6th meridian west
The meridian 6° west of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, the Atlantic Ocean, Europe, Africa, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.
The meridian 6° west of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, the Atlantic Ocean, Europe, Africa, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.
|Co-ordinates||Country, territory or sea||Notes|
|Atlantic Ocean||Passing just east of the island of Fugloy, Faroe Islands (at )
Passing just east of the island of Svínoy, Faroe Islands (at )
Passing just west of the island of North Rona, Scotland, United Kingdom (at )
Passing just east of the island of Sula Sgeir, Scotland, United Kingdom (at )
|The Minch||Passing just east of the isle of Lewis, Scotland, United Kingdom (at )|
|United Kingdom||Scotland — islands of South Rona, Raasay, Scalpay, Skye|
|Atlantic Ocean||Sea of the Hebrides|
|United Kingdom||Scotland — peninsulas of Ardnamurchan and Morvern, and the Isle of Mull|
|Atlantic Ocean||Firth of Lorn|
|United Kingdom||Scotland — island of Jura|
|Atlantic Ocean||Sound of Jura — passing just east of the island of Islay, Scotland, United Kingdom (at )
North Channel — passing just east of Rathlin Island, Northern Ireland, United Kingdom (at )
|United Kingdom||Northern Ireland — passing just west of Belfast (at )|
|Irish Sea||Passing just east of Lambay Island, Ireland (at )
Passing just east of Howth Head, Ireland (at near Dublin)
Passing just east of Wicklow Head, Ireland (at )
|Atlantic Ocean||Celtic Sea — passing just west of Land's End, England, United Kingdom (at )
— passing just east of the Isles of Scilly, England, United Kingdom (at )
through an unnamed part of the ocean — from
and into the Bay of Biscay — from
|Atlantic Ocean||Passing just west of the island of Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha (at )|
|Antarctica||Queen Maud Land, claimed by Norway|
1. Prime Meridian – A prime meridian is a meridian in a geographical coordinate system at which longitude is defined to be 0°. Together, a meridian and its antimeridian form a great circle. This great circle divides the sphere, e. g. the Earth, if one uses directions of East and West from a defined prime meridian, then they can be called Eastern Hemisphere and Western Hemisphere. The most widely used modern meridian is the IERS Reference Meridian and it is derived but deviates slightly from the Greenwich Meridian, which was selected as an international standard in 1884. The notion of longitude was developed by the Greek Eratosthenes in Alexandria, and Hipparchus in Rhodes, but it was Ptolemy who first used a consistent meridian for a world map in his Geographia. The main point is to be comfortably west of the tip of Africa as negative numbers were not yet in use. His prime meridian corresponds to 18°40 west of Winchester today, at that time the chief method of determining longitude was by using the reported times of lunar eclipses in different countries. Ptolemys Geographia was first printed with maps at Bologna in 1477, but there was still a hope that a natural basis for a prime meridian existed. The Tordesillas line was settled at 370 leagues west of Cape Verde. This is shown in Diogo Ribeiros 1529 map, in 1541, Mercator produced his famous 41 cm terrestrial globe and drew his prime meridian precisely through Fuertaventura in the Canaries. His later maps used the Azores, following the magnetic hypothesis, but by the time that Ortelius produced the first modern atlas in 1570, other islands such as Cape Verde were coming into use. In his atlas longitudes were counted from 0° to 360°, not 180°W to 180°E as is usual today and this practice was followed by navigators well into the 18th century. In 1634, Cardinal Richelieu used the westernmost island of the Canaries, Ferro, 19°55 west of Paris, the geographer Delisle decided to round this off to 20°, so that it simply became the meridian of Paris disguised. In the early 18th century the battle was on to improve the determination of longitude at sea, between 1765 and 1811, Nevil Maskelyne published 49 issues of the Nautical Almanac based on the meridian of the Royal Observatory, Greenwich. Maskelynes tables not only made the lunar method practicable, they made the Greenwich meridian the universal reference point. In 1884, at the International Meridian Conference in Washington, D. C.22 countries voted to adopt the Greenwich meridian as the meridian of the world. The French argued for a line, mentioning the Azores and the Bering Strait. In October 1884 the Greenwich Meridian was selected by delegates to the International Meridian Conference held in Washington, united States to be the common zero of longitude and standard of time reckoning throughout the worldPrime Meridian – Gerardus Mercator in his Atlas Cosmographicae (1595) uses a prime meridian somewhere close to 25°W, passing just to the west of Santa Maria Island in the Atlantic. His 180th meridian runs along the Strait of Anián (Bering Strait)
2. North Pole – The North Pole, also known as the Geographic North Pole or Terrestrial North Pole, is defined as the point in the Northern Hemisphere where the Earths axis of rotation meets its surface. The North Pole is the northernmost point on the Earth, lying diametrically opposite the South Pole and it defines geodetic latitude 90° North, as well as the direction of true north. At the North Pole all directions point south, all lines of longitude converge there, along tight latitude circles, counterclockwise is east and clockwise is west. The North Pole is at the center of the Northern Hemisphere, while the South Pole lies on a continental land mass, the North Pole is located in the middle of the Arctic Ocean amid waters that are almost permanently covered with constantly shifting sea ice. This makes it impractical to construct a permanent station at the North Pole, however, the Soviet Union, and later Russia, constructed a number of manned drifting stations on a generally annual basis since 1937, some of which have passed over or very close to the Pole. Since 2002, the Russians have also established a base, Barneo. This operates for a few weeks during early spring, studies in the 2000s predicted that the North Pole may become seasonally ice-free because of Arctic ice shrinkage, with timescales varying from 2016 to the late 21st century or later. The sea depth at the North Pole has been measured at 4,261 m by the Russian Mir submersible in 2007 and at 4,087 m by USS Nautilus in 1958. The nearest land is said to be Kaffeklubben Island, off the northern coast of Greenland about 700 km away. The nearest permanently inhabited place is Alert in the Qikiqtaaluk Region, Nunavut, Canada, around the beginning of the 20th century astronomers noticed a small apparent variation of latitude, as determined for a fixed point on Earth from the observation of stars. Part of this variation could be attributed to a wandering of the Pole across the Earths surface, the wandering has several periodic components and an irregular component. The component with a period of about 435 days is identified with the eight-month wandering predicted by Euler and is now called the Chandler wobble after its discoverer and it is desirable to tie the system of Earth coordinates to fixed landforms. Of course, given plate tectonics and isostasy, there is no system in all geographic features are fixed. Yet the International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service and the International Astronomical Union have defined a framework called the International Terrestrial Reference System. As early as the 16th century, many eminent people correctly believed that the North Pole was in a sea and it was therefore hoped that passage could be found through ice floes at favorable times of the year. Several expeditions set out to find the way, generally with whaling ships, one of the earliest expeditions to set out with the explicit intention of reaching the North Pole was that of British naval officer William Edward Parry, who in 1827 reached latitude 82°45′ North. In 1871 the Polaris expedition, a US attempt on the Pole led by Charles Francis Hall, another British Royal Navy attempt on the pole, part of the British Arctic Expedition, by Commander Albert H. Markham reached a then-record 83°2026 North in May 1876 before turning back. An 1879–1881 expedition commanded by US naval officer George W. DeLong ended tragically when their ship, over half the crew, including DeLong, were lostNorth Pole – North Pole scenery
3. South Pole – The South Pole, also known as the Geographic South Pole or Terrestrial South Pole, is one of the two points where the Earths axis of rotation intersects its surface. It is the southernmost point on the surface of the Earth, situated on the continent of Antarctica, it is the site of the United States Amundsen–Scott South Pole Station, which was established in 1956 and has been permanently staffed since that year. The Geographic South Pole should not be confused with the South Magnetic Pole, the South Pole is at the center of the Southern Hemisphere. For most purposes, the Geographic South Pole is defined as the point of the two points where the Earths axis of rotation intersects its surface. However, the Earths axis of rotation is actually subject to very small wobbles, the geographic coordinates of the South Pole are usually given simply as 90°S, since its longitude is geometrically undefined and irrelevant. When a longitude is desired, it may be given as 0°, at the South Pole, all directions face north. For this reason, directions at the Pole are given relative to grid north, along tight latitude circles, clockwise is east, and counterclockwise is west, opposite to the North Pole. The Geographic South Pole is located on the continent of Antarctica. It sits atop a featureless, barren, windswept and icy plateau at an altitude of 2,835 metres above sea level, and is located about 1,300 km from the nearest open sea at Bay of Whales. The ice is estimated to be about 2,700 metres thick at the Pole, the polar ice sheet is moving at a rate of roughly 10 metres per year in a direction between 37° and 40° west of grid north, down towards the Weddell Sea. Therefore, the position of the station and other artificial features relative to the geographic pole gradually shift over time. The Geographic South Pole is marked by a stake in the ice alongside a small sign, these are repositioned each year in a ceremony on New Years Day to compensate for the movement of the ice. The sign records the respective dates that Roald Amundsen and Robert F. Scott reached the Pole, followed by a quotation from each man. A new marker stake is designed and fabricated each year by staff at the site, the Ceremonial South Pole is an area set aside for photo opportunities at the South Pole Station. It is located around 180 metres from the Geographic South Pole, Amundsens Tent, The tent was erected by the Norwegian expedition led by Roald Amundsen on its arrival on 14 December 1911. It is currently buried beneath the snow and ice in the vicinity of the Pole and it has been designated a Historic Site or Monument, following a proposal by Norway to the Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting. In 1820, several expeditions claimed to have been the first to have sighted Antarctica, with the very first being the Russian expedition led by Faddey Bellingshausen and Mikhail Lazarev. The first landing was probably just over a year later when American Captain John Davis, the basic geography of the Antarctic coastline was not understood until the mid-to-late 19th centurySouth Pole – The Geographic South Pole. (The flag used on the flagpole is interchangeable.)
4. Fugloy – Not to be confused with the Scottish island of Foula. Fugloy is the eastern-most island in the Faroe Islands, the name means bird island, and refers to the large number of birds that nest on the islands cliffs. There are two settlements, Kirkja on the south-coast and Hattarvík on the east-coast, Fugloy is special because of the stone-material consisting of basalt stratum, making the island very steep and inaccessible. The Eystfelli cliffs, which are 448m are located on the east coast, nearby on the 47 metre high sea stack Stapin there is also a lighthouse, a natural arch feature and what looks like the outline of an Egyptian Pharaoh. Fugloy was also a site for the now extinct great auk. On the east side of the island there is a ledge called Gorfuglarókin Garefowl Ledge. Grey seals are regular visitors to the coastlines of Fugloy, mountain hares were introduced by humans, and inhabit the higher altitudes on the island. Fugloy has its own subspecies of house mouse Mus musculus domesticus, in contrast to the other Norðoyar islands, Fugloy is green and fertile all the way up to the mountain tops. Some rare plants are found on the island, e. g. the Fugloy Eyebright Euphrasia foulaensis, the island has been populated since the Viking age. One of the most important stories of the island is that of the Floksmenn and they were a flock of rebels, in the Middle Ages, from Fugloy. The most notorious of the separatists, were Høgni Nev, Rógvi Skel, Hálvdan Úlvsson and these men controlled and ravaged the northern parts of the Faroe Islands for a long time. This is one of the most important separatist myths of the Faroe islands, the smarter Sjúrður við Kellingará was forced to go the more militant way of rebellion by Høgni Nev and Hálvdan Ulvsson who were more criminally minded. All the four men were caught and sentenced to death. Because the harbour of Fugloy is not protected by breakwaters, it has stopped any form of growth since the early 20th century. The islands only income has been agriculture and some fishing, the Faroese parliament has tried to work out plans for the future of the island, such as the island getting electricity in the 1960s. In the 1980s a road from Kirkja to Hattarvík was built, when the population was at its peak at the beginning of the 20th century, there were around 250-300 people living there. Due to a change in lifestyles and norms, island life has become less popular, today, there are only five people living all year around in Hattarvík and some 20 in Kirkja. There are few jobs on the islands, one shop and few jobs on the harbour are all there areFugloy – Fugloy
5. Faroe Islands – The Faroe Islands, also spelled the Faeroes, is an archipelago between the Norwegian Sea and the North Atlantic, about halfway between Norway and Iceland,320 kilometres north-northwest of Scotland. Its area is about 1,400 square kilometres with a population of 49,188 in 2016, the Faeroe Islands is an autonomous country within the Danish Realm. The land of the Faeroes is rugged, and these islands have an oceanic climate, windy, wet, cloudy. Despite this island groups northerly latitude, temperatures average above freezing throughout the year because of the Gulf Stream, between 1035 and 1814, the Faeroes were part of the Hereditary Kingdom of Norway. In 1814, the Treaty of Kiel granted Denmark control over the islands, the Faroe Islands have been a self-governing country within the Kingdom of Denmark since 1948. The Faroese have control of most domestic matters, areas that remain the responsibility of Denmark include military defence, the police department, the justice department, currency, and foreign affairs. However, as they are not part of the customs area as Denmark, the Faroe Islands have an independent trade policy. The islands also have representation in the Nordic Council as members of the Danish delegation, the people of the Faroe Islands also compete as national team in certain sports. In Danish, the name Færøerne may reflect an Old Norse word fær, the morpheme øerne represents a plural of ø in Danish. The Danish name thus translates as the islands of sheep, in Faroese, the name appears as Føroyar. Oyar represents the plural of oy, older Faroese for island, the modern Faeroese word for island is oyggj. In the English language, their name is sometimes spelled Faeroe, archaeological evidence shows settlers living on the Faroe Islands in two successive periods prior to the arrival of the Norse, the first between 400 and 600 and the second between 600 and 800. Scientists from the University of Aberdeen have also found early cereal pollen from domesticated plants, archaeologist Mike Church noted that Dicuil mentioned what may have been the Faroes. He also suggested that the living there might have been from Ireland, Scotland or Scandinavia. A Latin account of a made by Brendan, an Irish monastic saint who lived around 484–578. This association, however, is far from conclusive in its description, Dicuil, an Irish monk of the early 9th century, wrote a more definite account. 800, bringing Old West Norse, which evolved into the modern Faroese language, according to Icelandic sagas such as Færeyjar Saga, one of the best known men in the island was Tróndur í Gøtu, a descendant of Scandinavian chiefs who had settled in Dublin, Ireland. Tróndur led the battle against Sigmund Brestursson, the Norwegian monarchy, a traditional name for the islands in Irish, Na Scigirí, possibly refers to the Skeggjar Beards, a nickname given to island dwellersFaroe Islands – Tinganes in Tórshavn, seat of a part of the Faroese government.
6. North Rona – Rona is a remote Scottish island in the North Atlantic. Rona is often referred to as North Rona in order to distinguish it from South Rona and it has an area of 109 hectares and a maximum elevation of 108 metres The island lies 71 kilometres north north east of the Butt of Lewis and 18 kilometres east of Sula Sgeir. More isolated than St Kilda, it is the most remote island in the British Isles to have ever been inhabited on a long-term basis and it is also the closest neighbour to the Faroe Islands. Because of the remote location and small area, it is omitted from many maps of the United Kingdom. The name Rona may come from hraun-øy, Old Norse for rough island, the English language qualifier North is sometimes used to distinguish the island from Rona off Skye. Rona is said to have been the residence of Saint Ronan in the eighth century, a tiny early Christian oratory which may be as early as this date, built of unmortared stone, survives virtually complete on the island - the best preserved structure of this type in Scotland. A number of simple cross-slabs of early medieval date are preserved within the structure, the island continued to be inhabited until the entire population of thirty died shortly after 1685 after an infestation by rats, probably the black rat, which reached the island after a shipwreck. The rats raided the food stocks of barley meal and it is possible the inhabitants starved to death and this occurred in a year in which it is reported that no further ships reached the isolated island to supply or trade. The rats themselves eventually starved to death, the huge swells the island experiences preventing their hunting along the rocky shores. It was resettled, but again depopulated by around 1695 in some sort of boating tragedy, after which it remained home to a succession of shepherds and it had a population of nine in 1764. A crew from Ness in Lewis had their boat wrecked in landing at Sula Sgeir in the month of June, captain Oliver, who commanded the Revenue cruiser Prince of Wales, visited Sula Sgeir in the month of August to look for the lost boat. Captain Oliver at once went to Rona, and found the crew consuming the last barrel of potatoes which the poor shepherd had and he took away the former, and left the latter sufficient provision for the winter. Captain Benjamin Oliver commanded the vessel from 1811 until 1847. The last family which lived upon Rona was that of a shepherd named Donald MLeod, otherwise the King of Rona, Sir James Matheson, who bought Lewis in 1844, offered the island to the Government for use as a penal settlement. Although farmers from Lewis have continued to graze sheep on Rona ever since, the island has remained uninhabited, apart from one brief and tragic episode in 1884–85. In June 1884, two men from Lewis, Malcolm MacDonald and Murdo Mackay, having reportedly had a dispute with the minister of their local church, went to stay on Rona to look after the sheep. In August, boatmen who had called at the island reported that the men were well and in good spirits, and had refused offers to take them back to Lewis. In April 1885, the people to visit Rona made a grim discoveryNorth Rona – Cave on North Rona
7. Scotland – Scotland is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain. It shares a border with England to the south, and is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east. In addition to the mainland, the country is made up of more than 790 islands, including the Northern Isles, the Kingdom of Scotland emerged as an independent sovereign state in the Early Middle Ages and continued to exist until 1707. By inheritance in 1603, James VI, King of Scots, became King of England and King of Ireland, Scotland subsequently entered into a political union with the Kingdom of England on 1 May 1707 to create the new Kingdom of Great Britain. The union also created a new Parliament of Great Britain, which succeeded both the Parliament of Scotland and the Parliament of England. Within Scotland, the monarchy of the United Kingdom has continued to use a variety of styles, titles, the legal system within Scotland has also remained separate from those of England and Wales and Northern Ireland, Scotland constitutes a distinct jurisdiction in both public and private law. Glasgow, Scotlands largest city, was one of the worlds leading industrial cities. Other major urban areas are Aberdeen and Dundee, Scottish waters consist of a large sector of the North Atlantic and the North Sea, containing the largest oil reserves in the European Union. This has given Aberdeen, the third-largest city in Scotland, the title of Europes oil capital, following a referendum in 1997, a Scottish Parliament was re-established, in the form of a devolved unicameral legislature comprising 129 members, having authority over many areas of domestic policy. Scotland is represented in the UK Parliament by 59 MPs and in the European Parliament by 6 MEPs, Scotland is also a member nation of the British–Irish Council, and the British–Irish Parliamentary Assembly. Scotland comes from Scoti, the Latin name for the Gaels, the Late Latin word Scotia was initially used to refer to Ireland. By the 11th century at the latest, Scotia was being used to refer to Scotland north of the River Forth, alongside Albania or Albany, the use of the words Scots and Scotland to encompass all of what is now Scotland became common in the Late Middle Ages. Repeated glaciations, which covered the land mass of modern Scotland. It is believed the first post-glacial groups of hunter-gatherers arrived in Scotland around 12,800 years ago, the groups of settlers began building the first known permanent houses on Scottish soil around 9,500 years ago, and the first villages around 6,000 years ago. The well-preserved village of Skara Brae on the mainland of Orkney dates from this period and it contains the remains of an early Bronze Age ruler laid out on white quartz pebbles and birch bark. It was also discovered for the first time that early Bronze Age people placed flowers in their graves, in the winter of 1850, a severe storm hit Scotland, causing widespread damage and over 200 deaths. In the Bay of Skaill, the storm stripped the earth from a large irregular knoll, when the storm cleared, local villagers found the outline of a village, consisting of a number of small houses without roofs. William Watt of Skaill, the laird, began an amateur excavation of the site, but after uncovering four housesScotland – Edinburgh Castle. Human habitation of the site is dated back as far as the 9th century BC, although the nature of this early settlement is unclear.
8. United Kingdom – The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom or Britain, is a sovereign country in western Europe. Lying off the north-western coast of the European mainland, the United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state—the Republic of Ireland. The Irish Sea lies between Great Britain and Ireland, with an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world and the 11th-largest in Europe. It is also the 21st-most populous country, with an estimated 65.1 million inhabitants, together, this makes it the fourth-most densely populated country in the European Union. The United Kingdom is a monarchy with a parliamentary system of governance. The monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 6 February 1952, other major urban areas in the United Kingdom include the regions of Birmingham, Leeds, Glasgow, Liverpool and Manchester. The United Kingdom consists of four countries—England, Scotland, Wales, the last three have devolved administrations, each with varying powers, based in their capitals, Edinburgh, Cardiff and Belfast, respectively. The relationships among the countries of the UK have changed over time, Wales was annexed by the Kingdom of England under the Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542. A treaty between England and Scotland resulted in 1707 in a unified Kingdom of Great Britain, which merged in 1801 with the Kingdom of Ireland to form the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain, there are fourteen British Overseas Territories. These are the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, British influence can be observed in the language, culture and legal systems of many of its former colonies. The United Kingdom is a country and has the worlds fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP. The UK is considered to have an economy and is categorised as very high in the Human Development Index. It was the worlds first industrialised country and the worlds foremost power during the 19th, the UK remains a great power with considerable economic, cultural, military, scientific and political influence internationally. It is a nuclear weapons state and its military expenditure ranks fourth or fifth in the world. The UK has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946 and it has been a leading member state of the EU and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. However, on 23 June 2016, a referendum on the UKs membership of the EU resulted in a decision to leave. The Acts of Union 1800 united the Kingdom of Great Britain, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland have devolved self-governmentUnited Kingdom – Stonehenge, in Wiltshire, was erected around 2500 BC.
9. Lewis – Lewis is the northern part of Lewis and Harris, the largest island of the Western Isles or Outer Hebrides. The total area of Lewis is 683 square miles, Lewis is, in general, the lower-lying part of the island, the other part, Harris, is more mountainous. Due to its flatter, more land, Lewis contains three-quarters of the population of the Western Isles. The islands diverse habitats are home to an assortment of flora and fauna, such as the eagle, red deer and seal. Lewis has a Presbyterian tradition and a rich history and it was once part of the Norse Kingdom of Mann and the Isles. Today, life is different from elsewhere in Scotland, with Sabbath observance. Lewis has a cultural heritage as can be seen from its myths and legends as well as the local literary. The Gaelic name Leòdhas may be derived from Norse Ljoðahús, although other origins have been suggested – most notably the Gaelic leogach and it is probably the place referred to as Limnu by Ptolemy, which also means marshy. It is also known as the Isle of Lewis, another name usually used in a cultural or poetic context is Eilean an Fhraoich. Although this refers to the whole of the island of Lewis and Harris, the earliest archaeological remains date from about 5,000 years ago. At that time, people began to settle in permanent farms rather than following their herds, the small houses of these people have been found throughout the Western Isles, in particular, at Dail Mhor, Carloway. The more striking great monuments of this period are the temples, about 500 BC, island society moved into the Iron Age. The buildings became larger and more prominent, culminating in the brochs – circular, the best remaining example of a broch in Lewis is at Dùn Chàrlabhaigh. The Scots arrived during the first centuries AD, bringing the Gaelic language with them, as Christianity began to spread through the islands in the 6th and later centuries, following Columban missionaries, Lewis was inhabited by the Picts. In the 9th century AD, the Vikings began to settle on Lewis, the Norse invaders intermarried with local people and abandoned their pagan beliefs. At that time, rectangular buildings began to round ones. Lewis became part of the Kingdom of Mann and the Isles, the Lewis chessmen, found on the island in 1831, date from the time of Viking rule. The people were called the Norse Gaels or Gall-Ghàidheil, reflecting their mixed Scandinavian/Gaelic background, the Norse language persists in many island placenames and some personal names to this day, although the latter are fairly evenly spread across the GàidhealtachdLewis – The Callanish Stones
10. South Rona – Rona, sometimes called South Rona to distinguish it from North Rona, is a small island in the Scottish Inner Hebrides. It lies between the Sound of Raasay and the Inner Sound just north of the island of Raasay. It has an area of 930 hectares. Rona is an extension northward of the ridge of Raasay and its geology is Lewisian gneiss and the glaciated landscape is underlain by some of the oldest rocks in western Europe. On the west side of the island is a secure and picturesque natural anchorage, An Acarsaid Mhór, the writer Malcolm Slesser described it as a delightful little fjord, and superb harbour for small boats. Pink felspar cliffs drop steeply into the water, and small lush woodland lends a touch of luxury, other islets surrounding Rona include Na Gaimhnichean, Eilean na Seamraig, Garbh Eilean, Sgeirean Buidhe Borlum, and A Sgeir Shuas. Eilean Tighe lies about 1 kilometre away across the straits of An Caol Ronaigh at the centre of which is tiny Fraoich Eilean. The east coast is largely unindented and in addition to Acairseid Mhór the main bays are An Dubh-Chamus, An Acaarsaid Thioram, there are several smaller bays in the north west including Port an Fhearainn, Òb nam Feusgan, Port na Bà Brice and Òb an Deallaire. The highest point on the island is Meall na h-Acarseid, which reaches 125 metres, sgàth a Bhannaich and Beinn na h-Iolaire are further north and are over 100 metres high. Ronas name is believed to be of Old Norse origin, from Hraun-eyer meaning rough islands, the Gaelic name Rònaigh has a similar meaning. There are the ruins of a small 14th century chapel at the end of the island at An Teampull. The structure, probably a cell, is enclosed by a wall within which is the islands only gravestone. In the 16th century Rona became a refuge for pirates who made a base at An Acarsaid Mhor, murray presumes that they confined their attacks to foreign vessels as they seem to have been tolerated by the local clan chiefs. One such pirate chief is said to have been Calum Garbh MacLeod, son of a chief of Clan Macleod of Lewis who based himself at Brochail Castle on Raasay in 1518 and used Rona as raiding base. This ile perteins to M. ’ Gillychallan of Raarsay by force, Clan MacLeod held the island until the middle of the 19th century. In 1763 the Laird of Raasay is recorded as having kept a cowhand and 160 cattle on the island and in 1787 MacLeod of Raasay explored the opportunities for commercial fishing on the island. He wrote to the Duke of Argyll, then Governor of the British Fisheries Society stating that Rona was. one of the most advantageous places on this coast for a fishing station. It is likewise supplied with the best harbours at every creek, however his support for the Jacobite cause worked against him and nothing was doneSouth Rona – An outcrop of gneiss on Rona
11. Skye – Skye, or the Isle of Skye, is the largest and northernmost of the major islands in the Inner Hebrides of Scotland. The islands peninsulas radiate from a centre dominated by the Cuillins. Although it has suggested that the Gaelic Sgitheanach describes a winged shape there is no definitive agreement as to the names origins. The island has been occupied since the Mesolithic period, and its history includes a time of Norse rule, resident numbers declined from over 20,000 in the early 19th century to just under 9,000 by the closing decade of the 20th century. Skyes population increased by 4 per cent between 1991 and 2001, about a third of the residents were Gaelic speakers in 2001, and although their numbers are in decline, this aspect of island culture remains important. The main industries are tourism, agriculture, fishing and forestry, Skye is part of the Highland Council local government area. The islands largest settlement is Portree, known for its picturesque harbour, There are links to various nearby islands by ferry and, since 1995, to the mainland by a road bridge. The climate is mild, wet and windy, the abundant wildlife includes the golden eagle, red deer and Atlantic salmon. The local flora is dominated by heather moor, and there are nationally important invertebrate populations on the sea bed. Skye has provided the locations for various novels and feature films and is celebrated in poetry, the first written references to the island are Roman sources such as the Ravenna Cosmography, which refers to Scitis and Scetis, which can be found on a map by Ptolemy. One possible derivation comes from skitis, an early Celtic word for winged, subsequent Gaelic-, Norse- and English-speaking peoples have influenced the history of Skye, the relationships between their names for the island are not straightforward. Various etymologies have been proposed, such as the winged isle or the notched isle but no solution has been found to date. The island was referred to by the Norse as Skuy. The traditional Gaelic name is An t-Eilean Sgitheanach, An t-Eilean Sgiathanach being a more recent, but the meaning of this Gaelic name is unclear. Eilean a Cheò, which means island of the mist, is a poetic Gaelic name for the island, at 1,656 square kilometres, Skye is the second-largest island in Scotland after Lewis and Harris. The coastline of Skye is a series of peninsulas and bays radiating out from a centre dominated by the Cuillin hills, Martin Martin, a native of the island, reported on it at length in a 1703 publication. Resemble nutmegs, and many rivulets here afford variegated stones of all colours, stones of a purple colour flow down the rivulets here after great rains. The Black Cuillin, which are composed of basalt and gabbro, include twelve Munros and provide some of the most dramaticSkye – The vertical west face of the Bastier Tooth (a top next to Am Basteir) in the Cuillin, with Sgùrr nan Gillean in the background
12. Isle of Mull – Mull is the second largest island of the Inner Hebrides, off the west coast of Scotland in the council area of Argyll and Bute. With an area of 875.35 square kilometres Mull is the fourth largest Scottish island and the fourth largest island surrounding Great Britain. In the 2011 census the usual resident population of Mull was 2,800 a slight rise on the 2001 figure of 2,667, much of the population lives in Tobermory, the only burgh on the island until 1973, and its capital. Tobermory is also home to Mulls only single malt Scotch whisky distillery, Tobermory distillery and it is widely believed that Mull was inhabited from shortly after the end of the last Ice Age, around 6000 BC. Bronze Age inhabitants built menhirs, brochs and a circle with examples of burial cairns, cists, standing stones, stone circles, pottery. Between 600 BC and AD400, Iron Age inhabitants were building protective forts, duns, in the 14th century Mull became part of the Lordship of the Isles. After the collapse of the Lordship in 1493 the island was taken over by the clan MacLean, and in 1681 by the clan Campbell. Legend has it that the wreck of a Spanish galleon, laden with gold, lies somewhere in the mud at the bottom of Tobermory Bay, although the true identity. By some accounts, the Florencia, a ship of the defeated Spanish Armada fleeing the English fleet in 1588, after a dispute over payment, the ship caught fire and the gunpowder magazine exploded, sinking the vessel. In her hold, reputedly, was £300,000 in gold bullion, other sources claim the vessel was the San Juan de Sicilia, which, records indicate, carried troops, not treasure. Whatever the true story, there have been searches for the wreck. No significant treasure has ever recovered in Tobermory Bay. In 1773 the island was visited by Samuel Johnson and James Boswell during their famous Tour of the Western Islands, during the Highland Clearances in the 18th and 19th centuries, the population fell from 10,000 to less than 3,000. Mull has historic buildings such as Duart Castle and Torosay Castle, moy Castle is a small slighted castle on the shore of Loch Buie. The whole island became a Restricted Area during World War II, the bay at Tobermory became a naval base commanded from HMS Western Isles. The base and the Restricted Area were under Commodore Sir Gilbert Stephenson, whose strict discipline, the base was used to train Escort Groups in anti-submarine warfare. 911 ships passed through the base between 1940 and 1945, there is one secondary school on the island, Tobermory High School, which includes a Gaelic medium education unit, and several primary schools. Salen Primary School has a Gaelic medium education unit, secondary pupils from Iona, Bunessan and Fionnphort in the south west attend Oban High School, staying in an Oban hostel from Monday to ThursdayIsle of Mull – Mid 18th century map of Mull
13. Firth of Lorn – The Firth of Lorn or Lorne in origin refers to the waters off the coast of a now obsolete geopolitical region, Lorn or Lorne. A firth in Scottish English is an estuary, the same as or similar to a fjord. The name of Lorn descends from the proto-history of Scotland, a nineteenth-century geographical reference defines it as being a district in the county of Argyllshire, where the –shire segment reflects a former political status of Argyll. Lorn was a district, located on Scotlands west coast, on the eastern shore of Loch Linnhe. The northern border was Loch Leven, the eastern and southern borders were the line of Loch Awe, Loch Avich, and Loch Melfort. Lorne lost its status with the passage of the Local Government Act 1973. It had survived the same act of 1947 and again 1972, in 1975, two Lornes appeared, North and South, both now burghs in the county of Argyll, in the region of Strathclyde. With the abolition of the counties in 1996, Argyll and Bute and part of Dumbarton were united into the Argyll and it contains only towns and villages. Lorn shattered, so to speak, under the exigencies of time, the firth, however, which had long since acquired the name, remains a living concept. In 2005 much of the side became a Special Area of Conservation according to European Unions Habitats Directive. The reefs and skerries of the islands on that side are deemed habitats of interest. The naming of the firth after Lorn, a province on its eastern shore, reflecting the geopolitical power distribution of the times. Much of Lorn bordered Loch Linnhe, a fiord to the north that, for whatever reason, moreover, the firth extended far to the south of Lorn. To some writers, the name was to be extended south to Colonsay, the official maps of the British Empire did not resolve the exact borders of the firth. The waters between the open Atlantic to the north of the North Channel and the named inner firth are an undefined and unnamed lagoon, the recommendations of SNH are usually binding. It has responsibility for the study, protection, and allowed use of Scotland’s natural resources including the Firth of Lorn. Although there is no universally binding geopolitical terminology apart from that defined by legislation, prior to the establishment of the SAC of 2005, the SNH was one organization of a consortium funding the Broadscale Mapping Project, 1996-1998, conducted by the SeaMap Research Group. It conducted surveys by a variety of methods, mainly electronic, mapping the presence of communities in a number of areasFirth of Lorn – The Firth and other nearby waterways
14. Jura, Scotland – Jura is an island in the Inner Hebrides of Scotland, adjacent to and to the north-east of Islay. Compared with its fertile and more populous neighbour, Jura is mountainous, bare and infertile, covered largely by vast areas of blanket bog, in a list of the islands of Scotland ranked by size, Jura comes eighth, whereas ranked by population it comes thirty-first. It is in the area of Argyll and Bute. Evidence of settlements on Jura dating from the Mesolithic period was first uncovered by the English archaeologist John Mercer in the 1960s, There is evidence of Neolithic settlement at Poll a Cheo in the southwest of the island. The modern name Jura dates from the Norse-Gael era and is from the Old Norse Dyrøy meaning beast island, the Viking occupation of the Hebrides began in the 9th century, and was formalised when sovereignty was secured in 1098. From this point, Norse rule continued until 1266, when the Hebrides, together with Kintyre, a key figure during the Norse period was the warlord Somerled, whose descendants, for around 150 years from the mid-14th century, styled themselves Lords of the Isles. The Lordship of the Isles was dominated by Clan Donald, whose seat was at Finlaggan on Islay, the Lordship came to an end in 1493, but Clan Donald continued to rule the southern part of Jura, through the MacDonalds of Dunnyveg. The north of the island, however, was owned by this time by Clan Maclean, in 1647, this was the site of a notable battle between the Macleans and the Campbells of Craignish. For many years in the 20th century, a human skull stood on a ledge in a nearby cave, the skull is no longer there, but the latest editions of Ordnance Survey maps still mark the location as Macleans Skull Cave. Despite this, the 16th century was a period of skirmishing between the clans, McDonalds, Campbells, MacLeans and others. Then in 1607 the Campbells finally bought the island from the MacDonalds and this was the beginning of some three hundred years during which the island was ruled and largely owned by eleven successive Campbell lairds. The north of the island, however, remained in MacLean hands until 1737, from the mid-18th century, long before the notorious Highland Clearances of the 19th century, there were a number of waves of emigration from Jura. In 1767, fifty people left Jura for Canada, and from that point the population shrank from over a thousand to its 20th century level of just a few hundred. Mercer notes that relatively few forced clearances on Jura were recorded, the emigrations were far from voluntary. There are now seven estates on Jura, all in separate ownership, with six of the seven held by absentees, Ardfin, Inver, Jura Forest, Tarbert, Ruantallain, Ardlussa, There is also a relatively small area owned by Forestry Commission Scotland. Barnhill was the home of British novelist George Orwell, who lived there intermittently from 1946 until his death in January 1950, despite its isolation, Barnhill has in recent years become something of a shrine for his readers. The Ardfin Estate is situated at the tip of the island. For some seventy years from 1938, Ardfin belonged to the Riley-Smith family, having also wound up the estates farm, Mr Coffey then submitted proposals for the construction of a private 18-hole golf course on the estate, which was due to be completed in 2016Jura, Scotland – Satellite picture of Jura
15. Islay – Islay is the southernmost island of the Inner Hebrides of Scotland. Known as The Queen of the Hebrides, it lies in Argyll just south west of Jura, the islands capital is Bowmore where the distinctive round Kilarrow Parish Church and a distillery are located. Port Ellen is the main port, Islay is the fifth-largest Scottish island and the seventh-largest island surrounding Great Britain, with a total area of almost 620 square kilometres. There is ample evidence of the settlement of Islay and the first written reference may have come in the 1st century AD. The island had become part of the Gaelic Kingdom of Dál Riata during the Early Middle Ages before being absorbed into the Norse Kingdom of the Isles. During the 17th century the Clan Donald star waned, but improvements to agriculture and transport led to a rising population and this was followed by substantial forced displacements and declining resident numbers. Today, it has over 3,000 inhabitants and the commercial activities are agriculture, malt whisky distillation. The island has a history of religious observance and Scottish Gaelic is spoken by about a quarter of the population. Its landscapes have been celebrated through various art forms and there is a growing interest in renewable energy, Islay is home to many bird species such as the wintering populations of Greenland white-fronted and barnacle goose, and is a popular destination throughout the year for birdwatchers. The climate is mild and ameliorated by the Gulf Stream, Islay is 40 kilometres long from north to south and 24 kilometres broad. The east coast is rugged and mountainous, rising steeply from the Sound of Islay, the highest peak being Beinn Bheigier, the western peninsulas are separated from the main bulk of the island by the waters of Loch Indaal to the south and Loch Gruinart to the north. The fertile and windswept southwestern arm is called The Rinns, the south coast is sheltered from the prevailing winds and, as a result, relatively wooded. The fractal coast has numerous bays and sea lochs, including Loch an t-Sailein, Aros Bay, in the far southwest is a rocky and now largely uninhabited peninsula called The Oa, the closest point in the Hebrides to Ireland. The islands population is centred around the villages of Bowmore. Other smaller villages include Bridgend, Ballygrant, Port Charlotte, Portnahaven, the rest of the island is sparsely populated and mainly agricultural. The underlying geology of Islay is intricate for such a small area, the deformed Palaeoproterozoic igneous rock of the Rhinns complex is dominated by a coarse-grained gneiss cut by large intrusions of deformed gabbro. Once thought to be part of the Lewisian complex, it lies beneath the Colonsay Group of metasedimentary rocks that forms the bedrock at the end of the Rinns. It is a quartz-rich metamorphic marine sandstone that may be unique to Scotland, south of Rubh a Mhail there are outcrops of quartzite, and a strip of mica schist and limestone cuts across the centre of the island from The Oa to Port AskaigIslay – Rocks of the Rhinns complex at Claddach Bay on the southernmost tip of the Rinns
16. Rathlin Island – Rathlin Island is an island and civil parish off the coast of County Antrim and the northernmost point of Northern Ireland. The reverse L-shaped Rathlin island is 4 miles from east to west, the highest point on the island is Slieveard,134 metres above sea level. Rathlin is 15.5 miles from the Mull of Kintyre and it is part of the Causeway Coast and Glens council area, and is represented by the Rathlin Development & Community Association. Rathlin is part of the traditional barony Cary, and of current district Moyle, Rathlin Island Ferry Ltd won a six-year contract for the service in 2008 providing it as a subsidised lifeline service. There is an investigation on how the transfer was handled between the environment minister and the new owners. Rathlin is of volcanic origin, having been created as part of the British Tertiary Volcanic Province. Rathlin is one of 43 Special Areas of Conservation in Northern Ireland and it is home to tens of thousands of seabirds, including common guillemots, kittiwakes, puffins and razorbills – about thirty bird families in total. It is a place for birdwatchers, with a Royal Society for the Protection of Birds nature reserve offering spectacular views of Rathlin’s bird colony. The RSPB has also successfully managed natural habitat to facilitate the return of the red-billed chough, Northern Irelands only breeding pair of choughs can be seen during the summer months. The cliffs on this relatively bare island are impressive, standing 70 metres tall, the island is also the northernmost point of the Antrim Coast and Glens Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty. In 2008-09 the Maritime and Coastguard Agency of the United Kingdom and this suggests the events leading to inundation - subsidence of land or rising water levels - were extremely quick. Rathlin was probably known to the Romans, Pliny referring to Reginia, in the 7th century Adomnán mentions Rechru and Rechrea insula and these may also have been early names for Rathlin. The 11th century Irish version of the Historia Brittonum states that the Fir Bolg took possession of Man and of other islands besides - Arran, Islay, Rathlin was the site of the first Viking raid on Ireland, according to the Annals of Ulster. The Bissetts were later dispossessed of Rathlin by the English, who were in control of the Earldom of Ulster, later, in the 16th century, it came into the possession of the MacDonnells of Antrim. Rathlin has been the site of a number of massacres, on an expedition in 1557, Sir Henry Sidney devastated the island. This they did with ruthless efficiency, throwing scores of MacDonald women over cliffs to their deaths on rocks below, the number of victims of this massacre has been put as low as one hundred and as high as three thousand. In the later 18th century, kelp production became important, with Rathlin becoming a centre for production. The shoreline is still littered with kilns and storage places and this was a commercial enterprise sponsored by the landlords of the island and involved the whole communityRathlin Island – False-colour NASA Landsat image showing Rathlin, the County Antrim coast and Kintyre
17. Northern Ireland – Northern Ireland is a constituent unit of the United Kingdom in the north-east of Ireland. It is variously described as a country, province, region, or part of the United Kingdom, Northern Ireland shares a border to the south and west with the Republic of Ireland. In 2011, its population was 1,810,863, constituting about 30% of the total population. Northern Ireland was created in 1921, when Ireland was partitioned between Northern Ireland and Southern Ireland by an act of the British parliament, Northern Ireland has historically been the most industrialised region of Ireland. After declining as a result of the political and social turmoil of the Troubles, its economy has grown significantly since the late 1990s. Unemployment in Northern Ireland peaked at 17. 2% in 1986, dropping to 6. 1% for June–August 2014,58. 2% of those unemployed had been unemployed for over a year. Prominent artists and sports persons from Northern Ireland include Van Morrison, Rory McIlroy, Joey Dunlop, Wayne McCullough, some people from Northern Ireland prefer to identify as Irish while others prefer to identify as British. Cultural links between Northern Ireland, the rest of Ireland, and the rest of the UK are complex, in many sports, the island of Ireland fields a single team, a notable exception being association football. Northern Ireland competes separately at the Commonwealth Games, and people from Northern Ireland may compete for either Great Britain or Ireland at the Olympic Games. The region that is now Northern Ireland was the bedrock of the Irish war of resistance against English programmes of colonialism in the late 16th century, the English-controlled Kingdom of Ireland had been declared by the English king Henry VIII in 1542, but Irish resistance made English control fragmentary. Victories by English forces in war and further Protestant victories in the Williamite War in Ireland toward the close of the 17th century solidified Anglican rule in Ireland. In Northern Ireland, the victories of the Siege of Derry and their intention was to materially disadvantage the Catholic community and, to a lesser extent, the Presbyterian community. In the context of open institutional discrimination, the 18th century saw secret, militant societies develop in communities in the region and act on sectarian tensions in violent attacks. Following this, in an attempt to quell sectarianism and force the removal of discriminatory laws, the new state, formed in 1801, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, was governed from a single government and parliament based in London. Between 1717 and 1775 some 250,000 people from Ulster emigrated to the British North American colonies and it is estimated that there are more than 27 million Scotch-Irish Americans now living in the US. By the close of the century, autonomy for Ireland within the United Kingdom, in 1912, after decades of obstruction from the House of Lords, Home Rule became a near-certainty. A clash between the House of Commons and House of Lords over a controversial budget produced the Parliament Act 1911, which enabled the veto of the Lords to be overturned. The House of Lords veto had been the unionists main guarantee that Home Rule would not be enacted, in 1914, they smuggled thousands of rifles and rounds of ammunition from Imperial Germany for use by the Ulster Volunteers, a paramilitary organisation opposed to the implementation of Home RuleNorthern Ireland – Scrabo Tower, County Down
18. Howth Head – Howth Head is a peninsula northeast of Dublin city in Ireland. Howth falls under the governance of Fingal County Council. Entry to the headland is at Sutton while the village of Howth, baily Lighthouse is on the southeastern part of Howth Head. Nearby are the districts of Baldoyle and Portmarnock, the earliest mention of the peninsula was on a map attributed to Claudius Ptolemy, where it was called Edri Deserta or in Greek Edrou Heremos. Here it was portrayed as an island, but it is not clear if this was due to separation from the headland or inaccurate information available to the cartographer. There are two stations on or near the head. Sutton station is on the not far away and Howth station is on the head in the village of Howth. Both are served by Dublin Area Rapid Transit trains and have regular services to, historically the Hill of Howth Tramway ran between the stations around the head between 1901 and 1959. Additionally Dublin Bus routes serve the head, there are also craggy areas such as Muck Rock, and Kilrock, and there are steep sea cliffs around parts, especially on the north coast. Gorse grows in places on the headland. Fires are frequent during dry summers, the cliffs support a large colony of seabirds, notably razorbills, common guillemots, fulmars, kittiwakes and great cormorants. The scrubland above supports several species including skylarks, meadow pipits, whitethroats, linnets, stonechats and whinchats. The most commonly seen birds of prey are kestrels, peregrine falcons, as one of the northern termini of the Dublin Area Rapid Transit system, Howth is a popular destination for day-trippers from the capital. Hikers can choose from a range of routes, including the Cliff Walk or making for the ancient cairn on one of Howths several summits. On clear days, the Wicklow Mountains can be seen, with Dublin city below, slieve Donard, an 852 metre peak in Northern Ireland may also be visible - a distance of 90 km. Quite frequently, Snowdon in Snowdonia National Park in Wales can also be seen - a distance of 138 km, Howth Head is the location where Leopold Bloom proposes to Molly in James Joyces Ulysses. In the short story Eveline, another work of James Joyces from the collection, Dubliners, it is mentioned that Eveline and her family once had a picnic on the Hill of Howth. Howth Head is also central to Joyces final work, Finnegans Wake, in one of the principal characters, HCE, is, among other thingsHowth Head – Aerial view of Howth Head looking south.
19. Dublin – Dublin is the capital and largest city of Ireland. Dublin is in the province of Leinster on Irelands east coast, the city has an urban area population of 1,345,402. The population of the Greater Dublin Area, as of 2016, was 1,904,806 people, founded as a Viking settlement, the Kingdom of Dublin became Irelands principal city following the Norman invasion. The city expanded rapidly from the 17th century and was briefly the second largest city in the British Empire before the Acts of Union in 1800, following the partition of Ireland in 1922, Dublin became the capital of the Irish Free State, later renamed Ireland. Dublin is administered by a City Council, the city is listed by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network as a global city, with a ranking of Alpha-, which places it amongst the top thirty cities in the world. It is a historical and contemporary centre for education, the arts, administration, economy, the name Dublin comes from the Irish word Dubhlinn, early Classical Irish Dubhlind/Duibhlind, dubh /d̪uβ/, alt. /d̪uw/, alt /d̪u, / meaning black, dark, and lind /lʲiɲ pool and this tidal pool was located where the River Poddle entered the Liffey, on the site of the castle gardens at the rear of Dublin Castle. In Modern Irish the name is Duibhlinn, and Irish rhymes from Dublin County show that in Dublin Leinster Irish it was pronounced Duílinn /d̪ˠi, other localities in Ireland also bear the name Duibhlinn, variously anglicized as Devlin, Divlin and Difflin. Historically, scribes using the Gaelic script wrote bh with a dot over the b and those without knowledge of Irish omitted the dot, spelling the name as Dublin. Variations on the name are found in traditionally Irish-speaking areas of Scotland, such as An Linne Dhubh. It is now thought that the Viking settlement was preceded by a Christian ecclesiastical settlement known as Duibhlinn, beginning in the 9th and 10th century, there were two settlements where the modern city stands. Baile Átha Cliath, meaning town of the ford, is the common name for the city in modern Irish. Áth Cliath is a name referring to a fording point of the River Liffey near Father Mathew Bridge. Baile Átha Cliath was an early Christian monastery, believed to have been in the area of Aungier Street, there are other towns of the same name, such as Àth Cliath in East Ayrshire, Scotland, which is Anglicised as Hurlford. Although the area of Dublin Bay has been inhabited by humans since prehistoric times and he called the settlement Eblana polis. It is now thought that the Viking settlement was preceded by a Christian ecclesiastical settlement known as Duibhlinn, beginning in the 9th and 10th century, there were two settlements where the modern city stands. The subsequent Scandinavian settlement centred on the River Poddle, a tributary of the Liffey in an area now known as Wood Quay, the Dubhlinn was a small lake used to moor ships, the Poddle connected the lake with the Liffey. This lake was covered during the early 18th century as the city grew, the Dubhlinn lay where the Castle Garden is now located, opposite the Chester Beatty Library in Dublin CastleDublin – Clockwise from top: Samuel Beckett Bridge, Trinity College, Custom House, Dublin Castle, O'Connell Bridge, and Convention Centre Dublin.
20. England – England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west, the Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east, the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain in its centre and south, and includes over 100 smaller islands such as the Isles of Scilly, and the Isle of Wight. England became a state in the 10th century, and since the Age of Discovery. The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the worlds first industrialised nation, Englands terrain mostly comprises low hills and plains, especially in central and southern England. However, there are uplands in the north and in the southwest, the capital is London, which is the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland through another Act of Union to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain, the name England is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means land of the Angles. The Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages, the Angles came from the Angeln peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea. The earliest recorded use of the term, as Engla londe, is in the ninth century translation into Old English of Bedes Ecclesiastical History of the English People. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars, it has been suggested that it derives from the shape of the Angeln peninsula, an angular shape. An alternative name for England is Albion, the name Albion originally referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus, specifically the 4th century BC De Mundo, in it are two very large islands called Britannia, these are Albion and Ierne. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, the word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins. Albion is now applied to England in a poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England, Lloegr, the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximately 780,000 years ago. The oldest proto-human bones discovered in England date from 500,000 years ago, Modern humans are known to have inhabited the area during the Upper Paleolithic period, though permanent settlements were only established within the last 6,000 yearsEngland – Stonehenge, a Neolithic monument
21. Bay of Biscay – The Bay of Biscay /ˈbɪskeɪ, -ki/ is a gulf of the northeast Atlantic Ocean located south of the Celtic Sea. It lies along the western coast of France from Point Penmarch to the Spanish border, the average depth is 1,744 metres and the greatest depth is 4,735 metres. The Bay of Biscay is named after Biscay on the northern Spanish coast, the Bay of Biscay is home to some of the Atlantic Oceans fiercest weather. Large storms occur in the bay, especially during the winter months, up until recent years it was a regular occurrence for merchant vessels to founder in Biscay storms. The International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the Bay of Biscay as a line joining Cap Ortegal to Penmarch Point, the southernmost portion is the Cantabrian Sea. The phenomenon of June Gloom is common, in late spring and early summer a large fog triangle fills the southwestern half of the bay, covering just a few kilometres inland. As winter begins, weather becomes severe and these depressions cause severe weather at sea and bring light though very constant rain to its shores. The Gulf Stream enters the bay following the continental shelfs border anti-clockwise, the main cities on the shores of the Bay of Biscay are Bordeaux, Bayonne, Biarritz, Brest, Nantes, La Rochelle, Donostia-San Sebastián, Bilbao, Santander, Gijón and Avilés. The southern end of the gulf is called in Spanish Mar Cantábrico, from the Estaca de Bares, as far as the mouth of Adour river. It was named by Romans in the 1st century BC as Sinus Cantabrorum and also, on some medieval maps, the Bay of Biscay is marked as El Mar del los Vascos. The Bay of Biscay has been the site of famous naval engagements over the centuries. In 1592 the Spanish defeated an English fleet during the eponymous Battle of the Bay of Biscay, the USS Californian sank here after striking a naval mine on June 22,1918. On December 28,1943, the Battle of the Bay of Biscay was fought between HMS Glasgow and HMS Enterprise and a group of German destroyers as part of Operation Stonewall during World War II. U-667 sank on 25 August 1944 in position 46°00′N 01°30′W, when she struck a mine, often specialist groups take the ferries to hear more information. Volunteers and employees of Biscay Dolphin Research regularly observe and monitor cetacean activity from the bridge of the ships on the P&O Ferries Portsmouth to Bilbao route, many species of whales and dolphins can be seen in this area. Most importantly, it is one of the few places where the beaked whales and this is the best study area in the world for beaked whales. Other records in the late 20th century include one off Galicia at 43°00′N 10°30′W in September 1977 reported by a whaling company and another one seen off the Iberian Peninsula. The best areas to see the larger cetaceans lie in the deep waters beyond the shelf, particularly over the Santander CanyonBay of Biscay – Spanish coast along the Bay of Biscay
22. Morocco – Morocco, officially known as the Kingdom of Morocco, is a sovereign country located in the Maghreb region of North Africa. Geographically, Morocco is characterized by a mountainous interior, large tracts of desert. Morocco has a population of over 33.8 million and an area of 446,550 km2 and its capital is Rabat, and the largest city is Casablanca. Other major cities include Marrakesh, Tangier, Tetouan, Salé, Fes, Agadir, Meknes, Oujda, Kenitra, a historically prominent regional power, Morocco has a history of independence not shared by its neighbours. Marinid and Saadi dynasties continued the struggle against foreign domination, the Alaouite dynasty, the current ruling dynasty, seized power in 1666. In 1912 Morocco was divided into French and Spanish protectorates, with a zone in Tangier. Moroccan culture is a blend of Arab, indigenous Berber, Sub-Saharan African, Morocco claims the non-self-governing territory of Western Sahara as its Southern Provinces. Morocco annexed the territory in 1975, leading to a war with indigenous forces until a cease-fire in 1991. Peace processes have thus far failed to break the political deadlock, Morocco is a constitutional monarchy with an elected parliament. The King of Morocco holds vast executive and legislative powers, especially over the military, foreign policy, the king can issue decrees called dahirs which have the force of law. He can also dissolve the parliament after consulting the Prime Minister, Moroccos predominant religion is Islam, and the official languages are Arabic and Tamazight. The Moroccan dialect, referred to as Darija, and French are also widely spoken, Morocco is a member of the Arab League, the Union for the Mediterranean, and the African Union. It has the fifth largest economy of Africa, the full Arabic name al-Mamlakah al-Maghribiyyah translates to Kingdom of the West, although the West in Arabic is الغرب Al-Gharb. The basis of Moroccos English name is Marrakesh, its capital under the Almoravid dynasty, the origin of the name Marrakesh is disputed, but is most likely from the Berber words amur akush or Land of God. The modern Berber name for Marrakesh is Mṛṛakc, in Turkish, Morocco is known as Fas, a name derived from its ancient capital of Fes. The English name Morocco is an anglicisation of the Spanish Marruecos, the area of present-day Morocco has been inhabited since Paleolithic times, sometime between 190,000 and 90,000 BC. During the Upper Paleolithic, the Maghreb was more fertile than it is today, twenty-two thousand years ago, the Aterian was succeeded by the Iberomaurusian culture, which shared similarities with Iberian cultures. Skeletal similarities have been suggested between the Iberomaurusian Mechta-Afalou burials and European Cro-Magnon remains, the Iberomaurusian was succeeded by the Beaker culture in MoroccoMorocco – Berber Roman King Ptolemy of Mauretania.
23. Mauritania – Mauritania /mɔːrɪˈteɪniə/, officially the Islamic Republic of Mauritania, is a country in the Maghreb region of western Africa. The country derives its name from the ancient Berber Kingdom of Mauretania, approximately 90% of Mauritanias land is within the Sahara and consequently the population is concentrated in the south, where precipitation is slightly higher. The capital and largest city is Nouakchott, located on the Atlantic coast, the government was overthrown on 6 August 2008, in a military coup détat led by General Mohamed Ould Abdel Aziz. On 16 April 2009, Aziz resigned from the military to run for president in the 19 July elections, about 20% of Mauritanians live on less than US$1.25 per day. Mauritania suffers from several human rights issues, including slavery, as at least 4% of the population are enslaved against their will, the Bafours were primarily agriculturalist, and among the first Saharan people to abandon their historically nomadic lifestyle. With the gradual desiccation of the Sahara, they headed south, many of the Berber tribes claimed Yemeni origins. There is little evidence to such claims, but a 2000 DNA study of Yemeni people suggested there might be some ancient connection between the peoples. Other peoples also migrated south past the Sahara to West Africa, in 1076, Moorish Islamic warrior monks attacked and conquered the large area of the ancient Ghana Empire. Over the next 500 years, Arabs overcame fierce resistance from the population to dominate Mauritania. The Char Bouba war was the final effort of the peoples to repel the Yemeni Maqil Arab invaders. The invaders were led by the Beni Hassan tribe, the descendants of the Beni Hassan warriors became the upper stratum of Moorish society. Hassaniya, a Berber-influenced Arabic dialect that derives its name from the Beni Hassan, berbers retained a niche influence by producing the majority of the regions marabouts, those who preserve and teach Islamic tradition. Imperial France gradually absorbed the territories of present-day Mauritania from the Senegal River area and upwards, in 1901, Xavier Coppolani took charge of the imperial mission. Through a combination of strategic alliances with Zawiya tribes, and military pressure on the Hassane warrior nomads, he managed to extend French rule over the Mauritanian emirates. Trarza, Brakna and Tagant quickly submitted to treaties with the colonial power, Adrar was finally defeated militarily in 1912, and incorporated into the territory of Mauritania, which had been drawn up and planned in 1904. Mauritania was part of French West Africa from 1920, French rule brought legal prohibitions against slavery and an end to inter-clan warfare. During the colonial period, 90% of the population remained nomadic, many sedentary peoples, whose ancestors had been expelled centuries earlier, began to trickle back into Mauritania. After gaining independence, larger numbers of indigenous Sub-Saharan African peoples entered Mauritania, educated in French language and customs, many of these recent arrivals became clerks, soldiers, and administrators in the new stateMauritania – The Dutch trading post of Arguin in 1665
24. Mali – Mali, officially the Republic of Mali, is a landlocked country in West Africa. Mali is the eighth-largest country in Africa, with an area of just over 1,240,000 square kilometres, the population of Mali is 14.5 million. The countrys economy centers on agriculture and fishing, some of Malis prominent natural resources include gold, being the third largest producer of gold in the African continent, and salt. About half the population lives below the poverty line of $1.25 a day. A majority of the population are Muslims, present-day Mali was once part of three West African empires that controlled trans-Saharan trade, the Ghana Empire, the Mali Empire, and the Songhai Empire. During its golden age, there was a flourishing of mathematics, astronomy, literature, at its peak in 1300, the Mali Empire covered an area about twice the size of modern-day France and stretched to the west coast of Africa. In the late 19th century, during the Scramble for Africa, France seized control of Mali, French Sudan joined with Senegal in 1959, achieving independence in 1960 as the Mali Federation. Shortly thereafter, following Senegals withdrawal from the federation, the Sudanese Republic declared itself the independent Republic of Mali. After a long period of one-party rule, a coup in 1991 led to the writing of a new constitution and the establishment of Mali as a democratic, multi-party state. In January 2012, a conflict broke out in northern Mali, in which Tuareg rebels took control of by April and declared the secession of a new state. The conflict was complicated by a coup that took place in March. In response to Islamist territorial gains, the French military launched Opération Serval in January 2013, a month later, Malian and French forces recaptured most of the north. Presidential elections were held on 28 July 2013, with a second round held on 11 August. The name Mali is taken from the name of the Mali Empire, the name was originally derived from the Mandinka or Bambara word mali, meaning “hippopotamus”, but it eventually came to mean the place where the king lives. The word carries the connotation of strength, D. Niane suggests in Sundiata, An Epic of Old Mali that it is not impossible that Mali was the name given to one of the capitals of the emperors. 14th century Moroccan traveller Ibn Battuta reported that the capital of the Mali Empire was indeed called Mali and this name could have formerly been that of a city. In old Mali there is one village called Malikoma which means “New Mali. ”Another theory suggests that Mali is a Fulani pronunciation of the name of the Mande peoples. It is suggested that a sound shift led to the change, whereby in Fulani the alveolar segment /nd/ shifts to /l/, Mali was once part of three famed West African empires which controlled trans-Saharan trade in gold, salt, slaves, and other precious commoditiesMali – The pages above are from Timbuktu Manuscripts written in Sudani script (a form of Arabic) from the Mali Empire showing established knowledge of astronomy and mathematics. Today there are close to a million of these manuscripts found in Timbuktu alone.
25. Ivory Coast – Ivory Coast or Côte dIvoire, officially the Republic of Côte dIvoire, is a country located in West Africa. Ivory Coasts political capital is Yamoussoukro, and its economic capital and its bordering countries are Guinea and Liberia in the west, Burkina Faso and Mali in the north, and Ghana in the east. The Gulf of Guinea is located south of Ivory Coast, prior to its colonization by Europeans, Ivory Coast was home to several states, including Gyaaman, the Kong Empire, and Baoulé. Two Anyi kingdoms, Indénié and Sanwi, attempted to retain their identity through the French colonial period. Ivory Coast became a protectorate of France in 1843–1844 and was formed into a French colony in 1893 amid the European scramble for Africa. Ivory Coast achieved independence in 1960, led by Félix Houphouët-Boigny, the country maintained close political and economic association with its West African neighbors while at the same time maintaining close ties to the West, especially France. Since the end of Houphouët-Boignys rule in 1993, Ivory Coast has experienced one coup détat, in 1999, the first took place between 2002 and 2007 and the second during 2010-2011. As a result, in 2000, the adopted a new Constitution. Ivory Coast is a republic with an executive power invested in its President. Through the production of coffee and cocoa, the country was a powerhouse in West Africa during the 1960s and 1970s. Ivory Coast went through a crisis in the 1980s, contributing to a period of political and social turmoil. Changing into the 21st-century Ivorian economy is largely market-based and still heavily on agriculture. The official language is French, with indigenous languages also widely used, including Baoulé, Dioula, Dan, Anyin. In total there are around 78 languages spoken in Ivory Coast, popular religions include Islam, Christianity, and various indigenous religions. Originally, Portuguese and French merchant-explorers in the 15th and 16th centuries divided the west coast of Africa, very roughly, there was also a Pepper Coast also known as the Grain Coast, a Gold Coast, and a Slave Coast. Like those, the name Ivory Coast reflected the major trade occurred on that particular stretch of the coast. One can find the name Cote de Dents regularly used in older works and it was used in Ducketts Dictionnaire and by Nicolas Villault de Bellefond, for examples, although Antoine François Prévost used Côte dIvoire. In the 19th century, usage switched to Côte dIvoire and it retained the name through French rule and independence in 1960Ivory Coast – Prehistoric polished stone celt from Boundiali in northern Ivory Coast, photo taken at the IFAN Museum of African Arts in Dakar, Senegal
26. Circle of latitude – A circle of latitude on the Earth is an abstract east–west circle connecting all locations around the earth at a given latitude. Circles of latitude are called parallels because they are parallel to each other – that is. A locations position along a circle of latitude is given by its longitude and their length can be calculated by a common sine or cosine function. The 60th circle of latitude is half as long as the equator, a circle of latitude is perpendicular to all meridians. The latitude of the circle is approximately the angle between the equator and the circle, with the vertex at the Earths centre. The equator is at 0°, and the North and South poles are at 90° north, the Equator is the longest circle of latitude and is the only circle of latitude which also is a great circle. There is no limit to how precisely latitude can be measured, on a map, the circles of latitude may or may not be parallel, and their spacing may vary, depending on which projection is used to map the surface of the Earth onto a plane. On an equirectangular projection, centered on the equator, the circles of latitude are horizontal, parallel, on other cylindrical and pseudocylindrical projections, the circles of latitude are horizontal and parallel, but may be spaced unevenly to give the map useful characteristics. On most non-cylindrical and non-pseudocylindrical projections, the circles of latitude are neither straight nor parallel, North American nations and states have also mostly been created by straight lines, which are often parts of circles of latitudes. For instance, the border of Colorado is at 41°N while the southern border is at 37°N. Roughly half the length of border between the United States and Canada follows 49°N, there are five major circles of latitude, listed below from north to south. The position of the Equator is fixed but the latitudes of the other circles depend on the tilt of this axis relative to the plane of the Earths orbit, the equator is the circle that is equidistant from the North Pole and South Pole. It divides the Earth into the Northern Hemisphere and the Southern Hemisphere, of the parallels or circles of latitude, it is the longest, and the only great circle. All the other parallels are smaller and centered only on the earths axis, the Arctic Circle is the southernmost latitude in the Northern Hemisphere at which the sun can remain continuously above or below the horizon for 24 hours. Similarly, the Antarctic Circle marks the northernmost latitude in the Southern Hemisphere at which the sun can remain continuously above or below the horizon for 24 hours. The Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn mark the northernmost and southernmost latitudes at which the sun may be directly overhead. The latitude of the circles is equal to the Earths axial tilt. In 2000 the mean value of the tilt was about 23° 26′ 21″, the main long-term cycle causes the axial tilt to fluctuate between about 22. 1° and 24. 5° with a period of 41,000 yearsCircle of latitude
27. Meridian (geography) – A meridian is the half of an imaginary great circle on the Earths surface, terminated by the North Pole and the South Pole, connecting points of equal longitude. The position of a point along the meridian is given by its latitude indicating how many degrees north or south of the Equator the point is, each meridian is perpendicular to all circles of latitude. Each is also the length, being half of a great circle on the Earths surface. Most maps show the lines of longitude, the position of the prime meridian has changed a few times throughout history, mainly due to the transit observatory being built next door to the previous one. Such changes had no significant practical effect, historically, the average error in the determination of longitude was much larger than the change in position. The adoption of WGS84 as the system has moved the geodetic prime meridian 102.478 metres east of its last astronomic position. The position of the current geodetic prime meridian is not identified at all by any kind of sign or marking in Greenwich, but can be located using a GPS receiver. The term meridian comes from the Latin meridies, meaning midday, the same Latin stem gives rise to the terms a. m. and p. m. used to disambiguate hours of the day when utilizing the 12-hour clock. Therefore, a compass needle will be parallel to the magnetic meridian, the angle between the magnetic and the true meridian is the magnetic declination, which is relevant for navigating with a compass. Searchable PDF prepared by the author, C. A. White, resources page of the U. S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management MeridianMeridian (geography) – The prime meridian at Greenwich, England. The meridian is actually 102.5 meters east of this point since the adoption of WGS84.
28. Equator – The Equator usually refers to an imaginary line on the Earths surface equidistant from the North Pole and South Pole, dividing the Earth into the Northern Hemisphere and Southern Hemisphere. The Equator is about 40,075 kilometres long, some 78. 7% lies across water and 21. 3% over land, other planets and astronomical bodies have equators similarly defined. Generally, an equator is the intersection of the surface of a sphere with the plane that is perpendicular to the spheres axis of rotation. The latitude of the Earths equator is by definition 0° of arc, the equator is the only line of latitude which is also a great circle — that is, one whose plane passes through the center of the globe. The plane of Earths equator when projected outwards to the celestial sphere defines the celestial equator, in the cycle of Earths seasons, the plane of the equator passes through the Sun twice per year, at the March and September equinoxes. To an observer on the Earth, the Sun appears to travel North or South over the equator at these times, light rays from the center of the Sun are perpendicular to the surface of the Earth at the point of solar noon on the Equator. Locations on the Equator experience the quickest sunrises and sunsets because the sun moves nearly perpendicular to the horizon for most of the year. The Earth bulges slightly at the Equator, the diameter of the Earth is 12,750 kilometres. Because the Earth spins to the east, spacecraft must also launch to the east to take advantage of this Earth-boost of speed, seasons result from the yearly revolution of the Earth around the Sun and the tilt of the Earths axis relative to the plane of revolution. During the year the northern and southern hemispheres are inclined toward or away from the sun according to Earths position in its orbit, the hemisphere inclined toward the sun receives more sunlight and is in summer, while the other hemisphere receives less sun and is in winter. At the equinoxes, the Earths axis is not tilted toward the sun, instead it is perpendicular to the sun meaning that the day is about 12 hours long, as is the night, across the whole of the Earth. Near the Equator there is distinction between summer, winter, autumn, or spring. The temperatures are usually high year-round—with the exception of high mountains in South America, the temperature at the Equator can plummet during rainstorms. In many tropical regions people identify two seasons, the wet season and the dry season, but many places close to the Equator are on the oceans or rainy throughout the year, the seasons can vary depending on elevation and proximity to an ocean. The Equator lies mostly on the three largest oceans, the Pacific Ocean, the Atlantic Ocean, and the Indian Ocean. The highest point on the Equator is at the elevation of 4,690 metres, at 0°0′0″N 77°59′31″W and this is slightly above the snow line, and is the only place on the Equator where snow lies on the ground. At the Equator the snow line is around 1,000 metres lower than on Mount Everest, the Equator traverses the land of 11 countries, it also passes through two island nations, though without making a landfall in either. Starting at the Prime Meridian and heading eastwards, the Equator passes through, Despite its name, however, its island of Annobón is 155 km south of the Equator, and the rest of the country lies to the northEquator – Left: A monument marking the Equator near the town of Pontianak, Indonesia Right: Road sign marking the Equator near Nanyuki, Kenya
29. Antarctic Circle – The Antarctic Circle is the most southerly of the five major circles of latitude that mark maps of the Earth. The region south of this circle is known as the Antarctic, the position of the Antarctic Circle is not fixed, as of 9 April 2017, it runs 66°33′46. 6″ south of the Equator. Its latitude depends on the Earths axial tilt, which fluctuates within a margin of 2° over a 40, 000-year period, consequently, the Antarctic Circle is currently drifting southwards at a speed of about 15 m per year. Directly on the Antarctic Circle these events occur, in principle, exactly once per year, at the December and June solstices, respectively. That is true at sea level, those limits increase with elevation above sea level, in previous centuries some semi-permanent whaling stations were established on the continent, and some whalers would live there for a year or more. At least three children have been born in Antarctica, albeit in stations north of the Antarctic Circle, the Antarctic Circle is roughly 17,662 kilometres long. The area south of the Circle is about 20,000,000 km2, the continent of Antarctica covers much of the area within the Antarctic CircleAntarctic Circle – An iceberg near the Antarctic Circle north of Detaille Island
30. 100th meridian west – The 100th meridian west forms a great circle with the 80th meridian east. Dodge City, Kansas lies exactly at the intersection of the Arkansas River, the type of agriculture west of the meridian typically relies heavily on irrigation. Historically the meridian has often taken as a rough boundary between the eastern and western United States. White settlement, spreading westward after the American Civil War, settled the area around this meridian during the 1870s, wallace Stegners Beyond the Hundredth Meridian, is a biography of John Wesley Powell, an explorer of the American West. The song At the Hundredth Meridian by The Tragically Hip is about the 100th meridian west, specifically in Canada, 99th meridian west 101st meridian west Rain follows the plow100th meridian west – Sign marking the 100th meridian in Cozad, Nebraska
31. 40th parallel north – The 40th parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 40 degrees north of the Earths equatorial plane. It crosses Europe, the Mediterranean Sea, Asia, the Pacific Ocean, North America, at this latitude the sun is visible for 15 hours,1 minute during the summer solstice and 9 hours,20 minutes during the winter solstice. On 21 June, the altitude of the sun is 73.83 degrees and 26.17 degrees on 21 December. Starting in Spain at the Prime Meridian and heading eastwards, the parallel 40° north passes through, on 30 May 1854, the Kansas–Nebraska Act created the Territory of Kansas and the Territory of Nebraska divided by the parallel 40° north. Both territories were required to determine for themselves whether to permit slavery, open conflict between free-state and pro-slavery forces in the Kansas Territory was one of the root causes of the American Civil War. The parallel 40° north formed the northern boundary of the British Colony of Maryland. A subsequent royal grant gave the Colony of Pennsylvania land north of the 40th parallel but mistakenly assumed it would intersect the Twelve Mile Circle, pennsylvanias border was thus unclear and the colony pushed for a border far south of the 40th parallel. The Mason–Dixon Line was drawn between 1763 and 1767 as the boundary between the overlapping claims of these two colonies. The parallel 40° north passes through the cities of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania and Columbus, Ohio, as well as suburbs of Indianapolis, Indiana and Denver. Baseline Road in Boulder, Colorado, traces the parallel 40° north, thistle, Utah, a ghost town since 1983, is slightly below 40° north. 39th parallel north 41st parallel north Baseline Geological Exploration of the Fortieth Parallel40th parallel north – Survey marker on the Kansas/Nebraska state line
32. Northern Hemisphere – The Northern Hemisphere is the half of Earth that is north of the equator. For other planets in the Solar System, north is defined as being in the celestial hemisphere relative to the invariable plane of the solar system as Earths North pole. Due to the Earths axial tilt, winter in the Northern Hemisphere lasts from the December solstice to the March Equinox, the dates vary each year due to the difference between the calendar year and the astronomical year. Its surface is 60. 7% water, compared with 80. 9% water in the case of the Southern Hemisphere, the Arctic is the region north of the Arctic Circle. Its climate is characterized by cold winters and cool summers, precipitation mostly comes in the form of snow. The Arctic experiences some days in summer when the Sun never sets, the duration of these phases varies from one day for locations right on the Arctic Circle to several months near the North Pole, which is the middle of the Northern Hemisphere. Between the Arctic Circle and the Tropic of Cancer lies the Northern Temperate Zone, the changes in these regions between summer and winter are generally mild, rather than extreme hot or cold. However, a temperate climate can have very unpredictable weather, tropical regions are generally hot all year round and tend to experience a rainy season during the summer months, and a dry season during the winter months. In the Northern Hemisphere, objects moving across or above the surface of the Earth tend to turn to the right because of the coriolis effect, as a result, large-scale horizontal flows of air or water tend to form clockwise-turning gyres. These are best seen in circulation patterns in the North Atlantic. For the same reason, flows of air down toward the surface of the Earth tend to spread across the surface in a clockwise pattern. Thus, clockwise air circulation is characteristic of high pressure weather cells in the Northern Hemisphere, conversely, air rising from the northern surface of the Earth tends to draw air toward it in a counterclockwise pattern. Hurricanes and tropical storms spin counter-clockwise in the Northern Hemisphere, the shadow of a sundial moves clockwise in the Northern Hemisphere. When viewed from the Northern Hemisphere, the Moon appears inverted compared to a view from the Southern Hemisphere, the North Pole faces away from the galactic center of the Milky Way. The Northern Hemisphere is home to approximately 6.57 billion people which is around 90% of the total human population of 7.3 billion peopleNorthern Hemisphere – Northern Hemisphere highlighted in blue
33. Southern Hemisphere – The Southern Hemisphere is the half sphere of Earth which is south of the equator. It contains all or parts of five continents, four oceans and its surface is 80. 9% water, compared with 60. 7% water in the case of the Northern Hemisphere, and it contains 32. 7% of Earths land. Due to the tilt of Earths rotation relative to the Sun, September 22 or 23 is the vernal equinox and March 20 or 21 is the autumnal equinox. The South Pole is in the middle of the southern hemispherical region, Southern Hemisphere climates tend to be slightly milder than those at similar latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere, except in the Antarctic which is colder than the Arctic. This is because the Southern Hemisphere has significantly more ocean and much land, water heats up. In the Southern Hemisphere the sun passes from east to west through the north, sun-cast shadows turn anticlockwise throughout the day and sundials have the hours increasing in the anticlockwise direction. Cyclones and tropical storms spin clockwise in the Southern Hemisphere due to the Coriolis effect, the southern temperate zone, a subsection of the Southern Hemisphere, is nearly all oceanic. Forests in the Southern Hemisphere have special features which set apart from those in the Northern Hemisphere. Both Chile and Australia share, for example, unique species or Nothofagus. The eucalyptus is native to Australia but is now planted in Southern Africa and Latin America for pulp production and, increasingly. Approximately 800,000,000 humans live in the Southern Hemisphere and this is due to the fact that there is significantly less land in the Southern Hemisphere than in the Northern Hemisphere. Africa Antarctica Asia Australia South America Zealandia Media related to Southern Hemisphere at Wikimedia CommonsSouthern Hemisphere – A famous photo of Earth from Apollo 17 (Blue Marble) originally had the south pole at the top; however, it was turned upside-down to fit the traditional perspective
34. 45th parallel south – The 45th parallel south is a circle of latitude that is 45 degrees south of the Earths equatorial plane. It is the line marks the theoretical halfway point between the equator and the South Pole. The true halfway point is 16.2 kilometres south of this parallel because the Earth is not a perfect sphere, unlike its northern counterpart almost all of it passes over open ocean. It crosses the Atlantic Ocean, the Indian Ocean, Australasia, at this latitude the sun is visible for 15 hours,37 minutes during the December solstice and 8 hours,46 minutes during the June solstice. Starting at the Prime Meridian and heading eastwards, the parallel 45° south passes through, 44th parallel south 46th parallel south45th parallel south – Highway sign marking the 45th parallel in New Zealand.