1. Ethica – Ethics, Demonstrated in Geometrical Order, usually known as the Ethics, is a philosophical treatise written by Benedict de Spinoza. It was written between 1664 and 1665 and was first published in 1677, the book is perhaps the most ambitious attempt to apply the method of Euclid in philosophy. The first part of the addresses the relationship between God and the universe. Tradition held that God exists outside of the universe, created it for a reason, according to Spinoza, God is the natural world. As with many of Spinozas claims, what means is a matter of dispute. Spinoza claims that the things that make up the universe, including human beings, are Gods modes and this means that we and everything else are, in some sense, dependent upon God. The nature of this dependence is disputed, some scholars say that the modes are properties of God in the traditional sense. Others say that modes are effects of God, Gods creation of the universe is not a decision, much less one motivated by a purpose. The second part of the Ethics focuses on the human mind, Spinoza denies each of Descartess points. Regarding, Spinoza argues that the mind and the body are a thing that is being thought of in two different ways. The whole of nature can be described in terms of thoughts or in terms of bodies. However, we cannot mix these two ways of describing things, as Descartes does, and say that the mind affects the body or vice versa. Moreover, the minds self-knowledge is not fundamental, it know its own thoughts better than it knows the ways in which its body is acted upon by other bodies. Further, there is no difference between contemplating an idea and thinking that it is true, and there is no freedom of the will at all. Sensory perception, which Spinoza calls knowledge of the first kind, is entirely inaccurate and we can also have a kind of accurate knowledge called knowledge of the second kind, or reason. This encompasses knowledge of the common to all things, and includes principles of physics. We can also have knowledge of the kind, or intuitive knowledge. This is a sort of knowledge that, somehow, relates particular things to the nature of God, in the third part of the Ethics, Spinoza argues that all things, including human beings, strive to persevere in their beingEthica – The opening page of Spinoza's magnum opus, Ethics
2. New York – The City of New York, often called New York City or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2015 population of 8,550,405 distributed over an area of about 302.6 square miles. Located at the tip of the state of New York. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy and has described as the cultural and financial capital of the world. Situated on one of the worlds largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, the five boroughs – Brooklyn, Queens, Manhattan, The Bronx, and Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898. In 2013, the MSA produced a gross metropolitan product of nearly US$1.39 trillion, in 2012, the CSA generated a GMP of over US$1.55 trillion. NYCs MSA and CSA GDP are higher than all but 11 and 12 countries, New York City traces its origin to its 1624 founding in Lower Manhattan as a trading post by colonists of the Dutch Republic and was named New Amsterdam in 1626. The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790. It has been the countrys largest city since 1790, the Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the Americas by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is a symbol of the United States and its democracy. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world, the names of many of the citys bridges, tapered skyscrapers, and parks are known around the world. Manhattans real estate market is among the most expensive in the world, Manhattans Chinatown incorporates the highest concentration of Chinese people in the Western Hemisphere, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is one of the most extensive metro systems worldwide, with 472 stations in operation. Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, and Rockefeller University, during the Wisconsinan glaciation, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth. The ice sheet scraped away large amounts of soil, leaving the bedrock that serves as the foundation for much of New York City today. Later on, movement of the ice sheet would contribute to the separation of what are now Long Island and Staten Island. The first documented visit by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown and he claimed the area for France and named it Nouvelle Angoulême. Heavy ice kept him from further exploration, and he returned to Spain in August and he proceeded to sail up what the Dutch would name the North River, named first by Hudson as the Mauritius after Maurice, Prince of OrangeNew York – Clockwise, from top: Midtown Manhattan, Times Square, the Unisphere in Queens, the Brooklyn Bridge, Lower Manhattan with One World Trade Center, Central Park, the headquarters of the United Nations, and the Statue of Liberty
3. Aton – Aten is the disk of the sun in ancient Egyptian mythology, and originally an aspect of the god Ra. The deified Aten is the focus of the religion of Atenism established by Amenhotep IV, in his poem Great Hymn to the Aten, Akhenaten praises Aten as the creator, giver of life, and nurturing spirit of the world. Aten does not have a Creation Myth or family, but is mentioned in the Book of the Dead, the worship of Aten was eradicated by Horemheb. By analogy, the term silver aten was sometimes used to refer to the moon, the solar Aten was extensively worshipped as a god in the reign of Amenhotep III, when it was depicted as a falcon-headed man much like Ra. The full title of Akhenatens god was Ra-Horakhty who rejoices in the horizon, the god is also considered to be both masculine and feminine simultaneously. All creation was thought to emanate from the god and to exist within the god, in particular, the god was not depicted in anthropomorphic form, but as rays of light extending from the suns disk. Furthermore, the name came to be written within a cartouche, along with the titles normally given to a Pharaoh. Ra-Horus, more usually referred to as Ra-Horakhty, is a synthesis of two gods, both of which are attested from very early on. During the Amarna period, this synthesis was seen as the source of energy of the sun god, of which the visible manifestation was the Aten. Thus Ra-Horus-Aten was a development of old ideas which came gradually, the real change, as some see it, was the apparent abandonment of all other gods, especially Amun-Ra, prohibition of idolatry, and the debatable introduction of quasi-monotheism by Akhenaten. The syncretism is readily apparent in the Great Hymn to the Aten in which Re-Herakhty, Shu, others see Akhenaten as a practitioner of an Aten monolatry, as he did not actively deny the existence of other gods, he simply refrained from worshipping any but the Aten. Other scholars call the religion henotheistic, principles of Atens religion were recorded on the rock tomb walls of Akhetaten. In the religion of Aten, night is a time to fear, work is done best when the sun, Aten, is present. Aten cares for every creature, and created a Nile river in the sky for the Syrians, Aten created all countries and people. The rays of the sun disk only holds out life to the family, everyone else receives life from Akhenaten. When a good person dies, he/she continues to live in the City of Light for the dead in Akhetaten, the conditions are the same after death. Akhenaten judged whether someone should be granted an afterlife, and operated the scale of justice, the explanation as to why Aten could not be fully represented was that the god has gone beyond creation. The cult centre of Aten was at the new city Akhetaten, some other cities include ThebesAton – Pharaoh Akhenaten and his family adoring the Aten, second from the left is Meritaten who was the daughter of Akhenaten.
4. Grande sposa reale – Great Royal Wife, or alternatively Chief Kings Wife, is the term that was used to refer to the principal wife of the pharaoh of Ancient Egypt. The former is also, in the form of the simplification Great Wife, while most Ancient Egyptians were monogamous, the pharaoh would have had other, lesser wives and concubines in addition to the Great Royal Wife. This arrangement would allow the pharaoh to enter into marriages with the daughters of allies. In the past the order of succession in Ancient Egypt was thought to pass through the royal women and this theory, referred to as the Heiress Theory, has been rejected ever since the 1980s and is now not accepted by Egyptologists. The throne likely just passed to the eldest living son of the pharaoh, examples include Iset, the mother of Thutmose III, Tiaa, the mother of Thutmose IV and Mutemwia, the mother of Amenhotep III. Meretseger, the wife of Senusret III, is the earliest queen whose name appears with this title. However, she is attested in the New Kingdom so the title might be an anachronism. Perhaps the first holder of its title was Nubkhaes of the Second Intermediate Period, a special place in the history of great royal wives was taken by Hatshepsut. She was Great Royal Wife to her half-brother Thutmose II, during this time Hatshepsut also became a Gods Wife of Amun. After the death of her husband, she became regent because of the minority of her stepson, the male heir. While he was very young, however, Hatshepsut was crowned as pharaoh. When she became pharaoh, she designated her daughter, Neferure and her daughter may have been the great royal wife of Thutmose III but there is no clear evidence for this proposed marriage. Elsewhere, in Kush and other states of ancient Africa. The practice of creating great wives has continued to the present day, in addition to the said queen of the Zulus, contemporary holders of the title include the numerous bearers of the Iyaafin chieftaincy of Yorubaland and the future Ndlovukati of Swaziland. List of consorts of the Muhammad Ali Dynasty, for the modern queens and sultanas of Egypt Gods Wife of Amun Divine Adoratrice of Amun Interregnum queenGrande sposa reale – Nefertari, the Great Royal Wife of Ramasses II, from the temple he built to her at Abu Simbel, she holds a sistrum and a sacred lotus
5. Akhenaton – Akhenaten known before the fifth year of his reign as Amenhotep IV, was an Ancient Egyptian pharaoh of the 18th Dynasty who ruled for 17 years and died perhaps in 1336 BC or 1334 BC. An early inscription likens the Aten to the sun as compared to stars, Akhenaten tried to bring about a departure from traditional religion, yet in the end it would not be accepted. After his death, his monuments were dismantled and hidden, his statues were terminated and he was all but lost from history until the discovery during the 19th century of the site of Akhetaten, the city he built and designed for the worship of Aten, at Amarna. DNA analysis has determined that the man buried in KV55 is the father of King Tutankhamun, the future Akhenaten was a younger son of Amenhotep III and Chief Queen Tiye. The eldest son Crown Prince Thutmose was recognized as the heir of Amenhotep III but he died relatively young, there is much controversy around whether Amenhotep IV succeeded to the throne on the death of his father Amenhotep III or whether there was a coregency. Other literature by Donald Redford, William Murnane, Alan Gardiner, in February 2014, the Egyptian Ministry for Antiquities announced what it called conclusive evidence that Akhenaten shared power with his father for at least 8 years. The evidence came from the found in the Luxor tomb of Vizier Amenhotep-Huy. A team of Spanish archeologists have been working at this tomb, Amenhotep IV was crowned in Thebes and there he started a building program. He decorated the entrance to the precincts of the temple of Amun-Re with scenes of his worshiping Re-Harakhti. He soon decreed the construction of a dedicated to the Aten in Eastern Karnak. This Temple of Amenhotep IV was called the Gempaaten, the Gempaaten consisted of a series of buildings, including a palace and a structure called the Hwt Benben which was dedicated to Queen Nefertiti. Other Aten temples constructed at Karnak during this time include the Rud-menu, during this time he did not repress the worship of Amun, and the High Priest of Amun was still active in the fourth year of his reign. The king appears as Amenhotep IV in the tombs of some of the nobles in Thebes, Kheruef, Ramose, in the tomb of Ramose, Amenhotep IV appears on the west wall in the traditional style, seated on a throne with Ramose appearing before the king. On the other side of the doorway, Amenhotep IV and Nefertiti are shown in the window of appearance with the Aten depicted as the sun disc. In the Theban tomb of Parennefer, Amenhotep IV and Nefertiti are seated on a throne with the sun disk depicted over the king, among the latter-known documents referring to Amenhotep IV are two copies of a letter from the Steward Of Memphis Apy to the pharaoh. The documents were found in Gurob and are dated to regnal year 5, third month of the Growing Season, on day 13, Month 8, in the fifth year of his reign, the king arrived at the site of the new city Akhetaten. A month before that Amenhotep IV had officially changed his name to Akhenaten, Amenhotep IV changed most of his 5 fold titulary in year 5 of his reign. The only name he kept was his prenomen or throne name of Neferkheperure, some recent debate has focused on the extent to which Akhenaten forced his religious reforms on his peopleAkhenaton – Statue of Akhenaten in the early Amarna style.
6. Ferdinando Sanfelice – Ferdinando Sanfelice was an Italian late Baroque architect and painter. Sanfelice was born in Naples and died there and he was one of the principal architects in Naples in the first half of the 18th century. He was a student of Francesco Solimena, Sanfelice was known primarily for temporary displays and his secular architecture. Sanfelice also worked on churches in Naples, including San Lorenzo Maggiore, San Giovanni a Carbonara, morrice, R. J. Sanfelice and St Florian, Indigenous Tradition and Staircase DesignFerdinando Sanfelice – Palazzo dello Spagnolo, Naples. Sanfelice designed the stairs.
7. Germania Magna – Germania was the Roman term for the geographical region in north-central Europe inhabited mainly by Germanic peoples. It extended from the Danube in the south to the Baltic Sea, the Roman portions formed two provinces of the Empire, Germania Inferior to the north, and Germania Superior to the south. Germania was inhabited mostly by Germanic tribes, but also Celts, early Slavs, Balts, the population mix changed over time by assimilation, and especially by migration. The ancient Greeks were the first to mention the tribes in the area, later, Julius Caesar wrote about warlike Germanic tribesmen and their threat to Roman Gaul, and there were military clashes between the Romans and the indigenous tribes. Tacitus wrote the most complete account of Germania that still survives, the origin of the term Germania is uncertain, but was known by Caesars time, and may be Gallic in origin. The name came into use after Julius Caesar and whether it was used widely before him amongst Romans is unknown, the term may be Gallic in origin. Tacitus wrote in AD98, For the rest, they affirm Germania to be a recent word, for those who first passed the Rhine and expulsed the Gauls, and are now named Tungrians, were then called Germani. Names of Germany in English and some languages are derived from Germania, but German speakers call it Deutschland. Several modern languages use the name Germania, including Hebrew, Italian, Albanian, Bulgarian, Maltese, Greek, Germania extended from the Rhine eastward to the Vistula river, and from the Danube river northward to the Baltic Sea. The areas west of the Rhine were mainly Celtic and became part of the Roman Empire in the first century BC, the Roman parts of Germania, Lesser Germania, eventually formed two provinces of the empire, Germania Inferior, Lower Germania and Germania Superior. Important cities in Lesser Germania included Besançon, Strasbourg, Wiesbaden, the geography of Magna Germania was comprehensively described in Ptolemys Geography of around 150 C. E. via geographical coordinates of the main cities. Germania was inhabited by different tribes, most of them Germanic but also some Celtic, proto-Slavic, Baltic, the tribal and ethnic makeup changed over the centuries as a result of assimilation and, most importantly, migrations. The Germanic people spoke several different dialects, classical records show little about the people who inhabited the north of Europe before the 2nd century BC. In the 5th century BC, the Greeks were aware of a group they called Celts, herodotus also mentioned the Scythians but no other tribes. At around 320 BC, Pytheas of Massalia sailed around Britain and along the northern coast of Europe and he may have been the first Mediterranean to distinguish the Germanic people from the Celts. Contact between German tribes and the Roman Empire did take place and was not always hostile, Caesar described the cultural differences between the Germanic tribesmen, the Romans, and the Gauls. He said that the Gauls, although warlike, could be civilized and his accounts of barbaric northern tribes could be described as an expression of the superiority of Rome, including Roman Gaul. Caesars accounts portray the Roman fear of the Germanic tribes and the threat they posed, the perceived menace of the Germanic tribesmen proved accurateGermania Magna – Depiction of Magna Germania in the early 2nd century
8. Claudio – Claudius was Roman emperor from 41 to 54. A member of the Julio-Claudian dynasty, he was the son of Drusus and he was born at Lugdunum in Gaul, the first Roman Emperor to be born outside Italy. Claudius infirmity probably saved him from the fate of other nobles during the purges of Tiberius and Caligulas reigns. His survival led to his being declared Emperor by the Praetorian Guard after Caligulas assassination, despite his lack of experience, Claudius proved to be an able and efficient administrator. He was also a builder, constructing many new roads, aqueducts. During his reign the Empire began the conquest of Britain, having a personal interest in law, he presided at public trials, and issued up to twenty edicts a day. He was seen as vulnerable throughout his reign, particularly by elements of the nobility, Claudius was constantly forced to shore up his position, this resulted in the deaths of many senators. These events damaged his reputation among the ancient writers, though more recent historians have revised this opinion, many authors contend that he was murdered by his own wife. After his death in 54 AD, his grand-nephew and adopted son Nero succeeded him as Emperor, Claudius was born on 1 August 10 BC at Lugdunum. He had two siblings, Germanicus and Livilla. His mother, Antonia, may have had two children who died young. His maternal grandparents were Mark Antony and Octavia Minor, Augustus sister and his paternal grandparents were Livia, Augustus third wife, and Tiberius Claudius Nero. During his reign, Claudius revived the rumor that his father Drusus was actually the son of Augustus. In 9 BC, his father Drusus unexpectedly died on campaign in Germania, Claudius was then left to be raised by his mother, who never remarried. When Claudius disability became evident, the relationship with his family turned sour, Antonia referred to him as a monster, and used him as a standard for stupidity. She seems to have passed her son off on his grandmother Livia for a number of years, Livia was a little kinder, but nevertheless often sent him short, angry letters of reproof. He was put under the care of a former mule-driver to keep him disciplined, under the logic that his condition was due to laziness, however, by the time he reached his teenage years his symptoms apparently waned and his family took some notice of his scholarly interests. In 7 AD, Livy was hired to tutor him in history and he spent a lot of his time with the latter and the philosopher AthenodorusClaudio – Bust of Claudius at the Naples National Archaeological Museum
9. Nerone – Nero was Roman Emperor from 54 to 68, and the last in the Julio-Claudian dynasty. Nero was adopted by his great-uncle Claudius to become his heir and successor, during his reign, the redoubtable general Corbulo conducted a successful war and negotiated peace with the Parthian Empire. His general Suetonius Paulinus crushed a revolt in Britain, Nero annexed the Bosporan Kingdom to the empire and may have begun the First Jewish–Roman War. In 64 AD, most of Rome was destroyed in the Great Fire of Rome, Suetonius, writing a generation later, claims that many Romans believed Nero himself had started the fire, in order to clear land for his planned palatial complex, the Domus Aurea. In 68, the rebellion of Vindex in Gaul and later the acclamation of Galba in Hispania drove Nero from the throne, facing a false report of being denounced as a public enemy who was to be executed, he committed suicide on 9 June 68. His death ended the Julio-Claudian dynasty, sparking a period of civil wars known as the Year of the Four Emperors. Neros rule is often associated with tyranny and extravagance and he is known for many executions, including that of his mother, and the probable murder by poison of his stepbrother Britannicus. Nero was rumored to have had captured Christians dipped in oil and this view is based on the writings of Tacitus, Suetonius and Cassius Dio, the main surviving sources for Neros reign, but a few sources paint Nero in a more favourable light. Some sources, including some mentioned above, portray him as an emperor who was popular with the common Roman people, some modern historians question the reliability of ancient sources when reporting on Neros tyrannical acts. Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus, Nero, was born on 15 December 37 in Antium and he was the only son of Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus and Agrippina the Younger, sister of Emperor Caligula. Neros father, Gnaeus, was the son of Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus, Gnaeus was thus the grandson of Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus and probably Aemilia Lepida on his fathers side, and the grandson of Mark Antony and Octavia Minor on his mothers side. Thus, Nero had as his paternal grandmother Antonia Major, through Octavia, Nero was the great-nephew of Caesar Augustus. Neros father had employed as a praetor and was a member of Caligulas staff when the latter travelled to the East. Neros father was described by Suetonius as a murderer and a cheat who was charged by Emperor Tiberius with treason, adultery, Tiberius died, allowing him to escape these charges. Neros father died of edema in 39 when Nero was two, Neros mother was Agrippina the Younger, a great-granddaughter of Caesar Augustus and his wife Scribonia through their daughter Julia the Elder and her husband Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa. Agrippinas father, Germanicus, was a grandson of Augustuss wife, Livia, on one side and Mark Antony, Germanicus mother Antonia Minor was a daughter of Octavia Minor and Mark Antony. Germanicus was also the son of Tiberius. Agrippina poisoned her second husband Passienus Crispus, so many ancient historians also accuse her of murdering her third husband, the emperor ClaudiusNerone – Bust of Nero at the Musei Capitolini, Rome
10. Museo nazionale di Capodimonte – Museo di Capodimonte is an art museum located in the Palace of Capodimonte, a grand Bourbon palazzo in Naples, Italy. The museum is the repository of Neapolitan painting and decorative art, with several important works from other Italian schools of painting. It is one of the largest museums in Italy, the vast collection at the museum traces its origins back to 1738. Over the years the palace was enlarged and filled with more art, in 1787, on the advice of Jacob Philipp Hackert, a laboratory for the restoration of paintings was created. When the Parthenopaean Republic was declared in 1799, Ferdinand fled to Palermo on board Nelsons Vanguard, what remained was looted by the French troops of General Championnet who were billeted there during the short life of the Republic in 1799. Later on during the ten years of French reoccupation, the art collection was transferred to the Naples National Archaeological Museum, when King Ferdinand returned from Sicily in 1815, he employed many painters and sculptors to work on the redecoration of the palace. It was finally completed in 1840, and a gallery housing contemporary art was added, after the palace passed in 1861 to the House of Savoy, further pieces were added to the art collections, appointing Domenico Morelli as consultant for new acquisitions. They also added a collection of historic firearms and other weapons. In 1866, the boudoir of Maria Amalia of Saxony was transferred to Capodimonte from the Palace of Portici, after the end of the monarchy, the palace became purely a national museum in 1950, with many of the exhibits being returned from the National Museum. Elsewhere in the palace the royal apartments are furnished with antique 18th-century furniture, le Guide di Dove - Campania, Corriere della sera,2007. Il Museo di Capodimonte, valori di Napoli, Pubblicomit,2002Museo nazionale di Capodimonte – Palace of Capodimonte
11. Santuario di Nostra Signora di Montallegro – The Sanctuary of Our Lady of Montallegro is a major Marian sanctuary in the Province of Genoa, located on a hill inland in Rapallo. It was built - along with the shelter for pilgrims - in 1558 thanks to the funds of the inhabitants. The current marble facade was built in 1896 by the Milanese architect Luigi Rovelli and this recognition is reproduced on the municipal coat of arms showing from 28 November 1948 a letter M in the center of the two griffins below the royal crown. The hymn of Our Lady of Montallegro, entitled shines on high, was composed and set to music by teacher and priest Giovanni Battista Campodonico. In the first altar on the side it is possible to admire Giovanni Battista Carlones painting Visitazione. In the same altar on the side is preserved as well Carlone schools painting Annunciazione. The organ of the church was built in 1907 by Inzoli of CremaSantuario di Nostra Signora di Montallegro – The Sanctuary of Our Lady of Montallegro
12. Dream Theater – They subsequently dropped out of their studies to concentrate further on the band that would ultimately become Dream Theater. Though a number of lineup changes followed, the three original members remained together along with James LaBrie and Jordan Rudess until September 8,2010, in October 2010, the band held auditions for a drummer to replace Portnoy. Mike Mangini was announced as the new permanent drummer on April 29,2011, the band is well known for the technical proficiency of its instrumentalists, who have won many awards from music instruction magazines. Guitarist John Petrucci has been named as the player on the G3 tour six times. In 2009 he was named the No.2 best metal guitarist by Joel McIver in his book The 100 Greatest Metal Guitarists and he was also named as one of the Top 10 Fastest Shredders of All Time by GuitarOne magazine. Jordan Rudess is considered to be one of the greatest keyboard players of all time by publications like MusicRadar. Former drummer Mike Portnoy has won 26 awards from Modern Drummer magazine and is also the second youngest person to be inducted into the Rock Drummer Hall of Fame and his replacement Mike Mangini has also previously set 5 WFD records. John Myung was voted the greatest bassist of all time in a poll conducted by MusicRadar in August through September 2010, the band was inducted into the Long Island Music Hall of Fame in 2010. The bands highest-selling album is the gold-selling Images and Words, which reached No.61 on the Billboard 200 chart. Both the 1994 release Awake and their 2002 release Six Degrees of Inner Turbulence also entered the charts at No.32 and No.46 respectively and received mostly positive reviews. Metropolis Pt.2, Scenes from a Memory was ranked number 95 on the October 2006 issue of Guitar World magazines list of The greatest 100 guitar albums of all time. It is ranked as the 15th Greatest Concept Album by Classic Rock Magazine, the bands eleventh studio album, A Dramatic Turn of Events, was released on September 13,2011. On April 9,2013, Images and Words won Loudwires fan voted March Metal Madness for worlds best metal album beating albums by Dio, AC/DC, Judas Priest, Megadeth, as of 2011, Dream Theater has sold over 12 million records worldwide. Dream Theater was formed in Massachusetts in 1985 when guitarist John Petrucci, bassist John Myung, the trio started by covering Rush and Iron Maiden songs in the rehearsal rooms at Berklee. Myung, Petrucci, and Portnoy joined together on the name Majesty for their newly formed group, according to the The Score So Far. Documentary, they were waiting in line for tickets to a Rush concert at the Berklee Performance Center while listening to the band on a boom box, Portnoy commented that the ending of the song Bastille Day sounded majestic. It was then decided that Majesty would be the bands name, the trio then set out to fill the remaining positions in the group. Petrucci asked his high school bandmate Kevin Moore to play the keyboard, after he accepted the position, another friend from home, Chris Collins, was recruited as lead vocalist after band members heard him sing a cover of Queen of the Reich by QueensrÿcheDream Theater – Dream Theater in 2011. From left to right: John Myung, Jordan Rudess, James LaBrie, Mike Mangini and John Petrucci.
13. L'arte della fuga – The Art of Fugue, BWV1080, is an incomplete work of unspecified instrumentation by Johann Sebastian Bach. Written in the last decade of his life, The Art of Fugue is the culmination of Bachs experimentation with monothematic instrumental works. This work consists of 14 fugues and 4 canons in D minor, each using some variation of a principal subject. The governing idea of the work, as put by Bach specialist Christoph Wolff, was an exploration in depth of the possibilities inherent in a single musical subject. The word contrapunctus is often used for each fugue, the earliest extant source of the work is an autograph manuscript of the early 1740s, containing 12 fugues and 2 canons. This autograph is typically referred to by its number of P200 in the Berlin State Library. Three manuscripts for pieces that appear in the edition were bundled with P200 at some point before its acquisition by the library. The revised version was published in May 1751, slightly less than a year after Bachs death. In addition to changes in the order, notation, and material of pieces which appeared in the autograph, it contained 2 new fugues,2 new canons, a second edition was published in 1752, but differed only in its addition of a preface by Friedrich Wilhelm Marpurg. In spite of its revisions, the edition of 1751 contained a number of glaring editorial errors. The majority of these may be attributed to Bachs relatively sudden death in the midst of publication, the anomalous character of the published order and the Unfinished Fugue have engendered a wide variety of theories which attempt to restore the work to that state originally intended by Bach. The Art of Fugue is based on a subject, which each canon. In the order in which occur in the printed edition of 1751, the groups. Contrapunctus I, 4-voice fugue on subject, play principal subject or play whole contrapunctus 2. Contrapunctus II, 4-voice fugue on subject, accompanied by a French style dotted rhythm motif. Contrapunctus III, 4-voice fugue on principal subject in inversion, employing intense chromaticism, Contrapunctus V, Has many stretto entries, as do Contrapuncti VI and VII, play principal subject 6. The dotted rhythm, enhanced by these little rising and descending groups, suggests what is called French style in Bachs day, Contrapunctus VII, a 4 per Augmentationem et Diminutionem, Uses augmented and diminished versions of the main subject and its inversion. Double and triple fugues, employing two and three respectively,8L'arte della fuga – Title page of the first edition, 1751
14. Metallica – Metallica is an American heavy metal band based in San Rafael, California. The band was formed in 1981 in Los Angeles when vocalist/guitarist James Hetfield responded to an advertisement posted by drummer Lars Ulrich in a local newspaper, Metallicas current line-up comprises founding members Hetfield and Ulrich, longtime lead guitarist Kirk Hammett and bassist Robert Trujillo. Guitarist Dave Mustaine and bassists Ron McGovney, Cliff Burton and Jason Newsted are former members of the band, the bands fast tempos, instrumentals, and aggressive musicianship placed them as one of the founding big four bands of thrash metal, alongside Anthrax, Megadeth, and Slayer. The band expanded its musical direction and achieved commercial success with its eponymous fifth album Metallica. The album was also their first to debut at number one on the Billboard 200, in 2000, Metallica joined with other artists who filed a lawsuit against Napster for sharing the bands copyright-protected material without consent from the band. A settlement was reached and Napster became a pay-to-use service, the band returned to its original musical style with the release of Death Magnetic, and in 2009, Metallica was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. Metallica has released ten albums, four live albums, five extended plays,26 music videos. The band has won eight Grammy Awards and six of its albums have debuted at number one on the Billboard 200. The bands eponymous 1991 album has sold over 16 million copies in the United States, Metallica ranks as one of the most commercially successful bands of all time, having sold over 110 million records worldwide. Metallica has been listed as one of the greatest artists of all time by many magazines, including Rolling Stone, in 2012, Metallica formed the independent record label Blackened Recordings and took full ownership of its albums and videos. The band is currently promoting Hardwired. to Self-Destruct, which was released on November 18,2016, guitarists James Hetfield and Hugh Tanner of Leather Charm answered the advertisement. Although he had not formed a band, Ulrich asked Metal Blade Records founder Brian Slagel if he could record a song for the upcoming compilation album Metal Massacre. Slagel accepted and Ulrich recruited Hetfield to sing and play rhythm guitar, the band was officially formed in October 1981, five months after Ulrich and Hetfield first met. Ulrich talked to his friend Ron Quintana, who was brainstorming names for a fanzine, Quintana had proposed the names MetalMania and Metallica. A second advertisement was placed in The Recycler for a position as lead guitarist, Dave Mustaine answered, Ulrich and Hetfield recruited him after seeing his expensive guitar equipment. In early 1982, Metallica recorded its first original song Hit the Lights for the Metal Massacre I compilation, Hetfield played bass on the song and Lloyd Grant was credited with a guitar solo. Metal Massacre I was released on June 14,1982, early pressings listed the band incorrectly as Mettallica, the bands first taste of live success came early, they were chosen to open for British heavy metal band Saxon at one gig of their 1982 US tour. Metallica recorded its first demo, Power Metal, an inspired by Quintanas early business cards in early 1982Metallica – Metallica in London in 2008. From left to right: Kirk Hammett, Lars Ulrich, James Hetfield and Robert Trujillo.
15. Gasparo Cairano – Gasparo Cairano, also known as Gasparo da Cairano, de Cayrano, da Milano, Coirano, and other variations, was an Italian sculptor of the Renaissance. He introduced a powerful and highly expressive classical taste, as opposed to the hitherto existing refined decorativeness, after his death, Gasparos reputation fell into oblivion caused by unfavourable secular criticism. Nothing is known of Gasparo Cairano before 1489, no information has been found about the date and place of his birth, education, or the circumstances that led him to Brescia. The generic reference, in any case, is compatible with the basis of his artistic work. Some conjectures can be made on the surname Cairano, in particular that it one to Cairate in Varese province. The installation of Cairanos cycle is contemporaneous with Tamagninos installation of the angels in the lower section of the dome. There is a possibility that this limitation was the result of a confrontation between Cairano and Tamagnino and it is likely, therefore, that there was some local support that allowed Cairano to penetrate Tamagninos stronghold in Brescia, despite the formers relative underdevelopment as an artist. On the other hand, Tamagnino only created five other works within the church, following this debacle, Tamagnino left the site of the church and Brescia, and only returned a decade later. Cairanos art and career began a rapid ascent following several other commissions for work within the sanctum of the Santa Maria dei Miracoli. On November 16,1941, he was paid for two keystones for the vault of the old Duomo which was being built under the aegis of Bernardino da Martinengo, Cairano was given the sole commission for figurative sculptures in the new building. Two years later, in 1493, Cairano began work at the courtyard of the Loggia palazzo, evidently there was a burst in overlapping commitments and commission, both public and ecclesiastical, many of which were more important than his debut work at the Santa Maria dei Miracoli. Indeed, work in that church stopped around the same time, the sculptor returned to it only for occasional work over the following years to the end of the century, overall, however, work ceased until the mid-sixteenth century. The production of these busts can be traced, in general, a considerable leap in quality is evident here, compared to the Apostles of the church of Santa Maria dei Miracoli that had been carved just a few years earlier. The cycle of the Caesars is not only considerably grander in size, the attention of the artist to his craft and productions is evident, and it influenced in general all the decorative sculptural works made for the palazzo at the time. Cairanos concentration on the Caesars is interrupted only briefly by the return of Tamagnino between 1499 and 1500, Tamagnino, likely based on his lauded works at the Certosa di Pavia, receives a commission for six different Caesars and other sculptures. Having gained prestige from the constructions in the Loggia, Cairano received at least two commissions from the nobility of Brescia, involved in the leadership of the new administration, they were certainly aware of his ability. There are papers dating back to 1496 that document Cairanos commission for the Tomb of Gaspare Brunelli, capriolis memorial was broken up in the nineteenth century, so only the Caprioli Adoration remains. A masterpiece of Cairanos, this was placed in 1841 by Rodolfo Vantini on the altar of the St Francis of Assisi churchGasparo Cairano – Trofeo (1499-1500), Loggia palazzo, Brescia, south-east view
16. Jean-Jacques Rousseau – Jean-Jacques Rousseau was a Francophone Genevan philosopher, writer, and composer of the 18th century. His political philosophy influenced the Enlightenment in France and across Europe, as well as aspects of the French Revolution, Rousseaus novel Emile, or On Education is a treatise on the education of the whole person for citizenship. His sentimental novel Julie, or the New Heloise was of importance to the development of pre-romanticism and romanticism in fiction and his Discourse on Inequality and The Social Contract are cornerstones in modern political and social thought. During the period of the French Revolution, Rousseau was the most popular of the philosophes among members of the Jacobin Club and he was interred as a national hero in the Panthéon in Paris, in 1794,16 years after his death. Rousseau was born in Geneva, which was at the time a city-state, since 1536, Geneva had been a Huguenot republic and the seat of Calvinism. Rousseau was proud that his family, of the order, had voting rights in the city. Throughout his life, he signed his books Jean-Jacques Rousseau. Geneva, in theory, was governed democratically by its male voting citizens, the citizens were a minority of the population when compared to the immigrants, referred to as inhabitants, whose descendants were called natives and continued to lack suffrage. There was much debate within Geneva, extending down to the tradespeople. Much discussion was over the idea of the sovereignty of the people, in 1707, a democratic reformer named Pierre Fatio protested this situation, saying a sovereign that never performs an act of sovereignty is an imaginary being. He was shot by order of the Little Council, Jean-Jacques Rousseaus father, Isaac, was not in the city at this time, but Jean-Jacquess grandfather supported Fatio and was penalized for it. The trade of watchmaking had become a tradition by the time of Rousseaus father. Isaac followed his grandfather, father and brothers into the business, Isaac, notwithstanding his artisan status, was well educated and a lover of music. A Genevan watchmaker, Rousseau wrote, is a man who can be introduced anywhere, in 1699, Isaac ran into political difficulty by entering a quarrel with visiting English officers, who in response drew their swords and threatened him. After local officials stepped in, it was Isaac who was punished, Rousseaus mother, Suzanne Bernard Rousseau, was from an upper-class family. She was raised by her uncle Samuel Bernard, a Calvinist preacher and he cared for Suzanne after her father Jacques died in his early thirties. In 1695, Suzanne had to answer charges that she had attended a street theater disguised as a peasant woman so she could gaze upon M. Vincent Sarrasin, after a hearing, she was ordered by the Genevan Consistory to never interact with him again. She married Rousseaus father at the age of 31, isaacs sister had married Suzannes brother eight years earlier, after she had become pregnant and they had been chastised by the ConsistoryJean-Jacques Rousseau – Rousseau in 1753, by Maurice Quentin de La Tour
17. Dante Alighieri – Durante degli Alighieri, simply called Dante, was a major Italian poet of the Late Middle Ages. In the late Middle Ages, the majority of poetry was written in Latin. In De vulgari eloquentia, however, Dante defended use of the vernacular in literature, as a result, Dante played an instrumental role in establishing the national language of Italy. In addition, the first use of the interlocking three-line rhyme scheme, Dante has been called the Father of the Italian language and one of the greatest poets of world literature. In Italy, Dante is often referred to as il Sommo Poeta and il Poeta, he, Petrarch, Dante was born in Florence, Republic of Florence, present-day Italy. The exact date of his birth is unknown, although it is believed to be around 1265. This can be deduced from autobiographic allusions in the Divine Comedy, in 1265, the sun was in Gemini between approximately May 11 and June 11. Dante claimed that his family descended from the ancient Romans, but the earliest relative he could mention by name was Cacciaguida degli Elisei, born no earlier than about 1100. Dantes father, Alaghiero or Alighiero di Bellincione, was a White Guelph who suffered no reprisals after the Ghibellines won the Battle of Montaperti in the middle of the 13th century. Dantes family had loyalties to the Guelphs, an alliance that supported the Papacy and which was involved in complex opposition to the Ghibellines. The poets mother was Bella, likely a member of the Abati family and she died when Dante was not yet ten years old, and Alighiero soon married again, to Lapa di Chiarissimo Cialuffi. When Dante was 12, he was promised in marriage to Gemma di Manetto Donati, daughter of Manetto Donati, contracting marriages at this early age was quite common and involved a formal ceremony, including contracts signed before a notary. But by this time Dante had fallen in love with another, Beatrice Portinari, years after his marriage to Gemma he claims to have met Beatrice again, he wrote several sonnets to Beatrice but never mentioned Gemma in any of his poems. The exact date of his marriage is not known, the certain information is that, before his exile in 1301. Dante fought with the Guelph cavalry at the Battle of Campaldino and this victory brought about a reformation of the Florentine constitution. To take any part in life, one had to enroll in one of the citys many commercial or artisan guilds, so Dante entered the Physicians. In the following years, his name is recorded as speaking or voting in the various councils of the republic. A substantial portion of minutes from meetings in the years 1298–1300 was lost, howeverDante Alighieri – Profile portrait of Dante, by Sandro Botticelli
18. Lev Tolstoj – Count Lev Nikolayevich Tolstoy, usually referred to in English as Leo Tolstoy, was a Russian writer who is regarded as one of the greatest authors of all time. Born to an aristocratic Russian family in 1828, he is best known for the novels War and Peace and Anna Karenina, often cited as pinnacles of realist fiction. He first achieved acclaim in his twenties with his semi-autobiographical trilogy, Childhood, Boyhood, and Youth. Tolstoys fiction includes dozens of stories and several novellas such as The Death of Ivan Ilyich, Family Happiness. He also wrote plays and numerous philosophical essays, in the 1870s Tolstoy experienced a profound moral crisis, followed by what he regarded as an equally profound spiritual awakening, as outlined in his non-fiction work A Confession. His literal interpretation of the teachings of Jesus, centering on the Sermon on the Mount, caused him to become a fervent Christian anarchist and pacifist. Tolstoy also became an advocate of Georgism, the economic philosophy of Henry George. Tolstoy was born at Yasnaya Polyana, a family estate 12 kilometres southwest of Tula, the Tolstoys were a well-known family of old Russian nobility, tracing their ancestry to a mythical Lithuanian noble Indris. He was the fourth of five children of Count Nikolai Ilyich Tolstoy, a veteran of the Patriotic War of 1812, Tolstoys parents died when he was young, so he and his siblings were brought up by relatives. In 1844, he began studying law and oriental languages at Kazan University and his teachers described him as both unable and unwilling to learn. Tolstoy left the university in the middle of his studies, returned to Yasnaya Polyana and then spent much of his time in Moscow, in 1851, after running up heavy gambling debts, he went with his older brother to the Caucasus and joined the army. It was about time that he started writing. Others who followed the path were Alexander Herzen, Mikhail Bakunin. During his 1857 visit, Tolstoy witnessed an execution in Paris. Writing in a letter to his friend Vasily Botkin, The truth is that the State is a conspiracy designed not only to exploit, henceforth, I shall never serve any government anywhere. Tolstoys concept of non-violence or Ahimsa was bolstered when he read a German version of the Tirukkural and he later instilled the concept in Mahatma Gandhi through his A Letter to a Hindu when young Gandhi corresponded with him seeking his advice. His European trip in 1860–61 shaped both his political and literary development when he met Victor Hugo, whose literary talents Tolstoy praised after reading Hugos newly finished Les Misérables, the similar evocation of battle scenes in Hugos novel and Tolstoys War and Peace indicates this influence. Tolstoys political philosophy was influenced by a March 1861 visit to French anarchist Pierre-Joseph ProudhonLev Tolstoj – Tolstoy in May, 1908, four months before his 80th birthday (photographed at Yasnaya Polyana by Sergey Prokudin-Gorsky; the first colour photograph taken in Russia).
19. Sof'ja Tolstaja – Countess Sophia Andreyevna Tolstaya, was a Russian diarist, and the wife of Russian novelist Leo Tolstoy. Sophia Behrs was one of three daughters of a German physician, Andrey Evstafievich Behrs, and his Russian wife, Liubov Alexandrovna and her maternal great-grandfather, Count Pyotr Zavadovsky, was the first minister of education in Russias history. Sophia was first introduced to Leo Tolstoy in 1862, when she was 18 years old, at 34, Tolstoy was 16 years her senior. On 17 September 1862 the couple formally engaged after Tolstoy gave Sophia a written proposal of marriage. At the time of their marriage, Leo Tolstoy was already known as a novelist after the publication of The Cossacks. On the eve of their marriage, Tolstoy gave Sophia his diaries detailing his relations with female serfs. In Anna Karenina, 34-year-old Konstantin Levin, a character behaves similarly, asking his 19-year-old fiancée Kitty to read his diaries. The diary included the fact that he had fathered a child by a woman who remained on the Yasnaya Polyana estate. In Anne Edwards Sonya, The Life of Countess Tolstoy, she describes Sophia as having a fear that Tolstoy would somehow re-enter a relationship with the other woman. The Tolstoys had 13 children, eight of whom survived childhood, the family was prosperous, owing to Tolstoys efficient management of his estates and to the sales of his works, making it possible to provide adequately for the family. In 1887, Tolstaya took up the new art of photography. She took over a thousand photographs that documented her life, including with Tolstoy, and she was a diarist and documented her life with Leo Tolstoy in a series of diaries which were published in English translation in the 1980s. Tolstaya wrote her memoirs as well, which she titled My Life, Tolstoy died 10 days later in a railway station, whilst Sophia was kept away from him. Following the death of her husband, Sophia continued to live in Yasnaya Polyana, Frankfurt am Main, Germany,2009 Nina Niktina. German Translation, Eine Frage der Schuld, Zürich 2008, song without Words, unpublished in Russia. German Translation, Lied ohne Worte, Zürich 2010, cathy Porter, The Diaries of Sophia Tolstoy. Ein Leben an der Seite Tolstojs, Frankfurt, M. Leipzig, Insel Verlag Lew Tolstoj - Sofja Tolstaja, ed. and trans. from Russian by Ursula Keller, Natalja Sharandak. Song without words, the photographs & diaries of countess Sophia Tolstoy, washington, DC, National Geographic Anne EdwardsSof'ja Tolstaja – Sophia Tolstoy
20. Dietrich Buxtehude – Dieterich Buxtehude was a Danish-German organist and composer of the Baroque period. His organ works represent a part of the standard organ repertoire and are frequently performed at recitals. He composed in a variety of vocal and instrumental idioms. Today, Buxtehude is considered one of the most important composers in Germany of the mid-Baroque and he is thought to have been born with the name Diderich Buxtehude. His parents were Johannes Buxtehude and Helle Jespersdatter and his father originated from Oldesloe in the Duchy of Holstein, which at that time was a part of the Danish Monarchy. Scholars dispute both the year and country of Dieterichs birth, although most now accept that he was born in 1637 in Helsingborg, Skåne and his obituary stated that he recognized Denmark as his native country, whence he came to our region, he lived about 70 years. Others, however, claim that he was born at Oldesloe, later in his life he Germanized his name and began signing documents Dieterich Buxtehude. His father — Johannes Buxtehude — was the organist at St. Olafs church in Helsingør, Dieterich was employed as an organist, first in Helsingborg, and then at Helsingør. St. Mary’s in Helsingør is the church where Buxtehude was employed that still has the organ in its original location. Buxtehudes last post, from 1668, was at the Marienkirche, there he succeeded Franz Tunder and followed in many of the footsteps of his predecessor. He married Tunders daughter Anna Margarethe in 1668 – it was not uncommon practice that a man marry the daughter of his predecessor in his occupation, Buxtehude and Anna Margarethe had seven daughters who were baptized at the Marienkirche, however, his first daughter died as an infant. After his retirement as organist at St Olafs Church, his father joined the family in Lübeck in 1673, Johannes died a year later, and Dieterich composed his funeral music. Dieterichs brother Peter, a barber, joined them in 1677, in 1703, Handel and Mattheson both traveled to meet Buxtehude, who was by then elderly and ready to retire. He offered his position in Lübeck to Handel and Mattheson but stipulated that the organist who ascended to it must marry his eldest daughter, both Handel and Mattheson turned the offer down and left the day after their arrival. In addition to his duties, Buxtehude, like his predecessor Tunder. His surviving church music is praised for its musical qualities rather than its progressive elements. The bulk of Buxtehudes oeuvre consists of music, which covers a wide variety of styles, and organ works. Chamber music constitutes a part of the surviving output, although the only chamber works Buxtehude published during his lifetime were fourteen chamber sonatasDietrich Buxtehude – The only surviving portrait of Buxtehude, playing a viol, from A musical party by Johannes Voorhout (1674)
21. Luigi Maria Grignion de Montfort – Saint Louis-Marie Grignion de Montfort was a French Roman Catholic priest and Confessor. He was known in his time as a preacher and was made a missionary apostolic by Pope Clement XI, as well as preaching, Montfort found time to write a number of books which went on to become classic Catholic titles and influenced several popes. Montfort is known for his devotion to the Blessed Virgin Mary. Montfort is considered as one of the writers in the field of Mariology. His most notable works regarding Marian devotions are contained in The Secret of Mary, the Roman Catholic Church, under the pontificate of Pope Pius XII canonized Montfort on July 20,1947. A founders statue created by Giacomo Parisini is located in a niche of the south nave of Saint Peters Basilica. He was born in 1673 in Montfort-sur-Meu, the eldest surviving child of eighteen born to Jean-Baptiste, Louis-Marie passed most of his infancy and early childhood in Iffendic, a few kilometers from Montfort, where his father had bought a farm. At the age of 12, he entered the Jesuit College of St Thomas Becket in Rennes, at the end of his ordinary schooling, he began his studies of philosophy and theology, still at St Thomas in Rennes. Listening to the stories of a local priest, the Abbé Julien Bellier, about his life as an itinerant missionary, and, under the guidance of some other priests he began to develop his strong devotion to the Blessed Virgin Mary. He was then given the opportunity, through a benefactor, to go to Paris to study at the renowned Seminary of Saint-Sulpice towards the end of 1693. After less than two years, he became ill and had to be hospitalized, but survived his hospitalization. Upon his release from the hospital, to his surprise he found himself with a place reserved at the Little Saint-Sulpice, Saint-Sulpice had been founded by Jean-Jacques Olier, one of the leading exponents of what came to be known as the French school of spirituality. This later led to his focus on the Holy Rosary and his book the Secret of the Rosary. Even as a seminarian in Paris, Montfort was known for the veneration he had toward the angels, he urged his confreres to show marks of respect and tenderness to their guardian angels. He often ended his letters with a salutation to the angel of the person to whom he was writing. He also saluted all the angels in the city of Nantes, one of the reasons why Saint Louis Marie de Montfort had such devotion to the angels is that veneration of the pure spirits was an integral part of his training and also of his culture. His college teachers, the Jesuits, were known for their zeal in propagating devotion to the angels, Montforts seminary training under the Sulpicians brought him into contact with the thought of Cardinal de Bérulle and Olier, both of whom had deep veneration for the angels. Furthermore, in the course of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, manuals of piety and he was ordained a priest in June 1700, and assigned to NantesLuigi Maria Grignion de Montfort – St. Louis-Marie Grignion de Montfort
22. Costanzo Gallo – Flavius Claudius Constantius Gallus, commonly known as Constantius Gallus, was a member of the Constantinian dynasty and Caesar of the Roman Empire. Gallus was consul three years, from 352 to 354, Gallus was a son of Julius Constantius by his first wife Galla. Gallus paternal grandparents were the Western Roman Emperor Constantius Chlorus and his second wife Flavia Maximiana Theodora. At some point prior to 331/2, Gallus mother, Galla, seems to have died, as at that stage, Gallus was said by Ammianus Marcellinus to have been very good looking, making particular note of his soft blond hair. Gallus was born in Massa Veternensis, Italia, after his father had been recalled from exile, Gallus father and his elder brother were amongst those killed during the purges that occurred in the imperial family after the death of Constantine I in 337. There is debate over where Gallus spent his youth, one view is that he lived with Julian in Nicomedia under the care of bishop Eusebius of Nicomedia until 340. At which point, Eusebius was made bishop of Constantinople, which necessitated Gallus and it is believed that after the death of Eusebius in 341, Constantius then sent Gallus and Julian to continue their studies at the imperial household in Macellum, Cappadocia. An alternative view claims that hints in the sources suggest that Gallus was sent to Ephesus to study, then to a type of exile in Tralles, in 350, Magnentius had rebelled and killed the emperor Constans, claiming the purple. Gallus and Constantina, who shared her brothers aim of controlling the young Caesar. During his rule, Gallus had to deal with a Jewish rebellion in Judea/Palestine, the rebellion, possibly started before Gallus elevation to Caesar, was crushed by Gallus general, Ursicinus, who ordered all the rebels slain. Gallus was saved from a plot by a woman, who revealed that some members of her household were planning the murder. Some sources, among whom are Joannes Zonaras, claim that this plot had been organized by Magnentius in order to distract Constantius from Magnentius himself, some sources claim Gallus generals won a campaign against the Sassanids. Others, basing their views on a situation between Sassanids and Romans, dismiss this claim. In 354, Gallus sent the comes Orientis, Nebridius, against the Isaurians, as a consequence of the need to gather food for the troops of a Persian campaign or because of drought, the grain supply in Antioch decreased. In order to counter the higher price of grain, Gallus forced the passage of some laws regardless of the opinion of the Senate, thus alienating the support of the senatorial class of Antioch. Ammianus reports also that Gallus and Constantina started several trials for magic against wealthy people, ending in the execution of innocents, doubting his cousins loyalty, Constantius reduced the troops under Gallus, and sent the Praetorian Prefect Domitianus to Antioch to urge Gallus to go to Italy. Different sources tell different stories, but all agree that Gallus arrested Domitianus and the quaestor Montius Magnus who had come to his aid, the arrest of Montius Magnus led to the discovery of what seems to be a plot to elevate an usurper against Gallus. All of those involved in the plot were sentenced to death, Constantius was informed of the treason trials in Antioch during a campaign against the AlamanniCostanzo Gallo – Gallus coin celebrating Rome and Constantinople.
23. Giorgio III del Regno Unito – He was concurrently Duke and prince-elector of Brunswick-Lüneburg in the Holy Roman Empire until his promotion to King of Hanover on 12 October 1814. He was the third British monarch of the House of Hanover, early in his reign, Great Britain defeated France in the Seven Years War, becoming the dominant European power in North America and India. However, many of Britains American colonies were soon lost in the American War of Independence, further wars against revolutionary and Napoleonic France from 1793 concluded in the defeat of Napoleon at the Battle of Waterloo in 1815. In the later part of his life, George III had recurrent, although it has since been suggested that he had the blood disease porphyria, the cause of his illness remains unknown. After a final relapse in 1810, a regency was established, on George IIIs death, the Prince Regent succeeded his father as George IV. Historical analysis of George IIIs life has gone through a kaleidoscope of changing views that have depended heavily on the prejudices of his biographers and the sources available to them. Until it was reassessed in the half of the 20th century, his reputation in the United States was one of a tyrant. George was born in London at Norfolk House and he was the grandson of King George II, and the eldest son of Frederick, Prince of Wales, and Augusta of Saxe-Gotha. As Prince George was born two months prematurely and he was unlikely to survive, he was baptised the same day by Thomas Secker. One month later, he was baptised at Norfolk House. His godparents were the King of Sweden, his uncle the Duke of Saxe-Gotha, George grew into a healthy but reserved and shy child. The family moved to Leicester Square, where George and his younger brother Prince Edward, Duke of York, Family letters show that he could read and write in both English and German, as well as comment on political events of the time, by the age of eight. He was the first British monarch to study science systematically and his religious education was wholly Anglican. At age 10 George took part in a production of Joseph Addisons play Cato and said in the new prologue, What. It may with truth be said, A boy in England born, historian Romney Sedgwick argued that these lines appear to be the source of the only historical phrase with which he is associated. Georges grandfather, King George II, disliked the Prince of Wales, however, in 1751 the Prince of Wales died unexpectedly from a lung injury, and George became heir apparent to the throne. He inherited one of his fathers titles and became the Duke of Edinburgh, now more interested in his grandson, three weeks later the King created George Prince of Wales. Georges mother, now the Dowager Princess of Wales, preferred to keep George at home where she could imbue him with her moral valuesGiorgio III del Regno Unito – Coronation portrait by Allan Ramsay, 1762
24. Alain Prost – Alain Marie Pascal Prost, OBE, Chevalier de la Légion dhonneur is a French former racing driver. A four-time Formula One Drivers Champion, only Sebastian Vettel, Juan Manuel Fangio, from 1987 until 2001 Prost held the record for most Grand Prix victories. Schumacher surpassed Prosts total of 51 victories at the 2001 Belgian Grand Prix, in 1999, Prost received the World Sports Awards of the Century in the motor sport category. Prost discovered karting at the age of 14 during a family holiday and he progressed through motor sports junior ranks, winning the French and European Formula Three championships, before joining the McLaren Formula One team in 1980 at the age of 24. During the 1980s and early 1990s, Prost formed a fierce rivalry mainly with Ayrton Senna, but also Nelson Piquet and Nigel Mansell. In 1986, at the last race of the season, he beat Mansell and Piquet of Williams to the title after Mansell retired late on in the race, and Piquet was pulled in for a late precautionary pit stop. Senna joined Prost at McLaren in 1988 and the two had a series of clashes, including a collision at the 1989 Japanese Grand Prix that gave Prost his third Drivers Championship. A year later at the venue they collided again, but this time Prost, driving for Ferrari. Before the end of a winless 1991 season Prost was fired by Ferrari for his criticism of the team. After a sabbatical in 1992, Prost joined the Williams team, with a competitive car, Prost won the 1993 championship and retired from Formula One driving at the end of the year. In 1997, Prost took over the French Ligier team, running it as Prost Grand Prix until it went bankrupt in 2002. From 2003 to 2012 he competed in the Andros Trophy, which is an ice racing championship, taking 38 race victories, Prost employed a smooth, relaxed style behind the wheel, deliberately modeling himself on personal heroes like Jackie Stewart and Jim Clark. He was nicknamed The Professor for his approach to competition. Though it was not a name he particularly cared for, he would later that it was an appropriate summation of his approach to his racing. Skilled at setting up his car for race conditions, Prost would often conserve his brakes and tyres early in a race, Prost had one younger brother called Daniel, who died of cancer in September 1986. Although short, standing at 1.67 m Prost was an active, athletic child, in doing so he broke his nose several times. He considered careers as a gym instructor or a professional footballer before he discovered kart racing at the age of 14 while on a family holiday and this new sport quickly became his career of choice. They have two sons, Nicolas and Sacha Prost, Prost also has a daughter, VictoriaAlain Prost – Prost in 2012
25. Epaminonda – Epaminondas reshaped the political map of Greece, fragmented old alliances, created new ones, and supervised the construction of entire cities. He was also influential and invented and implemented several major battlefield tactics. The changes Epaminondas wrought on the Greek political order did not long outlive him, a mere twenty-seven years after his death, a recalcitrant Thebes was obliterated by Alexander the Great. The life of Epaminondas is very poorly attested in the ancient sources, one principal reason for this is the loss of Plutarchs biography of him. Some details of Epaminondass life can be found in Plutarchs Lives of Pelopidas and Agesilaus II, there is also a surviving biography of Epaminondas by the Roman author Cornelius Nepos from the first century BC, in the absence of Plutarchs, that becomes a major source for Epaminondass life. The period of Greek history from 411–362 BC is primarily attested by the historian Xenophon, Xenophon, who idolized Sparta and its king, Agesilaus, avoids mentioning Epaminondas wherever possible and does not even note his presence at the Battle of Leuctra. Epaminondass role in the conflicts of the 4th century is described by Diodorus Siculus. Diodorus was writing in the 1st century BC, and is very much a secondary source. Epaminondas was born into the Theban aristocracy in the late 5th century BC, Cornelius Nepos claims that his father, Polymnis, had been left impoverished by his ancestors. He was educated in his childhood by Lysis of Tarentum, one of the last major Pythagorean philosophers, Epaminondas evidently excelled as a student, and was devoted to Lysis. He also trained in running and wrestling, but most of all, Epaminondas evidently began serving as a soldier after adolescence, Plutarch refers to an incident involving Epaminondas that occurred during a battle at Mantinea. Epaminondas was certainly not old enough to have served at the First Battle of Mantinea which was in 418 BC and it was at this battle, regardless of exactly when and where this occurred, that a defining moment of Epaminondass early life would happen. Plutarch says that this incident firmly cemented their friendship, and Pelopidas would be Epaminondass partner in politics for the twenty years. Epaminondas was considered the greatest warrior-statesmen of ancient Thebes by many, Diodorus does not have anything to say about the sexual orientation of Epaminondas or the Sacred Band, nor does he say anything about the following account, again from Plutarch. According to Plutarchs dramatic dialogue, Epaminondas had two lovers, Asopichus and Caphisodorus, the latter died with him at Mantineia in battle. They were buried together, something reserved for a husband. Epaminondas lived at a turbulent point in Greek history. Following the end of the Peloponnesian War in 404 BC, Sparta had embarked upon an aggressively unilateralist policy towards the rest of Greece, Thebes, meanwhile, had greatly increased its own power during the war and sought to gain control of the other cities of BoeotiaEpaminonda – Epaminondas, an idealized figure in the grounds of Stowe House
26. Iperide – Hypereides or Hyperides was an Athenian logographer. He was one of the ten Attic orators included in the Alexandrian Canon compiled by Aristophanes of Byzantium, little is known about his early life except that he was the son of Glaucippus, of the deme of Collytus and that he studied logography under Isocrates. In 360 BCE he prosecuted Autocles for treason, during the Social War he accused Aristophon, then one of the most influential men at Athens, of malpractices, and impeached Philocrates for high treason. Although Hypereides supported Demosthenes in the struggle against Philip II of Macedon, after Demosthenes exile Hypereides became the head of the patriotic party. After the death of Alexander the Great, Hypereides was one of the promoters of war against Macedonian rule. His speeches are believed to have led to the outbreak of the Lamian War in which Athens, Aetolia, and Thessaly revolted against Macedonian rule. After the decisive defeat at Crannon in which Athens and her allies lost their independence, Hypereides, Hypereides fled to Aegina only to be captured at the temple of Poseidon. After being put to death, his body was taken to Cleonae, Hypereides was an ardent pursuer of the beautiful, which in his time generally meant pleasure and luxury. His temper was easy-going and humorous, though in his development of the periodic sentence he followed Isocrates, the essential tendencies of his style are those of Lysias. His diction was plain, though he indulged in long compound words probably borrowed from Middle Comedy. He was especially distinguished for subtlety of expression, grace and wit, seventy-seven speeches have been attributed to Hypereides, of which twenty-five were regarded as spurious by his contemporaries. Only a few fragments were known until recent times. In 1847 large fragments of his speeches, Against Demosthenes and For Lycophron, in 1856 a considerable portion of a logos epitaphios, a Funeral Oration over Leosthenes and his comrades who had fallen in the Lamian war was discovered. Currently this is the best surviving example of epideictic oratory, towards the end of the nineteenth century further discoveries were made including the conclusion of the speech Against Philippides, and of the whole of Against Athenogenes. In 2002 Natalie Tchernetska of Trinity College, Cambridge discovered fragments of two speeches of Hypereides, which had been considered lost, in the Archimedes Palimpsest and these were from the Against Timandros and Against Diondas. Tchernetskas discovery led to a publication on the subject in the Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik and this prompted the establishment of a working group under the auspices of the British Academy, which includes scholars from the UK, Hungary and the US. These were interpreted, transcribed and translated by the working group, the new Hypereides revelations include two previously unknown speeches, effectively increasing the quantity of material known by this author by 20 percent. Among the speeches not yet recovered is the Deliacus in which the presidency of the Delian temple claimed by both Athens and Cos, which was adjudged by the Amphictyonic League to AthensIperide – Hypereides
27. Provincia di Brindisi – The Province of Brindisi is a province in the Apulia region of Italy. Its capital is the city of Brindisi and it has an area of 1,839 square kilometres and a total population of 401,652. The Province of Brindisi is situated in southeastern Italy, extending for 1,839 square kilometres and it was established in 1927 from the ancient Terra dOtranto. With the Adriatic Sea to the east, it is bordered to the north by the Province of Bari, the maximum height reached within the province is 414 metres above sea level, near Selva di Fasano. The other peaks are lower and are all located in the north-central area. The coastline in the province is 80.606 kilometres long, partly rocky, with many alternating stretches of beaches, small harbours. To the south it is flat and widely used for crops. In the north-central part, particularly Bari and Mola, the stems from the Late Cretaceous. There are no significant rivers, because of the karst terrain, as for waterways, the longest is the Canale Reale, which flows into the territory of Villa Castelli, bordering Francavilla Fontana, and flows into the Natural Reserve of Torre Guaceto. Along the coast, in addition, there are ponds and small freshwater lakes. In 1861, the province had a population of 114,790 which grew steadily until 2001 when there were 402,422 inhabitants. It has been more or less static since 2002 when there were 401,534 inhabitants, rising to 403,163 in 2010, in 2010, only 7,437 foreigners resided in the province. There are 20 comunes in the province, Surrounded by vineyards, artichoke and olive groves, in modern times, the province has experienced a process of change in its economic structure, with a progressive decrease in the weight of industry and growth of the tertiary sector. A significant increase in tourism, due to a good infrastructure has been witnessed, as well as the growth of its artistic, in 2011, the principal sectors of activity in the province were commerce, agriculture and construction, together representing 70% of the economy. The number of rose to a peak of 38,435 in 2005. Of these,8,453 were active in agriculture, mainly in production with small percentages in the areas of livestock, agricultural support. In addition to Brindisi, Oria, with its 13th century castle built by Frederick II, is one of the main attractions. Ostuni, still protected by its walls, is noted for its citadel, its cathedralProvincia di Brindisi – Itria Valley
28. Lago di Garda – Lake Garda is the largest lake in Italy. It is a holiday location and is located in northern Italy. Glaciers formed this region at the end of the last Ice Age. The lake and its shoreline are divided between the provinces of Verona, Brescia, and Trentino, the name Garda, which the lake has been seen referred to in documents dating to the eighth century, comes from the town of the same name. It is the evolution of the Germanic word warda, meaning place of guard or place of observation, the northern part of the lake is narrower, surrounded by mountains, the majority of which belong to the Gruppo del Baldo. The shape is typical of a valley, probably having been formed under the action of a Paleolithic glacier. Nearby to the south is Isola San Biagio, also known as the Isola dei Conigli, both are offshore of San Felice del Benaco, on the lakes western side. The three other islands are Isola dellOlivo, Isola di Sogno, and Isola di Trimelone. The main tributary is the Sarca River, others include the Ponale River, if the water level of the Adige river is too high, excess water is diverted to the lake through the Mori-Torbole tunnel. The particularly mild climate favours the growth of some Mediterranean plants, citrus trees can also be found, which are extremely rare at this latitude. This greatly favoured the development of tourism since the end of the world war. In ancient times, poets like Catullus wrote about Lacus Benacus with its mild climate vivified by the winds, the bottleneck formed by the lake basin affects the timing of the winds, many of which happen on a regular daily basis. The winds are all named, most in regional Italian dialect so a single wind may have different names, salmo carpio, also known as the carpione is a rare salmonid fish endemic to Lake Garda. It has been introduced to a number of lakes in Italy and elsewhere. The population in Lake Garda has been declining, and is considered critically endangered. The main threats are due to overfishing, pollution and possibly competition from introduced species such as Coregonus, adult lake trout outside the mating season are silvery with very few black spots on the body and almost none on the head. During the mating season males develop some a dark mottled body coloration, Garda lake trout reach a length of up to 50 centimeters. They live primarily in depths of 100 to 200 metres and they feed on zooplankton and bottom-dwelling crustaceans in summerLago di Garda – Nago–Torbole and the northern part of the lake
29. La dodicesima notte – Twelfth Night, or What You Will is a comedy by William Shakespeare, believed to have been written around 1601–02 as a Twelfth Nights entertainment for the close of the Christmas season. The play centres on the twins Viola and Sebastian, who are separated in a shipwreck, Viola falls in love with Duke Orsino, who in turn is in love with the Countess Olivia. Upon meeting Viola, Countess Olivia falls in love with her thinking she is a man, the first recorded performance was on 2 February 1602, at Candlemas, the formal end of Christmastide in the years calendar. The play was not published until its inclusion in the 1623 First Folio, Illyria, the setting of Twelfth Night, is important to the plays romantic atmosphere. Illyria was an ancient region of the Western Balkans whose coast covered the coasts of modern-day Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro and it included the city state of the Republic of Ragusa which has been proposed as the setting. Illyria may have suggested by the Roman comedy Menaechmi, the plot of which also involves twins who are mistaken for each other. Illyria is also referred to as a site of pirates in Shakespeares earlier play, Henry VI, the names of most of the characters are Italian but some of the comic characters have English names. Oddly, the Illyrian lady Olivia has an English uncle, Sir Toby Belch and it has been noted that the plays setting also has other English allusions such as Violas use of Westward ho. Viola is shipwrecked on the coast of Illyria and she comes ashore with the help of a captain and she loses contact with her twin brother, Sebastian, whom she believes to be drowned. Disguising herself as a man under the name Cesario, she enters the service of Duke Orsino through the help of the sea captain who rescues her. Duke Orsino then uses Cesario as an intermediary to profess his love before Olivia. Olivia, however, forgetting about the seven years in his case, falls in love with Cesario, in the comic subplot, several characters conspire to make Olivias pompous steward, Malvolio, believe that Olivia has fallen for him. This involves Olivias uncle, Sir Toby Belch, another suitor, a silly squire named Sir Andrew Aguecheek, her servants Maria and Fabian. Sir Toby and Sir Andrew engage themselves in drinking and revelry, thus disturbing the peace of Olivias house until late into the night, Sir Toby famously retorts, Dost thou think, because thou art virtuous, there shall be no more cakes and ale. Sir Toby, Sir Andrew, and Maria are urged to plan revenge on Malvolio and they convince Malvolio that Olivia is secretly in love with him by planting a love letter, written by Maria in Olivias handwriting. It asks Malvolio to wear yellow stockings cross-gartered, to be rude to the rest of the servants, Malvolio finds the letter and reacts in surprised delight. He starts acting out the contents of the letter to show Olivia his positive response, Olivia is shocked by the changes in Malvolio and leaves him to the contrivances of his tormentors. Pretending that Malvolio is insane, they lock him up in a dark chamber, Feste visits him to mock his insanity, both disguised as a priest and as himselfLa dodicesima notte – Malvolio courts a bemused Olivia, while Maria covers her amusement, in an engraving by R. Staines after a painting by Daniel Maclise.
30. Ammasso globulare – A globular cluster is a spherical collection of stars that orbits a galactic core as a satellite. Globular clusters are very tightly bound by gravity, which gives them their spherical shapes, the name of this category of star cluster is derived from the Latin globulus—a small sphere. A globular cluster is known more simply as a globular. Globular clusters are found in the halo of a galaxy and contain considerably more stars and are older than the less dense open clusters. Globular clusters are common, there are about 150 to 158 currently known globular clusters in the Milky Way. These globular clusters orbit the Galaxy at radii of 40 kiloparsecs or more, larger galaxies can have more, Andromeda Galaxy, for instance, may have as many as 500. Some giant elliptical galaxies such as M87, have as many as 13,000 globular clusters, every galaxy of sufficient mass in the Local Group has an associated group of globular clusters, and almost every large galaxy surveyed has been found to possess a system of globular clusters. The Sagittarius Dwarf galaxy and the disputed Canis Major Dwarf galaxy appear to be in the process of donating their associated globular clusters to the Milky Way and this demonstrates how many of this galaxys globular clusters might have been acquired in the past. Although it appears that globular clusters contain some of the first stars to be produced in the galaxy, their origins, the first known globular cluster, now called M22, was discovered in 1665 by Abraham Ihle, a German amateur astronomer. However, given the small aperture of early telescopes, individual stars within a cluster were not resolved until Charles Messier observed M4 in 1764. The first eight globular clusters discovered are shown in the table, subsequently, Abbé Lacaille would list NGC104, NGC4833, M55, M69, and NGC6397 in his 1751–52 catalogue. The M before a number refers to Charles Messiers catalogue, while NGC is from the New General Catalogue by John Dreyer, when William Herschel began his comprehensive survey of the sky using large telescopes in 1782 there were 34 known globular clusters. Herschel discovered another 36 himself and was the first to virtually all of them into stars. He coined the term globular cluster in his Catalogue of a Second Thousand New Nebulae, the number of globular clusters discovered continued to increase, reaching 83 in 1915,93 in 1930 and 97 by 1947. A total of 152 globular clusters have now discovered in the Milky Way galaxy. These additional, undiscovered globular clusters are believed to be hidden behind the gas, beginning in 1914, Harlow Shapley began a series of studies of globular clusters, published in about 40 scientific papers. He examined the RR Lyrae variables in the clusters and would use their period–luminosity relationship for distance estimates, later, it was found that RR Lyrae variables are fainter than Cepheid variables, which caused Shapley to overestimate the distance to the clusters. Of the globular clusters within the Milky Way, the majority are found in a halo around the coreAmmasso globulare – The Messier 80 globular cluster in the constellation Scorpius is located about 30,000 light-years from the Sun and contains hundreds of thousands of stars.
31. Nana bianca – A white dwarf, also called a degenerate dwarf, is a stellar core remnant composed mostly of electron-degenerate matter. A white dwarf is very dense, its mass is comparable to that of the Sun, a white dwarfs faint luminosity comes from the emission of stored thermal energy, no fusion takes place in a white dwarf wherein mass is converted to energy. The nearest known white dwarf is Sirius B, at 8.6 light years, there are currently thought to be eight white dwarfs among the hundred star systems nearest the Sun. The unusual faintness of white dwarfs was first recognized in 1910, the name white dwarf was coined by Willem Luyten in 1922. The universe has not existed long enough to experience a white dwarf releasing all of its energy as it will take many billions of years. If a red giant has insufficient mass to generate the temperatures, around 1 billion K, required to fuse carbon. After such a star sheds its outer layers and forms a planetary nebula, it will leave behind a core, usually, white dwarfs are composed of carbon and oxygen. If the mass of the progenitor is between 8 and 10.5 solar masses, the temperature will be sufficient to fuse carbon but not neon. Stars of very low mass will not be able to fuse helium, hence, the material in a white dwarf no longer undergoes fusion reactions, so the star has no source of energy. As a result, it support itself by the heat generated by fusion against gravitational collapse. A carbon-oxygen white dwarf that approaches this limit, typically by mass transfer from a companion star. A white dwarf is very hot when it forms, but because it has no source of energy, it will gradually radiate its energy and this means that its radiation, which initially has a high color temperature, will lessen and redden with time. Over a very time, a white dwarf will cool. The stars low temperature means it will no longer emit significant heat or light, and it will become a cold black dwarf. Because the length of time it takes for a dwarf to reach this state is calculated to be longer than the current age of the universe. The oldest white dwarfs still radiate at temperatures of a few thousand kelvins, the pair 40 Eridani B/C was discovered by William Herschel on 31 January 1783, p.73 it was again observed by Friedrich Georg Wilhelm Struve in 1825 and by Otto Wilhelm von Struve in 1851. In 1910, Henry Norris Russell, Edward Charles Pickering and Williamina Fleming discovered that, despite being a dim star,40 Eridani B was of spectral type A, or white. In 1939, Russell looked back on the discovery, p.1 I was visiting my friend and generous benefactor and this piece of apparently routine work proved very fruitful—it led to the discovery that all the stars of very faint absolute magnitude were of spectral class MNana bianca – Artist's impression of debris around a white dwarf
32. Numero primo – A prime number is a natural number greater than 1 that has no positive divisors other than 1 and itself. A natural number greater than 1 that is not a number is called a composite number. For example,5 is prime because 1 and 5 are its only positive integer factors, the property of being prime is called primality. A simple but slow method of verifying the primality of a number n is known as trial division. It consists of testing whether n is a multiple of any integer between 2 and n, algorithms much more efficient than trial division have been devised to test the primality of large numbers. Particularly fast methods are available for numbers of forms, such as Mersenne numbers. As of January 2016, the largest known prime number has 22,338,618 decimal digits, there are infinitely many primes, as demonstrated by Euclid around 300 BC. There is no simple formula that separates prime numbers from composite numbers. However, the distribution of primes, that is to say, many questions regarding prime numbers remain open, such as Goldbachs conjecture, and the twin prime conjecture. Such questions spurred the development of branches of number theory. Prime numbers give rise to various generalizations in other domains, mainly algebra, such as prime elements. A natural number is called a number if it has exactly two positive divisors,1 and the number itself. Natural numbers greater than 1 that are not prime are called composite, among the numbers 1 to 6, the numbers 2,3, and 5 are the prime numbers, while 1,4, and 6 are not prime. 1 is excluded as a number, for reasons explained below. 2 is a number, since the only natural numbers dividing it are 1 and 2. Next,3 is prime, too,1 and 3 do divide 3 without remainder, however,4 is composite, since 2 is another number dividing 4 without remainder,4 =2 ·2. 5 is again prime, none of the numbers 2,3, next,6 is divisible by 2 or 3, since 6 =2 ·3. The image at the right illustrates that 12 is not prime,12 =3 ·4, no even number greater than 2 is prime because by definition, any such number n has at least three distinct divisors, namely 1,2, and nNumero primo – The number 12 is not a prime, as 12 items can be placed into 3 equal-size columns of 4 each (among other ways). 11 items cannot be all placed into several equal-size columns of more than 1 item each without some extra items leftover (a remainder). Therefore, the number 11 is a prime.
33. Delta fluviale – A river delta is a landform that forms from deposition of sediment carried by a river as the flow leaves its mouth and enters slower-moving or standing water. This occurs where a river enters an ocean, sea, estuary, lake, reservoir, River deltas are ecologically important as they provide coastline defense, are home to many species, and can impact drinking water supply. The tidal currents also cannot be too strong, as sediment would wash out into the body faster than the river deposits it. Of course, the river must carry enough sediment to layer into deltas over time, the rivers velocity decreases rapidly, causing it to deposit the majority, if not all, of its load. This alluvium builds up to form the river delta, when the flow enters the standing water, it is no longer confined to its channel and expands in width. This flow expansion results in a decrease in the flow velocity, as a result, sediment drops out of the flow and deposits. Over time, this single channel builds a deltaic lobe, pushing its mouth into the standing water, as the deltaic lobe advances, the gradient of the river channel becomes lower because the river channel is longer but has the same change in elevation. As the slope of the channel decreases, it becomes unstable for two reasons. First, gravity makes the flow in the most direct course down slope. If the river breaches its natural levees, it out onto a new course with a shorter route to the ocean. Second, as its slope gets lower, the amount of stress on the bed decreases, which results in deposition of sediment within the channel. This makes it easier for the river to breach its levees, often when the channel does this, some of its flow remains in the abandoned channel. When these channel-switching events occur, a mature delta develops a distributary network, another way these distributary networks form is from deposition of mouth bars. When this mid-channel bar is deposited at the mouth of a river and this results in additional deposition on the upstream end of the mouth-bar, which splits the river into two distributary channels. A good example of the result of this process is the Wax Lake Delta, in both of these cases, depositional processes force redistribution of deposition from areas of high deposition to areas of low deposition. This results in the smoothing of the shape of the delta as the channels move across its surface. Because the sediment is laid down in fashion, the shape of these deltas approximates a fan. The more often the flow changes course, the shape develops as closer to an ideal fan, the Mississippi and Ural River deltas, with their birds-feet, are examples of rivers that do not avulse often enough to form a symmetrical fan shapeDelta fluviale – Sacramento Delta at flood stage, early 2009.
34. Tursiops truncatus – Tursiops truncatus, commonly known as the common bottlenose dolphin or the Atlantic bottlenose dolphin, is the most well-known species from the family Delphinidae. Common bottlenose dolphins are the most familiar dolphins due to the exposure they receive in captivity in marine parks and dolphinaria. T. truncatus is the largest species of the beaked dolphins and they inhabit temperate and tropical oceans throughout the world, and are absent only from polar waters. All bottlenose dolphins were previously known as T. truncatus, the dolphins inhabit warm and temperate seas worldwide. Considerable genetic variation has been described among members of this species, the common bottlenose dolphin is grey in color and may be between 2 and 4 m long, and weighs between 150 and 650 kg. Males are generally larger and heavier than females, in most parts of the world, the adults length is between 2.5 and 3.5 m with weight ranging between 200 and 500 kg. Newborn calves are between 0.8 and 1.4 m long and weigh between 15 and 30 kg and they can live as long as 40–50 years. Sexual maturity varies by population, and ranges from 5–14 years of age, dolphins have a short and well-defined snout that looks like an old-fashioned gin bottle, which is the source for their common name. Like all whales and dolphins, though, the snout is not a functional nose and their necks are more flexible than other dolphins due to five of their seven vertebrae not being fused together as is seen in other dolphin species. Their diets consist mainly of eels, squid, shrimp and wide variety of fishes and they do not chew their food, instead swallowing it whole. Dolphin groups often work as a team to harvest schools of fish, dolphins search for prey primarily using echolocation, which is a form of sonar. They emit clicking sounds and listen for the return echoes to determine the location and shape of nearby items and their heads contain an oily substance that both acts as an acoustic lens and protects the brain case. Tursiops truncatus can be found in the temperate, subtropical and tropical oceans worldwide, some bottlenose populations live closer to the shore and others live further out to sea. Generally, offshore populations are larger, darker, and have proportionally shorter fins, offshore populations can migrate up to 4,200 km in a season, but inshore populations tend to move less. However, some populations make long migrations in response to El Niño events. Tursiops truncatus has a bigger brain than humans, numerous investigations of bottlenose dolphin intelligence include tests of mimicry, use of artificial language, object categorization, and self-recognition. This intelligence has driven interaction with humans. Common bottlenose dolphins are popular in aquarium shows and television such as FlipperTursiops truncatus – Common bottlenose dolphin
35. Stemma di Bivona – The Coat of arms of Bivona is the representational emblem of the Italian town of Bivona, in Agrigento, Sicily, situated in the Monti Sicani mountain range. In ancient times the emblem was stamped on the walls, in 1554. Until 1785, a seal engraved with the arms of the lord of that time was used on the official acts of the University of Bivona. The latter bore the emblem of the House of Bourbon-Sicily at the top, below are the descriptions of three municipal seals of Bivona of 1593, the 1638 and 1801. In 1593 a woman was the head of the duchy of Bivona, Aloisia de Luna, daughter of Peter de Luna and Isabella de Vega, also the daughter of Juan de Vega, Viceroy of Sicily. A seal of the University of Bivona present in a document dated May 17,1638 depicts the arms of the families of Luna, de La Cerda and Aragona-Sicilia, missing are the arms of the Moncada family. In 1638, Luigi Guglielmo Moncada was the Duke of Bivona, great-grandson of Aloysia de Luna, amato Amati, Dizionario Corografico dellItalia - Volume 1, Milan, Vallardi Publisher,1877. Antonino Marrone, Bivona feudal town vols, i-II-Rome Caltanissetta, Salvatore Sciascia Publisher,1987. Antonino Marrone, Il Distretto, il Circondario ed il Collegio Elettorale di Bivona, Bivona, antonino Marrone, Storia delle Comunità Religiose e degli edifici sacri di Bivona, Bivona, Municipality of Bivona,1997. Antonino Marrone, Bivona dal 1812 al 1881, Bivona, Municipality of Bivona,2001, francesco Nicotra, Dizionario illustrato dei Comuni di Sicilia, Palermo,1907. Giovan Battista Sedita, Cenno storico-politico-etnografico di Bivona, Bivona,1909 Website of the municipality of BivonaStemma di Bivona
36. Battaglia di mezzo giugno – Operation Harpoon was one of two simultaneous Allied convoys sent to supply Malta in the Axis-dominated central Mediterranean Sea in mid-June 1942, during the Second World War. Operation Vigorous was a convoy from Alexandria and the convoy of Operation Harpoon travelled east from Gibraltar. Two of the six ships in the Harpoon convoy completed the journey, the convoy of Operation Vigorous was driven back by the Italian fleet after many air attacks. After 18 April, German bombing suddenly stopped and Italian bombers took over, during the month, Axis aircraft flew more than 9,500 sorties against 388 by the Royal Air Force all but 30 of which were fighter sorties. The bombing demolished or damaged 11,450 buildings,300 civilians were killed and 350 seriously wounded, good shelters existed but some casualties were caused by delayed-action bombs. Three destroyers, three submarines, three minesweepers, five tugs, a carrier and a floating crane were sunk in port. The island continued to function as a staging post but the Axis bombing campaign neutralised Malta as an offensive base. By the end of February,11 ships had crossed without escort, after the British broke C 38m,26 Axis supply journeys had been made by May, only nine being spotted by air reconnaissance. On 14 April, five Malta aircraft were shot down and the submarine HMS Upholder was lost, on 10 March, the cruiser HMS Naiad was sunk by a U-boat and on 10 May, three of four destroyers were sunk by the Luftwaffe. In February and March, Axis losses were 9 percent of supplies sent, in April fewer than one percent, the Axis was able to reinforce north Africa sufficient for Rommel to try to attack before the British. Should Martuba or Benghazi in Cyrenaica have been captured by the Eighth Army and it would also be known if Luftwaffe aircraft had been diverted to the Russian Front and if the crisis in the Indian Ocean had abated, sufficient for ships to escort a fast convoy from Alexandria. Gleanings from Prisoners or war and diplomatic sources led to a certain apprehension about the meaning of troop movements in southern Italy. That preparations were being made was revealed on 7 February through the decryption of Luftwaffe Enigma messages but by 23 March the scare died down, by 2 May, a Luftwaffe bomber group and a fighter group had been withdrawn with more to follow, which explained the lull. Hitler was lukewarm about the operation, in case the Italian navy left down German airborne forces, hitler and Mussolini agreed to Panzerarmee Afrika pursuing the British into Egypt for the rest of June and into July, which meant cancelling Hercules. After the success of Operation Crusader, the Eighth Army advanced 800 kilometres west to El Agheila in Libya, capturing airfields and landing grounds useful for air cover for Malta convoys. The British misjudged the speed of Axis reinforcement and expected to attack well before the Axis but Panzerarmee Afrika forestalled the Eighth Army by beginning an offensive on 21 January 1942. By 6 February, the British had been defeated, forced to retreat east of the Jebel Akhdar back to the Gazala line just west of Tobruk, at the Battle of Gazala, Panzerarmee Afrika attacked first again but appeared close to defeat until 11 June. Operation Julius began on the day as the Afrika Korps broke out and by 14 JuneBattaglia di mezzo giugno – Light cruiser Eugenio di Savoia, Admiral Da Zara's flagship
37. Battaglia di Okinawa – The 82-day-long battle lasted from 1 April until 22 June 1945. The Tenth was unique in that it had its own air force. The battle has been referred to as the typhoon of steel in English, the nicknames refer to the ferocity of the fighting, the intensity of Japanese kamikaze attacks, and the sheer numbers of Allied ships and armored vehicles that assaulted the island. The battle was one of the bloodiest in the Pacific, with an total of over 82,000 direct casualties on both sides,14,009 Allied deaths and 77,417 Japanese soldiers. Allied grave registration forces counted 110,071 dead bodies of Japanese soldiers,149,425 Okinawans were killed, committed suicide or went missing, a significant proportion of the estimated pre-war 300,000 local population. As part of the operations surrounding the battle, the Japanese battleship Yamato was sunk. After the battle, Okinawa provided an anchorage, troop staging areas. Expeditionary Troops under Lieutenant General Simon Bolivar Buckner, Jr. with Tenth Army, TF56 was the largest force within TF50 and was built around the 10th Army. The army had two corps under its command, III Amphibious Corps, consisting of 1st and 6th Marine Divisions, the 2nd Marine Division was an afloat reserve, and Tenth Army also controlled the 27th Infantry Division, earmarked as a garrison, and 77th Infantry Divisions. In all, the Army had over 102,000 soldiers, at the start of Battle of Okinawa 10th Army had 182,821 men under its command. It was planned that General Buckner would report to Turner until the phase was completed. Although Allied land forces were composed of U. S. units. Although all the carriers were provided by Britain, the carrier group was a combined British Commonwealth fleet with British, Canadian, New Zealand and Australian ships. Their mission was to neutralize Japanese airfields in the Sakishima Islands, most of the air-to-air fighters and the small dive bombers and strike aircraft were U. S. Navy carrier-based airplanes. The Japanese land campaign was conducted by the 67, 000-strong regular 32nd Army and some 9,000 Imperial Japanese Navy troops at Oroku naval base, supported by 39,000 drafted local Ryukyuan people. The Japanese had used kamikaze tactics since the Battle of Leyte Gulf, between the American landing on 1 April and 25 May, seven major kamikaze attacks were attempted, involving more than 1,500 planes. The 32nd Army initially consisted of the 9th, 24th, and 62nd Divisions, the 9th Division was moved to Taiwan prior to the invasion, resulting in shuffling of Japanese defensive plans. Primary resistance was to be led in the south by Lt. General Mitsuru Ushijima, his chief of staff, Lieutenant General Isamu Chō and his chief of operations, Yahara advocated a defensive strategy, whilst Chō advocated an offensive oneBattaglia di Okinawa – A U.S. Marine from the 2nd Battalion, 1st Marines on Wana Ridge provides covering fire with his Thompson submachine gun, 18 May 1945.
38. Battaglia di San Carlos (1982) – The Battle of San Carlos was a major battle between aircraft and ships that lasted from 21 to 25 May 1982 during the British landings on the shores of San Carlos Water in the 1982 Falklands War. Low-flying land-based Argentine jet aircraft made repeated attacks on ships of the British Task Force and it was the first time in history that a modern surface fleet armed with surface-to-air missiles and with air cover backed up by STOVL carrier-based aircraft defended against full-scale air strikes. The British sustained severe losses and damage, but were able to create and consolidate a beachhead, after the Argentine invasion of the Falkland Islands the United Kingdom initiated Operation Corporate sending a Task Force 12000 km south in order to retake the islands. Under the codename Operation Sutton the British forces planned amphibious landings around San Carlos, on an inlet located off Falkland Sound, Argentine forces operated under range and payload limitations as they had limited refuelling resources and were operating at maximum range. A-4 Skyhawk, The A-4 was used by both the Argentine Air Force and Argentine Naval Aviation, in spite of using two 295-gallons drop tanks, they needed aerial refuelling twice during missions. Bomb load used during the conflict was one British-made 1000 lb unguided bomb or four 227 kg Spanish/American built retarding tail bombs and their main weapon during the conflict was the British-made 1000 lb unguided bomb. They retained their 30 mm DEFA cannon, mirage IIIEA, The French-built interceptor has an internal fuel tank smaller than that of the Dagger, so they could not fly low enough to escort the strike aircraft. They carried a pair of R550 Magic IR missiles in their flights to the islands. FMA IA-58 Pucara, The Argentine-built counter-insurgency aircraft operated from the Goose Green grass airstrip during the battle, the aircraft were armed with rocket pods, two 20 mm cannons and four 7.62 mm machine guns. British air cover was provided for the first time by Harrier carriers and these carriers deployed short-takeoff, vertical-landing Harriers. The Argentine Army force on site was a section from the 25th Infantry Regiment named Combat team Güemes located at Fanning Head. The British fleet entered San Carlos during the night and at 02,50 was spotted by EC Güemes which opened fire with 81mm mortars, 1st Lt Carlos Daniel Esteban from EC Güemes informed Goose Green garrison about the landings at 08,22. The Argentine high command at Stanley initially suggested that an operation was not feasible at San Carlos. Finally, at 10,00, a COAN Aermacchi MB-339 jet based on the islands was dispatched to San Carlos on a reconnaissance flight, in the meantime, the FAA had already started launching their mainland-based aircraft at 09,00. He attacked HMS Argonaut and an unidentified RFA ship with guns and rockets, three planes scrambled from Goose Green and were engaged by gunfire from HMS Ardent. Cpt Benítez was shot down by a Stinger missile fired by the Special Air Service, he ejected and walked back to his base, Mj Tomba was shot down by pilot Nigel Ward, while Lt Michelouds aircraft escaped and landed at Port Stanleys airfield. Four aircraft made a diversion north of the islands, from San Julian, Cpt Dimeglio and Lt Castillo attacked HMS Antrim with their 30mm cannon. Their 1,000 lb bombs failed to explode, from Rio Grande, Tierra del Fuego, Cpt Rodhe and Lt Bean attacked HMS Argonaut, Lt Bean was shot down by a Sea Wolf SAM from HMS Broadsword, Broadsword was attacked by pilot Cpt JanetBattaglia di San Carlos (1982) – 800 NAS Sea Harrier FRS1 from HMS Hermes
39. Campagna di Polonia – The campaign ended on 6 October with Germany and the Soviet Union dividing and annexing the whole of Poland under the terms of the German-Soviet Frontier Treaty. German forces invaded Poland from the north, south, and west the morning after the Gleiwitz incident, as the Wehrmacht advanced, Polish forces withdrew from their forward bases of operation close to the Polish–German border to more established lines of defence to the east. After the mid-September Polish defeat in the Battle of the Bzura, Polish forces then withdrew to the southeast where they prepared for a long defence of the Romanian Bridgehead and awaited expected support and relief from France and the United Kingdom. While those two countries had pacts with Poland and had declared war on Germany on 3 September, in the end their aid to Poland was very limited. The Soviet Red Armys invasion of Eastern Poland on 17 September, in accordance with a protocol of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact. Facing a second front, the Polish government concluded the defence of the Romanian Bridgehead was no longer feasible, on 6 October, following the Polish defeat at the Battle of Kock, German and Soviet forces gained full control over Poland. The success of the invasion marked the end of the Second Polish Republic, the Soviet Union incorporated its newly acquired areas into its constituent Belarusian and Ukrainian republics, and immediately started a campaign of sovietization. In the aftermath of the invasion, a collective of underground resistance formed the Polish Underground State within the territory of the former Polish state. Many of the exiles that managed to escape Poland subsequently joined the Polish Armed Forces in the West. On 30 January 1933, the Nazi Party, under its leader Adolf Hitler, as part of this long-term policy, Hitler at first pursued a policy of rapprochement with Poland, trying to improve opinion in Germany, culminating in the German–Polish Non-Aggression Pact of 1934. Earlier, Hitlers foreign policy worked to weaken ties between Poland and France, and attempted to manoeuvre Poland into the Anti-Comintern Pact, forming a front against the Soviet Union. The Poles feared that their independence would eventually be threatened altogether, the so-called Polish Corridor constituted land long disputed by Poland and Germany, and inhabited by a Polish majority. The Corridor had become a part of Poland after the Treaty of Versailles, many Germans also wanted the city of Danzig and its environs to be reincorporated into Germany. Danzig was a city with a German majority. It had been separated from Germany after Versailles and made into the nominally independent Free City of Danzig, the series of border violations, which are unbearable to a great power, prove that the Poles no longer are willing to respect the German frontier. Poland participated with Germany in the partition of Czechoslovakia that followed the Munich Agreement and it coerced Czechoslovakia to surrender the region of Český Těšín by issuing an ultimatum to that effect on 30 September 1938, which was accepted by Czechoslovakia on 1 October. This region had a Polish majority and had been disputed between Czechoslovakia and Poland in the aftermath of World War I, the Polish annexation of Slovak territory later served as the justification for the Slovak state to join the German invasion. Poland rejected this proposal, fearing that after accepting these demands, it would become subject to the will of GermanyCampagna di Polonia – Vyacheslav Molotov signs the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact, a German–Soviet non-aggression pact.
40. Spedizione Endurance – The Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition, also known as the Endurance Expedition, is considered the last major expedition of the Heroic Age of Antarctic Exploration. Conceived by Sir Ernest Shackleton, the expedition was an attempt to make the first land crossing of the Antarctic continent, after the conquest of the South Pole by Roald Amundsen in 1911, this crossing remained, in Shackletons words, the one great main object of Antarctic journeyings. The expedition failed to accomplish this objective, but became recognised instead as a feat of endurance. Shackleton had served in the Antarctic in Captain Scotts Discovery Expedition, 1901–04, in this new venture he proposed to sail to the Weddell Sea and to land a shore party near Vahsel Bay, in preparation for a transcontinental march via the South Pole to the Ross Sea. A supporting group, the Ross Sea party, would meanwhile establish camp in McMurdo Sound and these depots would be essential for the transcontinental partys survival, as the group would not be able to carry enough provisions for the entire crossing. The expedition required two ships, Endurance under Shackleton for the Weddell Sea party, and Aurora, under Aeneas Mackintosh, for the Ross Sea party. Endurance became beset in the ice of the Weddell Sea before reaching Vahsel Bay, eventually the ship was crushed and sunk, stranding its 28-man complement on the ice. After months spent in camps as the ice continued its northwards drift. Shackleton and five others then made an 800-mile open-boat journey in the James Caird to reach South Georgia, from there, Shackleton was eventually able to mount a rescue of the men waiting on Elephant Island and bring them home without loss of life. On the other side of the continent, the Ross Sea party overcame great hardships to fulfil its mission, Aurora was blown from her moorings during a gale and was unable to return, leaving the shore party marooned without proper supplies or equipment. Nevertheless, the depots were laid, but three lives were lost before the eventual rescue. By 1912 his future Antarctic plans depended on the results of Scotts Terra Nova Expedition, which had left Cardiff in July 1910, and on the concurrent Norwegian expedition led by Roald Amundsen. The news of Amundsens conquest of the South Pole reached Shackleton on 11 March 1912, to which he responded, the next work, he said, would be a transcontinental journey from sea to sea, crossing the pole. He was aware that others were in the field pursuing this objective, in late 1912 Filchner returned to South Georgia, having failed to land and set up his base. However, his reports of landing sites in Vahsel Bay, at around 78° latitude, were noted by Shackleton. News of the deaths of Captain Scott and his companions on their return from the South Pole reached London in February 1913, against this gloomy background Shackleton initiated preparations for his proposed journey. He solicited financial and practical support from, among others, Tryggve Gran of Scott’s expedition, and the former Prime Minister Lord Rosebery, Gran was evasive, and Rosebery blunt, I have never been able to care one farthing about the Poles. Bruce generously allowed Shackleton to adopt his plans, although the eventual scheme announced by Shackleton owed little to BruceSpedizione Endurance – Endurance in full sail c. 1915
41. Boeing B-29 Superfortress – The Boeing B-29 Superfortress is a four-engine propeller-driven heavy bomber designed by Boeing which was flown primarily by the United States during World War II and the Korean War. It was one of the largest aircraft operational during World War II and it was the single most expensive weapons project undertaken by the United States in World War II, exceeding the cost of the Manhattan Project by between 1 and 1.7 billion dollars. A manned tail gun installation was semi-remote, the name Superfortress continued the pattern Boeing started with its well-known predecessor, the B-17 Flying Fortress. Designed for the strategic bomber role, the B-29 also excelled in low-altitude nighttime incendiary bombing missions. One of the B-29s final roles during World War II was carrying out the bomb attacks on Hiroshima. The B-29 served in roles throughout the 1950s. The Royal Air Force flew the B-29 as the Washington until phasing out the type in 1954, the Soviet Union produced an unlicensed reverse-engineered copy as the Tupolev Tu-4. The B-29 was the progenitor of a series of Boeing-built bombers, transports, tankers, reconnaissance aircraft, the type was retired in the early 1960s. The B-29 production total was 3,970 aircraft, dozens of B-29s remain as static displays but only two examples, Fifi and Doc, have been restored to flying status, with Doc flying again for the first time from McConnell AFB on July 17,2016. A transport developed from the B-29 was the Boeing C-97 Stratofreighter, first flown in 1944, followed by its commercial airliner variant and this bomber-to-airliner derivation was similar to the B-17/Model 307 evolution. In 1948 Boeing introduced a variant of the B-29 as the KB-29. A heavily modified line of outsized-cargo variants of the Stratocruiser is the Guppy / Mini Guppy / Super Guppy which remain in service today with operators including NASA, Boeing began work on pressurized long-range bombers in 1938, in response to a United States Army Air Corps request. Boeings design study for the Model 334 was a derivative of the Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress with nosewheel undercarriage. Although the Air Corps did not have money to pursue the design, in April 1939, Charles Lindbergh convinced general Henry H. Arnold to produce a new bomber in large numbers to counter the Nazi production, Boeings previous private venture studies formed the starting point for its response to this specification. Boeing submitted its Model 345 on 11 May 1940, in competition with designs from Consolidated Aircraft, Lockheed, Consolidated continued to work on its Model 33 as it was seen by the Air Corps as a backup in case of problems with Boeings design. Boeing received a production order for 14 service test aircraft and 250 production bombers in May 1941. The B-29 featured a design with circular cross-section for strengthBoeing B-29 Superfortress – B-29 Superfortress
42. Giuseppe Garibaldi (incrociatore 1936) – Giuseppe Garibaldi was an Italian Duca degli Abruzzi-class light cruiser, that served in the Regia Marina during World War II. After the war she was retained by the Marina Militare and upgraded and she was built by CRDA, in Stabilimento Tecnico Triestino shipyard Trieste and named after the Italian general Giuseppe Garibaldi. Decommissioned in 1953, Giuseppe Garibaldi was converted between 1957 and 1961, at the La Spezia shipyards, into a missile cruiser. The Duca degli Abruzzi-class cruisers were the final version of the Condottieri-class and were larger and better protected than their predecessors, the armament was also increased by two extra 152 mm guns, triple turrets replaced twins in the A and Y positions. The machinery was also revised which led to these ships having a slower maximum speed than their predecessors. On 9 July at the Battle of Calabria Giuseppe Garibaldi along with her sister, Duca degli Abruzzi, during the engagement, splinters from a 6-inch round fired by Giuseppe Garibaldi hit the British cruiser HMS Neptune, damaging her catapult and the reconnaissance aircraft beyond repair. On 11 November, Giuseppe Garibaldi was anchored at Taranto when British aircraft attacked the Italian fleet in the harbour, on 27 March, Giuseppe Garibaldi participated in the Battle of Cape Matapan. The commander of the ship at the time was Captain Stanislao Caraciotti, on 8 May she was part of the Tiger convoy. On 28 July the cruiser was torpedoed and damaged by the British submarine HMS Upholder, on 3 January, the cruiser escorted Italian convoy M43. On 7 March, Giuseppe Garibaldi took part in Operation V5, escorting large convoy to Libya along with another Condottieri-class cuiser, on 14 June the ship participated in the action against convoy Vigorous, an attempt to resupply Malta by the Royal Navy. After the armistice, she operated in the South Atlantic together with Allied ships against potential German raiders, after the war she was retained by the Marina Militare and modernized with minor changes of the armament and a radar. She was decommissioned in 1953 and reconstructed as a missile cruiser. The new ship was rebuilt in the La Spezia Arsenal starting from 1957, the reconstruction included a complete overhauling of the superstructure, while the hull kept its original dimensions. Apart from some minor changes, much of the latters rebuilding included four launchers for the U. S. designed UGM-27 Polaris nuclear ballistic missiles, despite the successful launching tests, the US never provided the missiles, due to political convenience. The propulsion system remained the same, the rest of the armament was radically altered, a RIM-2 Terrier missile launcher made Giuseppe Garibaldi the first missile cruiser in Europe. The previous artillery was replaced by four 135/45 mm guns in two turrets and eight Oto Melara 76/62mm Type MMI AA guns. Electronics included several radars and fire control systems and she was decommissioned in 1971 and scrapped the following year. Gardiner, Robert, Chumbley, Stephen & Budzbon, Przemysław, conways All the Worlds Fighting Ships 1947-1995Giuseppe Garibaldi (incrociatore 1936) – Giuseppe Garibaldi in 1938
43. Panzer III – The Panzerkampfwagen III, commonly known as the Panzer III, was a medium tank developed in the 1930s by Germany, and was used extensively in World War II. The official German ordnance designation was Sd. Kfz, the Panzer III effectively became obsolete in this role and was supplanted by the Panzer IV. From 1942, the last version of Panzer III mounted the 7.5 cm KwK37 L/24, production of the Panzer III ended in 1943. However, the Panzer IIIs capable chassis provided hulls for the Sturmgeschütz III assault gun until the end of the war, the first task was direct combat against other tanks and other armoured vehicles, requiring the tank to fire armour piercing shells. On January 11,1934, following specifications laid down by Heinz Guderian, the Army Weapons Department drew up plans for a tank with a maximum weight of 24,000 kg. Such supportive tanks designed to operate with friendly infantry against the enemy generally were heavier, the direct infantry-support role was to be provided by the turret-less Sturmgeschütz assault gun, which mounted a short-barrelled gun on a Panzer III chassis. Daimler-Benz, Krupp, MAN, and Rheinmetall all produced prototypes, testing of these took place in 1936 and 1937, leading to the Daimler-Benz design being chosen for production. The first model of the Panzer III, the Ausführung A. came off the line in May 1937, ten. Between 1937 and 1940, attempts were made to standardize parts between Krupps Panzer IV and Daimler-Benzs Panzer III, much of the early development work on the Panzer III was a quest for a suitable suspension. Several varieties of leaf-spring suspensions were tried on Ausf, D, usually using eight relatively small-diameter road wheels before the torsion-bar suspension of the Ausf. E was standardized, using the six wheel design that became standard. The Panzer III, along with the Soviet KV heavy tank, was one of the tanks to use this suspension design first seen on the Stridsvagn L-60 a few years earlier. A distinct feature of the Panzer III, influenced by British Vickers tanks, was the three-man turret and this meant that the commander was not distracted with another role in the tank and could fully concentrate on maintaining awareness of the situation and directing the tank. Most tanks of the time did not have this capability, providing the Panzer III with a combat advantage versus such tanks, for example, the French Somua S-35s turret was manned only by the commander, and the Soviet T-34 originally had a two-man turret crew. The Panzer III, as opposed to the Panzer IV, had no turret basket, the Panzer III was intended as the primary battle tank of the German forces. However, when it met the KV-1 and T-34 tanks it proved to be inferior in both armour and gun power. As a result, production of self-propelled guns, as well as the up-gunning of the Panzer IV was initiated, in 1942, the final version of the Panzer III, the Ausf. N was equipped with rounds of HEAT ammunition that could penetrate 70 to 100 millimetres of armour depending on the rounds variant, the Japanese government bought two Panzer IIIs from their German allies during the warPanzer III – Panzer III Ausf. H (auf Ausf. H Fahrgestell). Musée des Blindés, France (2006)
44. Aviazione – Aviation is the practical aspect or art of aeronautics, being the design, development, production, operation and use of aircraft, especially heavier than air aircraft. The word aviation was coined by French writer and former naval officer Gabriel La Landelle in 1863, from the verb avier, itself derived from the Latin word avis and the suffix -ation. The modern age of aviation began with the first untethered human lighter-than-air flight on November 21,1783, the practicality of balloons was limited because they could only travel downwind. It was immediately recognized that a steerable, or dirigible, balloon was required, jean-Pierre Blanchard flew the first human-powered dirigible in 1784 and crossed the English Channel in one in 1785. Rigid airships became the first aircraft to transport passengers and cargo over great distances, the best known aircraft of this type were manufactured by the German Zeppelin company. The most successful Zeppelin was the Graf Zeppelin and it flew over one million miles, including an around-the-world flight in August 1929. However, the dominance of the Zeppelins over the airplanes of that period, the Golden Age of the airships ended on May 6,1937 when the Hindenburg caught fire, killing 36 people. The cause of the Hindenburg accident was blamed on the use of hydrogen instead of helium as the lift gas. An internal investigation by the manufacturer revealed the coating used to protect the material over the frame was highly flammable. Changes to the coating formulation reduced the risk of further Hindenburg type accidents, although there have been periodic initiatives to revive their use, airships have seen only niche application since that time. In 1799 Sir George Cayley set forth the concept of the airplane as a fixed-wing flying machine with separate systems for lift, propulsion. Seven years later, on 14 October 1897, Aders Avion III was tested without success in front of two officials from the French War ministry, the report on the trials was not publicized until 1910, as they had been a military secret. In November 1906 Ader claimed to have made a flight on 14 October 1897. Although widely believed at the time, these claims were later discredited, however, the most widely accepted date is December 17,1903 by the Wright brothers. The Wright brothers were the first to fly in a powered and controlled aircraft, previous flights were gliders or free flight, but the Wright brothers combined both, setting the new standard in aviation records. Aircraft began to transport people and cargo as designs grew larger, the Wright brothers took aloft the first passenger, Charles Furnas, one of their mechanics, on May 14,1908. By the beginning of World War II, many towns and cities had built airports, the war brought many innovations to aviation, including the first jet aircraft and the first liquid-fueled rockets. Manufacturers such as Cessna, Piper, and Beechcraft expanded production to provide aircraft for the new middle-class marketAviazione – LZ 129 Hindenburg at Lakehurst Naval Air Station, 1936