May 1660, his 30th birthday, he was received in London to public acclaim, after 1660, all legal documents were dated as if he had succeeded his father as king in 1649. Charless English parliament enacted laws known as the Clarendon Code, designed to shore up the position of the re-established Church of England, Charles acquiesced to the Clarendon Code even though he favoured a policy of religious tolerance. The major foreign policy issue of his reign was the Second Anglo-Dutch War. In 1670, he entered into the treaty of Dover. Louis agreed to aid him in the Third Anglo-Dutch War and pay him a pension, Charles attempted to introduce religious freedom for Catholics and Protestant dissenters with his 1672 Royal Declaration of Indulgence, but the English Parliament forced him to withdraw it. In 1679, Titus Oatess revelations of a supposed Popish Plot sparked the Exclusion Crisis when it was revealed that Charless brother, the crisis saw the birth of the pro-exclusion Whig and anti-exclusion Tory parties. Charles sided with the Tories, and, following the discovery of the Rye House Plot to murder Charles and James in 1683, Charles dissolved the English Parliament in 1681, and ruled alone until his death on 6 February 1685. He was received into the Roman Catholic Church on his deathbed, Charless wife, Catherine of Braganza, bore no live children, but Charles acknowledged at least twelve illegitimate children by various mistresses. He was succeeded by his brother James, Charles II was born in St Jamess Palace on 29 May 1630. His parents were Charles I and Henrietta Maria, Charles was their second son and child. Their first son was born about a year before Charles but died within a day, England, Scotland and Ireland were respectively predominantly Anglican, Presbyterian and Roman Catholic. At birth, Charles automatically became Duke of Cornwall and Duke of Rothesay, at or around his eighth birthday, he was designated Prince of Wales, though he was never formally invested. During the 1640s, when Charles was still young, his father fought Parliamentary, by spring 1646, his father was losing the war, and Charles left England due to fears for his safety. Charles I surrendered into captivity in May 1646, at The Hague, Charles had a brief affair with Lucy Walter, who later falsely claimed that they had secretly marriedCarlo II d'Inghilterra – Charles II in the robes of the Order of the Garter, by John Michael Wright or studio, c. 1660–1665
18. Maggioriano – Flavius Julius Valerius Majorianus, usually known simply as Majorian, was the Western Roman Emperor from 457 to 461. A prominent general of the Late Roman army, Majorian deposed Emperor Avitus in 457, Majorian was the last emperor to make a concerted effort to restore the Western Roman Empire. Possessing little more than Italy, Dalmatia, and some territory in northern Gaul, Majorian was the last of the Western Roman Emperors who was able to try to recover the Western Empire with its own forces. His successors until the fall of the Empire, in 476/480, were actually instruments in the hands of their generals, or emperors chosen. After defeating a Vandal attack on Italy, Majorian launched a campaign against the Visigothic Kingdom in southern Gaul, defeating king Theodoric II at the Battle of Arelate, Majorian forced the Goths to abandon their possessions in Septimania and Hispania and return to federate status immediately. Majorian then attacked the Burgundian Kingdom, defeating them at the Siege of Lugdunum, expelling them from the Rhone valley, in 460, Majorian left Gaul to consolidate his hold on Hispania. His generals launched a campaign against the Suebic Kingdom in northwest Hispania, defeating them at the battles of Lucus Augusti and Scallabis and his fleet for his campaign to restore Africa to the empire from the Vandals was destroyed due to treachery. Majorian sought to reform the administration in order to make it more efficient. The powerful general Ricimer deposed and killed Majorian, who had become unpopular with the aristocracy because of his reforms. The life of Majorian and his reign are known than those of the other Western Emperors of the same period. The most important sources are the chronicles that cover the half of the 5th century — those of Hydatius and Marcellinus Comes, as well as the fragments of Priscus. The Gallo-Roman aristocrat and poet Sidonius Apollinaris was an acquaintance of the Emperor, Majorian was probably born after 420, as in 458 he is defined a iuvenis, a young man. He belonged to the aristocracy of the Roman Empire. His grandfather of the same name reached the rank of magister militum under Emperor Theodosius I and, the daughter of the magister militum then married an officer, probably called Donninus, who administered the finances of Aetius, the powerful magister militum of the West. The couple gave the name Maiorianus to their child in honour of his influential grandfather and it was under the same Aetius that Majorian started his military career. Majorian distinguished himself in the defence of the city of Turonensis and in a battle against the Franks of king Clodio, near Vicus Helena. was posted at the cross-roads while Majorian warred as a mounted man close to the bridge itself. Around 450, the Western Roman Emperor Valentinian III considered the possibility of marrying his daughter Placidia to Majorian, Valentinian had two daughters and no sons, and therefore no heir to the throne. Having Majorian as son-in-law would have strengthened Valentinian in the face of powerful generalsMaggioriano – Coin of Emperor Majorian
19. Valentino Mazzola – Valentino Mazzola was an Italian footballer who played as an attacking midfielder or forward. He was also captain of the Italian national team for a biennium and he became known during his spell at Venezia, where he played as a midfielder, a playing position he held throughout his career that allowed him to expand his fame beyond Italy. In his later seasons, he was considered one of the best players in Europe in his role and he died at the age of 30 in the Superga air disaster. He was born in Cassano dAdda, Ricetto, a neighbourhood of abandoned homes to a very modest family and his father, Alessandro, was a labourer for Azienda Torinese Mobilità and died in August 1940, hit by a truck. His mothers name was Leonina Ratti and his four brothers were Piero, Silvio, Carlo and he had an unsettled childhood, in 1929 his father was fired from his job because of the Great Depression. To help his family, Valentino sought work the following year and he found employment as a bakers boy, then, at age 14, the linen mill at Cassano dAdda. C. A Juventus fan at an age, he was nicknamed Tulen for his habit of kicking old tin cans. In Venice he obtained his elementary school diploma, attending night school, Valentino was a private person of few words. On 15 March 1942 he married Emilia Rinaldi, whom he had two sons, both players, Sandro - who played for Inter Milan and the Italian national team - and Ferruccio, in Turin he lived in a small apartment in Via Torricelli 66. He worked in Lingotto and reported as a FIAT worker essential to wartime production, although the Torino players salaries were very good, they were not considered exaggerated, compared to normal payroll. Mazzola, who considered himself a solitary person led a secluded life and his entertainment consisted of a few games of bowls near his house. He used to write everything, both in regard to his personal and professional life. He was very strict and meticulous and demanded the same treatment from others, this was the reason for separation from his first wife. He separated from his wife in autumn 1946 and remarried on 20 April 1949 to the 19-year-old Giuseppina Cutrone and he briefly moved to Fara dAdda and then returned to Tresoldi. He was used in the roles of centre midfielder and right midfielder and he participated in his first season with Tresoldi in 1935–36 and the following year he entered into the first team, earning 10 lire per game. He was very indecisive and opted for Alfa Romeo, because the car manufacturer also guaranteed him a job, at Alfa Romeo he played one season as a winger, but according to another source, he instead played as a right midfielder. He left the team in 1939, after having played in front of an audience, who appreciated his rhythm and play, to join the military service in Venice. At the trial, which he showed up and played barefoot, having left his boots intentionally at home not to them, he convinced everyoneValentino Mazzola – Valentino Mazzola with Torino
20. Bobby Robson – Sir Robert William Bobby Robson CBE was an English footballer and football manager. His career included playing for and later managing the England national team. Robsons professional playing career as an inside-forward spanned nearly 20 years and he also made 20 appearances for England, scoring four goals. His last management role was as a mentor to the manager of the Irish national football team, Robson was created a Knight Bachelor in 2002, was inducted as a member of the English Football Hall of Fame in 2003, and was the honorary president of Ipswich Town. But then everyone has to go sometime and I have enjoyed every minute and he died just under a year later. Robson was born in Sacriston, County Durham, the fourth of five sons of Philip, when he was a few months old, Robsons family moved to the nearby village of Langley Park where his father was a coal miner. Their two-bedroom house had no bath and an outside toilet, as a boy, he was often taken by his father to watch Newcastle United play at St James Park on Saturday afternoons, requiring a 34-mile round trip. Robson describes Jackie Milburn and Len Shackleton as his childhood heroes, both played for Newcastle in the inside-forward position, the position Robson would later assume during his playing career. Robson attended Langley Park primary school and then Waterhouses Secondary Modern School, instead, he began to play for Langley Park Juniors on Saturday mornings at the age of eleven, and by the time he was 15, he was representing the club at Under-18 level. Robson played football whenever he possibly could but left school aged 15 to start work as an apprentice for the National Coal Board in the Langley Park colliery. In May 1950, Bill Dodgin, the Fulham manager made a visit to the Robson household to offer Bobby a professional contract. Robson had also interested his beloved Newcastle, but he opted to join Fulham as, in his opinion and he also thought he stood a better chance of breaking into the first team at Fulham. Although Robson had signed professionally, his father insisted he continue to work as an electrician and he spent the day working at the Festival of Britain site and trained three nights a week at Fulham. Eventually this took its toll on Robson and he gave up his trade for professional football. In 1950 Robson made his debut for Fulham, recently promoted to the First Division. He came to regard Fulham as a club, a social club. The transfer fee of £25,000 was a record for Albion at the time. He made his Albion debut in a 4–0 home defeat by Manchester City on 10 March 1956, in 1957–58 he was the clubs top league goalscorer, his tally of 24 goals included four in a 5–1 win against BurnleyBobby Robson – Robson after the Netherlands versus England match on 14 June 1988 in Düsseldorf, West Germany
21. Belisario – Flavius Belisarius was a general of the Byzantine Empire. He was instrumental to Emperor Justinians ambitious project of reconquering much of the Mediterranean territory of the former Western Roman Empire, one of the defining features of Belisarius career was his success despite varying levels of support from Justinian. His name is given as one of the so-called Last of the Romans. Born into an Illyrian or Thracian family of possible Gothic ancestry, he spoke Latin as a tongue and became a Roman soldier as a young man. He came to the attention of Justin and his nephew, Justinian, as a promising and he was given permission by the emperor to form a bodyguard regiment, of heavy cavalry, which he later expanded into a personal household regiment,1,500 strong. Belisarius bucellarii were the nucleus around which all the armies he would later command were organized, armed with a lance, composite bow, and broadsword, they were fully armoured to the standard of heavy cavalry of the day. A multi-purpose unit, they were capable of skirmishing at a distance with bow, like the Huns, or could act as shock cavalry, charging an enemy with lance. In essence, they combined the best and most dangerous aspects of both of Romes greatest enemies, the Huns and the Goths. Following Justins death in 527, the new emperor, Justinian I and he quickly proved himself an able and effective commander, defeating the larger Sassanid army through superior generalship. This led to the negotiation of an Eternal Peace with the Persians and this freed resources for redeployment elsewhere. In 532, he was the military officer in the Imperial capital of Constantinople when the Nika riots broke out in the city. For his efforts, Belisarius was rewarded by Justinian with the command of a land and sea expedition against the Vandal Kingdom, the Romans had political, religious, and strategic reasons for such a campaign. The pro-Roman Vandal king Hilderic had been deposed and murdered by the usurper Gelimer, furthermore, the Arian Vandals had periodically persecuted the Nicene Christians within their kingdom, many of whom made their way to Constantinople seeking redress. The Vandals had launched many pirate raids on Roman trade interests, in the late summer of 533, Belisarius sailed to Africa and landed near Caput Vada. He ordered his fleet not to lose sight of the army, ten miles from Carthage, the forces of Gelimer and Belisarius finally met at the Battle of Ad Decimum on September 13,533. It nearly turned into a defeat for the Romans, Gelimer had chosen his position well and had some success along the main road. The Romans, however, seemed dominant on both sides of the road to Carthage. At the height of the battle, Gelimer became distraught upon learning of the death of his brother in battle and this gave Belisarius a chance to regroup, and he went on to win the battle and capture CarthageBelisario – Belisarius may be this bearded figure on the right of Emperor Justinian I in the mosaic in the Church of San Vitale, Ravenna, which celebrates the reconquest of Italy by the Byzantine army. Compare Lillington-Martin (2009) page 16
22. Valpolicella – Valpolicella is a viticultural zone of the province of Verona, Italy, east of Lake Garda. The hilly agricultural and marble-quarrying region of small holdings north of the Adige is famous for wine production, Valpolicella ranks just after Chianti in total Italian Denominazione di Origine Controllata wine production. The red wine known as Valpolicella is typically made from three varieties, Corvina Veronese, Rondinella, and Molinara. A variety of styles is produced in the area, including a recioto dessert wine and Amarone. Most basic Valpolicellas are light, fragrant table wines produced in a style, similar to Beaujolais nouveau. Valpolicella Classico is made from grapes grown in the original Valpolicella production zone, Valpolicella Superiore is aged at least one year and has an alcohol content of at least 12 percent. Valpolicella Ripasso is a form of Valpolicella Superiore made with partially dried grape skins that have left over from fermentation of Amarone or recioto. Winemaking in the region has existed since at least the time of the ancient Greeks, the name Valpolicella appeared in charters of the mid-12th century, combining two valleys previously thought of independently. Its etymology is unknown, it might derive from a Latin, today Valpolicellas economy is heavily based on wine production. The region, colloquially called the pearl of Verona, has also been a location for rural vacation villas. Seven comuni compose Valpolicella, Pescantina, San Pietro in Cariano, Negrar, Marano di Valpolicella, Fumane, Sant’Ambrogio di Valpolicella, the Valpolicella production zone was enlarged to include regions of the surrounding plains when Valpolicella achieved DOC status in 1968. In December 2009, the production of Amarone and recioto dessert wines within the Valpolicella DOC received their own separate Denominazione di Origine Controllata e Garantita status. Viticulture has been used in the Veneto region since at least the time of the ancient Greeks, the tradition of using partially dried-grapes was known as the Greco or Greek style of winemaking, with its origins likely dating back to this period. In the 6th century AD, the Roman writer Cassiodorus notes that the wines of the area were favorites in the courts of the Ostrogothic Kingdom of Italy. Since the 8th century AD, the Republic of Venice was long a vital trading port in the Mediterranean, merchants records shows that one of the items regularly traded through Venice was local wines produced in Verona province in the hills west of Venice. During the 15th and 16th century, struggles with the Ottoman Turks led to frequent blockades of the Venetian ports, limiting the amount of available export wines from the Greek isles and abroad. This further stimulated the development of vineyards for the Venetians, who pushed even further into the hills of the Verona. While the exact etymology is unknown, it is possible that the name is derived from several Greek, the 19th century brought a series of calamities to most wine producing regions of Italy-including the phylloxera epidemic, oidium, downy mildew and the political upheaval of the RisorgimentoValpolicella – Vineyards in the Valpolicella region
23. Complesso nebuloso molecolare di Orione – The Orion Molecular Cloud Complex is a large group of bright nebulae, dark clouds, and young stars in the Orion constellation. The cloud is between 1500 and 1600 light-years away, and hundreds of light-years across, several parts of the nebula can be observed through binoculars and small telescopes, and some parts are visible to the naked eye. The nebula is important because of its size, as it spreads several degrees from Orions Belt to his sword. It is also one of the most active regions of stellar formation visible in the night sky, the presence of ripples on the surface of Orions Molecular Cloud have been discovered recently. The ripples result from the expansion of the gas over pre-existing molecular gas. Runaway star Rho Ophiuchi cloud complex Orion Cloud Complex SEDS website Clickable table of Messier Objects Orion imagesComplesso nebuloso molecolare di Orione – Part of the Orion Molecular Cloud Complex, with the Great Nebula in Orion near the center, along with the Belt of Orion, and Barnard's Loop curling around the image
24. Parco nazionale di Zion – Zion National Park is located in the Southwestern United States, near Springdale, Utah. The lowest elevation is 3,666 ft at Coalpits Wash, located at the junction of the Colorado Plateau, Great Basin, and Mojave Desert regions, the parks unique geography and variety of life zones allow for unusual plant and animal diversity. Numerous plant species as well as 289 species of birds,75 mammals, and 32 reptiles inhabit the parks four life zones, desert, riparian, woodland, and coniferous forest. Zion National Park includes mountains, canyons, buttes, mesas, monoliths, rivers, slot canyons, human habitation of the area started about 8,000 years ago with small family groups of Native Americans, the semi-nomadic Basketmaker Anasazi stem from one of these groups. In turn, the Virgin Anasazi culture developed as the Basketmakers settled in permanent communities, a different group, the Parowan Fremont, lived in the area as well. Both groups moved away by 1300 and were replaced by the Parrusits, Mormons came into the area in 1858 and settled there in the early 1860s. In 1909 the President of the United States, William Howard Taft, named the area a National Monument to protect the canyon, under the name of Mukuntuweap National Monument. In 1918, however, the director of the newly created National Park Service changed the parks name to Zion. According to historian Hal Rothman, The name change played to a prevalent bias of the time, many believed that Spanish and Indian names would deter visitors who, if they could not pronounce the name of a place, might not bother to visit it. The new name, Zion, had greater appeal to an ethnocentric audience, the United States Congress established the monument as a National Park on November 19,1919. The Kolob section was proclaimed a separate Zion National Monument in 1937, the geology of the Zion and Kolob canyons area includes nine formations that together represent 150 million years of mostly Mesozoic-aged sedimentation. At various periods in that warm, shallow seas, streams, ponds and lakes, vast deserts. Uplift associated with the creation of the Colorado Plateaus lifted the region 10,000 feet starting 13 million years ago, the park is located in southwestern Utah in Washington, Iron and Kane counties. Geomorphically, it is located on the Markagunt and Kolob plateaus, the northern part of the park is known as the Kolob Canyons section and is accessible from Interstate 15, exit 40. The 8, 726-foot summit of Horse Ranch Mountain is the highest point in the park, streams in the area take rectangular paths because they follow jointing planes in the rocks. The stream gradient of the Virgin River, whose North Fork flows through Zion Canyon in the park, the road into Zion Canyon is 6 miles long, ending at the Temple of Sinawava. At the Temple the canyon narrows and a foot-trail continues to the mouth of the Zion Narrows, the Zion Canyon road is served by a free shuttle bus from early April to late October and by private vehicles the other months of the year. Other roads in Zion are open to private vehicles year-round, the east side of the park is served by Zion-Mount Carmel Highway, which passes through the Zion–Mount Carmel Tunnel and ends at Mount CarmelParco nazionale di Zion
25. Delta fluviale – A river delta is a landform that forms from deposition of sediment carried by a river as the flow leaves its mouth and enters slower-moving or standing water. This occurs where a river enters an ocean, sea, estuary, lake, reservoir, River deltas are ecologically important as they provide coastline defense, are home to many species, and can impact drinking water supply. The tidal currents also cannot be too strong, as sediment would wash out into the body faster than the river deposits it. Of course, the river must carry enough sediment to layer into deltas over time, the rivers velocity decreases rapidly, causing it to deposit the majority, if not all, of its load. This alluvium builds up to form the river delta, when the flow enters the standing water, it is no longer confined to its channel and expands in width. This flow expansion results in a decrease in the flow velocity, as a result, sediment drops out of the flow and deposits. Over time, this single channel builds a deltaic lobe, pushing its mouth into the standing water, as the deltaic lobe advances, the gradient of the river channel becomes lower because the river channel is longer but has the same change in elevation. As the slope of the channel decreases, it becomes unstable for two reasons. First, gravity makes the flow in the most direct course down slope. If the river breaches its natural levees, it out onto a new course with a shorter route to the ocean. Second, as its slope gets lower, the amount of stress on the bed decreases, which results in deposition of sediment within the channel. This makes it easier for the river to breach its levees, often when the channel does this, some of its flow remains in the abandoned channel. When these channel-switching events occur, a mature delta develops a distributary network, another way these distributary networks form is from deposition of mouth bars. When this mid-channel bar is deposited at the mouth of a river and this results in additional deposition on the upstream end of the mouth-bar, which splits the river into two distributary channels. A good example of the result of this process is the Wax Lake Delta, in both of these cases, depositional processes force redistribution of deposition from areas of high deposition to areas of low deposition. This results in the smoothing of the shape of the delta as the channels move across its surface. Because the sediment is laid down in fashion, the shape of these deltas approximates a fan. The more often the flow changes course, the shape develops as closer to an ideal fan, the Mississippi and Ural River deltas, with their birds-feet, are examples of rivers that do not avulse often enough to form a symmetrical fan shapeDelta fluviale – Sacramento Delta at flood stage, early 2009.
26. Testudo graeca – The spur-thighed tortoise is one of five species of Mediterranean tortoise. The other four species are the Hermanns tortoise, Russian tortoise, Egyptian tortoise, the spur-thighed tortoise is a very long lived animal, achieving a lifespan of upwards of 125 years, with some unverified reports of up to 200 years. The spur-thighed tortoises habitat is North Africa, southern Europe, and it is prevalent in the Black Sea coast of the Caucasus, as well as in Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan. The Greek tortoise is often confused with Hermanns tortoise, however, notable differences enable them to be distinguished. The division of spur-thighed tortoises into subspecies is difficult and confusing, given the huge range over three continents, the various terrains, climates, and biotopes have produced a huge number of varieties, with new subspecies constantly being discovered. The differences in form are primarily in size and weight, as well as coloration, which ranges from brown to bright yellow. Also, the bending-up of the edges of the ranges from minimal to pronounced. So as not to become lost in the number of subspecies, recently a few tortoises previously classified as Testudo graeca have been assigned to different species, the genetic richness of Testudo graeca is also shown in their crossbreeding. Tortoises of different form groups often mate, producing offspring with widely differing shapes, perhaps the best means of identification for the future is simply the place of origin. The smallest, and perhaps the prettiest, of the subspecies is the Tunisian spur-thighed tortoise and it has a particularly bright and striking coloration. However, these are also the most sensitive tortoises of the species, so they cannot be kept outdoors in climates, as cold. They are also incapable of long hibernation, at the other extreme, animals from northeastern Turkey are very robust, such as Hermanns tortoise. The largest specimens come from Bulgaria, specimens of 7 kilograms have been reported. In comparison, the Tunisian tortoise has a weight of 0.7 kg. Testudo graeca is also related to the marginated tortoise. The two species can interbreed, producing offspring capable of reproduction, males differ from females in six main points. Their tails are longer and taper to a point evenly, the underside is somewhat curved, while females have a flat shell on the underside. The rear portion of a carapace is wider than it is longTestudo graeca – Spur-thighed tortoise
27. Football Club Internazionale Milano – The club have played continuously in the top tier of the Italian football league system since its debut in 1909. Inter have won 30 domestic trophies as well as local rivals A. C. Milan, from 2006 to 2010, the club won five successive league titles, equalling the all-time record. They have won the Champions League three times, two back-to-back in 1964 and 1965 and then another in 2010 and their latest win completed an unprecedented Italian seasonal treble, with Inter winning the Coppa Italia and the Scudetto the same year. The club has won three UEFA Cups, two Intercontinental Cups and one FIFA Club World Cup. Inters home games are played at the San Siro stadium, also known as the Stadio Giuseppe Meazza, shared with rivals A. C. Milan, the stadium is the largest in Italian football. The local team A. C. Milan are considered among their biggest rivals, as of 2010, Inter is the second-most supported team in Italy, and the sixth most-supported team in Europe. The club is one of the most valuable in Italian and world football and it was a founding member of the now-defunct G-14 group of Europes leading football clubs. The club was founded on 9 March 1908 as Football Club Internazionale, following the schism with the Milan Cricket, the name of the club derives from the wish of its founding members to accept foreign players as well as Italians. The club won its very first championship in 1910 and its second in 1920, the captain and coach of the first championship winning team was Virgilio Fossati, who was later killed in battle while serving in the Italian army during World War I. In 1922, Inter remained in the top league after winning two play-offs, six years later, during the Fascist era, the club was forced to merge with the Unione Sportiva Milanese and was renamed Società Sportiva Ambrosiana. The team wore white jerseys around this time with a red cross emblazoned on it, the jerseys design was inspired by the flag and coat of arms of the city of Milan. Their first Coppa Italia was won in 1938–39, led by the iconic Giuseppe Meazza, a fifth championship followed in 1940, despite Meazza incurring an injury. After the end of World War II the club regained its name, winning its sixth championship in 1953. He would transform Inter into one of the greatest teams in Europe and he modified a 5–3–2 tactic known as the Verrou to include larger flexibility for counterattacks. The catenaccio system was invented by an Austrian coach Karl Rappan, herrera would modify it by adding a fifth defenders, the sweeper or libero behind the two centre backs. The sweeper or libero who acted as the man would deal with any attackers who went through the two centre backs. Inter finished third in the Serie A in his first season, second the next year, then followed a back-to-back European Cup victory in 1964 and 1965, earning him the title il Mago. In 1964, Inter reached the European Cup Final by beating Borussia Dortmund in the semi-final, in the final, they met Real Madrid, a team that had reached seven out of the nine finals to dateFootball Club Internazionale Milano – Giuseppe Meazza made 408 appearances for Inter. He is the all-time top scorer of the club, with 284 goals
28. Gran Premio di Francia 2007 – The 2007 French Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held on 1 July 2007 at the Circuit de Nevers Magny-Cours, Magny-Cours, France. It was the race of the 2007 Formula One season. The 70-lap race was won by Kimi Räikkönen for the Ferrari team after starting from third position, Felipe Massa, who started the race from pole position, finished second in the latter Ferrari, with Lewis Hamilton third in a McLaren car. Massa controlled most of the race from the front, but Räikkönen overtook him during the round of pit stops to take the lead. Following the United States Grand Prix, the Formula One teams headed to Silverstone for a three-day test, nine teams participated, with the exception of Honda and Super Aguri, who opted to test at the Jerez circuit. Neither Ferrari nor McLaren were fastest on the first two days at Silverstone, rather it was Toyota that was fastest on both of the days. However, on the third and final day of testing Felipe Massa put Ferrari on top with a time of 1,20.805, the nearest challenger, Nico Rosberg was 0.469 behind, with Fernando Alonso a further 0.010 behind. With Ferrari fastest on the day, both of their drivers, Massa and Kimi Räikkönen were very confident heading into the French round of the season. Off track Ferrari launched an investigation in Modena against their own employee Nigel Stepney. Stepneys lawyer ruled out sabotage claims, and Stepney said it was part of a dirty tricks campaign, on Saturday, Super Aguris managing director Daniel Audetto said We have rules – they can just protest. Tell them to protest – if I have something to complain about, robert Kubica was back in his BMW after his crash at the Canadian Grand Prix. Early on Saturday, Nick Heidfeld was cleared to continue in his BMW after experiencing back pains during Friday practice, Ferrari dominated both practice sessions on the Friday, with Räikkönen fastest in the first Practice Session and Felipe Massa was fastest in the second Practice Session. The two McLarens were split by David Coulthard and Nico Rosberg, Hamilton managed to recover from his morning trouble to post the fourth fastest time in the second Practice Session on Friday afternoon. The Ferraris were still leading, but Massa was fastest, just 0.035 seconds ahead of Räikkönen, however, one of the major surprises came from Scuderia Toro Rosso, as Scott Speed posted the third quickest time, with Vitantonio Liuzzi posting the fifth quickest time. Alonso finished the practice session eighth. In the final session on Saturday morning, Hamilton managed to beat Ferrari. Hamilton and the two Ferraris completed the top three, but Alonso was again down in eighth, having missed nearly the whole of the session with a faulty brake sensor. The Renaults sparked a return to form with Heikki Kovalainen and Giancarlo Fisichella fourth and fifth, both ahead of rivals BMW, who were sixth and fifteenth respectivelyGran Premio di Francia 2007 – Felipe Massa and Lewis Hamilton line up on the front row of the starting grid
29. Conquista della Dacia – The Dacian Wars were two military campaigns fought between the Roman Empire and Dacia during Roman Emperor Trajans rule. The conflicts were triggered by the constant Dacian threat on the Danubian Roman Province of Moesia, in AD85, the Dacians swarmed over the Danube and pillaged Moesia and initially defeated the army that Emperor Domitian sent against them. The Romans were defeated in the Battle of Tapae in 88, Emperor Trajan recommenced hostilities against Dacia and, following an uncertain number of battles, defeated the Dacian King Decebalus in the Second Battle of Tapae in 101. With Trajans troops pressing towards the Dacian capital Sarmizegetusa Regia, Decebalus once more sought terms, Decebalus rebuilt his power over the following years and attacked Roman garrisons again in 105. In response Trajan again marched into Dacia, besieging the Dacian capital in the Siege of Sarmizegetusa, with Dacia quelled, Trajan subsequently invaded the Parthian empire to the east, his conquests expanding the Roman Empire to its greatest extent. Romes borders in the east were governed through a system of client states for some time. Since the reign of Burebista, widely considered to be the greatest Dacian king—who ruled between 82 BC and 44 BC—the Dacians had represented a threat for the Roman Empire, caesar himself had drawn up a plan to launch a campaign against Dacia. The threat was reduced when dynastic struggles in Dacia led to a division into four separately governed tribal states after Burebistas death in 44 BC. Augustus later came into conflict with Dacia after they sent envoys offering their support against Mark Antony in exchange for requests, Augustus rejected the offer and Dacia gave their support to Antony. In 29 BC, Augustus sent several expeditions into Dacia led by Marcus Licinius Crassus that inflicted heavy casualties. Although Dacian raids into Pannonia and Moesia continued for years despite the defeat. The Roman emperor Domitian led legions into the province and reorganized the possession into Moesia Inferior and Moesia Superior. The next year, with the arrival of fresh legions in 87 AD, general Diurpaneus sent an envoy to Domitian offering peace. He was rejected and the praetorian prefect Cornelius Fuscus crossed the Danube into Dacia with 5 or 6 legions on a built on boats. The Roman army was ambushed and defeated at the First Battle of Tapae by Diurpaneus who was subsequently renamed Decebalus, Fuscus was killed and the legions lost their standards, adding to the humiliation. After this battle Decebalus, now the king of the four reunited arms of the Dacians asked for peace which was again refused, throughout the 1st century, Roman policy dictated that threats from neighbouring nations and provinces were to be contained promptly. The peace treaty following the First Battles of Tapae, followed by an indecisive, following the peace of 89 AD, Decebalus became a client of Rome, with acceptance of Decebalus as king. He received a sum of money, annual financial stipendsConquista della Dacia – Roman soldiers defending a fort against attack by the Dacians. (detail from Trajan's Column)
30. Trattati Roma-Cartagine – The treaties between Rome and Carthage are the four treaties between the two states that were signed between 509 BC and 279 BC. The treaties influenced the course of history in the Mediterranean, and are important for understanding the relationship between the two most important cities of the region during that era. They reveal changes in how Rome perceived itself and how Carthage perceived Rome, as city-states that became empires, Rome and Carthage eventually found it necessary to formalise their reciprocal interests and zones of influence. For centuries, the two operated side by side, even as allies, by stipulating and observing four main treaties, the relationship between Rome and Carthage was one of tolerance for centuries. Carthage and Rome also concluded two treaties to end the First and Second Punic War in 241 BC and 201 BC, by which time the relationship between the powers had changed considerably. Carthage was founded in 814 BC by Phoenician colonists from Tyre, in the 4th century BC, following a series of military conquests, Carthage controlled many territories west of the gulf of Sirte in present-day Libya, and much of the coasts of Numidia and Iberia. The coasts of Sardinia and Corsica were already under Carthaginian control when the city-state attempted and these attempts were stopped by the Greeks, who had, by then, heavily colonized the island. Primarily interested in commerce, Carthage had no standing army, and mostly used mercenary forces composed of Numidian cavalry, Libyans, Rome was founded only seventy years after Carthage. For the first several centuries of its history, Rome was involved in a series of wars with its neighbours. With respect to commerce, the Romans simply entrusted themselves to the Etruscan. The first treaty between the two city-states was signed the year the Roman Republic was founded, in 509 BC as dated by the Varronian method, Xerxes, the king of Persia, crossed the Hellespont with his armies in June,480 BC. Rome therefore tried to gain the support of the Carthaginians who by that time were operating in Cerveteri. At the same time, Carthage was engaged in fighting the Greek colonies that had spread from Greece across the western Mediterranean, the presence of Greek cities along the coasts of southern Italy and the eastern part of Sicily limited Phoenician commerce to the regions interior. Additionally, in 510 BC, Carthage had to fight to hold off Spartan incursions into western Sicily and this treaty was signed between Rome and Carthage twenty-eight years before the invasion of Greece by Xerxes, according to Polybius. The treaty stated that there shall be friendship between the Romans and their allies, and the Carthaginians and their allies on the conditions listed below, in the graphic at right, the following areas are highlighted and labeled, The area was forbidden to Rome by the treaty. By then, Carthage with its navy had already blocked any competition beyond the channel of Sicily or along the African coast, the area not under direct Carthaginian control. In fact, Greek and Etruscan mariners sailed there freely, Carthage reserved the right to refuse competition, the area under Greek and Etruscan control. Roman expansion, before the fall of Tarquin the Proud, was directed towards the Tyrrhenian coast to the southwest, and it can be supposed that Rome, with its small size, wanted to formalize the exclusion of competition from Carthage while it began pressuring the GreeksTrattati Roma-Cartagine – Main areas of influence in west Mediterranean in 509 BC. Rome controls a few miles off the wall
31. Impero di Vijayanagara – The Vijayanagara Empire was based in the Deccan Plateau region in South India. It was established in 1336 by Harihara I and his brother Bukka Raya I of Sangama Dynasty, the empire rose to prominence as a culmination of attempts by the southern powers to ward off Islamic invasions by the end of the 13th century. It lasted until 1646, although its power declined after a military defeat in 1565 by the Deccan sultanates. The empire is named after its city of Vijayanagara, whose ruins surround present day Hampi, now a World Heritage Site in Karnataka. The writings of medieval European travelers such as Domingo Paes, Fernão Nunes, and Niccolò Da Conti, Archaeological excavations at Vijayanagara have revealed the empires power and wealth. The empires legacy includes many monuments spread over South India, the best known of which is the group at Hampi, the previous temple building traditions in South India came together in the Vijayanagara Architecture style. The mingling of all faiths and vernaculars inspired architectural innovation of Hindu temple construction, first in the Deccan, efficient administration and vigorous overseas trade brought new technologies such as water management systems for irrigation. The empires patronage enabled fine arts and literature to new heights in Kannada, Telugu, Tamil. The Vijayanagara Empire created an epoch in South Indian history that transcended regionalism by promoting Hinduism as a unifying factor, differing theories have been proposed regarding the origins of the Vijayanagara empire. Others claim that they were Telugu people, first associated with the Kakatiya Kingdom, irrespective of their origin, historians agree the founders were supported and inspired by Vidyaranya, a saint at the Sringeri monastery to fight the Muslim invasion of South India. He created the Kampili kingdom, but this was a short lived kingdom during this period of wars, Kampili existed near Gulbarga and Tungabhadra river in northeastern parts of the present-day Karnataka state. It ended after a defeat by the armies of Delhi Sultanate, the triumphant army led by Malik Zada sent the news of its victory, over Kampili kingdom, to Muhammad bin Tughluq in Delhi by sending a straw-stuffed severed head of the dead Hindu king. Within Kampili, on the day of certain defeat, the populace committed a jauhar in 1327/28 CE, eight years later, from the ruins of the Kampili kingdom emerged the Vijayanagara Kingdom in 1336 CE. In the first two decades after the founding of the empire, Harihara I gained control over most of the south of the Tungabhadra river. The original capital was in the principality of Anegondi on the banks of the Tungabhadra River in todays Karnataka. The next ruler, Deva Raya I, emerged successful against the Gajapatis of Odisha, italian traveler Niccolo de Conti wrote of him as the most powerful ruler of India. Deva Raya II succeeded to the throne in 1424 and was possibly the most capable of the Sangama dynasty rulers and he quelled rebelling feudal lords as well as the Zamorin of Calicut and Quilon in the south. He invaded the island of Lanka and became overlord of the kings of Burma at Pegu, the Sultanate invaded Vijayanagara in 1417 when the latter defaulted in paying the tributeImpero di Vijayanagara – Map of South India in 15th century
32. Battaglia di Verdun – The Battle of Verdun, fought from 21 February to 18 December 1916, was the largest and longest battle of the First World War on the Western Front between the German and French armies. The battle took place on the north of Verdun-sur-Meuse in north-eastern France. The German 5th Army attacked the defences of the Fortified Region of Verdun, poor weather delayed the beginning of the German attack until 21 February, but the Germans enjoyed initial success, capturing Fort Douaumont in the first three days of the offensive. Afterwards the German advance slowed, despite many French casualties, by 6 March, 20 1⁄2 French divisions were in the RFV and a more extensive defence in depth had been constructed. Pétain ordered that On ne passe pas were to be made, by 29 March, French artillery on the west bank had begun a constant bombardment of German positions on the east bank, which caused many German infantry casualties. In March, the German offensive was extended to the bank of the Meuse. The Germans were able to advance at first but French reinforcements contained the short of their objectives. In early May, the Germans changed tactics and made local attacks and counter-attacks, part of the fort was occupied, until a German counter-attack recaptured the fort and took numerous prisoners. The Germans changed tactics again, alternating their attacks on banks of the Meuse and in June captured Fort Vaux. The Germans continued the offensive beyond Vaux, towards the last geographical objectives of the plan, at Fleury-devant-Douaumont. The Germans drove a salient into the French defences, captured Fleury, a German attempt to capture Fort Souville in early July was repulsed by artillery and small-arms fire. In August and December, French counter-offensives recaptured much of the ground lost on the east bank and recovered Fort Douaumont, the Battle of Verdun lasted for 303 days and became the longest and one of the most costly battles in human history. After the German invasion of France had been halted at the First Battle of the Marne in September 1914, the war of movement ended at the Battle of the Yser and the First Battle of Ypres. The Germans built field fortifications to hold the ground captured in 1914, in late 1914 and in 1915, offensives on the Western Front had failed to gain much ground and been extremely costly in casualties. Falkenhayn offered five corps from the reserve for an offensive at Verdun at the beginning of February 1916. After the war, the Kaiser and Colonel Tappen, the Operations Officer at Oberste Heeresleitung, in the Gorlice–Tarnów Offensive, the German and Austro-Hungarian Armies attacked Russian defences frontally, after pulverising them with large amounts of heavy artillery. In the north, a British relief offensive would wear down British reserves, to no decisive effect, hints about Falkenhayns thinking were picked up by Dutch military intelligence and passed on to the British in December. The Fortified Region of Verdun lay in a salient formed during the German invasion of 1914, in a directive of the General Staff of 5 August 1915, the RFV was to be stripped of 54 artillery batteries and 128,000 rounds of ammunitionBattaglia di Verdun – French commemorative medal for the battle
33. Battaglia di Waterloo – The Battle of Waterloo was fought on Sunday,18 June 1815, near Waterloo in present-day Belgium, then part of the United Kingdom of the Netherlands. Upon Napoleons return to power in March 1815, many states that had opposed him formed the Seventh Coalition, Wellington and Blüchers armies were cantoned close to the north-eastern border of France. Napoleon chose to attack them in the hope of destroying them before they could join in an invasion of France with other members of the coalition. Despite holding his ground at Quatre Bras, the defeat of the Prussians forced Wellington to withdraw to Waterloo, Napoleon sent a third of his forces to pursue the Prussians, who had withdrawn parallel to Wellington. This resulted in the separate and simultaneous Battle of Wavre with the Prussian rear-guard, upon learning that the Prussian army was able to support him, Wellington decided to offer battle on the Mont-Saint-Jean escarpment, across the Brussels road. Here he withstood repeated attacks by the French throughout the afternoon, in the evening Napoleon committed his last reserves to a desperate final attack, which was narrowly beaten back. With the Prussians breaking through on the French right flank, Wellingtons Anglo-allied army counter-attacked in the centre, Waterloo was the decisive engagement of the Waterloo Campaign and Napoleons last. According to Wellington, the battle was the thing you ever saw in your life. Napoleon abdicated four days later, and on 7 July coalition forces entered Paris, the defeat at Waterloo ended Napoleons rule as Emperor of the French, and marked the end of his Hundred Days return from exile. This ended the First French Empire, and set a chronological milestone between serial European wars and decades of relative peace, the battlefield is located in the municipalities of Braine-lAlleud and Lasne, about 15 kilometres south of Brussels, and about 2 kilometres from the town of Waterloo. The site of the battlefield today is dominated by a large monument, as this mound was constructed from earth taken from the battlefield itself, the contemporary topography of the battlefield near the mound has not been preserved. On 13 March 1815, six days before Napoleon reached Paris, four days later, the United Kingdom, Russia, Austria, and Prussia mobilised armies to defeat Napoleon. Crucially, this would have bought him time to recruit and train more men before turning his armies against the Austrians and Russians, an additional consideration for Napoleon was that a French victory might cause French speaking sympathisers in Belgium to launch a friendly revolution. Wellingtons initial dispositions were intended to counter the threat of Napoleon enveloping the Coalition armies by moving through Mons to the south-west of Brussels and this would have pushed Wellington closer to Blücher, but may have cut Wellingtons communications with his base at Ostend. In order to delay Wellingtons deployment, Napoleon spread false intelligence which suggested that Wellingtons supply chain from the ports would be cut. By June, Napoleon had raised a total strength of about 300,000 men. The force at his disposal at Waterloo was less than one third that size, Napoleon divided his army into a left wing commanded by Marshal Ney, a right wing commanded by Marshal Grouchy and a reserve under his command. Crossing the frontier near Charleroi before dawn on 15 June, the French rapidly overran Coalition outposts and he hoped this would prevent them from combining, and he would be able to destroy first the Prussians army, then WellingtonsBattaglia di Waterloo – The strategic situation in Western Europe in 1815: 250,000 Frenchmen faced a coalition of about 850,000 soldiers on four fronts. Napoleon was forced to leave 20,000 men in Western France to reduce a royalist insurrection.
34. Campagna di Guadalcanal – It was the first major offensive by Allied forces against the Empire of Japan. The Allies also intended to use Guadalcanal and Tulagi as bases to support a campaign to capture or neutralize the major Japanese base at Rabaul on New Britain. Powerful American and Australian naval forces supported the landings, surprised by the Allied offensive, the Japanese made several attempts between August and November to retake Henderson Field. In December, the Japanese abandoned their efforts to retake Guadalcanal and evacuated their forces by 7 February 1943. The Guadalcanal campaign was a significant strategic combined arms Allied victory in the Pacific theater, along with the Battle of Midway, it has been called a turning point in the war against Japan. The Japanese had reached the peak of their conquests in the Pacific, on 7 December 1941, Japanese forces attacked the United States Pacific Fleet at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. The attack crippled much of the U. S. battleship fleet and precipitated an open, to further those goals, Japanese forces captured the Philippines, Thailand, Malaya, Singapore, Burma, the Dutch East Indies, Wake Island, Gilbert Islands, New Britain and Guam. Joining the U. S. in the war against Japan were the rest of the Allied powers, several of whom, including the United Kingdom, Australia, coral Sea was a tactical stalemate, but a strategic Allied victory which became clear only much later. Up to this point, the Allies had been on the defensive in the Pacific, originally the objectives were the occupation of the Santa Cruz Islands, codenamed Huddle, Tulagi, codenamed Watchtower, and adjacent positions. Guadalcanal, eventually the focus of the operation, was not even mentioned in the early directive, the Imperial Japanese Navy had occupied Tulagi in May 1942 and had constructed a seaplane base nearby. By August 1942, the Japanese had about 900 naval troops on Tulagi and these bases would protect Japans major base at Rabaul, threaten Allied supply and communication lines and establish a staging area for a planned offensive against Fiji, New Caledonia and Samoa. The Japanese planned to deploy 45 fighters and 60 bombers to Guadalcanal, in the overall strategy for 1942 these aircraft could provide air cover for Japanese naval forces advancing farther into the South Pacific. The Allied plan to invade the southern Solomons was conceived by U. S. Admiral Ernest King, Commander in Chief, United States Fleet. He proposed the offensive to deny the use of the islands by the Japanese as bases to threaten the supply routes between the United States and Australia and to use them as starting points. With US President Franklin D. Roosevelts tacit consent, King also advocated the invasion of Guadalcanal, an early obstacle was a desire by both the Army and Roosevelt to initiate action in Europe. The directive held that the goal was the American reconquest of the Philippines. Joint Chiefs of Staff created the South Pacific theater, with Vice Admiral Robert L. Ghormley taking command on 19 June 1942, Admiral Chester Nimitz, based at Pearl Harbor, was designated as overall Allied commander in chief for Pacific forces. In preparation for the offensive in the Pacific in May 1942, other Allied land, naval and air force units were sent to establish or reinforce bases in Fiji, Samoa, New Hebrides and New CaledoniaCampagna di Guadalcanal – United States Marines rest in the field during the Guadalcanal campaign. According to Ken Burns' film The War, the Marine in the right background is Sidney Phillips of Mobile, Alabama. Another source dates this photo to 8/8/42, and identifies the reclining Marine with hands behind head as "Bill Coggin".
35. Spedizione Terra Nova – The Terra Nova Expedition, officially the British Antarctic Expedition, was an expedition to Antarctica which took place between 1910 and 1913. It was led by Robert Falcon Scott and had various scientific, Scott wished to continue the scientific work that he had begun when leading the Discovery Expedition to the Antarctic in 1901–04. He also wanted to be the first to reach the geographic South Pole and he and four companions attained the pole on 17 January 1912, where they found that the Norwegian team led by Roald Amundsen had preceded them by 34 days. Scotts entire party died on the journey from the pole, some of their bodies, journals. The expedition, named after its ship, was a private venture. It had further backing from the Admiralty, which released experienced seamen to the expedition, the expeditions team of scientists carried out a comprehensive scientific programme, while other parties explored Victoria Land and the Western Mountains. An attempted landing and exploration of King Edward VII Land was unsuccessful, a journey to Cape Crozier in June and July 1911 was the first extended sledging journey in the depths of the Antarctic winter. For many years after his death, Scotts status as hero was unchallenged. In the final quarter of the 20th century the expedition came under closer scrutiny, the degree of Scotts personal culpability, and more recently, the culpability of certain expedition members, remain controversial. In 1909 Scott received news that Ernest Shackletons Nimrod Expedition had narrowly failed to reach the Pole and he had been forced to turn for home at 88°23 S, less than 100 geographical miles from his objective. This soured relations between the two explorers, and increased Scotts determination to surpass Shackletons achievements, as he made his preparations for a further expedition, Scott was aware of other polar ventures being planned. A Japanese expedition was being planned, the Australasian Antarctic Expedition under Douglas Mawson was to leave in 1911, meanwhile, Roald Amundsen, a potential rival, had announced plans for an Arctic voyage. Sixty-five men formed the shore and ships parties of the Terra Nova Expedition and they were chosen from 8,000 applicants, and included seven Discovery veterans together with five who had been with Shackleton on his 1907–09 expedition. Lieutenant Edward Evans, who had been the officer on Morning. He abandoned plans to mount his own expedition, and transferred his financial backing to Scott. Ex-RN officer Victor Campbell, known as The Wicked Mate, was one of the few who had skills in skiing, and was chosen to lead the party that would explore King Edward VII Land. Two non-Royal Navy officers were appointed, Henry Robertson Bowers, known as Birdie, who was a lieutenant in the Royal Indian Marine, and Lawrence Oates, Oates, independently wealthy, volunteered his services to the expedition and paid £1,000 into its funds. The Admiralty also provided a largely naval lower deck, including the Antarctic veterans Edgar Evans, Tom Crean, other seamen in the shore party included Patrick Keohane and Robert Forde, Thomas Clissold and Frederick HooperSpedizione Terra Nova – Scott's party at the South Pole, 18 January 1912. L to R: (standing) Wilson, Scott, Oates; (seated) Bowers, Edgar Evans
36. Mariner 10 – Mariner 10 was an American robotic space probe launched by NASA on November 3,1973, to fly by the planets Mercury and Venus. Mariner 10 was launched two years after Mariner 9 and was the last spacecraft in the Mariner program. The mission objectives were to measure Mercurys environment, atmosphere, surface, secondary objectives were to perform experiments in the interplanetary medium and to obtain experience with a dual-planet gravity assist mission. Mariner 10s science team was led by Bruce C. Murray at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and this maneuver, inspired by the orbital mechanics calculations of the Italian scientist Giuseppe Colombo, put the spacecraft into an orbit that repeatedly brought it back to Mercury. Mariner 10 used the radiation pressure on its solar panels and its high-gain antenna as a means of attitude control during flight. The components on Mariner 10 can be categorized into four groups based on their common function, the solar panels, power subsystem, attitude control subsystem, and computer kept the spacecraft operating properly during the flight. The navigational system, including the rocket, would keep Mariner 10 on track to Venus. Several scientific instruments would collect data at the two planets, finally, the antennas would transmit this data to the Deep Space Network back on Earth, as well as receive commands from Mission Control. Mariner 10s various components and scientific instruments were attached to a central hub, the hub stored the spacecrafts internal electronics. The Mariner 10 spacecraft was manufactured by Boeing, NASA set a strict limit of $98 million for Mariner 10s total cost, which marked the first time the agency subjected a mission to an inflexible budget constraint. No overruns would be tolerated, so mission planners carefully considered cost efficiency when designing the spacecrafts instruments, despite the rushed schedule, very few deadlines were missed. The mission ended up about $1 million under budget, attitude control is needed to keep a spacecraft’s instruments and antennas aimed in the correct direction. During course maneuvers, a spacecraft may need to rotate so that its faces the proper direction before being fired. Nitrogen gas thrusters were used to adjust Mariner 10’s orientation along three axes, commands for the instruments could be stored on Mariner 10’s computer, but were limited to 512 words. The rest had to be broadcast by the Mission Sequence Working Group from Earth, supplying the spacecraft components with power required modifying the electrical output of the solar panels. The power subsystem used two redundant sets of circuitry, each containing a booster regulator and an inverter, to convert the panels DC output to AC, the subsystem could store up to 20 ampere hours of electricity on a 39 volt nickel-cadmium battery. The flyby past Mercury posed major technical challenges for scientists to overcome, thermal blankets and a sunshade were installed on the main body. After evaluating different choices for the cloth material, mission planners chose beta clothMariner 10 – Artist's impression of the Mariner 10 mission
37. Boeing B-52 Stratofortress – The Boeing B-52 Stratofortress is an American long-range, subsonic, jet-powered strategic bomber. The B-52 was designed and built by Boeing, which has continued to provide support and it has been operated by the United States Air Force since the 1950s. The bomber is capable of carrying up to 70,000 pounds of weapons, the B-52 took its maiden flight in April 1952. Built to carry weapons for Cold War-era deterrence missions, the B-52 Stratofortress replaced the Convair B-36. A veteran of wars, the B-52 has dropped only conventional munitions in combat. The B-52s official name Stratofortress is rarely used, informally, the aircraft has become referred to as the BUFF. The B-52 has been in service with the USAF since 1955. As of December 2015,58 were in service with 18 in reserve. The B-52 completed sixty years of service with its original operator in 2015. After being upgraded between 2013 and 2015, it is expected to serve into the 2040s, the aircraft was to have a crew of five or more turret gunners, and a six-man relief crew. It was required to cruise at 300 mph at 34,000 feet with a radius of 5,000 miles. The armament was to consist of a number of 20 mm cannon and 10,000 pounds of bombs. On 13 February 1946, the Air Force issued bid invitations for these specifications, with Boeing, Consolidated Aircraft, and Glenn L. Martin Company submitting proposals. On 5 June 1946, Boeings Model 462, an aircraft powered by six Wright T35 turboprops with a gross weight of 360,000 pounds. On 28 June 1946, Boeing was issued a letter of contract for US$1.7 million to build a full-scale mock-up of the new XB-52 and do preliminary engineering and testing. However, by October 1946, the air began to express concern about the sheer size of the new aircraft. In response, Boeing produced Model 464, a smaller version with a 230,000 pound gross weight. Boeing responded with two powered by the T-35 turbopropsBoeing B-52 Stratofortress – X-15
38. Fairey Firefly – The Fairey Firefly was a British Second World War-era carrier-borne fighter aircraft and anti-submarine aircraft of the Fleet Air Arm. Designed to the contemporary FAA concept of a two-seat fleet reconnaissance/fighter and it was superior in performance and firepower to its predecessor, the Fulmar, but entered operational service only towards the end of the war when it was no longer competitive as a fighter. The limitations of an engine in a heavy airframe reduced its performance, but it proved to be sturdy, long-ranged. UK and Australian Fireflies flew ground attack operations off various aircraft carriers in the Korean War, before the war, in 1938 the Air Ministry issued two specifications for two naval fighters, a conventional and a turret fighter. Performance for both was to be 275 knots at 15,000 ft while carrying an armament, for the conventional fighter and this would replace the Fulmar which had been an interim design. These specifications were updated the following year and several British manufacturers tendered their ideas, Fairey offered designs that could be single or two seater and powered by the Rolls-Royce Griffon, or a larger airframe with a Napier Sabre. After consideration of responses, Specification N. 5/40 replaced the earlier specifications. Due to the necessity of navigating over open sea, it was for a two-seater alone, for defence of naval bases a separate single seater design would lead to the Blackburn Firebrand. The Firefly was designed by H. E, chaplin at Fairey Aviation, in June 1940, the Admiralty ordered 200 aircraft off the drawing board with the first three to be the prototypes. The prototype of the Firefly flew on 22 December 1941, although it was 4,000 lb heavier than the Fulmar, the Firefly was 40 mph faster due to improved aerodynamics and a more powerful engine, the 1,735 hp Rolls-Royce Griffon IIB. The Firefly was a cantilever monoplane with oval-section metal semi-monocoque fuselage. It was powered by a Rolls-Royce Griffon liquid-cooled piston engine with a three-blade airscrew, the Firefly had retractable main landing gear and tail wheel, with the hydraulically operated main landing gear retracting inwards into the underside of the wing centre-section. The aircraft also had a retractable arrester hook under the rear fuselage, the pilots cockpit was over the leading edge of the wing and the observer/radio-operator/navigator aft of the wing trailing edge - positions which gave better visibility for operating and landing. Both crew had separate jettisonable canopies, the all-metal wing could be folded manually, with the wings ending up along the sides of the fuselage. When in the position, the wings were hydraulically locked. Further testing with two 90 gallon drop tanks or two 1,000 lb bombs showed acceptable handling, albeit with. a small effect on handling. While. handling with a single 1,000 lb bomb was unpleasant, the primary variant of the aircraft used during the Second World War was the Mk I, which was used in all theatres of operation. In March 1943, the first Firefly Mk Is were delivered, the first operations were in Europe where Fireflies carried out armed reconnaissance flights and anti-shipping strikes along the Norwegian coastFairey Firefly – Firefly
39. Xª Flottiglia MAS (Regno d'Italia) – The Decima Flottiglia MAS was an Italian commando frogman unit of the Regia Marina created during the Fascist regime. The acronym MAS also refers to various light torpedo used by the Regia Marina during World War I. Decima MAS was active during the Battle of the Mediterranean and took part in a number of daring raids on Allied shipping and these operations involved surface speedboats, manned torpedoes and Gamma Frogmen. During the campaign Decima MAS took part in more than a dozen operations which sank or damaged five warships and 20 merchant ships, in 1943, after the Italian dictator Benito Mussolini was ousted, Italy left the Tripartite Pact and joined the Allies. Other Xª MAS men in southern Italy or other Allied-occupied areas joined the Italian Co-Belligerent Navy as part of the Mariassalto unit and they had no underwater breathing sets, and thus had to keep their heads above water to breathe. They were discovered and taken prisoner as they attempted to leave the harbour, in the 1920s, sport spearfishing without breathing apparatus became popular on the Mediterranean coast of France and Italy. This spurred the development of modern swimfins, diving masks and snorkels, in the 1930s Italian sport spearfishermen began using industrial or submarine-escape oxygen rebreathers, starting scuba diving in Italy. This new type of diving came to the attention of the Regia Marina which founded the first special forces underwater frogman unit, later copied by the Royal Navy, the two resurrected Paoluccis and Rossettis concept of manned torpedoes. Moccagatta also created the frogman training school at the San Leopoldo base of the Italian Naval Academy in Livorno, the Decima MAS saw action starting on June 10,1940, when Fascist Italy entered World War II. In more than three years of war, the unit destroyed some 72,190 tons of Allied warships and 130,572 tons of Allied merchant ships, June 10,1940, Benito Mussolini declared war on Britain. Teseo Tesei survived the attack, but casualties among the crew were heavy. September 21,1940, The Italian submarine Gondar departed La Spezia for Alexandria, the Gondar reached Alexandria on the evening of September 30, but was spotted by British and Australian destroyers, which attacked. Severely damaged, it was forced to the surface and scuttled by the crew and they were captured, along with the Decima MAS crewmen. The operation was cancelled when the British fleet left harbour before the submarine arrived, october 21,1940, Sciré departed La Spezia and sailed again to Gibraltar carrying three manned torpedoes and four crews. The Decima MAS frogmen entered the harbour, but were unable to attack any ships due to problems with the torpedoes. Only one human torpedo managed to get close to a target, the charge exploded but did not cause significant damage. The two crewmen, Gino Birindelli and Damos Paccagnini, were captured by the British, the other four manage to reach Spain and returned to Italy. Valuable experience was gained in this operation by the Decima, Gino Birindelli received the Medaglia dOro al Valor Militare, his second, Damos Paccagnini received the Medaglia dArgento al Valore MilitareXª Flottiglia MAS (Regno d'Italia) – Decima Flottiglia MAS
40. Locomotiva FS E.330 – The FS Class E.330 was a small class of three-phase electric locomotive used in Italy, introduced in the 1910s. For the new lines to be electrified, three batches of locomotives were ordered, including the E.330 and the E.550. The E.330 was designed to have four speeds, this capability was obtained thanks to two patents by the German engineer Manu Stern and the Hungarian engineer Maurice Milch, the wheel arrangement chosen was 1-C-1, similar to that adopted on the contemporary 685 class of steam locomotives. The production contract was signed in 1913, construction of the new beginning at the Italian Westinghouse. The mechanical part was co-built with Società Italiana Ernesto Breda, the locomotives were assigned to the Valtellina and Ligurian coast lines. The E. 330s became operational in the Spring 1914 and they were later used also in Lombardy on the local three-phase lines, until, from 1962, the railroads were adapted to the now standard 3,000 V direct current electrification. All the E. 330s were all phased out during the 1960sLocomotiva FS E.330 – Class E.330