|la gazzetta della comunità di Wikipedia in lingua italiana|
|la gazzetta della comunità di Wikipedia in lingua italiana|
26 : Liberty a Torino è entrata in vetrina.
30 : Aterosclerosi è stata riconosciuta voce di qualità.
Qui sono segnalate le discussioni di interesse per tutta la comunità in corso al bar o altrove che proseguono da settimane o mesi:
Attualmente non ci sono festival in corso.
Stato attuale del "lavoro sporco":
Abbozzi: 365 579
Questa settimana rivolgiamo un particolare augurio a:
1. MediaWiki – MediaWiki is free and open-source wiki software. Originally developed by Magnus Manske and improved by Lee Daniel Crocker, it runs on many websites, including Wikipedia, Wiktionary and it is written in the PHP programming language and stores the contents into a database. Like WordPress, which is based on a licensing and architecture. The first version of the software was deployed to serve the needs of the Wikipedia encyclopedia in 2002, Wikipedia and other Wikimedia projects continue to define a large part of the requirement set for MediaWiki. The software is optimized to handle large projects, which can have terabytes of content. Because Wikipedia is one of the worlds largest websites, achieving scalability through multiple layers of caching, the software has more than 900 configuration settings and more than 2,200 extensions available for enabling various features to be added or changed. On Wikipedia alone, more than 1000 automated and semi-automated bots and this was done to eliminate legal issues arising from the help pages being imported into wikis with licenses that are incompatible with the Creative Commons license. MediaWiki development has generally favored the use of media formats. MediaWiki has a volunteer community for development and maintenance. There is also a group of paid programmers who primarily develop projects for the Wikimedia Foundation. Wikimedia participates in the Google Summer of Code by facilitating the assignment of mentors to students wishing to work on MediaWiki core, as of early November 2012, there were about two hundred developers who had committed changes to the MediaWiki core or extensions within the past year. MediaWiki also has a bug tracker, phabricator. wikimedia. org. The site is used for feature and enhancement requests. When Wikipedia was first launched in January 2001, it ran on the wiki software UseModWiki. This software soon proved limiting, both in its functionality and its performance and this software was written in PHP and stored all its information in a MySQL database. It launched on the English Wikipedia in January 2002, and was deployed on all the Wikipedia language sites of that time. This software was referred to as the PHP script and as phase II, increasing usage soon caused load problems again, and soon afterward, another rewrite of the software began, done by Lee Daniel Crocker, which was first known as phase III. This new software was written in PHP with a MySQL backend, and kept the basic interface of the phase II softwareMediaWiki – Brion Vibber in 2012
2. Wikipedia in italiano – The Italian Wikipedia is the Italian-language edition of Wikipedia. This edition was created on May 11,2001 and first edited on June 11,2001, as of 6 April 2017 it has 1,346,331 articles and more than 1,488,417 registered accounts. It is the 8th-largest Wikipedia by the number of articles, as early as March 2001, Jimmy Wales, the creator and co-founder of the original English language Wikipedia, had proposed the creation of parallel Wikipedia projects in other languages. The Italian language version was among the first ones to be created, the original URL was italian. wikipedia. com, while the standardized ISO639 address it. wikipedia. com became active a few days later. Afterwards, Wikipedia sites switched their domains from wikipedia. com to wikipedia. org, the very first pages were simply untranslated copies from the English-language Wikipedia, the first edits were made from 11 June 2001 onwards. One of the edits was an appeal to help Nupedia, the first entries on the Italian Wikipedia were the pages on Dante Alighieri, Petrarch, Manzoni. The edits were not numerous, and the priority was given to helping Nupedia, the lemmas were just twenty or thirty. With the end of the Nupedia project, the situation began to improve for the Italian Wikipedia, users started to sign in, and this happened by 2004, the number of articles was now 56,000. In August 2005 the Italian Wikipedia overtook the Spanish and Portuguese language editions, on September 8,2005, the Italian Wikipedia overtook the Dutch Wikipedia and one day later, on September 9, it passed 100,000 articles. On September 11, it overtook the Swedish Wikipedia, becoming the fifth-largest language edition, again, automated scripts contributed heavily to the growth. For instance, a bot created more than 35,000 articles on municipalities of France, however, it was overtaken by the Polish edition on September 23,2005. In June 2006, Italian Wikipedia users independently created the Template, on 23 October, the Polish version surpassed the Italian Wikipedia by number of articles. As of 16 October 2006, the number of users was 100,000. In 2007, the Italian Wikipedia adopted an Exemption Doctrin Policy, in the same year, on 21 May, there were more than 300,000 entries. On 22 January 2008, the entries were 400,000, on 3 October, the number of users had reached 250,000. In 2009 the Italian Wikipedia was awarded the Premiolino, the oldest and most prestigious Italian journalism prize, on June 22,2010, it passed 700,000 articles. On May 12,2011, it passed 800,000 articles, on the same day, it overtook the Polish Wikipedia. On March 12,2012, it passed 900,000 articles, on January 22,2013, it passed 1,000,000 articlesWikipedia in italiano – Italian Wikipedia
3. Palio di Legnano – This Palio is composed by a historical pageant and a horse race, until 2005 the whole event was named Sagra del Carroccio. Legnano is subdivided in 8 contrade, each of one takes part both in the pageant and in the race held at the stadio Giovanni Mari. Its deemed as one of the most important non-competitive event of this type in Italy, in 2003 the historic pageant has been shown at the Columbus Day in New York City. A lot of Palio-centric events take place in Legnano during May and July, in 2015, institutions made 29 May a holiday for the entire Lombardy. The first Palio was officially organized in 1932, the Palio di Legnano, in its actual version, was first disputed on May 26,1935. Sagra del Carroccio was paused in 1939 because of the WWII, in 2006 the event name was changed again in its first version, Palio di Legnano. The horse race of 1961 is the only in which took part a woman as jockey, in 1984 the race was delayed for a week due to bad weather. The 2009 race has been the first run on a sandy track, as protest, SantErasmo took not part at the 1978 edition. In 2006 some of contrada San Domenico invaded the track and as consequence the horse race was suspended. In this occasion, Collegio dei Magistrati del Palio, an institution behind Palio di Legnano, decided to punish San Domenico, imposing a 10.000 € fine and excluding it from the 2007 edition. Three extra edition of Palio were held, the first one in 1976 in Milan, in 1980 and 2005 two other Palio were run, for the 25th and 50th anniversary of Collegio dei Capitani respectively. The eight Captains are reunited in Collegio dei Capitani e delle Contrade, a Contradas headquarter is called Maniero, a place where during the whole year people of eeach Contrada organize mostly curtural events and partiesPalio di Legnano – Festivity in San Magno Square in Legnano in 1876, after 7 centuries from the battle (05/29/1876).
4. Effie Gray – Euphemia Chalmers Effie Millais, Lady Millais née Gray was the wife of the critic John Ruskin, but she left her husband without the marriage being consummated. She later married his protégé, the Pre-Raphaelite painter John Everett Millais and this famous Victorian love triangle has been dramatised in plays, films and an opera. Effie Gray, initially known by the pet name of Phemy, was born in Perth, Scotland, and lived in Bowerswell and her family knew Ruskins father, who encouraged a match between them. Ruskin wrote the fantasy novel The King of the Golden River for her in 1841, after their marriage in 1848, they travelled to Venice, where Ruskin was researching his book The Stones of Venice. Their different personalities are thrown into relief by their contrasting priorities. For Effie, Venice provided an opportunity to socialise while Ruskin was engaged in solitary studies, in particular, he made a point of drawing the Ca dOro and the Palazzo Ducale, because he feared they would soon be destroyed by the occupying Austrian troops. One of the troops, Lieutenant Charles Paulizza, made friends with Effie and her brother, among others, later claimed that Ruskin was deliberately encouraging the friendship to compromise her, as an excuse to separate. When she met Millais five years later, she was still a virgin and his reasons are unclear, but they involved disgust with some aspect of her body. As she later wrote to her father, He alleged various reasons, hatred to children, religious motives, a desire to preserve my beauty, and, finally this last year he told me his true reason. That he had imagined women were different to what he saw I was. Ruskin confirmed this in his statement to his lawyer during the annulment proceedings, but though her face was beautiful, her person was not formed to excite passion. On the contrary, there were circumstances in her person which completely checked it. The reason for Ruskins disgust with circumstances in her person is unknown, various suggestions have been made, including revulsion at either her pubic hair, or menstrual blood. While married to Ruskin, she modelled for Millais painting The Order of Release and she then became close to Millais when he accompanied the couple on a trip to Scotland in order to paint Ruskins portrait according to the critics artistic principles. During this time, spent in Brig o Turk in the Trossachs, while working on the portrait of her husband, Millais made many drawings and sketches of her. He also sent humorous cartoons of himself, Effie and Ruskin to friends and she copied some of his works. After their return to London, she left Ruskin, nominally to visit her family and she sent back her wedding ring with a note announcing her intention to file for an annulment. Their youngest son, John Guille Millais, was a bird artistEffie Gray – Effie Gray painted by Thomas Richmond. She thought the portrait made her look like "a graceful Doll".
5. Bernie Sanders – Bernard Bernie Sanders is an American politician who has been the junior United States Senator from Vermont since 2007. Sanders is the longest serving independent in U. S. congressional history, Sanders became the ranking minority member on the Senate Budget Committee in January 2015, he had previously been chair of the Senate Veterans Affairs Committee for two years. Since January 2017, he has been Chair of the Senate Democratic Outreach Committee, a self-described democratic socialist, Sanders is pro-labor and emphasizes reversing economic inequality. Many scholars consider his views to be more in line with social democracy, Sanders was born and raised in the Brooklyn borough of New York City and graduated from the University of Chicago in 1964. While a student he was an active protest organizer for the Congress of Racial Equality, after settling in Vermont in 1968, Sanders ran unsuccessful third-party campaigns for governor and U. S. senator in the early to mid-1970s. As an independent, he was elected mayor of Burlington—Vermonts most populous city of 42,417 in 2010—in 1981 and he went on to be reelected as mayor three times. In 1990, he was elected to represent Vermonts at-large congressional district in the U. S. House of Representatives and he served as a congressman for 16 years before being elected to the U. S. Senate in 2006. In 2012, he was reelected with 71% of the popular vote, polls indicate that he is among the senators most popular with their constituents, ranking third in 2014 and first in both 2015 and 2016. Sanders rose to prominence following his 2010 filibuster against the Middle Class Tax Relief Act of 2010. Sanders has long been critical of U. S. foreign policy and was an early and outspoken opponent of the Iraq War, the First Gulf War, Sanders announced his campaign for the Democratic presidential nomination on April 30,2015. Initially considered a shot, Sanders won 23 primaries and caucuses. His campaign was noted for the enthusiasm of its supporters, as well as his rejection of large donations from corporations, the financial industry, and any associated Super PAC. In November 2016, Sanderss book Our Revolution, A Future to Believe In was released, upon its release, it was on The New York Times best-seller list at number 3. In 2016 Sanders formed an organization, Our Revolution, to educate voters about issues, get people involved in the political process. In February 2017, Sanders began webcasting The Bernie Sanders Show on Facebook, Bernard Sanders was born on September 8,1941, in Brooklyn, New York City. His father, Elias Sanders, was born on September 14,1904, in Słopnice, Poland, to a Jewish family, in 1921, the 17-year-old Elias immigrated to the United States, where he became a paint salesman. His mother, Dorothy Sanders, was born in New York City on October 2,1912, to Jewish immigrant parents from Poland, many of Eliass relatives back in Poland were killed in the Holocaust. Sanders became interested in politics at an age, A guy named Adolf Hitler won an election in 1932Bernie Sanders – Official Senate portrait of Sanders, 2007
6. Shinji Ikari – Shinji Ikari is a fictional character from the Neon Genesis Evangelion franchise created by Gainax. He is the poster boy and protagonist who is generally regarded highly by critics. Shinji pilots Unit 01, at first rigorously and later excellently and his talent for piloting and synchronizing Unit 01 has earned him praise from the commanding officers of NERV, an organization which Gendo leads. His toilsome duty and the events of his life bring him severe stress. At some point in the series he begins to confront his self, forming arguments and questions about life. Shinji became highly popular, having appeared and topped in multiple popularity polls, nick Verboon of Unreality Mag states poster boy/protagonist Shinji is one of the most nuanced, popular, and relatable characters in anime history. He describes Shinji and Misato Katsuragi as extremely afraid of being hurt, when compared to the stereotypical hero, Shinji is characterized more by lack of energy and emotion than by heroism or bravery. Shinji has an Oedipus complex, and is characterized by a libido-destrudo conflict, Shinjis relationship with his Evangelion and status as a pilot is very ambivalent, the entire series can be seen as a bildungsroman revolving around Shinji. Why does he continue to fight as an Eva pilot and he said its because everyone tells him to. Because only he can do it, because it has to be done to save humanity. Selfless and lofty sentiments for sure, and he believed those reasons to be genuine, wrong, he wanted his father to approve of him. To say he was a good boy, how selfish of him, really, to be a human being. --Megumi Hayashibara Shinji has often seen as a version or reflection of the creator of Evangelion. Shinji was named for Gainax co-founder Shinji Higuchi, it can be translated to child of god, Evangelion character designer Yoshiyuki Sadamoto based his design of Shinji on his design of Nadia, the title character of Gainaxs popular 1990-1991 TV series, Nadia, The Secret of Blue Water. Megumi Ogata, who voiced Shinji, found the last scene of End of Evangelion difficult to perform and she became overwhelmed with emotion and strangled Yuko Miyamura, Asukas voice actor, during that scene, making it very hard for Miyamura to say her lines immediately after that. Ogata regards Shinji Ikari as one of her most memorable roles, Shinji makes his first appearance in the first episode where he is invited to Tokyo-3 by his father Gendo Ikari. Unbeknownst to Shinji however, his father told him to come so he could serve as the pilot of Evangelion Unit-01, Shinji reluctantly agrees and defeats the Angel Sachiel, initially experiencing difficulty, but brutally destroys the Angel after Unit-01 goes berserk. After the Angel attack, Shinji begins to attend school in Tokyo-3 and meets Toji Suzuhara, when the Angel Ramiel appears and attempts to destroy Nerv headquarters, Shinji and fellow pilot Rei Ayanami work together to destroy the AngelShinji Ikari – Shinji Ikari
7. Aspasia di Mileto – Aspasia was an influential immigrant to Classical-era Athens who was the lover and partner of the statesman Pericles. The couple had a son, Pericles the Younger, but the details of the couples marital status are unknown. According to Plutarch, her house became a centre in Athens, attracting the most prominent writers and thinkers. It has also suggested that the teachings of Aspasia influenced Socrates. Aspasia is mentioned in the writings of Plato, Aristophanes, Xenophon, though she spent most of her adult life in Greece, few details of her life are fully known. Some scholars suggest that Aspasia was a keeper and a prostitute. Aspasias role in history provides insight to the understanding of the women of ancient Greece. Very little is known about women from her time period, one scholar stated that, To ask questions about Aspasias life is to ask questions about half of humanity. Aspasia was born in the Ionian Greek city of Miletus, some ancient sources claim that she was a Carian prisoner-of-war turned slave, these statements are generally regarded as false. It is not known under what circumstances she first traveled to Athens and his theory connects her to Alcibiades II of Scambonidae, who was ostracized from Athens in 460 BC and may have spent his exile in Miletus. Bicknell conjectures that, following his exile, the elder Alcibiades went to Miletus, Alcibiades apparently returned to Athens with his new wife and her younger sister, Aspasia. Bicknell argues that the first child of this marriage was named Axiochus and he also maintains that Pericles met Aspasia through his close connections with Alcibiadess household. Hetaerae were professional high-class entertainers, as well as courtesans, besides displaying physical beauty, they differed from most Athenian women in being educated, having independence, and paying taxes. They were the nearest thing perhaps to liberated women, and Aspasia, according to Plutarch, Aspasia was compared to the famous Thargelia, another renowned Ionian hetaera of ancient times. She became the mistress of the statesman Pericles in the early 440s, after he divorced his first wife, Aspasia began to live with him, although her marital status remains disputed. Their son, Pericles the Younger, must have been born by 440 BC, Aspasia would have to have been quite young, if she were able to bear a child to Lysicles c.428 BC. In social circles, Aspasia was noted for her ability as a conversationalist, Plutarch writes that despite her immoral life, friends of Socrates brought their wives to hear her converse. Though they were influential, Pericles, Aspasia and their friends were not immune from attack and her relationship with Pericles and her subsequent political influence aroused many reactionsAspasia di Mileto – Marble herm in the Vatican Museums inscribed with Aspasia's name at the base. Discovered in 1777, this marble herm is a Roman copy of a 5th-century BC original and may represent Aspasia's funerary stele.
8. Akhenaton – Akhenaten known before the fifth year of his reign as Amenhotep IV, was an Ancient Egyptian pharaoh of the 18th Dynasty who ruled for 17 years and died perhaps in 1336 BC or 1334 BC. An early inscription likens the Aten to the sun as compared to stars, Akhenaten tried to bring about a departure from traditional religion, yet in the end it would not be accepted. After his death, his monuments were dismantled and hidden, his statues were terminated and he was all but lost from history until the discovery during the 19th century of the site of Akhetaten, the city he built and designed for the worship of Aten, at Amarna. DNA analysis has determined that the man buried in KV55 is the father of King Tutankhamun, the future Akhenaten was a younger son of Amenhotep III and Chief Queen Tiye. The eldest son Crown Prince Thutmose was recognized as the heir of Amenhotep III but he died relatively young, there is much controversy around whether Amenhotep IV succeeded to the throne on the death of his father Amenhotep III or whether there was a coregency. Other literature by Donald Redford, William Murnane, Alan Gardiner, in February 2014, the Egyptian Ministry for Antiquities announced what it called conclusive evidence that Akhenaten shared power with his father for at least 8 years. The evidence came from the found in the Luxor tomb of Vizier Amenhotep-Huy. A team of Spanish archeologists have been working at this tomb, Amenhotep IV was crowned in Thebes and there he started a building program. He decorated the entrance to the precincts of the temple of Amun-Re with scenes of his worshiping Re-Harakhti. He soon decreed the construction of a dedicated to the Aten in Eastern Karnak. This Temple of Amenhotep IV was called the Gempaaten, the Gempaaten consisted of a series of buildings, including a palace and a structure called the Hwt Benben which was dedicated to Queen Nefertiti. Other Aten temples constructed at Karnak during this time include the Rud-menu, during this time he did not repress the worship of Amun, and the High Priest of Amun was still active in the fourth year of his reign. The king appears as Amenhotep IV in the tombs of some of the nobles in Thebes, Kheruef, Ramose, in the tomb of Ramose, Amenhotep IV appears on the west wall in the traditional style, seated on a throne with Ramose appearing before the king. On the other side of the doorway, Amenhotep IV and Nefertiti are shown in the window of appearance with the Aten depicted as the sun disc. In the Theban tomb of Parennefer, Amenhotep IV and Nefertiti are seated on a throne with the sun disk depicted over the king, among the latter-known documents referring to Amenhotep IV are two copies of a letter from the Steward Of Memphis Apy to the pharaoh. The documents were found in Gurob and are dated to regnal year 5, third month of the Growing Season, on day 13, Month 8, in the fifth year of his reign, the king arrived at the site of the new city Akhetaten. A month before that Amenhotep IV had officially changed his name to Akhenaten, Amenhotep IV changed most of his 5 fold titulary in year 5 of his reign. The only name he kept was his prenomen or throne name of Neferkheperure, some recent debate has focused on the extent to which Akhenaten forced his religious reforms on his peopleAkhenaton – Statue of Akhenaten in the early Amarna style.
9. Bandiera d'Italia – The flag of Italy is a tricolour featuring three equally sized vertical pales of green, white and red, with the green at the hoist side. Its current form has been in use since 18 June 1946 and was adopted on 1 January 1948. The first entity to use the Italian tricolour was the Cisalpine Republic in 1797, a more religious interpretation is that the green represents hope, the white represents faith, and the red represents charity, this references the three theological virtues. The tricolour was used for the first time on November 13–14. The law students defined themselves as patriots and wore tricolour cockades to signal they were insipred by Jacobin revolutionary ideals, standard or flag of three colours, green, white, and red. The flag was maintained until 1802, when it was renamed the Napoleonic Italian Republic, and a new flag was adopted, in 1799, the independent Republic of Lucca came under French influence and adopted as its flag a horizontal tricolour with green uppermost, this lasted until 1801. In 1805 Napoleon installed his sister, Elisa Bonaparte Baciocchi, as Princess of Lucca and this affair is commemorated in the opening of Leo Tolstoys War and Peace. In the same year, after Napoleon had crowned himself first French Emperor, the flag of the Kingdom of Italy was that of the Republic in rectangular form, charged with the golden Napoleonic eagle. This remained in use until the abdication of Napoleon in 1814, between 1848 and 1861, a sequence of events led to the independence and unification of Italy, this period of Italian history is known as the Risorgimento, or resurgence. During this period, the became the symbol which united all the efforts of the Italian people towards freedom. The Italian tricolour, defaced with the Savoyan coat of arms, was first adopted as war flag by the Kingdom of Sardinia–Piedmont army on 1848, in his Proclamation to the Lombard-Venetian people, Charles Albert said. In order to more clearly with exterior signs the commitment to Italian unification. Have the Savoy shield placed on the Italian tricolour flag, as the arms, blazoned gules a cross argent, mixed with the white of the flag, it was fimbriated azure, blue being the dynastic colour, although this does not conform to the heraldic rule of tincture. The rectangular civil and state variants were adopted in 1851 and it is worthy of note, however, that the arms bear the red-white-red flag of Austria, the opponent of Italian unification. This flag lasted from 3 April 1848 until 19 May 1849, the Provisional Government of Sicily, which lasted from 12 January 1848 to 15 May 1849, adopted the Italian tricolour, defaced with the trinacria, or triskelion. These lasted until 6 and 24 August 1849 respectively, in 1849, the new Roman Republic adopted an Italian tricolour, sent from Venice, bearing the legend DIO E POPOLO in red capital letters. This lasted for four months, while the Papal States of the Church was in abeyance, in 1860, the flag of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies was again modified to the defaced Italian tricolour with the House of Bourbon-Two Sicilies coat of arms. On 15 April 1861, the flag of the Kingdom of Sardinia was declared the flag of the newly formed Kingdom of ItalyBandiera d'Italia – Italian soldiers with the RSI flag in Rome, March 1944
10. I promessi sposi – The Betrothed is an Italian historical novel by Alessandro Manzoni, first published in 1827, in three volumes. It has been called the most famous and widely read novel in the Italian language. Set in northern Italy in 1628, during the years of direct Spanish rule, it is seen as a veiled attack on the Austrian Empire. It is also noted for the description of the plague that struck Milan around 1630. I promessi sposi was made into an opera of the name by Amilcare Ponchielli in 1856. There have been many versions of I promessi sposi, including I promessi sposi, The Betrothed The Betrothed. In May 2015, at a general audience at St. Peters Square. Manzoni hatched the basis for his novel in 1821 when he read a 1627 Italian edict that specified penalties for any priest who refused to perform a marriage when requested to do so, more material for his story came from Giuseppe Ripamontis Milanese Chronicles. The first version, Fermo e Lucia, was written between April 1821 and September 1823 and he then heavily revised it, finishing in August 1825, it was published on 15 June 1827, after two years of corrections and proof-checking. Manzonis chosen title, Gli sposi promessi, was changed for the sake of euphony shortly before its final commitment to printing, in the early 19th century, there was still some controversy as to what form the standard literary language of Italy should take. Manzoni was firmly in favour of the dialect of Florence and, after washing his vocabulary on the banks of the Arno, Renzo and Lucia, a couple in an unnamed Lombard village near Lake Como, are planning to wed on 8 November 1628. The parish priest, Don Abbondio, is walking home on the eve of the wedding when he is accosted by two bravoes who warn him not to perform the marriage, because the local baron has forbidden it. When he presents himself for the ceremony, Renzo is amazed to hear that the marriage is to be postponed. An argument ensues and Renzo succeeds in extracting from the priest the name of Don Rodrigo and it turns out that Don Rodrigo has his eye on Lucia and that he had a bet about her with his cousin Count Attilio. Lucias mother, Agnese, advises Renzo to ask the advice of Dr. Azzeccagarbugli, Dr. Lucia sends a message to Fra Cristoforo, a respected Capuchin friar at the monastery of Pescarenico, asking him to come as soon as he can. When Don Rodrigo is taken aside by the friar, he explodes with anger at his presumption and sends him away, meanwhile, Lorenzo comes up with a plan. In those days, it was possible for two people to marry by declaring themselves married before a priest and in the presence of two amenable witnesses, Renzo runs to his friend Tonio and offers him 25 lire if he agrees to help. When Fra Cristoforo returns with the bad news, they decide to put their plan into action, the next morning, Lucia and Agnese are visited by beggars, Don Rodrigos men in disguiseI promessi sposi – Title page of the edition of 1842
11. Partito Comunista dell'Unione Sovietica – The Communist Party of the Soviet Union, abbreviated in English as CPSU, was the founding and ruling political party of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. The party was founded in 1912 by the Bolsheviks, a group led by Vladimir Lenin which seized power in the aftermath of the October Revolution of 1917. The party was dissolved on 29 August 1991 on Soviet territory soon after a failed coup détat and was abolished on 6 November 1991 on Russian territory. The highest body within the CPSU was the party Congress, which convened every five years, when the Congress was not in session, the Central Committee was the highest body. Because the Central Committee met twice a year, most day-to-day duties and responsibilities were vested in the Politburo, the Secretariat, and the Orgburo. The party leader was the head of government and held the office of either General Secretary, Premier or head of state, or some of the three offices concurrently—but never all three at the same time. The CPSU, according to its party statute, adhered to Marxism–Leninism, a based on the writings of Vladimir Lenin and Karl Marx. The party pursued state socialism, under which all industries were nationalized, a number of causes contributed to CPSUs loss of control and the dissolution of the Soviet Union. Some historians have written that Gorbachevs policy of glasnost was the root cause, Gorbachev maintained that perestroika without glasnost was doomed to failure anyway. Others have blamed the stagnation and subsequent loss of faith by the general populace in communist ideology. The Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic, the worlds first constitutionally socialist state, was established by the Bolsheviks in the aftermath of the October Revolution. Immediately after the Revolution, the new, Lenin-led government implemented socialist reforms, including the transfer of estates, in this context, in 1918, RSDLP became Russian Communist Party and remained so until 1997. Lenin supported world revolution he sought peace with the Central Powers. The treaty was voided after the Allied victory in World War I, in 1921, Lenin proposed the New Economic Policy, a system of state capitalism that started the process of industrialization and recovery from the Civil War. On 30 December 1922, the Russian SFSR joined former territories of the Russian Empire in the Soviet Union, on 9 March 1923, Lenin suffered a stroke, which incapacitated him and effectively ended his role in government. He died on 21 January 1924 and was succeeded by Joseph Stalin, after emerging victorious from a power struggle with Trotsky, Stalin obtained full control of the party and Stalinism was installed as the only ideology of the party. The partys official name was All-Union Communist Party in 1925, Stalins political purge greatly affected the partys configuration, as many party members were executed or sentenced for slave labour. Happening during the timespan of the Great Purge, fascism had ascened to power in Italy, seeing this as a potential threat, the Party actively sought to form collective security alliances with Anti-fascist western powers such as France and BritainPartito Comunista dell'Unione Sovietica – Khrushchev succeeded Stalin as the Soviet leader. His rule is best known for his liberalization of political and social life, and the end of terror as a means of social control
12. Agatocle – Agathocles was a Greek tyrant of Syracuse and king of Sicily. Agathocles was born at Thermae Himeraeae in Sicily, the son of a potter who had moved to Syracuse in about 343 BC, he learned his fathers trade, but afterwards entered the army along with his brother Antander. In 333 BC he married the widow of his patron Damas and he was twice banished for attempting to overthrow the oligarchical party in Syracuse. In 317 BC he returned with an army of mercenaries under an oath to observe the democratic constitution which was established after they took the city. Having banished or murdered some 10,000 citizens, and thus made himself master of Syracuse, he created an army and fleet. In 311 BC Agathocles was defeated in the Battle of the Himera River, in 310 BC he made a desperate effort to break through the blockade and attack the enemy in Africa. In Africa he concluded the treaty with Ophellas, ruler of Cyrenaica, after several victories he was at last completely defeated and fled secretly to Sicily. After concluding peace with Carthage in 306 BC, Agathocles styled himself king of Sicily in 304 BC, a peace treaty with Carthage left him in control of Sicily east of the Halycus River. Even in his old age he displayed the same restless energy and his last years were plagued by ill-health and the turbulence of his grandson Archagathus, at whose instigation he is said to have been poisoned, according to others, he died a natural death. He was a leader of mercenaries, and, although he did not shrink from cruelty to gain his ends, he afterwards showed himself a mild. Agathocles restored the Syracusan democracy on his bed and did not want his sons to succeed him as king. His first wife was the widow of his patron Damas by whom he had two sons, Archagathus and Agathocles, who were murdered in 307 BC. His second wife was Alcia and they had a daughter called Lanassa and his third wife was the Greek Ptolemaic Princess Theoxena, who was the second daughter of Berenice I from her first husband Philip and was a stepdaughter of Ptolemy I Soter. Theoxena bore Agathocles two children, Archagathus and Theoxena and he had further descendants from his second and third marriage. Agathocles was cited as an example Of Those Who By Their Crimes Come to Be Princes” in Chapter VIII of Niccolò Machiavelli’s treatise on politics - The Prince and he was described as behaving as a criminal at every stage of his career. Machiavelli claimed, It cannot be called prowess to kill fellow-citizens, to friends, to be treacherous, pitiless. Nevertheless, his barbarous cruelty and inhumanity with infinite wickednesses do not permit him to be celebrated among the most excellent men, however, he came to glory as much as he did brutality by repelling invading Carthaginians and winning the loyalty of the denizens of his land. This article incorporates text from a now in the public domain, Chisholm, HughAgatocle – Coin of Agathocles.
13. Parlamento europeo – The European Parliament is the directly elected parliamentary institution of the European Union. Together with the Council of the European Union and the European Commission, the Parliament is composed of 751 members, who represent the second-largest democratic electorate in the world and the largest trans-national democratic electorate in the world. It has been elected every five years by universal suffrage since 1979. However, voter turnout at European Parliament elections has fallen consecutively at each election since that date, voter turnout in 2014 stood at 42. 54% of all European voters. The Parliament is the first institution of the EU, and shares equal legislative and it likewise has equal control over the EU budget. Finally, the European Commission, the body of the EU, is accountable to Parliament. In particular, Parliament elects the President of the Commission, and it can subsequently force the Commission as a body to resign by adopting a motion of censure. The President of the European Parliament is Antonio Tajani, elected in January 2017 and he presides over a multi-party chamber, the two largest groups being the Group of the European Peoples Party and the Progressive Alliance of Socialists and Democrats. The last union-wide elections were the 2014 elections, the European Parliament has three places of work – Brussels, the city of Luxembourg and Strasbourg. Luxembourg is home to the administrative offices, meetings of the whole Parliament take place in Strasbourg and in Brussels. Committee meetings are held in Brussels, the Parliament, like the other institutions, was not designed in its current form when it first met on 10 September 1952. One of the oldest common institutions, it began as the Common Assembly of the European Coal and it was a consultative assembly of 78 appointed parliamentarians drawn from the national parliaments of member states, having no legislative powers. Its development since its foundation shows how the European Unions structures have evolved without a master plan. Some, such as Tom Reid of the Washington Post, said of the union, nobody would have designed a government as complex. Even the Parliaments two seats, which have switched several times, are a result of various agreements or lack of agreements, the body was not mentioned in the original Schuman Declaration. It was assumed or hoped that difficulties with the British would be resolved to allow the Council of Europes Assembly to perform the task, a separate Assembly was introduced during negotiations on the Treaty as an institution which would counterbalance and monitor the executive while providing democratic legitimacy. The wording of the ECSC Treaty demonstrated the desire for more than a normal consultative assembly by using the term representatives of the people. Its early importance was highlighted when the Assembly was given the task of drawing up the treaty to establish a European Political CommunityParlamento europeo
14. Foggia Calcio – Foggia Calcio is an Italian football club, based in Foggia, in the southern Italian region of Apulia. Foggia currently plays in the Lega Pro, having last been in the higher Serie A in 1995, however, Foggia Calcio went bankrupted in 2004 and was replaced by U. S. Foggia, which was bankrupted again in 2012. The club was founded in 1920 as Foggia Calcio, the club spent its early history playing football in the lower leagues, winning a championship in the dilettanti in 1933. In 1957–58, a merger took place between Foggia Calcio and Foggia Incedit, forming Unione Sportiva Foggia as the club is today. In 1961–62, the team was taken over by President Domenico Rosa Rosa, a wood industrialist, and coach Oronzo Pugliese, history was made in the 1963–64 season, when Rosa Rosa and Oronzo Puglieses Foggia reached Serie A for the first time. From 1964–65, Foggia managed to compete in three seasons in the top flight. On 31 January 1965, still under the guidance of coach Pugliese, Foggia recorded a historic 3–2 victory against Inter, the season was crowned by the national call-ups of Micelli and Nocera who played for Italy against Wales. Italy won 4–1 and Nocera managed to get on the scoresheet, at the end of the season, Pugliese left to take charge of Roma. Pugliese was replaced by Egizio Rubino, and Foggia, although with more difficulty compared to the previous season, the following year, however, Foggia was relegated. It was a championship, after 10 matches Foggia had collected only three points and scored just 24 goals. Rubino was sacked and replaced by Bonazzini, the team improved under Bonazzini but failed to avoid relegation. At the end of the season, president Rosa Rosa also left the club, relegated at the end of the 1966–67 season, Foggia returned to the top flight in 1970–71, with Tommaso Maestrelli on the bench. Maestrelli would later win the 1973–74 scudetto with Lazio, luigi Del Neri was, at the time, a Foggia player. The coach that season was Lauro Toneatto, Foggia played two more seasons in Serie A in 1976–77 and in 1977–78, when they were once more relegated to Serie B. Following their relegation back to Serie B, Foggia were then dealt with a blow with relegation to Serie C. They battled their way in Serie C1 throughout much of the 1980s and this was a particularly tough time for Foggia as their regional rivals, Bari, Lecce, Barletta and Taranto were all playing at higher levels. In 1989, with the appointment of Czech coach Zdeněk Zeman, the aggressive and entertaining football of the Bohemian coach was based on a 4–3–3 formation. Pressure, offside tactics and frenetic movement of players and the ball made up the trademark style of Zemans FoggiaFoggia Calcio – Former Foggia logo
15. Led Zeppelin – Led Zeppelin were an English rock band formed in London in 1968. The group consisted of guitarist Jimmy Page, singer Robert Plant, bassist and keyboardist John Paul Jones, after changing their name from the New Yardbirds, Led Zeppelin signed a deal with Atlantic Records that afforded them considerable artistic freedom. Their fourth album, which features the track Stairway to Heaven, is among the most popular and influential works in rock music, Page wrote most of Led Zeppelins music, particularly early in their career, while Plant generally supplied the lyrics. Jones keyboard-based compositions later became central to the catalogue, which featured increasing experimentation. The latter half of their career saw a series of record-breaking tours that earned the group a reputation for excess, in the decades that followed, the surviving members sporadically collaborated and participated in one-off Led Zeppelin reunions. The most successful of these was the 2007 Ahmet Ertegun Tribute Concert in London, Led Zeppelin are widely considered one of the most successful, innovative, and influential rock groups in history. They are one of the music artists in the history of audio recording. With RIAA-certified sales of 111.5 million units, they are the band in the US. Each of their nine studio albums placed in the top 10 of the Billboard album chart and they achieved eight consecutive UK number-one albums. Rolling Stone magazine described them as the heaviest band of all time, the biggest band of the Seventies, and unquestionably one of the most enduring bands in rock history. They were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1995, in 1966, London-based session guitarist Jimmy Page joined the blues-influenced rock band the Yardbirds to replace bassist Paul Samwell-Smith. Page soon switched from bass to guitar, creating a dual lead guitar line-up with Jeff Beck. Following Becks departure in October 1966, the Yardbirds, tired from constant touring and recording, Page wanted to form a supergroup with him and Beck on guitars, and the Whos Keith Moon and John Entwistle on drums and bass, respectively. Vocalists Steve Winwood and Steve Marriott were also considered for the project, the group never formed, although Page, Beck, and Moon did record a song together in 1966, Becks Bolero, in a session that also included bassist-keyboardist John Paul Jones. The Yardbirds played their final gig in July 1968 at Luton College of Technology in Bedfordshire, Page and Dreja began putting a new line-up together. Pages first choice for the singer was Terry Reid, but Reid declined the offer and suggested Robert Plant. Plant eventually accepted the position, recommending former Band of Joy drummer John Bonham, Jones inquired about the vacant position at the suggestion of his wife after Dreja dropped out of the project to become a photographer. Page had known Jones since they were both musicians and agreed to let him join as the final memberLed Zeppelin – Clockwise, from top left: Jimmy Page, John Bonham, Robert Plant, John Paul Jones
16. Watchmen – Watchmen is an American comic-book limited series published by DC Comics in 1986 and 1987, and collected in 1987. The series was created by a British collaboration consisting of writer Alan Moore, artist Dave Gibbons, Watchmen originated from a story proposal Moore submitted to DC featuring superhero characters that the company had acquired from Charlton Comics. As Moores proposed story would have many of the characters unusable for future stories. Moore used the story as a means to reflect contemporary anxieties and to deconstruct, the story focuses on the personal development and moral struggles of the protagonists as an investigation into the murder of a government-sponsored superhero pulls them out of retirement. Creatively, the focus of Watchmen is on its structure, Gibbons used a nine-panel grid layout throughout the series and added recurring symbols such as a blood-stained smiley face. Structured, at times, as a narrative, the story skips through space, time. In the same manner, entire scenes and dialogue have parallels with others through synchronicity, coincidence, the BBC described it as The moment comic books grew up. After a number of attempts to adapt the series into a feature film, a video game series, Watchmen, The End Is Nigh, was released in the same year to coincide with the films release. In 2012, DC Comics published Before Watchmen, a comic-book series acting as a prequel to the original Watchmen series, without Moore and Gibbons involvement. Watchmen, created by writer Alan Moore and artist Dave Gibbons, was first published as a 12-issue maxiseries from DC Comics, cover-dated September 1986 to October 1987. In February 1988, DC published a limited-edition, slipcased hardcover volume, produced by Graphitti Design, in 2005, DC released Absolute Watchmen, an oversized slipcased hardcover edition of the series in DCs Absolute Edition format. Assembled under the supervision of Dave Gibbons, Absolute Watchmen included the Graphitti materials and that December DC published a new printing of Watchmen issue #1 at the original 1986 cover price of $1.50 as part of its Millennium Edition line. In 2012, DC launched a line, with various creative teams producing the characters early adventures before the events of the graphic novel. In 1985, DC Comics acquired a line of characters from Charlton Comics, during that period, writer Alan Moore contemplated writing a story that featured an unused line of superheroes that he could revamp, as he had done in his Miracleman series in the early 1980s. Moore reasoned that MLJ Comics Mighty Crusaders might be available for such a project, Moore used this premise and crafted a proposal featuring the Charlton characters titled Who Killed the Peacemaker, and submitted the unsolicited proposal to DC managing editor Dick Giordano. Giordano was receptive to the proposal, but opposed the idea of using the Charlton characters for the story, Moore said, DC realized their expensive characters would end up either dead or dysfunctional. Instead, Giordano persuaded Moore to continue with new characters, Moore had initially believed that original characters would not provide emotional resonance for the readers, but later changed his mind. Artist Dave Gibbons, who had collaborated with Moore on previous projects, I rang Alan up, saying I’d like to be involved with what he was doingWatchmen – Cover of Watchmen No.1 (Sept. 1986)
17. Bartolomeo Colleoni – Bartolomeo Colleoni was an Italian condottiero, who became captain-general of the Republic of Venice. Colleoni gained reputation as the foremost tactician and disciplinarian of the 15th century and he is also credited with having refurbished the Roman baths at Trescore Balneario. His family was a one, exiled with the rest of the Guelphs by the Visconti. Bartolomeos father Paolo seized the castle of Trezzo by wile and held it by force, until he was assassinated by his cousins, probably acting on order of Filippo Maria Visconti, the young Colleoni trained at first in the retinue of Filippo dArcello, the new master of Piacenza. After the latter was put to death at Venice, Colleoni passed to direct service of the Venetian Republic, although Gianfrancesco Gonzaga was nominally commander-in-chief, Colleoni was in fact the true leader of the army. When peace was made between Milan and Venice in 1441, Colleoni went over to the Milanese, together with Sforza in 1443. Although well treated at first, Colleoni soon fell under the suspicion of the Visconti, and was imprisoned at Monza, Milan then fell under the lordship of Sforza, whom Colleoni served for a time, but in 1448 he took leave of Sforza and returned to the Venetians. Although he occasionally fought on his own account, when Venice was at peace and he set his residence in the castle of Malpaga, which he had bought in 1465 and restored in the following years. Although he often changed sides, no act of treachery is imputed to him, nor did he subject the territories he passed through to the rapine and exactions practiced by other soldiers of fortune. When not fighting, he devoted his time to introducing agricultural improvements on the vast estates with which the Venetians had endowed him, and to charitable works. At his death in 1475 at Malpaga, he left a sum to the republic for the Turkish war. In 1930 the Italian Regia Marina launched a cruiser of the Condottieri class named after Bartolomeo Colleoni, page at the Italian history chronology websiteBartolomeo Colleoni – The equestrian statue of Bartolomeo Colleoni by Verrocchio in Venice.