6th meridian west
The meridian 6° west of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, the Atlantic Ocean, Europe, Africa, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.
The meridian 6° west of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, the Atlantic Ocean, Europe, Africa, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.
|Co-ordinates||Country, territory or sea||Notes|
|Atlantic Ocean||Passing just east of the island of Fugloy, Faroe Islands (at )
Passing just east of the island of Svínoy, Faroe Islands (at )
Passing just west of the island of North Rona, Scotland, United Kingdom (at )
Passing just east of the island of Sula Sgeir, Scotland, United Kingdom (at )
|The Minch||Passing just east of the isle of Lewis, Scotland, United Kingdom (at )|
|United Kingdom||Scotland — islands of South Rona, Raasay, Scalpay, Skye|
|Atlantic Ocean||Sea of the Hebrides|
|United Kingdom||Scotland — peninsulas of Ardnamurchan and Morvern, and the Isle of Mull|
|Atlantic Ocean||Firth of Lorn|
|United Kingdom||Scotland — island of Jura|
|Atlantic Ocean||Sound of Jura — passing just east of the island of Islay, Scotland, United Kingdom (at )
North Channel — passing just east of Rathlin Island, Northern Ireland, United Kingdom (at )
|United Kingdom||Northern Ireland — passing just west of Belfast (at )|
|Irish Sea||Passing just east of Lambay Island, Ireland (at )
Passing just east of Howth Head, Ireland (at near Dublin)
Passing just east of Wicklow Head, Ireland (at )
|Atlantic Ocean||Celtic Sea — passing just west of Land's End, England, United Kingdom (at )
— passing just east of the Isles of Scilly, England, United Kingdom (at )
through an unnamed part of the ocean — from
and into the Bay of Biscay — from
|Atlantic Ocean||Passing just west of the island of Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha (at )|
|Antarctica||Queen Maud Land, claimed by Norway|
1. Keyhole Markup Language – Keyhole Markup Language is an XML notation for expressing geographic annotation and visualization within Internet-based, two-dimensional maps and three-dimensional Earth browsers. KML was developed with Google Earth, originally named Keyhole Earth Viewer. It was created by Keyhole, Inc, acquired in 2004. KML became an international standard of the Open Geospatial Consortium in 2008. Google Earth was the first program able to graphically edit KML files. Other projects such as Marble have also started to develop KML support. Each place always has a latitude. Other data can make the view more specific, such as tilt, heading, altitude, which together define a "view" along with a timestamp or timespan. KML shares some of the structural grammar as GML. Some KML information cannot be viewed in Google Maps or Mobile. KML files are often distributed in KMZ files, which are zipped KML files with a.kmz extension. These must be legacy compression compatible, otherwise file might not uncompress in all geobrowsers. The KML document by convention is a file named "doc.kml" at the root directory level, the file loaded upon opening. Referenced files are in subdirectories. An example KML document is: The MIME type associated with KML is application/vnd.google-earth.kml+xml; the MIME type associated with KMZ is application/vnd.google-earth.kmz.Keyhole Markup Language – Keyhole Markup Language
2. GPS eXchange Format – GPX, or GPS Exchange Format, is an XML schema designed as a common GPS data format for software applications. It can be used to describe waypoints, routes. The format can be used without the need to pay license fees. Location data can be interchanged between GPS devices and software. Common software applications for the data include viewing tracks projected onto various map sources, geotagging photographs based on the time they were taken. These are the essential data contained in GPX files. Ellipsis means that the previous element can be repeated. Additional data is not shown here: wptType is an individual waypoint among a collection of points with no sequential relationship. It consists of the WGS 84 coordinates of possibly other descriptive information. TrkType is a track, made of at least one segment containing waypoints, an ordered list of points describing a path. A Track Segment holds a list of Track Points which are logically connected in order. RteType is an ordered list of routepoint leading to a destination. Conceptually, tracks are a record of where a person has been, routes are suggestions about where they might go in the future. Technically: a track is made of a sufficient number of trackpoints to precisely draw every bend of a path on a bitmap. The routepoints may be as distant as stopover towns, such as those making a trip project.GPS eXchange Format – Waypoints, routes and tracks recorded by GPS receivers.
3. Prime Meridian – A prime meridian is a meridian in a geographical coordinate system at which longitude is defined to be 0°. Together, its antimeridian form a great circle. This great circle divides e.g. the Earth, into two hemispheres. If one uses directions of East and West from a prime meridian, then they can be called Eastern Hemisphere and Western Hemisphere. The most widely used modern meridian is the IERS Reference Meridian. It deviates slightly from the Greenwich Meridian, selected as an international standard in 1884. But it was Ptolemy who first used a consistent meridian in his Geographia. The main point is to be west of the western tip of Africa as negative numbers were not yet in use. His prime meridian corresponds to 18 ° today. At that time the chief method of determining longitude was by using the reported times of lunar eclipses in different countries. Many early globes in the 16th century followed his lead. But there was still a hope that a "natural" basis for a prime meridian existed. The Tordesillas line was eventually settled at 370 leagues west of Cape Verde. This is shown in Diogo Ribeiro's 1529 map. In 1541, Mercator drew his prime meridian precisely through Fuertaventura in the Canaries.Prime Meridian – Gerardus Mercator in his Atlas Cosmographicae (1595) uses a prime meridian somewhere close to 25°W, passing just to the west of Santa Maria Island in the Atlantic. His 180th meridian runs along the Strait of Anián (Bering Strait)
4. North Pole – The North Pole is the northernmost point on the Earth, lying diametrically opposite the South Pole. It defines geodetic latitude 90 ° North, well as the direction of true north. At the North Pole all directions point south; all lines of longitude converge there, so its longitude can be defined as any value. Along tight latitude circles, counterclockwise is clockwise is west. The North Pole is at the center of the Northern Hemisphere. This makes it impractical to construct a permanent station at the North Pole. Since 2002, the Russians have annually established a base, Barneo, close to the Pole. This operates during early spring. The nearest permanently inhabited place is Alert in the Qikiqtaaluk Region, Nunavut, Canada, located 817 km from the Pole. Part of this variation could be attributed to a wandering of the Pole by a range of a few metres. The wandering has an irregular component. It is desirable to tie the system of Earth coordinates to fixed landforms. Of course, isostasy, there is no system in which all geographic features are fixed. Yet Reference Systems Service and the International Astronomical Union have defined a framework called the International Terrestrial Reference System. It was therefore hoped that passage could be found at favorable times of the year.North Pole – North Pole scenery
5. Arctic Ocean – The Arctic Ocean is the smallest and shallowest of the world's five major oceans. Alternatively, the Arctic Ocean can be seen as the northernmost part of the all-encompassing World Ocean. It is partly covered by ice throughout the year and almost completely in winter. The shrinking of the ice has been quoted at 50 %. The Arctic may become ice free for the first time in human history by 2040. For much of European history, their geography conjectural. Early cartographers were unsure whether to draw the region around the North Pole as water. This lack of knowledge of what lay north of the shifting barrier of ice gave rise to a number of conjectures. In other European nations, the myth of an "Open Polar Sea" was persistent. Longtime Second Secretary of the British Admiralty, promoted exploration of the region from 1818 to 1845 in search of this. Nevertheless, as all the explorers who travelled closer to the pole reported, the polar ice cap is quite thick, persists year-round. Fridtjof Nansen was the first to make a nautical crossing of the Arctic Ocean, in 1896. The first surface crossing of the ocean was led by Wally Herbert in 1969, with air support. Since 1937, Soviet and Russian manned drifting ice stations have extensively monitored the Arctic Ocean. Scientific settlements carried thousands of kilometres by ice floes.Arctic Ocean – A bathymetric / topographic of the Arctic Ocean and the surrounding lands.
6. Atlantic Ocean – The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceans with a total area of about 106,460,000 square kilometres. It covers about 29 percent of its water surface area. It separates the "Old World" from the "New World". The Atlantic Ocean occupies the Americas to the west. The Equatorial Counter Current subdivides it into South Atlantic Ocean at about 8 ° N. The Greek thalassa has been reused by scientists for the huge Panthalassa ocean that surrounded the supercontinent Pangaea hundreds of million years ago. The term "Aethiopian Ocean", derived from Ancient Ethiopia, was applied to the Southern Atlantic late as the mid-19th century. Many British people refer to the United States and Canada as "across the pond", vice versa. The "Black Atlantic" refers in shaping black people's history, especially through the Atlantic slave trade. Irish migration to the US is meant when the term "The Green Atlantic" is used. Correspondingly, the number of oceans and seas varies. The Atlantic Ocean is bounded by North and South America. It connects through the Denmark Strait, Greenland Sea, Norwegian Sea and Barents Sea. To the east, the boundaries of the ocean proper are Europe: the Strait of Gibraltar and Africa. In the southeast, the Atlantic merges into the Indian Ocean.Atlantic Ocean – The Atlantic Ocean as seen from the western coast of Portugal
7. Europe – Europe is a continent that comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia. Europe is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Mediterranean Sea to the south. Yet the non-oceanic borders of Europe—a concept dating back to classical antiquity—are arbitrary. Europe covers 2 % of the Earth's surface. Europe had a total population of about million as of 2012. Further from the Atlantic, seasonal differences are mildly greater than close to the coast. Europe, in ancient Greece, is the birthplace of Western civilization. The Renaissance humanism, exploration, art, science led the "old continent", eventually the rest of the world, to the modern era. From this period onwards, Europe played a predominant role in global affairs. Between the 20th centuries, European nations controlled at various times the Americas, most of Africa, Oceania, the majority of Asia. In 1955, the Council of Europe was formed following a speech by Sir Winston Churchill, with the idea of unifying Europe to achieve common goals. It includes all states except for Belarus, Kazakhstan and Vatican City. European integration by some states led to the formation of the European Union, a separate political entity that lies between a confederation and a federation. The EU has been expanding eastward since the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991. The European Anthem states celebrate peace and unity on Europe Day.Europe – Reconstruction of Herodotus ' world map
8. Africa – Africa is the world's second-largest and second-most-populous continent. With billion people as of 2013, it accounts for about 15 % of the world's human population. The continent includes various archipelagos. It contains 54 fully recognized de facto independent states with limited or no recognition. Africa's population is the youngest amongst all the continents; the median age in 2012 was 19.7, when the median age was 30.4. Algeria is Nigeria by population. Africa encompasses numerous climate areas; it is the only continent to stretch from the northern temperate to southern temperate zones. Africa hosts a large diversity of ethnicities, languages. In the 19th century European countries colonized most of Africa. Most present states in Africa originate in the 20th century. Afri was a Latin name used to refer to the inhabitants of Africa, which in its widest sense referred to all lands south of the Mediterranean. This name seems to have originally referred to a Libyan tribe; see Terence #Biography for discussion. The same word may be found in the name of the Banu Ifran originally from Yafran in northwestern Libya. Under Roman rule, Carthage became the capital of the province of Africa Proconsularis, which also included the coastal part of modern Libya. The Latin suffix -ica can sometimes be used to denote a land.Africa – Map of Africa
9. Southern Ocean – This ocean zone northward flowing waters from the Antarctic mix with warmer subantarctic waters. By way of his voyages in the 1770s, Captain James Cook proved that waters encompassed the southern latitudes of the globe. Since then, geographers have disagreed on the Southern Ocean's northern even existence, considering the waters part of the Pacific, Atlantic, Indian Oceans, instead. Others regard the seasonally-fluctuating Antarctic Convergence as the natural boundary. The IHO then published these in its Limits of the first edition being 1928. Australian authorities regard the Southern Ocean as lying south of Australia. Map publishers using the term Southern Ocean on their maps include Hema Maps and GeoNova. The "South Seas" is a less archaic synonym. A 1745 British Act of Parliament established a prize for discovering a Northwest Passage to "the Western and Southern Ocean of America". Authors using "Southern Ocean" to name the waters encircling the unknown polar regions used varying limits. James Cook's account of his second voyage implies New Caledonia borders it. The United Kingdom's South Australia Act 1834 described the waters forming the southern limit of the new colony of South Australia as "the Southern Ocean". The northern limits of the Southern Ocean were moved southwards of the Limits of Oceans and Seas. From this edition, much of the ocean's northern limit ceased to abut land masses. As is discussed in more detail below, prior to the 2002 edition the limits of oceans explicitly excluded the seas lying within each of them.Southern Ocean – 1928 First Edition of Limits of Oceans and Seas with original IHO delineation of Southern Ocean abutting land-masses.
10. Antarctica – Antarctica is Earth's southernmost continent. At 14,000,000 square kilometres, it is the fifth-largest continent. For comparison, Antarctica is twice the size of Australia. About 98% of Antarctica is covered by ice that averages 1.9 km in thickness, which extends to all but the northernmost reaches of the Antarctic Peninsula. Antarctica, on average, has the highest average elevation of all the continents. Antarctica is a desert, with annual precipitation of only 200 mm along the coast and far less inland. The temperature in Antarctica has reached −89.2 °C, though the average for the third quarter is −63 °C. Organisms native to Antarctica include many types of algae, bacteria, fungi, plants, protista, certain animals, such as mites, nematodes, penguins, seals and tardigrades. Vegetation, where it occurs, is tundra. The continent, however, remained largely neglected for the rest of the 19th century because of its hostile environment, isolation. In 1895, the first confirmed landing was conducted by a team of Norwegians. Antarctica is a facto condominium, governed by parties to the Antarctic Treaty System that have consulting status. Thirty-eight have signed it since then. The treaty prohibits military activities and mineral mining, prohibits nuclear explosions and nuclear waste disposal, protects the continent's ecozone. Ongoing experiments are conducted from many nations.Antarctica – Adelie penguins in Antarctica
11. South Pole – It lies on the opposite side of the Earth from the North Pole. The Geographic South Pole should not be confused with the South Magnetic Pole, defined based on the Earth's magnetic field. The South Pole is at the center of the Southern Hemisphere. For most purposes, the Geographic South Pole is defined as the southern point of the two points where the Earth's axis of rotation intersects its surface. However, the Earth's axis of rotation is actually subject to very small "wobbles", so this definition is not adequate for very precise work. The geographic coordinates of the South Pole are usually given simply as 90 ° S, since its longitude is geometrically irrelevant. When a longitude is desired, it may be given as 0°. At the South Pole, all directions face north. For this reason, directions at the Pole are given relative to "north", which points northwards along the prime meridian. Along tight latitude circles, counterclockwise is west, opposite to the North Pole. The Geographic South Pole is located on the continent of Antarctica. The ice is estimated to be about 2,700 metres thick at the Pole, so the surface under the ice sheet is actually near sea level. Therefore, the position of other artificial features relative to the geographic pole gradually shift over time. A new stake is designed and fabricated each year by staff at the site. The Ceremonial South Pole is an area set aside at the South Pole Station.South Pole – The Geographic South Pole. (The flag used on the flagpole is interchangeable.)
12. Great circle – A great circle is the largest circle that can be drawn on any given sphere. Every circle in Euclidean 3-space is a great circle of exactly one sphere. For most pairs of points on the surface of a sphere, there is a great circle through the two points. The exception is a pair of antipodal points, for which there are infinitely great circles. The minor arc of a great circle between two points is the shortest surface-path between them. In this sense, the minor arc is analogous to “straight lines” in Euclidean geometry. The great circles are the geodesics of the sphere. Consider the class of all regular paths from a point p to another point q. Introduce spherical coordinates so that p coincides with the north pole. The infinitesimal length in these coordinates is d s = r θ ′ 2 + ϕ ′ 2 sin 2 θ d t. Some examples of great circles on the celestial sphere include the celestial horizon, the ecliptic. The equator of the idealized earth is its opposite meridian form a great circle. Another great circle is the one that divides the water hemispheres. If a great circle passes through a point it must pass through its antipodal point. Great-circle distance Rhumb line Small circle Great Circle -- from MathWorld Great Circle description, equations.Great circle – A great circle divides the sphere in two equal hemispheres
13. Fugloy – Not to be confused with the Scottish island of Foula. Fugloy is the eastern-most island in the Faroe Islands. The name refers to the large number of birds that nest on the island's cliffs. There are Hattarvík on the east-coast. Fugloy is special because of the stone-material consisting of basalt stratum, making the island very inaccessible. The Eystfelli cliffs, which are 448m are located on the east coast. Fugloy was also a nesting site for the now extinct great auk. Grey seals are regular visitors to the coastlines of Fugloy. Mountain hares inhabit the higher altitudes on the island. Fugloy has its own subspecies of house mouse Mus musculus domesticus, as do some of the other Faroese islands. In contrast to the other Norðoyar islands, Fugloy is fertile all the way up to the mountain tops. Some rare plants are found on the island, e.g. the Fugloy Eyebright Euphrasia foulaensis. The island has been populated since the Viking age. One of the most important stories of the island is that of the Floksmenn. They were a flock of rebels, from Fugloy.Fugloy – Fugloy
14. Faroe Islands – The Faroe Islands are an archipelago between the Norwegian Sea and the North Atlantic approximately halfway between Norway and Iceland, 320 kilometres north-northwest of mainland Scotland. The area is approximately 1,400 square kilometres with a 2016 population of 49,188. The islands are an autonomous country within the Kingdom of Denmark. The land has a oceanic climate: windy, wet, cool. Despite its northerly latitude, temperatures average above freezing throughout the year due to the Gulf Stream. Between 1035 and 1814, the Faroe Islands were part of the Hereditary Kingdom of Norway. The 1814 Treaty of Kiel granted Denmark control over the islands, along with two other Norwegian regions: Greenland and Iceland. The Faroe Islands have been a self-governing country within the Kingdom of Denmark since 1948. The Faroese have control of most domestic matters; areas that remain the responsibility of Denmark include military defence, foreign affairs. The islands also have representation in the Nordic Council as members of the Danish delegation. The Faroe Islands also compete with an individual team in certain sports. In Danish, the name Færøerne may reflect an Old Norse word fær. The morpheme øerne represents a plural of ø in Danish. The Danish name thus translates as "the islands of sheep". In Faroese, the name appears as Føroyar.Faroe Islands – Tinganes in Tórshavn, seat of a part of the Faroese government.
15. North Rona – Rona is a remote Scottish island in the North Atlantic. Rona is often referred to as North Rona in order to distinguish it from South Rona. More isolated than St Kilda, it is the most remote island in the British Isles to have ever been inhabited on a long-term basis. It is also the closest neighbour to the Faroe Islands. Because of small area, it is omitted from many maps of the United Kingdom. The English qualifier "North" is sometimes used to distinguish the island from Rona off Skye. Rona is said to have been the residence of Saint Ronan in the eighth century. It is possible the inhabitants starved to death, although plague may have been a contributory factor. This occurred in a year in which it is reported that no further ships reached the isolated island to trade. The rats themselves eventually starved to death, the huge swells the island experiences preventing their hunting along the rocky shores. It had a population of nine in 1764. Captain Oliver, who commanded the cruiser "Prince of Wales," visited Sula Sgeir in the month of August to look for the lost boat. Captain Oliver found the crew consuming the last barrel of potatoes which the poor shepherd had. He left the latter sufficient provision for the winter." Captain Benjamin Oliver commanded the above vessel until 1847.North Rona – Cave on North Rona
16. Scotland – Scotland is a country, part of the United Kingdom and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain. In addition to the mainland, the country is made up including the Northern Isles and the Hebrides. The Kingdom of Scotland continued to exist until 1707. By inheritance in 1603, King of Scots, became King of England and King of Ireland, thus forming a personal union of the three kingdoms. Scotland subsequently entered into a political union with the Kingdom of England on 1 May 1707 to create the new Kingdom of Great Britain. . Scotland's largest city, was once one of the world's leading industrial cities and now lies at the centre of the Greater Glasgow conurbation. Other urban areas are Aberdeen and Dundee. Scottish waters consist of a large sector of the North Sea, containing the largest oil reserves in the European Union. Scotland is represented in the UK Parliament by 6 MEPs. Scotland is also the British -- Irish Parliamentary Assembly. "Scotland" comes from the Latin name for the Gaels. The Late Latin word Scotia was initially used to refer to Ireland. The use of the words Scots and Scotland to encompass all of what is now Scotland became common in the Late Middle Ages. Repeated glaciations, which covered the entire mass of modern Scotland, destroyed any traces of human habitation that may have existed before the Mesolithic period.Scotland – Edinburgh Castle. Human habitation of the site is dated back as far as the 9th century BC, although the nature of this early settlement is unclear.
17. United Kingdom – The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom or Britain, is a sovereign country in western Europe. Northern Ireland is the only part of the UK that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. The Irish Sea lies between Great Britain and Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the UK is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world and the 11th-largest in Europe. It is also the 21st-most populous country, with an estimated 65.1 million inhabitants. Together, this makes it the fourth most densely populated country in the European Union. The United Kingdom is a constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary system of governance. The monarch—since 6 February 1952—is Queen Elizabeth II. Other major urban areas in the UK include the regions of Manchester, Birmingham, Leeds, Glasgow and Liverpool. The UK consists of four countries—England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. The last three have devolved administrations, each with varying powers, based in their capitals, Edinburgh, Cardiff and Belfast, respectively. The relationships among the countries of the United Kingdom have changed over time. Wales was annexed in 1542. In 1922, five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories.United Kingdom – Stonehenge, in Wiltshire, was erected around 2500 BC.
18. Sula Sgeir – Sula Sgeir is a small, uninhabited Scottish island in the North Atlantic, 18 kilometres west of North Rona. Although very inhospitable to humans, there is a ruined stone bothy called Taigh Beannaichte on the east headland Sgeir an Teampaill. The thrift is especially colourful in June, probably the best month to visit. The modern name is from the Old Norse súla, sker, "skerry". In the 16th century Dean Munro referred as "Suilskeray". Macculloch's 1819 Description refers to "Sulisker", an Anglicised spelling, still occasionally used. A skerry in Utsira, Norway has a name with Suleskjer; there is also a Sule Skerry in Orkney. Sula Sgeir has a special place in the seafaring history of the men of the Ness district on Lewis. His is one of the earliest accounts written about the Western Isles. That tradition is still carried on today. The flesh of the young guga is regarded as a delicacy in Ness today though, for others, it is an acquired taste. It was a popular meat in earlier times in Scotland. In the autumn of each year, a group of 10 Nessmen set sail for Sula Sgeir to kill a maximum of 2,000 young birds. They set up residence for about two weeks in stone bothys. They bring home their catch to meet an eager crowd of customers.Sula Sgeir – Sula Sgeir from the South West.
19. The Minch – It was known in Old Norse. It opens into the Sea of the Hebrides. The Little Minch is the northern limit of the Sea of the Hebrides. The Minch and Lower Minch form part of the Inner Seas off the West Coast of Scotland, as defined by the International Hydrographic Organization. The Minch ranges from 14 to 45 miles wide and is approximately 70 miles long. It is believed to be the site of the biggest meteorite ever to hit the British Isles. The Lower Minch is about 15 miles wide. A Traffic Separation Scheme operates with northbound traffic proceeding close to Skye, southbound close to Harris. Commercial ferry services across the Minch are operated by Caledonian MacBrayne. In the south, its entrance is marked by lighthouses at Barra Head, Ushenish and Hyskeir. On Skye, there are lights at Neist Point, An t-Iasgair. The Outer Hebrides are marked by Weavers Point, Eilean Glas, Butt of Lewis. To the east are Rubh Re, Stoer Head and Cape Wrath lighthouses. A buoy marks the nearby Sgeir Graidach. Previously, these hazards were marked by a red-painted beacon on the foundations of which can still be seen at low tide.The Minch – The Little Minch, view towards Loch na Madadh
20. Lewis – Lewis is the northern part of Lewis and Harris, the largest island of the Western Isles or Outer Hebrides of Scotland. The total area of Lewis is 683 square miles. Lewis is, with the other part, Harris, being more mountainous. More fertile land means Lewis contains the largest settlement, Stornoway, three-quarters of the population of the Western Isles. Lewis is with a rich history having once been part of the Norse Kingdom of Mann and the Isles. Life is very different from elsewhere in Scotland with Sabbath observance, the Gaelic language and peat cutting retaining more importance than elsewhere. Lewis has a cultural heritage as can be seen from its myths and legends as well as the local literary and musical traditions. The Gaelic name Leòdhas may be derived from Norse Ljoðahús, although other origins have been suggested – most notably the Gaelic leogach. It is probably the place referred by Ptolemy, which also means "marshy". It is also known as the "Isle of Lewis". Another name usually used in a poetic context is Eilean an Fhraoich. Although it refers to the whole of the island of Lewis and Harris. The earliest archaeological remains date from about 5,000 years ago. At that time, people began to settle in permanent farms rather than following their herds. The small houses of these people have been found throughout the Western Isles, at Dail Mhor, Carloway.Lewis – The Callanish Stones
21. South Rona – Rona, sometimes called South Rona to distinguish it from North Rona, is a small island in the Scottish Inner Hebrides. It has a total area of 930 hectares. Rona is an extension northward of the ridge of Raasay. The glaciated landscape is underlain by some of the oldest rocks in western Europe. On the west side of the island is An Acarsaid Mhór, protected by An t-Eilean Garbh. The writer Malcolm Slesser described it for small boats. Small lush woodland lends a touch of luxury." Other islets surrounding Rona include Na Gaimhnichean, Eilean na Seamraig, Garbh Eilean, A' Sgeir Shuas. Eilean Tighe lies about 1 kilometre away at the centre of, tiny Fraoich Eilean. There are several smaller bays in the west including Port an Fhearainn, Òb nam Feusgan, Port na Bà Brice and Òb an Deallaire. The highest point on the island is Meall na h-Acarseid, which reaches 125 metres. Sgàth a' Bhannaich and Beinn na h-Iolaire are over 100 metres high. Rona's name probably reflects a Viking settlement. The Gaelic Rònaigh has a similar meaning. There are the ruins of a 14th century chapel at the south end of the island at An Teampull.South Rona – An outcrop of gneiss on Rona
22. Raasay – Raasay is an island between the Isle of Skye and the mainland of Scotland. It is separated from Skye by the Inner Sound. It is most famous for being the birthplace of an important figure in the Scottish literary renaissance. Traditionally the home of the island was ruled by the MacLeods from the 15th to the 19th century. Subsequently, a series of private landlords held title to the island, largely in public ownership. Raasay House, visited in 1773, is now an outdoor activity centre. Raasay is home to an endemic subspecies of Bank Vole. The current Chief of the Island is Roderick John Macleod of Raasay. About 14 miles north to south and 3 miles east to west, Raasay's terrain is varied. The highest point at 443 metres is an unusual, flat-topped peak. The tidal islets of Eilean Fladday and Eilean Tigh are to the northwest. Other smaller surrounding islands are Eilean Aird nan Gobhar, Eilean an Inbhire, Holoman Island, Manish Island, Fraoch Eilean, Glas Eilean, Eilean an Fhraoich. The main village of Inverarish is near the southwest coast. Geologically interesting, the island is visited by many students engaged in mapping projects. The south is mainly Torridonian shale; the north is grey-banded Archaean Lewisian gneiss and granulite.Raasay – Dùn Caan from Loch na Mna
23. Scalpay, Inner Hebrides – Scalpay is an island in the Inner Hebrides of Scotland. Separated by Loch na Cairidh, Scalpay rises to 396 metres at Mullach na Càrn. It has an area of just under 25 square kilometres. The island had a population of ten usual residents of four in 2011. Scalpay is privately owned and operates a red deer farm, shooting estate and holiday cottages. Much of Scalpay is covered with heather, while other areas are forestry plantations. Mac an Tàilleir suggests the name derives from "ship island" from the Norse. However, Haswell-Smith states that the Old Norse name was Skalprøy, meaning "scallop island". By the time of Dr Johnson's tour, the island was held by a tenant of Sir Alexander Macdonald. Haswell-Smith, Hamish. The Scottish Islands. Edinburgh: Canongate. ISBN 978-1-84195-454-7. Johnson, Samuel A Journey to the Western Islands of Scotland. London.Scalpay, Inner Hebrides – Looking south to Skye from Scalpay.
24. Skye – Skye, or the Isle of Skye, is the largest and most northerly major island in the Inner Hebrides of Scotland. Although it has been suggested that the Gaelic Sgitheanach describes a winged shape there is no definitive agreement as to the name's origins. Resident numbers declined from over 20,000 in the early 19th century by the closing decade of the 20th century. Skye's population increased between 1991 and 2001. Although their numbers are in decline, this aspect of island culture remains important. The main industries are tourism, agriculture, forestry. Skye is part of the Highland Council local area. The island's largest settlement is Portree, known for its picturesque harbour. There are links, since 1995, to the mainland by a road bridge. The climate is mild, windy. The abundant wildlife includes the golden eagle, Atlantic salmon. There are nationally important invertebrate populations on the surrounding sea bed. Skye is celebrated in poetry and song. One possible derivation comes from an early Celtic word for winged, which may describe how the island's peninsulas radiate out from a mountainous centre. Norse - and English-speaking peoples have influenced the history of Skye; the relationships between their names for the island are not straightforward.Skye – The vertical west face of the Bastier Tooth (a top next to Am Basteir) in the Cuillin, with Sgùrr nan Gillean in the background
26. Ardnamurchan – Ardnamurchan is a 50-square-mile peninsula in the ward management area of Lochaber, Highland, Scotland, noted for being very unspoilt and undisturbed. Its remoteness is accentuated by the main route being a single track road for much of its length. The whole north western corner of Ardnamurchan contains a complex of volcanic structures, often described, perhaps inaccurately, as a caldera. Relatively small areas of lava that were ejected onto the surface are found in some parts of the peninsula. Geological research is continuing in the area. The sub-concentric rings of the volcanic complex can easily be seen in topographic maps, though they are less obvious on the ground. He records three instances of signs performed on the peninsula. He didn't listen and instead boarded his boat with the stolen goods. Columba then followed the boat, prayed to God. Donaldson identifies "Buarblaig" with Muribulg, where the Annals of Tigernach record the Dalriads in 731. It may also be the'Muirbole Paradisi' mentioned by Adomnán. Although its stone foundations still remain, the village of Bourblaige longer exists, as it was destroyed in the Highland Clearances in the early 19th century. Relics of a Viking burial in Cul na Croise have been given to the West Highland Museum at Fort William. In 2011, a Viking burial, probably from the 10th century, was unearthed at Port an Eilean Mhòir on Ardnamurchan. Grave goods buried alongside a Viking warrior found in the boat suggest he was a high-ranking warrior.Ardnamurchan – Satellite photo of Ardnamurchan
27. Morvern – Morvern, historically also spelt Morven, is a peninsula and traditional district in the Highlands, on the west coast of Scotland. The name is derived from the Gaelic A' Mhorbhairne. The highest point is the summit of the Corbett Creach Bheinn which reaches 853 metres in elevation. Administratively Morvern is now part of the ward management area in Highland council area. It forms part of the traditional shire and current county of Argyll. Morvern is approximately 250 square miles with a current population of about 320. The Senchus fer n-Alban states that "Baotan has twenty houses". Kinlochaline Castle was once the seat of the MacInnes clan. It was largely restored in 1890. Before the Highland clearances the population of Morvern was about 2500. The history of the parish of Morvern in the 19th century has been detailed in Philip Gaskell's Morvern Transformed. Some residents of St Kilda were relocated to the main village of Morvern, when the island was evacuated in 1930. On 19th- and early 20th-century Ordnance Survey maps, Morvern is spelled "Morven". From 1845 to 1975 most of the peninsula formed the civil parish of Morvern. The Kingairloch area in the east formed part of the civil parish of Ardgour.Morvern – Kiel Church and the Morvern Cross, at Lochaline; Kiel is derived from Cille Choluimchille, church of Saint Columba
28. Isle of Mull – Mull is the second largest island of the Inner Hebrides, off the west coast of Scotland in the council area of Argyll and Bute. With an area of 875.35 square kilometres Mull is the fourth largest island surrounding Great Britain. Much of the population lives in Tobermory, its capital. Tobermory is also home to Mull's single malt Scotch whisky distillery: Tobermory distillery. It is widely believed that Mull was inhabited from shortly around 6000 BC. Between AD 400, Iron Age inhabitants were building protective forts, duns and crannogs. In the 14th century Mull became part of the Lordship of the Isles. After the collapse of the Lordship in 1493 the island was taken over by the clan Campbell. By some accounts, a ship of the defeated Spanish Armada fleeing the English fleet in 1588, anchored in Tobermory to take on provisions. After a dispute over payment, the ship caught the gunpowder magazine exploded, sinking the vessel. In her hold, reputedly, was £300,000 in gold bullion. Other sources claim the vessel was the San Juan de Sicilia, which, records indicate, carried troops, not treasure. No significant treasure has ever been recovered in Tobermory Bay. In 1773 the island was visited during their famous Tour of the Western Islands. During the Highland Clearances in the 19th centuries, the population fell from 10,000 to less than 3,000.Isle of Mull – Mid 18th century map of Mull
29. Firth of Lorn – The Firth of Lorn or Lorne in origin refers to the waters off the coast of a now obsolete geopolitical region, Lorn or Lorne. A firth in Scottish English is a long estuary, the same as or similar to a fjord, although somewhat arbitrary in application. The name of Lorn descends from the proto-history of Scotland. A geographical reference defines it as being a district in the county of Argyllshire, where the -- shire segment reflects a former political status of Argyll. Lorn was a maritime district, located on Scotland's west coast, on the Firth of Lorn. The northern border was Loch Leven. The southern borders were the line of Loch Awe, Loch Avich, Loch Melfort. Lorne lost its geopolitical status with the passage of the Local Government Act 1973, effective in 1975. It had survived again 1972, which retained most of the traditional local structure. In 1975, two Lorne's appeared, South, both now burghs in the county of Argyll, in the region of Strathclyde. With the abolition of the counties in 1996, part of Dumbarton were united into the Argyll and Bute Council Area. It contains villages." None of them are Lorn. Lorn shattered, so to speak, under the exigencies of time and politics. The firth, however, which had long since acquired the name, remains a living concept.Firth of Lorn – The Firth and other nearby waterways
30. Jura, Scotland – Jura is an island in the Inner Hebrides of Scotland, adjacent and to the north-east of Islay. Compared with its more populous neighbour, Jura is mountainous, bare and infertile, covered largely by vast areas of blanket bog, hence its small population. In a list of the islands of Scotland ranked by size, Jura comes eighth, whereas ranked by population it comes thirty-first. It is in the area of Argyll and Bute. Evidence of settlements on Jura dating from the Mesolithic period was first uncovered in the 1960s. There is evidence of Neolithic settlement at Poll a' Cheo in the southwest of the island. The modern name "Jura" is from the Old Norse Dyrøy meaning "beast island". The Viking occupation of the Hebrides was formalised when sovereignty was secured in 1098. The Lordship of the Isles was dominated by Clan Donald, whose seat was at Finlaggan on Islay. Clan Donald continued to rule the southern part of Jura, through the MacDonalds of Dunnyveg. The north of the island, however, was owned by Clan Maclean, whose seat was at Aros Castle in Glengarrisdale. In 1647, this was to be the site of the Campbells of Craignish. The latest editions of Ordnance Survey maps still mark the location as ` Maclean's Skull Cave'. Despite this, the 16th century was a period of skirmishing between the warring clans: McDonalds, Campbells, others. Then in 1607 the Campbells finally bought the island from the MacDonalds.Jura, Scotland – Satellite picture of Jura
31. Sound of Jura – The Sound of Jura is a strait in Argyll and Bute, Scotland. It is one of the several Sounds of Scotland. It is to the east to the west of Knapdale, part of a peninsula of the Scottish mainland. The Crinan Canal's west exit is also in the Sound of Jura. Lochs that lead to the sound include Loch Caolisport. The end is particularly treacherous, being filled with skerries, small islands, strong tidal currents and whirlpools. The Gulf of Corryvreckan, which contains the world's third largest, leads from the north of the sound. The south end, in contrast, is more open; most of the small islands and reefs are close into shore. The ferries to Colonsay and Islay from the mainland skirt the southern end of the sound.Sound of Jura – Small group of skerries in the Sound of Jura, looking Northwest towards Jura.
32. Islay – Islay is the southernmost island of the Inner Hebrides of Scotland. Known as "The Queen of the Hebrides", it lies in Argyll around 40 kilometres north of the Irish coast. The island's capital is Bowmore where a distillery are located. Port Ellen is the main port. Islay is the seventh-largest island surrounding Great Britain, with a total area of almost 620 square kilometres. The first written reference may have come in the 1st century AD. Improvements to agriculture and transport led to a rising population, which peaked in the mid-19th century. This was followed by declining resident numbers. It has over 3,000 inhabitants and the main commercial activities are agriculture, malt whisky distillation and tourism. Scottish Gaelic is spoken by about a quarter of the population. There is a growing interest in renewable energy. The climate is ameliorated by the Gulf Stream. Islay is 40 kilometres long from north to south and 24 kilometres broad. Ardnave Point is a conspicuous promontory on the northwest coast. The south coast is sheltered from the prevailing winds and, as a result, relatively wooded.Islay – Rocks of the Rhinns complex at Claddach Bay on the southernmost tip of the Rinns
33. North Channel (Great Britain and Ireland) – The North Channel is the strait between north-eastern Ireland and south-western Scotland. The southern boundary of the strait is a line joining the Mull of Galloway and Ballyquintin Point. The northern boundary is a line joining Portnahaven and Benbane Head. The narrowest part of the strait is between the Mull of Kintyre and Torr Head where its width is 21 kilometres. The deepest part is called Beaufort's Dyke. It is crossed by a large number of ferry services. In 1953, it was the scene of a serious maritime disaster, the sinking of the ferry Princess Victoria. In the Victorian era, engineers proposed a rail tunnel between Stranraer and Belfast. This strait was formerly known as the Irish Channel. In the 19th century, Alexander Keith Johnston's suggested name St Patrick's Channel had currency, but it was rejected by the hydrographic department. According to the ILDSA, this was first accomplished in 1947 by Tom Blower. The first two-way crossing was completed by a six-person relay team on 28 July 2015. Straits of Moyle St George's ChannelNorth Channel (Great Britain and Ireland) – Map of the North Channel
34. Rathlin Island – Rathlin Island is an island and civil parish off the coast of County Antrim and the northernmost point of Northern Ireland. The L-shaped island is 4 miles from east to west, 2.5 miles from north to south. The highest point on the island is 134 metres above level. Rathlin is 15.5 miles from the Mull of Kintyre, the southern tip of Scotland's Kintyre peninsula. It is part of the Causeway Coast and Glens council area, is represented by the Rathlin Development & Community Association. Rathlin is part of the traditional Cary, of current Moyle. Rathlin Island Ferry Ltd won a six-year contract for the service in 2008 providing it as a subsidised "lifeline" service. There is an ongoing investigation on how the transfer was handled between the environment minister and the new owners. Rathlin is of prehistoric volcanic origin, having been created as part of the British Tertiary Volcanic Province. Rathlin is one of 43 Special Areas of Conservation in Northern Ireland. It is home to tens of thousands including common guillemots, kittiwakes, razorbills -- about thirty bird families in total. It is a popular place for birdwatchers, with a Royal Society for the Protection of Birds reserve offering spectacular views of Rathlin's colony. The RSPB has also successfully managed natural habitat to facilitate the return of the red-billed chough. Northern Ireland's only breeding pair of choughs can be seen during the summer months. The cliffs on this relatively bare island are impressive, standing 70 metres tall.Rathlin Island – False-colour NASA Landsat image showing Rathlin, the County Antrim coast and Kintyre
35. Northern Ireland – Northern Ireland is a top-level constituent unit of the United Kingdom in the northeast of Ireland. It is variously described amongst other terms. Northern Ireland shares a border to the west with the Republic of Ireland. In 2011, its population was 1,810,863, constituting about 3 % of the UK's population. Northern Ireland was created in 1921, when Ireland was partitioned by an act of the British parliament. Northern Ireland has historically been the most industrialised region of Ireland. After declining as a result of the social turmoil of the Troubles, its economy has grown significantly since the late 1990s. 58.2% of those unemployed had been unemployed for over a year. Prominent artists and persons from Northern Ireland include Van Morrison, Rory McIlroy, Joey Dunlop, Wayne McCullough and George Best. Some people from Northern Ireland prefer to identify as Irish while others prefer to identify as British. In many sports, the island of Ireland fields a single team, a notable exception being football. People from Northern Ireland may compete for either Great Britain or Ireland at the Olympic Games. The region, now Northern Ireland was the bedrock of the Irish war of resistance against English programmes of colonialism in the 16th century. Irish resistance made English control fragmentary. In Northern Ireland, the victories of the Battle of the Boyne in this latter war are still celebrated by some Protestants.Northern Ireland – Scrabo Tower, County Down
36. Belfast – On the River Lagan, it had a population of 286,000 after the 2015 council reform. Belfast was granted status in 1888. Belfast was a global industrial centre until the latter half of the 20th century. It has sustained a major aerospace and missiles industry since the mid 1930s. The inward migration it brought made Belfast Ireland's biggest at the beginning of the 20th century. Belfast remains a centre for industry, as well as the arts, higher education, business, law, is the economic engine of Northern Ireland. Additionally, Belfast centre has undergone considerable expansion and regeneration in recent years, notably around Victoria Square. Belfast is served by Belfast International Airport 15 miles west of the city. The Belfast is derived from the Irish Béal Feirsde, later spelled Béal Feirste. The name" mouth of the ford". This area was the hub around which the original settlement developed. The Irish name Béal Feirste is shared by a townland in County Mayo, whose name has been anglicised as Belfarsad. This interpretation was favoured by John O'Donovan. It seems clear, however, that the river itself was named after the tidal crossing. In Ulster Scots the name of the city is Bilfawst or Bilfaust, although "Belfast" is also used.Belfast – Top: Skyline of Belfast Middle top left to right, Queen's University Belfast, Albert Memorial Clock, Belfast, The Boat, Titanic Belfast Bottom left to right: Belfast City Hall, view of Belfast with Samson and Goliath.
37. Irish Sea – The Irish Sea, separates the islands of Ireland and Great Britain. Anglesey is the largest island within the Irish Sea, followed by the Isle of Man. The sea is occasionally, but rarely, referred to as the Manx Sea. Annual traffic between Great Britain and Ireland amounts to 17 million tonnes of traded goods. At the height of the glaciation the central part of the modern sea was probably a long lake. As the ice retreated 10,000 years ago the lake then fully saline once again. The International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the Irish Sea as follows: On the North. The Southern limit of the Scottish Seas. On the South. A line joining St. David's Head to Carnsore Point. It is connected at both its northern and southern ends. To the north, the connection is through Northern Ireland and the Malin Sea. The southern end is linked through the St George's Channel between south eastern Ireland and Pembrokeshire in Wales, the Celtic Sea. The western channel's depth ranges in the Beaufort's Dyke in the North Channel. The Irish Sea, at its greatest width, narrows to 75 km.Irish Sea – Satellite image
38. Lambay Island – Lambay, sometimes referred to as Lambay Island lies in the Irish Sea off the coast of north County Dublin in Ireland. It is the easternmost point of the province of Leinster. Similarly named places are Lamba in the Faroe Islands and Lamba in Shetland. Lambay Island is about 2.5 square kilometres in size. Its highest point rises to 127 metres. There are southern sides of the island, with a more low-lying western shore. The geology is dominated with shales and limestones. There streams. Baring had been working in the USA when he fell with the wife of one of his co-directors. She married Baring. The story of their early life on the island inspired Julian Slade’s musical Free as Air. Everything is of a grey stone. According to the Revelstoke records on the island, Lambay Castle is also the location where Michael Powell wrote his screenplay for Black Narcissus. On a small cliff-top near the White House is an Catholic chapel, with a portico of tapering stone columns and a barrel vaulted ceiling. Inside are religious symbols and artefacts made by members of the family, including the little stain-glass window.Lambay Island – Lambay
39. Republic of Ireland – Ireland, also described as the Republic of Ireland, is a sovereign state in north-western Europe occupying about five-sixths of the island of Ireland. The state shares its only border with Northern Ireland, a part of the United Kingdom. It is a parliamentary republic. The head of government is the Taoiseach, elected by the Dáil and appoints other government ministers. The state was created as a result of the Anglo-Irish Treaty. It was officially declared a republic following the Republic of Ireland Act 1948. Ireland became a member of the United Nations in December 1955. It joined the predecessor of the European Union, in 1973. After joining the EEC, Ireland enacted a series of economic policies that resulted in rapid economic growth. The country achieved considerable prosperity between the years of 2007, which became known as the Celtic Tiger period. This was halted by an financial crisis that began in 2008, in conjunction with the concurrent global economic crash. However, as the Irish economy was the fastest growing in the EU in 2015, Ireland is quickly ascending league tables comparing wealth and prosperity internationally. In 2015, Ireland was ranked as the joint sixth most developed country in the world by the United Nations Human Development Index. It also performs well including freedom of the press, economic freedom and civil liberties. Ireland is a founding member of the Council of Europe and the OECD.Republic of Ireland – The Irish Parliamentary Party was formed in 1882 by Charles Stewart Parnell (1846–1891).
40. Howth Head – Howth Head is a peninsula northeast of Dublin city in Ireland. Howth falls under the local governance of Fingal County Council. Entry to the headland is at Sutton while the village of the harbour are on the northern shore. Baily Lighthouse is on the southeastern part of Howth Head. Nearby are the districts of Baldoyle and Portmarnock. The earliest mention of the peninsula was on a map attributed in Greek Edrou Heremos. There are two railway stations near the head. Howth station is on the head in the village of Howth. Both have regular services to and from Dublin city centre. Historically the Hill of Howth Tramway ran around the head between 1901 and 1959. Additionally Dublin Bus routes serve the head. There are steep sea cliffs around parts, especially on the north coast. Gorse grows in many places on the headland. Fires are frequent during dry summers. The cliffs support a large colony of seabirds, notably razorbills, common guillemots, fulmars, great cormorants.Howth Head – Aerial view of Howth Head looking south.
41. Dublin – Dublin is the capital and largest city of Ireland. It is at the mouth of the River Liffey. The city has an urban population of 1,345,402. The population of the Greater Dublin Area, as of 2016, was 1,904,806 people. Founded as a Viking settlement, the Kingdom of Dublin became Ireland's principal city following the Norman invasion. The city was briefly the second largest city in the British Empire before the Acts of Union in 1800. Following the partition of Ireland in 1922, it became the capital of the Irish Free State, later renamed Ireland. It is administered by a City Council. Dublin is a contemporary centre for education, the arts, administration, economy and industry. The name Dublin comes from the Gaelic Dublind, early Classical Irish Dubhlind/Duibhlind, dubh / d̪uβ /, alt. Irish rhymes from Dublin County show that in Dublin Leinster Irish it was pronounced Duílinn / d̪ˠi: lʲiɲ /. Other localities in Ireland also bear the Duibhlinn, variously anglicized as Devlin, Divlin and Difflin. Historically, scribes using the Gaelic script wrote bh with a dot over the b, rendering Duḃlinn or Duiḃlinn. Those without knowledge of Irish omitted the dot, spelling the name as Dublin. Variations on the name are also found in traditionally Gaelic-speaking areas such as An Linne Dhubh, part of Loch Linnhe.Dublin – Clockwise from top: Samuel Beckett Bridge, Trinity College, Custom House, Dublin Castle, O'Connell Bridge, and Convention Centre Dublin.
42. Wicklow HeadWicklow Head – See also 
43. Celtic Sea – The southern and western boundaries are delimited by the continental shelf, which drops away sharply. The Isles of Scilly are an archipelago of small islands in the sea. The Celtic Sea takes its name to the north and east. The name was first proposed by E.W.L. Holt at a 1921 meeting in Dublin of fisheries experts from England, Wales, Ireland, Scotland and France. The need for a common name came to be felt because of the common marine biology, hydrology. It was adopted by marine oceanographers, later by petroleum exploration firms. There are no land features to divide the Celtic Sea to the south and west. For these limits, Holt suggested the island of Ushant off the tip of Brittany. The International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the Celtic Sea as follows: On the North. The Southern limit of the Irish Sea, the South coast of Ireland, thence from Mizen Head a line drawn to a position 51°0′N 11°30′W. On the West and South. On the East. The Western limit of the English Channel and the Western limit of the Bristol Channel. The seabed under the Celtic Sea is called the Celtic Shelf, part of the continental shelf of Europe.Celtic Sea – Celtic Sea as viewed from Cork Harbour
44. Land's End – Land's End is a headland and holiday complex in western Cornwall, England. Peal Point, is a modest headland compared with nearby headlands such as Pedn-men-dhu overlooking Sennen Cove and Pordenack, to the south. The present hotel and complex is at Carn Kez, 200 m south of the actual Land's End. Land's End has a particular resonance because it is often used to suggest distance. Land's End to the northernmost point of England is a distance of 556 miles by road. There are two varieties of granite represented at Land's End. Adjacent to the granite is coarse-grained with large phenocrysts of orthoclase, sometimes more than 5 in in length. The granite dates to 268 -- million years ago of the Permian period. Land's End is a popular venue for rock climbers. The area around Land's End has been designated part of an Important Plant Area, for rare species of flora. Tourists have been visiting Land's End for over hundred years. The Eastern Telegraph Company followed by refreshments at the First and Last Inn in Sennen. They then headed for Land's End, often on horse, because of the uneven and muddy lanes. Over hundred people could be at Land's End at any one time. At Carn Kez, the First and Last Inn owned a small house which looked after the horses while visitors roamed the cliffs.Land's End – Land's End
45. England – England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders to the west. The Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated to the south. The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain mostly comprises low plains, especially in southern England. However, there are uplands in the north and in the south west. The capital is London, the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland through another Act of Union to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles". The Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Angeln peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used.England – Stonehenge, a Neolithic monument
46. Isles of Scilly – The Isles of Scilly are an archipelago off the south western tip of the Cornish peninsula of Great Britain. It is the southernmost location in the United Kingdom, as well as the most westerly in England. The population of all the islands at the 2011 census was 2,203. Some services are combined with those of Cornwall. However, since 1890, the islands have had a local authority. The adjective "Scillonian" is sometimes used for things related to the archipelago. The Duchy of Cornwall owns most of the freehold land on the islands. Tourism is a major part of the local economy, along with agriculture — particularly the production of cut flowers. Until the early 20th century its history had been one of subsistence living. The main industry now is tourism. The islands may correspond to the Cassiterides mentioned by the Greeks. However, the archipelago itself does not contain much tin -- it may be that the islands were used as a post. It is likely that until relatively recent times the islands perhaps joined together into one island named Ennor. The Ennor is a contraction of En Noer, meaning the ` great island'. Remains of a prehistoric farm have been found on Nornour, now a rocky skerry far too small for farming.Isles of Scilly – Aerial photo of the Isles of Scilly
47. Bay of Biscay – The Bay of Biscay /ˈbɪskeɪ, -ki/ is a gulf of the northeast Atlantic Ocean located south of the Celtic Sea. It the northern coast of Spain west to Cape Ortegal. The greatest depth is 4,735 metres. The Bay of Biscay is named after Biscay on the Spanish coast, probably standing for the western Basque districts. The Bay of Biscay is home to some of the Atlantic Ocean's weather. Large storms occur in the bay, especially during the winter months. Up until recent years it was a regular occurrence for merchant vessels to founder in Biscay storms. The International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the Bay of Biscay as "a line joining Cap Ortegal to Penmarch Point". The portion is the Cantabrian Sea. The phenomenon of June Gloom is common. In early summer a large fog triangle fills the southwestern half of the bay, covering just a few kilometres inland. As winter begins, weather becomes severe. These depressions bring light though very constant rain to its shores. The Gulf Stream enters the bay following the continental shelf's anti-clockwise, keeping temperatures moderate all year long. The main cities on the shores of the Bay of Biscay are Donostia-San Sebastián, Bilbao, Santander, Gijón and Avilés.Bay of Biscay – Spanish coast along the Bay of Biscay
48. Spain – Along with France and Morocco, it is one of only three countries to have both Atlantic and Mediterranean coastlines. By population, Spain is the fifth in the European Union, after Italy. Largest city is Madrid, other major urban areas include Barcelona, Valencia, Seville, Bilbao and Málaga. Modern humans first arrived around 35,000 years ago. In the Middle Ages, the area was later by the Moors. Spain is a democracy organised under a constitutional monarchy. It is a developed country with the world's fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP and sixteenth largest by purchasing power parity. Jesús Luis Cunchillos argues that the root of the span is the Phoenician word spy, meaning "to forge metals". Therefore, i-spn-ya would mean "the land where metals are forged". Don Isaac Abravanel and Solomon ibn Verga, gave an explanation now considered folkloric. This man was a Grecian by birth, but, given a kingdom in Spain. He became related by marriage to the nephew of king Heracles, who also ruled over a kingdom in Spain. Based upon their testimonies, this eponym would have already been by c. 350 BCE. Iberia enters written records as a land populated largely by Basques and Celts. After an arduous conquest, the peninsula came under the rule of the Roman Empire.Spain – Lady of Elche
49. Morocco – Morocco, officially known as the Kingdom of Morocco, is a sovereign country located in the Maghreb region of North Africa. Geographically, Morocco is characterized by large portions of desert. It has Mediterranean coastlines. Morocco has an area of 446,550 km2. The largest city is Casablanca. Major cities include Marrakesh, Tangier, Tetouan, Salé, Fes, Agadir, Meknes, Oujda, Kenitra, Nador. A historically prominent regional power, Morocco has a history of independence not shared by its neighbours. Morocco remained the only North-African country to avoid Ottoman occupation. The current ruling dynasty, seized power in 1666. In 1912 Morocco was regained its independence in 1956. Culture is a blend of Arab, indigenous Berber, Sub-Saharan African, European influences. Morocco claims the non-self-governing territory of Western Sahara as its Southern Provinces. Morocco annexed the territory in 1975, leading until a cease-fire in 1991. Peace processes have far failed to break the political deadlock. Morocco is a constitutional monarchy with an elected parliament.Morocco – Berber Roman King Ptolemy of Mauretania.
50. Algeria – Algeria, officially the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria, is a sovereign state in North Africa on the Mediterranean coast. Most populous city is Algiers, located in the country's far north. With an area of 2,381,741 square kilometres, Algeria is the largest in Africa. The country is a semi-presidential republic consisting of 1,541 communes. Abdelaziz Bouteflika has been President since 1999. Berbers are generally considered to be the indigenous inhabitants of Algeria. Algeria is a middle power. Energy exports are the backbone of the economy. The national oil company, is the largest company in Africa. Algeria is the founding member of the Maghreb Union. The country's name derives from the city of Algiers. The city's name in turn derives from the Arabic al-Jazā ` a truncated form of the older Jazā ` ir Banī Mazghanna, employed by medieval geographers such as al-Idrisi. In the region of Ain Hanech, early remnants of hominid occupation in North Africa were found. Neanderthal tool makers produced hand axes in the Levalloisian and Mousterian styles similar to those in the Levant. Algeria was the site of the highest state of development of Middle Paleolithic Flake tool techniques.Algeria – Ancient Roman Empire ruins of Timgad. Street leading to the Arch of Trajan.
51. Mauritania – Mauritania /mɔːrɪˈteɪniə/, officially the Islamic Republic of Mauritania, is a country in the Maghreb region of western North Africa. Consequently the population is concentrated in the south, where precipitation is slightly higher. Largest city is Nouakchott, located on the Atlantic coast, home to around one-third of the country's 3.5 million people. The government was overthrown on 6 August 2008, in a military d'état led by General Mohamed Ould Abdel Aziz. On 16 Aziz resigned from the military to run for president in the 19 July elections, which he won. About 20% of Mauritanians live on less than US$1.25 per day. The Bafours were primarily agriculturalist, among the Saharan people to abandon their historically nomadic lifestyle. With the gradual desiccation of the Sahara, they headed south. Many of the Berber tribes claimed Yemeni origins. A 2000 DNA study of Yemeni people suggested there might be some ancient connection between the peoples. Other peoples also migrated south past the Sahara to West Africa. In 1076, Moorish Islamic warrior monks conquered the large area of the ancient Ghana Empire. Over the next 500 years, Arabs overcame fierce resistance from the local population to dominate Mauritania. The Char Bouba war was the final effort of the peoples to repel the Yemeni Maqil Arab invaders. The invaders were led by the Beni Hassan tribe.Mauritania – The Dutch trading post of Arguin in 1665
52. Mali – Mali, officially the Republic of Mali, is a landlocked country in West Africa. Mali is the eighth-largest country in Africa, with an area of just over 1,240,000 square kilometres. The population of Mali is million. Its capital is Bamako. The country's economy centers on fishing. Some of Mali's natural resources include gold, being the third largest producer of gold in the African continent, salt. About half the population lives below the international line of $1.25 a day. A majority of the population are Muslims. Present-day Mali was once part of three West African empires that controlled trans-Saharan trade: the Songhai Empire. During its golden age, there was a flourishing of astronomy, literature, art. At its peak in 1300, the Mali Empire stretched to the west coast of Africa. During the Scramble for Africa, France seized control of Mali, making it a part of French Sudan. French Sudan joined in 1959 achieving independence in 1960 as the Mali Federation. Thereafter, following Senegal's withdrawal from the federation, the Sudanese Republic declared itself the independent Republic of Mali. Later fighting between Tuareg and Islamist rebels.Mali – The pages above are from Timbuktu Manuscripts written in Sudani script (a form of Arabic) from the Mali Empire showing established knowledge of astronomy and mathematics. Today there are close to a million of these manuscripts found in Timbuktu alone.
53. Ivory Coast – Ivory Coast or Côte d'Ivoire, officially named the Republic of Côte d'Ivoire, is a country located in West Africa. Its economic capital and largest city is the port city of Abidjan. Its bordering countries are Guinea and Liberia in the west, Ghana in the east. The Gulf of Guinea is located south of Ivory Coast. Prior to its colonization by Europeans, Ivory Coast was home including Gyaaman, the Kong Empire, Baoulé. Indénié and Sanwi, attempted to retain their separate identity through the French colonial period and after independence. Ivory Coast was later formed into a French colony in 1893 amid the European scramble for Africa. Ivory Coast achieved independence in 1960, they were led by Félix Houphouët-Boigny, who ruled the country until 1993. It maintained close economic association with its West African neighbors while at the same time maintaining close ties to the West, especially France. Since the end of Houphouët-Boigny's rule in 1993, Ivory Coast has experienced one d'état, in 1999, two religion-grounded civil wars. The first took the second during 2010-2011. Ivory Coast is a republic with a strong power invested in its President. Through the production of cocoa, the country was an economic powerhouse in West Africa during the 1960s and 1970s. Ivory Coast went in the 1980s contributing to a period of political and social turmoil. Changing into the 21st-century Ivorian economy still relies heavily on agriculture, with smallholder cash-crop production being dominant.Ivory Coast – Prehistoric polished stone celt from Boundiali in northern Ivory Coast, photo taken at the IFAN Museum of African Arts in Dakar, Senegal
54. Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha – Despite this change, the whole territory is commonly referred to as simply Saint Helena after its main island. Similarly, demonym Saint Helenians and the derived name for the local nationality is commonly understood to include Ascension Islanders and Tristanians, as well. Administratively, the territory is divided as the territory's geography, namely Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha. Each is governed by a council. See Constitution section below. The island of St Helena is then further divided into eight districts. The Portuguese found Saint Helena uninhabited, with an abundance of trees and freshwater. They imported livestock, fruit trees and vegetables, built a chapel and one or two houses. Though they formed no permanent settlement, the island became crucially from Asia. Englishman Sir Francis Drake probably located the island on the final lap of his circumnavigation of the world. A number of houses were built. The fort was renamed the town Jamestown, in honour of the Duke of York and heir apparent, later King James II of England. The island of Saint Helena, had been governed by the East India Company since 1659. For similar reasons Tristan da Cunha was annexed as a dependency of the Cape Colony August 1816 at the settlement of the Napoleonic wars. For a short period prior, Tristan da Cunha had been inhabited by a private American expedition who named the territory the Islands of Refreshment.Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha – A View of the Town and Island of St Helena in the Atlantic Ocean belonging to the English East India Company (engraving c. 1790).
55. Queen Maud Land – Queen Maud Land is a c. 2.7 million-square-kilometre region of Antarctica claimed as a dependent territory by Norway. The territory lies between 20° west and 45° east, between the British Antarctic Territory to the west and the Australian Antarctic Territory to the east. Positioned in East Antarctica, the territory comprises about one-fifth of the total area of Antarctica. The claim is named after Queen Maud of Norway. Norwegian Hjalmar Riiser-Larsen was the first person known to have set foot in the territory, in 1930. On 14 January 1939, the territory was claimed by Norway. From 1939 until 1945, Nazi Germany claimed New Swabia, which consisted of part of Queen Maud Land. On 23 June 1961, Queen Maud Land became part of the Antarctic Treaty System, making it a demilitarised zone. It is one of two Antarctic claims made by Norway, the other being Peter I Island. They are administrated by the Polar Affairs Department of the Norwegian Ministry of Justice and Public Security in Oslo. Most of the territory is covered by the Antarctic ice sheet, a tall ice wall stretches throughout its coast. In some areas further within the ice sheet, mountain ranges breach through the ice, allowing for birds to breed and the growth of a limited flora. The region is divided into the Princess Martha Coast, Prince Olav Coast. The waters off the coast are called the King Haakon VII Sea. There is no permanent population, although there are 12 active research stations housing a maximum average of 40 scientists, the numbers fluctuating depending on the season.Queen Maud Land – The Drygalski Mountains, a constituent range of the Orvin Mountains
56. List of Antarctic territorial claims – Seven states maintain a territorial claim on eight territories in Antarctica. These countries have tended to site their scientific study facilities within the claimed territory. According to Argentina and Chile, the Spanish Empire had claims on Antarctica. The capitulación granted to the conquistador Pedro Sánchez de la Hoz explicitly included the lands south of the Straits of Magellan. This grant established, according to Argentina and Chile, that an animus occupandi existed on the part of Spain in Antarctica. Argentina and Chile treat these treaties as legal international treaties mediated by the Catholic Church, at that time a recognized arbiter in such matters. The United Kingdom reasserted sovereignty over the Falkland Islands in the far South Atlantic in 1833 and maintained a continuous presence there. All these territories were administered as Falkland Islands Dependencies from Stanley by the Governor of the Falkland Islands. The motivation for this declaration lay in the need to regulate and tax the whaling industry effectively. In 1917, the wording of the claim was modified, so as to unambiguously include all the territory in the sector stretching to the South Pole. It was the ambition of Leopold Amery, then Under-Secretary of State for the Colonies, that Britain incorporate the entire continent into the Empire. The Order in Council then went on to appoint the Governor-General and Commander-in Chief of New Zealand as the Governor of the territory. In 1930, the United Kingdom claimed Enderby Land. This however had no bearing on the obligations of the Governors-General of both countries in their capacity as Governors of the Antarctic territories. Meanwhile, alarmed by these unilateral declarations, the French government laid claim to a strip of the continent in 1924.List of Antarctic territorial claims – As Under-Secretary of State for the Colonies, Leopold Amery aimed to assert British sovereignty over the entire continent of Antarctica.
57. Norway – The sub-Antarctic Bouvet Island are dependent territories and thus not considered part of the Kingdom. Norway also lays claim to a section of Antarctica known as Queen Maud Land. Until 1814, the Kingdom included the Faroe Islands, Iceland. It also included Shetland and Orkney until 1468. It also included the following provinces, now in Sweden: Jämtland, Härjedalen, Särna-Idre and Bohuslän. Norway has a population of 5,213,985. The country shares a eastern border with Sweden. Norway is bordered by Finland and Russia with Denmark on the other side. Norway has an extensive coastline, facing the Barents Sea. King Harald V of the Dano-German House of Glücksburg is the current King of Norway. Erna Solberg became Prime Minister in 2013, replacing Jens Stoltenberg. Norway divides state power between the Parliament, the Cabinet, the Supreme Court, as determined by the 1814 Constitution. The Kingdom is established as a merger of petty kingdoms. Norway has both political subdivisions on two levels: counties and municipalities. The Sámi people have a certain amount over traditional territories through the Sámi Parliament and the Finnmark Act.Norway – The helmet found at Gjermundbu near Haugsbygd, Buskerud, is the only Viking Age helmet that has been found.
58. Circle of latitude – A circle of latitude on the Earth is an imaginary east–west circle connecting all locations with a given latitude. A location's position along a circle of latitude is given by its longitude. Circles of latitude are often called parallels because they are parallel to each other –, any two circles are always the same distance apart. Their length can be calculated by a common sine or function. The 60th circle of latitude is half as long as the equator. A circle of latitude is perpendicular to all meridians. The latitude of the circle is approximately the angle between the circle, with the angle's vertex at the Earth's centre. The North and South poles are at 90 ° north and 90 ° south respectively. The Equator is the only circle of latitude which also is a great circle. There is no limit to how precisely latitude can be measured, so there are an infinite number of circles of latitude on Earth. On an projection, centered on the equator, the circles of latitude are horizontal, parallel, equally spaced. On other pseudocylindrical projections, the circles of latitude are horizontal and parallel, but may be spaced unevenly to give the map useful characteristics. On most non-pseudocylindrical projections, the circles of latitude are neither straight nor parallel. North American states have also mostly been created by straight lines, which are often parts of circles of latitudes. For instance, the northern border of Colorado is at 41°N while the southern border is at 37°N.Circle of latitude
59. Meridian (geography) – The position of a point along the meridian is given by its latitude indicating how many degrees south of the Equator the point is. Each meridian is perpendicular to all circles of latitude. Each is also the same length, being half of a great circle on the Earth's surface and therefore measuring 20,003.93 km. Most maps show the lines of longitude. The position of the meridian has changed a few times throughout history, mainly due to the observatory being built next door to the previous one. Such changes had no significant effect. Historically, the average error in the determination of longitude was much larger than the change in position. The adoption of WGS84 as the system has moved the meridian 102.5 metres east of its last position. The position of the current meridian is located using a GPS receiver. The same Latin stem gives a.m. and p.m. used to disambiguate hours of the day when utilizing the 12-hour clock. Therefore, a compass needle will be parallel to the magnetic meridian. The angle between the true meridian is the magnetic declination, relevant for navigating with a compass. Searchable PDF prepared by C. A. White. Resources page of the U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management "Meridian". The New Student's Reference Work.Meridian (geography) – The prime meridian at Greenwich, England. The meridian is actually 102.5 meters east of this point since the adoption of WGS84.
60. Equator – The Equator is about 40,075 kilometres long; some 78.7 % lies over land. Other planets and astronomical bodies have equators similarly defined. The latitude of the Earth's equator is by definition 0° of arc. The plane of Earth's equator when projected outwards to the celestial sphere defines the celestial equator. In the cycle of Earth's seasons, the plane of the equator passes through the Sun twice per year: at the March and September equinoxes. To an observer on the Earth, the Sun appears to travel South over the equator at these times. Light rays from the center of the Sun are perpendicular to the surface of the Earth at the point of solar noon on the Equator. Locations on the Equator experience the quickest sunsets because the sun moves nearly perpendicular to the horizon for most of the year. Because the Earth spins to the east, spacecraft must also launch to the east to take advantage of this Earth-boost of speed. Seasons result from the yearly revolution of the tilt of the Earth's axis relative to the plane of revolution. During the year the southern hemispheres are inclined toward or away from the sun according to Earth's position in its orbit. The hemisphere inclined toward the sun is in summer, while the other hemisphere receives less sun and is in winter. Near the Equator there is little distinction between winter, autumn, or spring. The temperatures are usually high year-round -- in Africa. The temperature at the Equator can plummet during rainstorms.Equator – Left: A monument marking the Equator near the town of Pontianak, Indonesia Right: Road sign marking the Equator near Nanyuki, Kenya
61. Tropic of Capricorn – The Tropic of Capricorn is the circle of latitude that contains the subsolar point on the December solstice. It is thus the southernmost latitude where the Sun can be overhead. Its northern equivalent is the Tropic of Cancer. The Tropic of Capricorn is one of the five major circles of latitude that mark maps of the Earth. The Tropic of Capricorn is the dividing line between the tropics to the north. The northern equivalent of the Tropic of Capricorn is the Tropic of Cancer. In southern Africa, where rainfall is more reliable, farming is possible, though yields are low even with fertilisers. Vegetation here is almost non-existent, though on the eastern slopes of the Andes rainfall is adequate for rainfed agriculture. In modern times the sun appears during this time. The change is due to precession of the equinoxes.Tropic of Capricorn – Tropic of Capricorn in 1794 Dunn Map of the World
62. Arctic Circle – The Arctic Circle is the most northerly of the five major circles of latitude that mark maps of the Earth. The zone just to the south is called the Northern Temperate Zone. The position of the Arctic Circle is not fixed; as of December 2016, it runs 66 ° 33 ′ 46.5 ″ north of the Equator. Consequently, the Arctic Circle is currently drifting northwards at a speed of about 15 m per year. The word "arctic" comes from the word ἄρκτος. Directly on the Arctic Circle these events occur, in exactly once per year: at the June and December solstices, respectively. Tens of thousands of years ago, waves of people gradually eastward to settle. Much later, in the historic period, there has been migration by Europeans and other immigrants. The largest communities north of the Arctic Circle are situated in Russia and Norway: Murmansk, Norilsk, Tromsø and Vorkuta. Rovaniemi in Finland is the largest settlement in the immediate vicinity of the Arctic Circle lying south of the line. In contrast, the largest North American north of the Arctic Circle, Sisimiut, has approximately 5,000 inhabitants. Of the Canadian and United States Arctic communities, Barrow, Alaska is the largest settlement with about inhabitants. The Arctic Circle is roughly 17,662 kilometres long. The north of the Circle is about 20,000,000 km2 and covers roughly 4 % of Earth's surface. The Arctic Circle passes through the Arctic Ocean, the Scandinavian Peninsula, North Asia, Greenland.Arctic Circle – A sign along the Dalton Highway marking the location of the Arctic Circle in Alaska.
63. Antarctic Circle – The Antarctic Circle is the most southerly of the five major circles of latitude that mark maps of the Earth. The zone immediately to the north is called the Southern Temperate Zone. The position of the Antarctic Circle is not fixed; as of December 2016, it runs 66 ° 33 ′ 46.5 ″ south of the Equator. Consequently, the Antarctic Circle is currently drifting southwards at a speed of about 15 m per year. Directly on the Antarctic Circle these events occur, in exactly once per year: at the December and June solstices, respectively. Some whalers would live there for a year or more. At least three children have been born in Antarctica, albeit in stations north of the Antarctic Circle. The Antarctic Circle is roughly 17,662 kilometres long. The south of the Circle is about 20,000,000 km2 and covers roughly 4 % of Earth's surface. The continent of Antarctica covers much of the area within the Antarctic Circle.Antarctic Circle – An iceberg near the Antarctic Circle north of Detaille Island
65. Eastern Hemisphere – The Eastern Hemisphere is a geographical term for the half of the earth, east of the prime meridian and west of the antimeridian. It is also used to refer to Europe, Asia, Africa, Australia, in contrast with the Western Hemisphere, which includes South America. This hemisphere may also be called the "Oriental Hemisphere". In addition, it may be used in a geopolitical sense as a synonym for the "Old World". The line demarcating the Eastern and Western Hemispheres is an arbitrary convention, unlike the Equator which divides the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. The prime meridian at the antimeridian, at 180 ° longitude are the conventionally accepted boundaries, since they divide eastern longitudes from western longitudes. Prior to the global adoption of standard time, prime meridians were decreed by various countries where time was defined by local noon. The mass of the Eastern Hemisphere is larger than that of the Western Hemisphere and has a wide variety of habitats. 82 % of humans live compared to 18 % in Western Hemisphere. Media related to Eastern Hemisphere at Wikimedia CommonsEastern Hemisphere – Eastern Hemisphere
67. 180th meridian – It is common to both east longitude and longitude. It is used as the basis for the International Date Line because it for the most part passes through the open waters of the Pacific Ocean. However, the meridian passes through Russia and Fiji well as Antarctica. The only place where there are buildings very close to it, is in Fiji. Geographic software libraries or data formats project the world to a rectangle; very often this rectangle is split exactly at the 180th meridian. This often makes it non-trivial to do simple tasks over the 180th meridian. Some examples: The GeoJSON specification strongly suggests splitting geometries so that neither of their parts cross the antimeridian. In OpenStreetMap, areas are split at the 180th meridian. 179th meridian east 179th meridian west Prime meridian180th meridian – 180th meridian
69. 100th meridian west – The 100th west forms a great circle with the 80th meridian east. Dodge City, Kansas lies exactly at the intersection of the 100th meridian. The type of west of the meridian typically relies heavily on irrigation. Historically the meridian has often been taken as a rough boundary between western United States. White settlement, spreading westward after the American Civil War, settled the area during the 1870s. Wallace Stegner's Beyond the Hundredth Meridian, is a biography of John Wesley Powell, an explorer of the American West. 99th meridian west 101st meridian west Rain follows the plow100th meridian west – Sign marking the 100th meridian in Cozad, Nebraska
70. 40th parallel north – The 40th parallel north is a circle of latitude, 40 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane. It crosses Europe, the Mediterranean Sea, Asia, the Pacific Ocean, the Atlantic Ocean. At this latitude the sun is visible 1 minute during the summer solstice and 9 hours, 20 minutes during the winter solstice. On 21 the maximum altitude of the sun is 73.83 degrees and 26.17 degrees on 21 December. On 30 the Kansas -- Nebraska Act created the Territory of Kansas and the Territory of Nebraska divided by the parallel 40 ° north. Both territories were required to determine for themselves whether to permit slavery. Open conflict between pro-slavery forces in the Kansas Territory was one of the root causes of the American Civil War. The parallel 40 ° north formed the northern boundary of the British Colony of Maryland. The colony pushed for a border far south of the 40th parallel. The Mason–Dixon Line was drawn between 1763 and 1767 as the compromise boundary between the overlapping claims of these two colonies. The parallel 40 ° north passes through Ohio; as well as northern suburbs of Indianapolis, Indiana and Denver, Colorado. Baseline Road in Boulder, Colorado traces the parallel 40° north. Thistle, a ghost town since 1983, is slightly below 40 ° north. 39th parallel north 41st parallel north Baseline Geological Exploration of the Fortieth Parallel40th parallel north – Survey marker on the Kansas/Nebraska state line
71. 50th parallel north – The 50th parallel north is a circle of latitude, 50 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane. It crosses Europe, Asia, the Pacific Ocean, the Atlantic Ocean. At this latitude the sun is visible 22 minutes during the summer solstice and 8 hours, 4 minutes during the winter solstice. On the winter solstice it is 16.5 degrees. At this latitude, the average sea temperature between 1982 and 2011 was about 8.5 ° C. The entire island came after World War II. 49th parallel north 51st parallel north50th parallel north – 50th latitude mark in central Mainz, Germany
72. Northern Hemisphere – The Northern Hemisphere of Earth is the half, north of the equator. The dates vary each year due to the difference between the astronomical year. It contains 67.3 % of Earth's land. The Arctic is the north of the Arctic Circle. Its climate is characterized by cool summers. Precipitation mostly comes in the form of snow. The Arctic experiences some days in summer when the Sun never some days during the winter when it never rises. Between the Arctic Circle and the Tropic of Cancer lies the Northern Temperate Zone. The changes in these regions between winter are generally mild, rather than extreme hot or cold. However, a temperate climate can have very unpredictable weather. In the Northern Hemisphere, objects moving above the surface of the Earth tend to turn to the right because of the coriolis effect. As a result, horizontal flows of air or water tend to form clockwise-turning gyres. These are best seen in circulation patterns in the North Atlantic and North Pacific oceans. For the same reason, flows of air down toward the northern surface of the Earth tend to spread across the surface in a clockwise pattern. Thus, clockwise circulation is characteristic of high pressure weather cells in the Northern Hemisphere.Northern Hemisphere – Northern Hemisphere highlighted in blue
73. 45th parallel north – The 45th parallel north is a circle of latitude, 45 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane. It crosses Europe, Asia, the Pacific Ocean, the Atlantic Ocean. At this latitude the sun is visible 37 minutes during the summer solstice and 8 hours, 46 minutes during the winter solstice. The actual boundary of Vermont lies approximately 1 north of the parallel due to an error in the 1772 survey. The boundary here intersects Lake Champlain, shared by the two nations, with most of the lake lying in the United States. The 45th parallel makes up most of the boundary between Montana and Wyoming. The parallel roughly bisects mainland Nova Scotia. Halifax is approximately 40 km south of the parallel. All of mainland New Brunswick lies north of the 45th parallel. The southernmost point in mainland New Brunswick, north of the 45th parallel, is Greens Point, approximately 90 kilometres west of Saint John. All of Campobello and Grand Manan islands, are south of the 45th parallel. In Michigan, the Old Mission Peninsula in Grand Traverse Bay ends just shy of the 45th parallel. Many signs at the Mission Point Lighthouse describe it as being halfway between the equator and north pole. When the Grand Traverse Bay recedes below normal level, it is possible to walk out to the exact line. Farther west, the line roughly bisects the metropolitan area of Minneapolis-St. Paul.45th parallel north – Marker in Theodore Wirth Park, Golden Valley, Minnesota.
74. Southern Hemisphere – The Southern Hemisphere is the half sphere of Earth, south of the equator. It contains parts of five continents, four oceans and most of the Pacific Islands in Oceania. It contains 32.7 % of Earth's land. September 23 is the vernal equinox and March 20 or 21 is the autumnal equinox. The South Pole is in the middle of the hemispherical region. This is because the Southern Hemisphere has much less land; water heats up and cools down more slowly than land. Sundials have the hours increasing in the anticlockwise direction. Tropical storms spin clockwise in the Southern Hemisphere due to the Coriolis effect. A subsection of the Southern Hemisphere, is nearly all oceanic. Forests in the Southern Hemisphere have special features which set them apart from those in the Northern Hemisphere. Both Chile and Australia share, for example, Nothofagus, New Zealand has members of the closely related genera Lophozonia and Fuscospora. The eucalyptus is now also planted in Southern Africa and Latin America for pulp production and, increasingly, biofuel uses. Approximately 800,000,000 humans live in the Southern Hemisphere representing only 10 -- 12 % of the total human population of 7.3 billion, due to less land. Africa Antarctica Asia Australia South America Zealandia Media related to Southern Hemisphere at Wikimedia CommonsSouthern Hemisphere – A famous photo of Earth from Apollo 17 (Blue Marble) originally had the south pole at the top; however, it was turned upside-down to fit the traditional perspective
75. 45th parallel south – The 45th parallel south is a circle of latitude, 45 degrees south of the Earth's equatorial plane. It is the line that marks the halfway point between the equator and the South Pole. Unlike its northern counterpart it passes mostly over open ocean. It crosses the Atlantic Ocean, the Indian Ocean, Australasia, South America. At this latitude the sun is visible 37 minutes during the December solstice and 8 hours, 46 minutes during the June solstice. Starting at the Prime Meridian and heading eastwards, the parallel 45° south passes through: 44th parallel south 46th parallel south45th parallel south – Highway sign marking the 45th parallel in New Zealand.