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The following 63 pages are in this category, out of 63 total, this list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 1485 births.|
The following 63 pages are in this category, out of 63 total, this list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. 1485 – Year 1485 was a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar. Spring – Multiple earthquakes near Taishan, China, march 16 – Solar eclipse across northern South America and Central Europe. June 1 – Matthias of Hungary takes Vienna in his conquest of Austria, august 5–August 7 – The first outbreak of sweating sickness in England begins. August 22 – The Battle of Bosworth is fought between the armies of King Richard III of England and rival claimant to the throne of England Henry Tudor, Richard dies in battle and Henry Tudor becomes King Henry VII of England. September 12 – Muscovian forces take hold of Tver, September 15 – Peter Arbues is assaulted while praying in the cathedral at Zaragoza, Spain, he dies on September 17. He had been appointed Inquisitor of Aragon by the Inquisitor General, Tomás de Torquemada, in the campaign against heresy, october 30 – King Henry VII of England is crowned. November 2 – The Peace of Bourges freezes the Mad War, leon Battista Albertis De Re Aedificatoria becomes the first printed work on architecture. From about this date, Leonardo da Vinci produces a number of designs for flying machines, including the aerial screw or helicopter1485 – Hernán Cortés
2. Nicolas Bachelier – Nicolas Bachelier was a French surveyor, architect, and mason. In 1539, Bachelier and his colleague Arnaud Casanove, who described themselves as expert levelers, Francis I had previously discussed the possibility of such a canal with Leonardo da Vinci. They also proposed that barges could either float down the Garonne River to Bordeaux or could traverse a canal parallel to the river, Francis I approved their plans which included a lock-free canal of variable depth. These plans proved to be inaccurate and could not be executed, in 1598, Henri IV re-examined the plans, but nothing was done until Pierre Paul Riquet began the successful endeavor of the Canal du Midi in 1662Nicolas Bachelier – Nicolas Bachelier
3. Lambert Barnard – Lambert Barnard, also Lambert Bernardi was an English Renaissance painter. Barnards place of birth is not known, but he is now believed to be of English origin, all his extant works are to be found in and around Chichester. His long-lived son Anthony Barnard, grandson, Lambert, and two generations of painter-stainers also named Lambert, followed him in the city. Barnard maintained a workshop with an apprentice boy John Foster. Records indicate that in 1533, at Bishop Sherborns request, the Dean and Chapter of Chichester Cathedral granted Barnard an annual payment in recognition of his long and good service. These two conjoined panels are framed above a series of roundels of portrait heads of the early Kings and Queens of England. Following the collapse of the spire in 1861 the rest of the scheme. In its entirety it also offers a commentary on the authority of the Roman Catholic Church in England. The recent dating of this scheme at 1533 makes it an original statement hugely important to the history of English art. There is nothing in his style to indicate, as has been suggested, the Earliest English Kings, London, Routledge, ISBN 0-415-09086-5 Planché, J. R. ‘The Nine Worthies of the World, An Illustration of the Paintings in Amberley Castle’, Journal of the British Archaeological Association, pp. 315–324 Steer, Francis WLambert Barnard – Thomas West commissioned Lambert Barnard, to paint the ceiling of the nave, of Boxgrove Priory, with the arms and crests of his own and his wife's families, entwined with flowers and foliage.
4. John Russell, 1st Earl of Bedford – John Russell, 1st Earl of Bedford KG PC JP was an English royal minister in the Tudor era. He served variously as Lord High Admiral and Lord Privy Seal, among the lands and property he was given by Henry VIII after the Dissolution of the Monasteries, were the Abbey and town of Tavistock, and the area that is now Covent Garden. Russell is the ancestor of all subsequent Earls and Dukes of Bedford and Earls Russell, including John Russell, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and philosopher Bertrand Russell. John Russell was born ca.1485 probably at Berwick-by-Swyre, Dorset, jamess father was possibly William Russell, but more likely his brother John Russell by his wife Alice Froxmere, daughter of John Froxmere of Droitwich, Worcs. John was the son of Henry Russell, and Elizabeth Herring, Henry, great-grandfather of the 1st Earl, was a substantial wine merchant and shipper, who represented Weymouth in the House of Commons four times. In the deed Henry referred to himself as son and heir of Stephen Russell and this Alice appears to have been the heir general of the De la Tour family, which had long owned Berwick-by-Swyre, and by whom therefore the manor was brought into the Russell family. In 1506 John Russell was of service to Archduke Philip of Austria and Juana his wife when they were shipwrecked off Weymouth and he was one of the most accomplished gentlemen of his time and so impressed them by his gracious manners that they praised him highly to King Henry VII. He was at the taking of Thérouanne and Tournai and he was knighted on 2 July 1522 after losing an eye at the taking of Morlaix in Brittany, and he witnessed the Battle of Pavia. Following his marriage in the Spring of 1526 he made alterations to his ancestral seat Chenies Manor House to reflect his new good fortunes and he now stood in favour with the King and Cardinal Wolsey, though he would not suffer disgrace at the fall of the latter. He was made High Sheriff of Dorset and Somerset in 1528 and served as Member of Parliament for Buckinghamshire 1529–1536, late in 1536, he was made a Privy Counsellor, and helped to suppress the Pilgrimage of Grace. The fall and execution of Henry Courtenay, Marquess of Exeter, left a vacuum in the south-western counties of England. On 9 March 1538/1539 he was created Baron Russell, and appointed Lord President of the Council of the West, in the next month, he was made a Knight of the Garter. In July 1539 he was made High Steward of Cornwall, the Council of the West proved unsuccessful as an instrument of government, and did not survive the fall of Cromwell. Russell, however, remained a great magnate in the western counties, after Henry VIII met Anne of Cleves at Rochester, the next day he asked Russell if he thought her fair. Russell replied with his natural diplomacy and prudence that he took her not to be fair, in 1542, Russell himself resigned the Admiralty and succeeded to the Privy Seal on the death of Southampton. He was High Steward of the University of Oxford from 1543 till his death, during the Italian War of 1542, he unsuccessfully besieged Montreuil in 1544, and was Captain General of the Vanguard of the army for the attack on Boulogne in 1545. He was a companion of King Henry VIII during the last years of his reign. On Henrys death, he was one of the executors of the Kings will, on 21 June 1553 he was one of the twenty-six peers who signed the settlement of the crown on Lady Jane GreyJohn Russell, 1st Earl of Bedford – John Russell, 1st Earl of Bedford, by Hans Holbein the Younger; Royal Collection, Windsor Castle
5. Johann Boemus – Johann Boemus was a German humanist, canon of Ulm Cathedral, traveller, and Hebraist. He was compiler and author of the first ethnographic compendium of the Early Modern period in Europe and his Omnium Gentium Mores, Leges et Ritus was published in 1520. It was reprinted multiple times in the century, including a 1571 edition. There were later editions, accumulating related treatises by other scholars and it influenced Sebastian Muensters Cosmography, and helped inspire the Hauptchronik of Sebastian Franck. It helped set the stage for subsequent investigations of the connections of law to culture, there were English translations by William Waterman and Edward Aston, The Manners, Lawes and Customs of all Nations. This book is cited as the first scientific approach to ethnography available in EnglishJohann Boemus – Title page of Johannes Boemus: Mores, Leges Et Ritus Omnium Gentium. - Lyon, 1541.
6. Johannes Bugenhagen – Johannes Bugenhagen, also called Doctor Pomeranus by Martin Luther, introduced the Protestant Reformation in the Duchy of Pomerania and Denmark in the 16th century. Among his major accomplishments was organization of Lutheran churches in Northern Germany and he has also been called the second Apostle of the North. Johannes Bugenhagen was pastor to Martin Luther at St. Marys church in Wittenberg and he is also commemorated in the Calendar of Saints of the Lutheran Church - Missouri Synod as a pastor on 20 April. Bugenhagen was born in Wollin, Duchy of Pomerania, on 24 June 1485 as one of three children of local Ratsherr Gerhard Bugenhagen, from 1502 to 1504, he studied artes at the University of Greifswald. In 1504, he moved to Treptow an der Rega and became Rector of the local school. Though he had not studied theology, he was ordained as a priest in Treptows St. Marys Church in 1509, and served as a vicar at the Kanonikerkolleg of that church thereafter. In 1517, abbot Johann Boldewan called Bugenhagen to his nearby Belbuck Abbey, where he was appointed Biblical lecturer, duke Bogislav X of Pomerania ordered Bugenhagen to write down the history of Pomerania in Latin. The year 1518 is the beginning of writing of the combined territory Pomerania. Bugenhagen first encountered the theology of Luther in the reformers Prelude on the Babylonian Captivity of the Church in 1520, at first he did not like Luthers thoughts at all. However, once he had studied it more, Bugenhagen became a supporter of the Reformation, in Wittenberg, Bugenhagen was elected parish pastor on October 25,1523, making him Martin Luthers pastor and confessor. He was a member of Luthers team translating the Holy Bible from Greek and Hebrew to German, by 1523, his private lectures had become well known, so he was called to lecture the following years at the Leucorea, the university in Wittenberg. On 17 March 1533, he was promoted doctor of theology at the university of Wittenberg, together with Johannes Aepinus and Kaspar Cruciger. The promotion was supervised by Martin Luther, based on Philipp Melanchthons theses, financed and attended by Frederick III, Elector of Saxony, with the ceremony in Wittenbergs castle church, Aepinus, Bugenhagen and Cruciger became the first three Protestant doctors of theology. After he had outlined his ideas in a letter to the Hamburg community, Bugenhagen was the most important figure in the Protestant Reformation in Northern Germany. This earned him later the epithet second Apostle of the North, not only did he create the new rules, he also established them and convinced people to follow them. Bugenhagen produced rules and regulations for religious service, for schooling, in 1539, he became superintendent of the Lutheran Church in Saxony. Also in 1539, Bugenhagen reformed the Pomeranian University of Greifswald, after the death of Luther in 1546, Bugenhagen took care of Luthers widow and children. Bugenhagen died in Wittenberg in 1558 and was buried at St. Marys church, other than for his theological opinions, Bugenhagen was also well-known because of his organising abilityJohannes Bugenhagen – Bugenhagen in 1537 by Lucas Cranach
7. Catherine of Aragon – The daughter of Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon, Catherine was three years old when she was betrothed to Arthur, Prince of Wales, heir apparent to the English throne. They married in 1501, but Arthur died five months later on 2 April 1502, in 1507, she held the position of ambassador of the Aragonese Crown in England, the first female ambassador in European history. Catherine subsequently married Arthurs younger brother, the recently ascended Henry VIII, for six months in 1513, she served as regent of England while Henry VIII was in France. During that time the English won the Battle of Flodden, an event in which Catherine played an important part with a speech about English courage. He sought to have their marriage annulled, setting in motion a chain of events led to Englands schism with the Catholic Church. When Pope Clement VII refused to annul the marriage, Henry defied him by assuming supremacy over religious matters, in 1533 their marriage was consequently declared invalid and Henry married Anne on the judgement of clergy in England, without reference to the Pope. Catherine refused to accept Henry as Supreme Head of the Church in England and considered herself the Kings rightful wife and queen, despite this, she was acknowledged only as Dowager Princess of Wales by Henry. After being banished from court, she lived out the remainder of her life at Kimbolton Castle, English people held Catherine in high esteem, and her death set off tremendous mourning. The controversial book The Education of a Christian Woman by Juan Luis Vives, such was Catherines impression on people that even her enemy, Thomas Cromwell, said of her, If not for her sex, she could have defied all the heroes of History. She successfully appealed for the lives of the involved in the Evil May Day. Catherine also won widespread admiration by starting an extensive programme for the relief of the poor and she was a patron of Renaissance humanism, and a friend of the great scholars Erasmus of Rotterdam and Thomas More. Catherine was born at the Archbishops Palace in Alcalá de Henares near Madrid and she was the youngest surviving child of King Ferdinand II of Aragon and Queen Isabella I of Castile. Catherine was quite short in stature with red hair, wide blue eyes, a round face. Consequently, she was cousin of her father-in-law, Henry VII of England. Catherine was educated by a tutor, Alessandro Geraldini, who was a clerk in Holy Orders and she studied arithmetic, canon and civil law, classical literature, genealogy and heraldry, history, philosophy, religion, and theology. She had a religious upbringing and developed her Roman Catholic faith that would play a major role in later life. She learned to speak, read and write in Spanish and Latin and she was also taught domestic skills, such as cooking, dancing, drawing, embroidery, good manners, lace-making, music, needlepoint, sewing, spinning, and weaving. The great scholar Erasmus later said that Catherine loved good literature which she had studied with success since childhoodCatherine of Aragon – Portrait by Lucas Hornebolte
8. Nicolau Chanterene – Nicolau Chanterene was a French sculptor and architect who worked mainly in Portugal and Spain. It is assumed that he was born in Normandy, France and it is not clear whether he got his training in France or Italy. However his style is essentially French, notwithstanding his use of Lombard ornaments and these statues introduce influences from the Italian Renaissance in Galicia. By January 1517 he and an assistant were at work as master contractors at the portal of the Jerónimos Monastery in Belém. This was probably his first assignment in Portugal and he filled the splays on each side of the portal with statues, among them king Manuel I and his second wife Maria of Aragón, both kneeling in a niche under a lavishly decorated baldachin. They are flanked by their patron saints St. Jerome and John the Baptist and he then decorated the tympanum with the Annunciation, the Nativity, and the Epiphany, each scene set in a tiny niche. Two angels, holdings the arms of Portugal, close the archivolt, Chanterene left in 1518 to Coimbra, another one of the main artistic centres of Portugal in this Age of Discovery. He would work there at the renovation of the Augustinian Santa Cruz Monastery and his reputation grew so fast that already in 1519 king Manuel I appointed him his personal sculptor with the accompanying pension and privileges. His first sculptural work were the tombs, at sides of the main altar, of the first two Portuguese kings, Afonso I and his successor, Sancho I. The kings lie on their tombs, clad in armour, with hands joined in prayer. Their serene expression is such that one would think that they are asleep, the tombs are set in large niches richly decorated with statues, flowers and medaillons in Late Gothic and Early Renaissance style, with on top the crosses of the Order of Christ. The weathered statues of the Apostles and Doctors of the Church in the portal and they are the most emblematic piece of the whole monastic ensemble, harmonising the artistic elements of the Manueline with other features from Renaissance inspiration. But the ornate, polygonal pulpit in the chapel of the monastery is considered a masterwork of Chanterene and one of the most beautiful Renaissance pulpits in the world. Around the seated Doctors of the Church one can find niches, baldachins, pilasters, in 1520, together with Diogo de Castilho, he sculpted the Renaissance portal of the Santa Cruz Monastery in Coimbra. But these life-size statues are now badly damaged In 1522 he got a commission for a retable in Ançã limestone for the Monastery of São Marcos de Tentúgal. He depicts, just as in the Belém portal, the figures of the donors. He probably only sculpted the figures, chief justice Aires Gomes da Silva. The figures in the “Deposition of Christ” were modelled by him in clay, in 1526 he was promoted by king João III to the honorary title of royal heraldNicolau Chanterene – Jerónimos Monastery 's Western portal, transition from the Gothic style to Renaissance, by Nicolau Chanterene, 1517
9. Robert Cheeseman – Robert Cheeseman or Cheseman was an English politician. He was the Member of Parliament for Middlesex 28 April 1539 –24 July 1540 and he was born in 1485, son and heir of Edward Cheseman, Cofferer and Keeper of the Wardrobe to Henry VII, and succeeded to the family estates in 1517. He was made a Justice of the Peace for Middlesex in 1528, and served on a number of commissions for collecting tithes and subsidies and he would also become Chief Falconer to Henry VIII. He was one of the selected to welcome Anne of Cleves when she first landed in England. In 1536 he supplied thirty men for the army against the Northern rebels of the Pilgrimage of Grace and he married Alice, daughter of Henry Dacres, of Mayfield, Staffordshire, a Merchant Tailor and Alderman of London. He was married a second time to Eleanor Owlett 5 May 1523 Saint Andrews Baynard Castle, together they had five children John, Robert, Eleanor, Anne and Raaf all born in Bedfordshire, England. At his death he held the manors of Southall and Norwood. A monument was placed in Norwood chapelRobert Cheeseman – Portrait by Holbein (1533).
10. Thomas Cromwell – Thomas Cromwell, 1st Earl of Essex KG PC was an English lawyer and statesman who served as chief minister to King Henry VIII of England from 1532 to 1540. Cromwell was one of the strongest and most powerful advocates of the English Reformation and he helped to engineer an annulment of the kings marriage to Queen Catherine of Aragon so that Henry could lawfully marry Anne Boleyn. Cromwell subsequently charted an evangelical and reformist course for the Church of England from the posts of vicegerent in spirituals. During his rise to power, Cromwell made many enemies, including his former ally Anne Boleyn and he played a prominent role in her downfall. He later fell from power, after arranging the marriage to German princess Anne of Cleves. Cromwell was arraigned under a bill of attainder and executed for treason, the king later expressed regret at the loss of his chief minister. Until the 1950s, historians discounted Cromwells role, calling him a doctrinaire hack who was more than the agent of the despotic King Henry VIII. Geoffrey Elton, however, featured him as the figure in the Tudor revolution in government in The Tudor Revolution. Elton portrayed Cromwell as the genius, much more so than the king, handling the break with Rome and creating the laws. Subsequent historians have agreed with Elton as to Cromwells importance, though not with his claims of revolution. Thomas Cromwell was born around 1485, in Putney, Surrey, as the son of Walter Cromwell, a blacksmith, fuller and cloth merchant, thomass mother, Katherine, was the aunt of Nicholas Glossop of Wirksworth in Derbyshire. She lived in Putney in the house of an attorney, John Welbeck. Cromwell had two sisters, the elder, Katherine, married Morgan Williams, a Welsh lawyer, the younger, Elizabeth, married a farmer, Katherine and Morgans son, Richard, was employed in his uncles service, and changed his name to Cromwell. Little is known about Cromwells early life and it is believed that he was born at the top of Putney Hill, on the edge of Putney Heath. The plot of ground here referred to is now covered by the Green Man public house, Cromwell declared to Archbishop of Canterbury Thomas Cranmer that he had been a ruffian… in his young days. As a youth, he left his family in Putney, accounts of his activities in France, Italy and the Low Countries are sketchy and contradictory. It is alleged that he first became a mercenary, and marched with the French army to Italy, while in Italy, he entered service in the household of the Florentine banker Francesco Frescobaldi. Later, he visited leading mercantile centres in the Low Countries, living among the English merchants, at some point he returned to ItalyThomas Cromwell – Portrait of Thomas Cromwell, Hans Holbein the Younger, (1532–33)
11. Luigi Da Porto – Da Porto wrote the novel in his villa in Montorso Vicentino near Vicenza before June 1524. The title of the book was Historia novellamente ritrovata di due nobili amanti, published posthumously about 1531 in Venice and dedicated to his mentor Pietro Bembo. Some inspiration may have stemmed from da Portos own experiences, In 1511, the conflicts between and within Friulian clans were however at a critical point. Da Porto was very close to his uncle Antonio Savorgnan, unfortunately though, years later, badly wounded and paralyzed from his battles, Luigi wrote the novella in his villa, setting it in Verona, whose towers he could see from his window. He dedicated the work to Lucina, who by then had been married off to someone else, da Porto set the story in Verona, in the age of Bartolomeo della Scala. He created the names of Romeus and Giulietta and even created the characters of Mercutio, Tybalt, Friar Laurence and ParisLuigi Da Porto – Frontispiece of Giulietta e Romeo from 1530. by Luigi da Porto
12. Johannes Dantiscus – Johannes Dantiscus, was prince-bishop of Warmia and Bishop of Chełmno. In recognition of his services for Polish kings, the bishop. Johannes Dantiscus personal seal, a located at Stanford University Libraries, identifies him as Ioannes De Curiis. Varmien with St. Katherine, St. Jacob and St. Peter crests and his familys name was von Höfen, while Flachsbinder was an occupational name derived from his grandfathers ropemaking trade. Johannes took on the nickname Dantiscus in order to show that he was a burgher of Danzig where his father was a brewer and merchant. He finished his studies at a parish school in Grudziądz. During his studies, the teenage Dantiscus became associated with the court of king John I Albert of Poland, and took part in military expeditions against the Turks. For over 30 years he was a diplomat and the royal secretary. Dantiscus, at King Sigismund Is side, took part in the Holy Roman Empires convention of Vienna in 1515, in Vienna he was knighted by the emperor for his services and was made a nobleman. Johannes became a canon, then Bishop of Chełmno and later of Bishop of Warmia. He also wrote poems, mainly in Latin, for which he is regarded as one of the most outstanding poets. Among his many works is his autobiography Vita Joannis de Curiis Dantisci, in addition, he maintained an active correspondence with prominent persons and institutions throughout Europe as well as with relatives. Thousands of his letters dating from 1500–1548 are still in existence, Dantiscus wrote mainly in Latin and German, and sporadically received letters in Polish, or in other languages. He died, aged 63, in Lidzbark, archive of Dantiscus works and correspondence, in English and Polish Works in Latin List of correspondentsJohannes Dantiscus – Joannes Dantiscus Episcopus Culmensis
13. Nikolaus Decius – Nikolaus Decius (also Degius, Deeg, Tech a Curia, and Nickel von Hof, c.1485 –21 March 1541 was a German monk, hymn-writer and composer. He was probably born in Hof in Upper Franconia, Bavaria and he studied at the University of Leipzig and obtained a masters degree at Wittenburg University in 1523 and became a monk. Although a monk, he was an advocate of the Protestant Reformation and he was Probst of the cloister at Steterburg from 1519 until July 1522 when he was appointed a master in the St. Katherine and Egidien School in Braunschweig. He wrote in 1523 for Allein Gott in der Höh sei Ehr, adapted by Luther in 1525, deciuss version was first sung on Easter Day at Braunschweig on 5 April 1523. Deciuss Low German version first appeared in print in Gesang Buch by Joachim Sluter, in 1526, Decius became preacher at the Church of St. Nicholas in Stettin at the same time as Paulus von Rhode was appointed preacher at St. Jamess in Stettin. In 1535 he became pastor of St. Nicholas and died there in March 1541 after a suspected poisoning, shortly before his death he wrote the hymn O Lamm Gottes, unschuldig sung on a tune from the 13th century. Deciuss version was first published in Anton Cornivuss Christliche Kirchen-Ordnung in 1542, johann Sebastian Bach used it as a cantus firmus in the opening chorus of his St Matthew Passion. It was translated into English by Arthur Tozer Russell in the 19th century, ludger Stühlmeyer, Nikolaus Decius – ein Kirchenlieddichter aus Hochfranken. In, Jahrbuch der Erzdiözese Bamberg 2014, ludger Stühlmeyer, Die Kirchenlieder des Hofers Nicolaus Decius. Von der Gründung des Bistums Bamberg bis zur Gegenwart, bayerische Verlagsanstalt, Heinrichs-Verlag Bamberg 2010, ISBN 978-3-89889-155-4, S. 110–112, 135–137, 357–358. In, Wolfgang Herbst, Wer ist wer im Gesangbuch, S. 73-74 Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht,2001, ISBN3525503237 Friedrich Wilhelm Bautz. P. D. Siegfried Fornaçon, Decius, Nikolaus, Neue Deutsche Biographie,3, Berlin, Duncker & Humblot, pp. 542–543Nikolaus Decius – Former Franziskanerkloster, School of Nikolaus Decius in Hof
14. Justus Ludwik Decjusz – Justus Ludwik Decjusz was a notable Polish burgher and diplomat of German origin in 16th-century Kraków. He served as a minister and secretary to the Polish king Sigismund I the Old. Originally from Alsace, Decjuszs career peaked with his appointment as the personal adviser and overseer of the royal mint. He was also the author of a widely circulated text De vetustatibus Polonorum and he also wrote Księga o czasach króla Zygmunta, based on personal observation and experience, which has served as a widely used primary source on 16th-century Poland. In 1528 Decjusz bought the villages Przegorzały and Wola Chełmska near Kraków and built a villa, the work, finished in 1535, took seven years to complete. It became a place for local residents of diverse ethnic and cultural backgrounds to discuss issues of the day, politics. The practice is continued today by the Stowarzyszenie Willa Decjusza, which is located in the buildingJustus Ludwik Decjusz – Decjusz's Villa in Wola Justowska, Kraków
15. Dragut – Dragut, known as The Drawn Sword of Islam, was a famed, respected, and feared Muslim Ottoman Naval Commander of Greek descent. Recognized for his genius, he was once described by a French admiral as A living chart of the Mediterranean. No one was more worthy than he to bear the name of king, Dragut has been referred to as the greatest pirate warrior of all time, undoubtedly the most able of all the Turkish leaders, and the uncrowned king of the Mediterranean. Under his skillful command, the Ottoman Empires maritime power was extended across North Africa, while serving as Pasha of Tripoli, Dragut constructed great feats in the city, making it one of the most impressive to behold along all the North African Coast. The religion of Draguts parents and his religion at birth are currently disputed, at the age of 12 he was noticed by an Ottoman army commander for his extraordinary talent in using spears and arrows and was recruited by him. The Ottoman Turkish governor eventually carried Turgut off to Egypt in 1517 and he further improved his skills in this field during his presence in Cairo. Following the death of his master, Turgut went to Alexandria and he immediately became one of the favourite crewmen of the famous corsair due to his success in hitting enemy vessels with cannons. Turgut soon mastered the skills of seamanship and became the captain of a brigantine, after several successful campaigns, he became the sole owner of the brigantine. In 1520, he joined the fleet of Hayreddin Barbarossa, who would become his protector, Turgut was soon promoted to the rank of Chief Lieutenant, by Barbarossa, and was given command of 12 galiot-class naval vessels. In 1526, Turgut Reis captured the fortress of Capo Passero in Sicily, in May 1533, commanding four fustas and 18 barques, Turgut Reis captured two Venetian galleys near the island of Aegina. In August 1538 Turgut Reis captured Candia in Crete as well as several other Venetian possessions in the Aegean Sea, in 1539, commanding 36 galleys and galiots, Turgut Reis recaptured Castelnuovo from the Venetians, who had taken the city back from the Ottomans. During the combat he sank two Venetian galleys and captured three others, still in 1539, while landing on Corfu, he encountered 12 Venetian galleys under the command of Francesco Pasqualigo and captured the galley of Antonio da Canal. He later landed at Crete and fought against the Venetian cavalry forces under the command of Antonio Calbo, in early 1540 Turgut Reis captured several Genoese ships off the coast of Santa Margherita Ligure. In April 1540, commanding two galleys and 13 galiots, he landed at Gozo and sacked the island, from there, Turgut Reis sailed to the Tyrrhenian Sea and bombarded the southern ports of Corsica, most notably Palasca. He later captured and sacked the island of Capraia. Turgut Reis later sailed back towards Corsica and docked his ships at Girolata on the shores of the island. Taken by surprise in the Battle of Girolata while repairing his ships, Turgut Reis and his men were attacked by the forces of Giannettino Doria, Giorgio Doria. Turgut Reis was captured and was forced to work as a slave in the ship of Giannettino Doria for nearly four years before being imprisoned in GenoaDragut – Portrait of Turgut (Dragut) Reis
16. Jean Duvet – Jean Duvet was a French Renaissance goldsmith and engraver, now best known for his engravings. He was the first significant French printmaker, according to Henri Zerner, his work has a freedom and immediacy that have no equivalent in Renaissance printmaking. A degree of mystery surrounds his biography, as there is disagreement as to whether or not he was the Jean Duvet from Dijon who spent sixteen years in the militantly Calvinist city-state of Geneva. He was born to a Dijon goldsmith in 1485, presumably in Dijon itself and he became a master of the Dijon Goldsmiths guild in 1509, and may have travelled to Italy in about 1519, this is purely an inference from his prints, which show considerable Italian influence. His first dated print is The Annunciation from 1520, although others are probably earlier, although he remained in the provinces, he was appointed goldsmith to both Francis I and Henry II. The first of these appointments was on the occasion of the Kings visit to Langres, by the next royal visit, in 1533, he was in charge of the festivities and decoration. The influence of pageant tableaus and scenery has been detected in his prints, no identified examples of his goldsmithing survive, though commissions for Francis I and others are documented. His last dated print is the Frontispiece of 1555 and he was certainly dead by 1570, but some authorities think he was alive until about then -1570 is the death date given by the Getty Union Artist Names List for example. A Jean Duvet from Dijon is also recorded working as a goldsmith in Calvinist Geneva from 1540–56, the question perhaps cannot be regarded as entirely settled. The Geneva Duvet was recorded as the son of Loys Duvey, alias Drot de Dijon, probably Jean Duvets brother, eisler and Blunt favour the Geneva figure being Duvet himself, followed by Marqusee, Zerner and R. Yet another Jean Duvet, working as a goldsmith in Geneva, was condemned to death for extortion in Geneva in 1576, the Geneva Duvet is rather better documented, working for the city authorities in a number of capacities, and holding official office. Both Langres and Dijon were strongly Catholic centres during the period before the Wars of Religion, if his religious views had changed, Langres might well have been an uncomfortable place to remain. The printer of the Apocalypse was Jean de Tournes, his son, also called Jean de Tournes, eisler dates these three between 1527 and the end of Duvets career. Some individual engravings survive only in unique impressions and it is assumed that most of his prints in his characteristic crowded style and round-topped format date from the period 1540-55, based mainly on the 1555 date of the Apocalypse frontispiece. A few simpler but intense prints are taken to date from his last years. He copied prints by Marcantonio and Mantegna, and his technique is especially indebted to the former. A very free copy of Mantegnas Entombment shows him imposing his own vision with complete confidence on the composition of another artist and his most famous works are his series of twenty-three engravings on the Apocalypse, the frontispiece of which is dated 1555. They borrow heavily from the series in woodcut of Albrecht Dürer but are very different in style - crowded, even confusedJean Duvet – Detail of The Marriage of Adam and Eve, probably 1540/1555, engraving.
17. Elizabeth of Denmark, Electress of Brandenburg – Elizabeth of Denmark, Norway, and Sweden was a Scandinavian princess who became Electress of Brandenburg as the spouse of Joachim I Nestor, Elector of Brandenburg. She was daughter of King Hans of Denmark, Norway and Sweden and his spouse, as a child, Elizabeth had a close relation with her brother, the later King Christian II of Denmark. She was able to read and write in both Danish and German, on 10 April 1502 she married Joachim I Nestor, Elector of Brandenburg, in a double wedding alongside her uncle, the future king Frederick I of Denmark, and her sister-in-law Anna of Brandenburg. Elizabeth and Joachim got along well during the first twenty years of their marriage. She received her mother in 1507, attended her brother Christians wedding in 1515 and her spouse was a pugnacious adherent of Roman Catholic orthodoxy during the Reformation. In 1523, she visited a sermon of Martin Luther with her brother and her sister-in-law, in 1527, she received the Protestant communion in public, this meant a public break with the Catholic Church, and caused a conflict with her husband. In 1528, her husband asked a clerical council from the Catholic Church if he should divorce, the church council replied that he should have her imprisoned. Otherwise, she suggested that they separate, referring to the separation of her own parents in 1504 and she was given a residence near Wittenberg. Her husband refused to give her an allowance and forbade her sons to visit her, in 1532, her uncle died and her brother was imprisoned, and she thereby lost her supporters. In 1535, her husband died and her sons asked her to return to Brandenburg and she finally returned in 1545 and stayed in Spandau. The marriage of her son Joachim II Hector, Elector of Brandenburg, Catholic services were held for Hedwig in her private chapel, and the Dowager Electress was also unhappy because Hedwig could not speak GermanElizabeth of Denmark, Electress of Brandenburg – Sculpture of Elizabeth from the altarpiece by Claus Berg in St. Canute's Cathedral, Odense (c. 1530)
18. Odet of Foix, Viscount of Lautrec – Odet de Foix, Vicomte de Lautrec was a French military leader. He gained the reputation of a gallant and able soldier, but this seems to be justified by the facts. The branch of the Viscounts of Lautrec originated with Pierre, the son of John III of Foix, in 1515 Lautrec took part in the campaign of Marignano. In 1516 Lautrec received the government of the Milanese duchy, in 1521 he succeeded in defending the duchy against the Spanish army, but in 1522 he was completely defeated at the Battle of Bicocca, and was forced to evacuate the Milanese. The mutiny of his Swiss troops had compelled him, against his wish and he was created a marshal of France, and in 1527 he again received the command of the army of Italy. He occupied the Milanese, and was sent to undertake the conquest of the kingdom of Naples. The defection of Andrea Doria and an outbreak of the plague in the French camp brought on a fresh disaster, Lautrec himself caught the infection, and died in the August 1528. This article incorporates text from a now in the public domain, Chisholm, Hugh. There is abundant manuscript correspondence in the Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris See the Works of Brantôme Memoirs of Martin du BellayOdet of Foix, Viscount of Lautrec – Odet de Foix, Vicomte de Lautrec, sketched by Jean Clouet (early 16th century).
19. Veronica Gambara – Veronica Gambara was an Italian poet, stateswoman and political leader. Born in Pralboino, in Lombardy, Italy, Gambara came from a family, one of the seven children of Count Gianfrancesco da Gambara. Her family contained a number of distinguished female intellectuals, including her great-aunts, Veronica was also a niece of Emilia Pia, the principal female interlocutor of Baldessare Castigliones Il Cortegiano. Gambara received a humanist education, studying Latin, Greek, philosophy, theology, in 1502, at the age of 17, she began corresponding with the leading neo-Petrarchan, Pietro Bembo, who became her poetic mentor two years later when she began sending him her compositions. In 1509, at the age of 24, she married her cousin and they had two sons, Ippolito was born in 1510 and Girolamo in 1511. After Gibertos death in 1518, she took charge of the state, previously aligned with French king, Francis I, Gambara allied Correggio with Holy Roman Emperor Charles V. She personally received Charles V at her estate in 1530, when he signed a treaty guaranteeing Correggio would not again be besieged, the treaty was broken, however, in 1538 when Galeotto Pico II, Count of Mirandola and Concordia, launced an attack on Correggio. Gambara organized a defense of the city, and between 1546 and 1550, saw that Charles V paid for improved fortifications. She died June 13,1550 in Correggio, Italy, approximately 80 of her poems and 150 of her letters are extant, although there is no full English translation of her work. A complete English translation of her poems was published in 2014, little of her poetry was published during her lifetime, though it circulated in manuscript and was well-known throughout Italy by 1530. Gambara primarily composed poetry in Italian falling into four categories, poems on political issues, devotional poems, Virgilian pastoral and her political poems are particularly notable for expressing a concept of Italy as an entity centuries prior to unification. Most of her poems are sonnets, although she also wrote madrigals, ballads and she also composed a number of poems in Latin, including an ode for Charles V with which she greeted the fellow sovereign on his visit to Correggio in 1530. Gambara was in correspondence with a number of important scholars and poets of the day, beyond the above-mentioned Pietro Bembo, she corresponded with the poet Bernardo Tasso, the writer Matteo Bandello, and author and playwright Pietro Aretino. She also exchanged letters with Charles V. Gambaras letters, never intended for publication, in a 1549 letter to Ludovico Rosso she admits to exhaustion with her responsibilities, and expresses a desire to retire to a solitary country life. Robin, Diana Maury, Larsen, Anne R. and Levin, encyclopedia of women in the Renaissance, Italy, France, and England. CS1 maint, Uses authors parameter Under the Sign of Dido, Veronica Gambara, Life, Letters, women Latin Poets, Language, Gender, and Authority from Antiquity to the Eighteenth Century. Women Poets of the Italian Renaissance, Courtly Ladies and CourtesansVeronica Gambara – Veronica Gambara (1485–1550). Painting by Antonio da Correggio about 1517 -1520, The Hermitage Museum, Saint Petersburg, Russia
20. Pedro de la Gasca – Pedro de la Gasca was a Spanish bishop, diplomat and the second viceroy of Peru, from April 10,1547 to January 27,1550. Pedro de la Gasca studied at the University of Salamanca and the University of Alcalá and he became a priest and a lawyer, and was known for his intellect. In 1542 he was negotiator for Emperor Charles V in discussions with the pope and King Henry VIII, a position requiring great diplomatic skill. Gonzalo Pizarro, brother of Francisco Pizarro, the conqueror of Peru, rose in revolt, killed viceroy Blasco Núñez Vela in battle in 1546, the Emperor, recovering from a ruinous war, was unable to send an army against Pizarro. Instead, he commissioned La Gasca to restore the peace, naming him president of the Audiencia and providing him unlimited authority to punish. La Gasca sailed from Spain in May 1546, without troops or money, two Dominican priests and a few servants made up his party. He arrived in Panama, representing himself as a peacemaker charged only with reestablishing justice, Pizarros fleet was stationed in Panama, and La Gascas diplomatic skills soon converted Pizarros officers to Gazcas cause. Gonzalo Pizaro, however, refused to submit, and fled secretly to Cuzco, La Gasca, escorted by nearly the whole fleet of Pizarro, landed at Tumbes in 1547. He issued a proclamation announcing his mission as peacekeeper and inviting all citizens to join him in restoring tranquility. In another proclamation he granted amnesty to all deserters and promised rewards to those who would take up arms in defense of the Crown and he also repealed the New Laws, the cause around which the rebellion had been organized. La Gasca soon assembled a respectable army and he took command himself and marched to Cuzco in December 1547. The two armies met on April 9,1548 in the battle of Jaquijahuana, most of Pizarros officers and men went over to La Gasca, with the exception of Francisco de Carvajal, dubbed the Demon of the Andes. The royalist forces were masters of the field, without having struck a blow, La Gasca had Pizarro and some of his important followers, including de Carvajal executed. He dispersed the adventurers, rewarded the royalists, and pardoned the majority of the rebels and he reorganized the administration of justice and the collection of taxes, and he issued several regulations opposed to the oppression of the Indigenous. La Gasca was tactful and judicious, but unyielding in his devotion to duty, in 1549 he surrendered his powers to the Audiencia. On January 27,1550 he left Peru to return to Spain, on his arrival there he was made bishop of Palencia by Charles V. In 1561 Philip II promoted him to the see of Sigüenza, «Relación de las provincias que hay en la conquista de Chuquimaio por Pedro de La Gasca. The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th edPedro de la Gasca – Pedro de la Gasca
21. Urs Graf – Urs Graf was a Swiss Renaissance goldsmith, painter and printmaker, as well as a mercenary soldier. He only produced two etchings, one of which dates from 1513 – the earliest known etching for which a date has been established and he also produced a few engravings, including copies of works by Martin Schongauer and Albrecht Dürer. He produced innovative drawings intended as finished works of art rather than just studies, Graf learned goldsmithing first from his father, Hugo Graf, then from a goldsmith in Zürich. He continued to work as a goldsmith and a few pieces survive and he initially earned money as a designer of woodcut book illustrations and by assisting a stained glass painter. In 1512, he bought citizenship in Basel and became a member of the goldsmiths guild and he quickly came into conflict with the law for abusing his wife and consorting with prostitutes, culminating in accusations of attempted murder which caused him to flee the city in 1518. He was allowed to return to Basel the following year, where he continued working, given his frequent employment as a soldier of fortune it is possible he was present at the sack of Rome. Christiane Andersson noted that, When and where he died are unknown, his wife remarried in October 1528, like many Swiss men of his day, Graf was known to have worked as a mercenary for considerable periods. From the Lessing J. Rosenwald Collection at the Library of Congress Media related to Urs Graf at Wikimedia CommonsUrs Graf – Urs Graf, Naked female fiddler with an old fool from Basel (1523)
22. Peter Henlein – Peter Henlein, a locksmith and clockmaker of Nuremberg, Germany, is often considered the inventor of the watch. He was one of the first craftsmen to make small ornamental Taschenuhren, portable clocks which were worn as pendants or attached to clothing. Many sources also credit him as the inventor of the mainspring. Little is known about Henleins life and he apparently apprenticed in his youth as a locksmith. At the time, locksmiths were among the few craftsmen with the skills and tools to enter the new field of clockmaking, on September 7,1504, he was involved in a brawl in which a fellow locksmith, George Glaser, was killed. He sought asylum at a local Franciscan monastery, where he stayed for four years, in 1509 he became a master in the citys locksmith guild. He became known as a maker of small portable ornamental spring-powered brass clocks, very rare and expensive and he is mentioned in the citys records as the supplier of small spring-driven clocks, which were given as gifts to important people. He was supposedly the first craftsman to build clockworks into Bisamköpfe, for example a Nuremberg paper records that in 1524 he was paid 15 florins for a gilt musk-ball watch. He also built a clock for Lichtenau castle in 1541. This was made into a 1939 film, and his likeness appeared on a 1942 German stamp. However, although he was a notable and talented clockmaker, there were other clockmakers making small clocks at the time, the mainspring which made portable clocks possible, often attributed to him, actually appeared in the early 15th century, almost a century before his work. Perhaps the most that was said of him by his peers comes from Johann Neudorfer in 1547 shortly after his death, Henlein was very nearly the first of those who invented how to put small clocks into little boxes. History of watches Jürgen Abeler In Sachen Peter Henlein, wuppertaler Uhrenmuseum, Wuppertal 1980 Maren Winter Der Stundensammler. A scholarly Essay in, Jahresschrift 2015 - Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Chronometrie -Band 54, published by Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Chronometrie, Nuernberg, ISBN 978-3-923422-23-4 Pictures of watches from Peter Henleins time Peter Henlein, Pomander Watch Anno 1505Peter Henlein – Monument to Henlein by Max Meißner, in Hefnersplatz, Nuremberg
23. Thomas Kitson – Sir Thomas Kitson was a wealthy English merchant, Sheriff of London, and builder of Hengrave Hall in Suffolk. Thomas Kitson was the son of Robert Kitson of Warton, Lancashire and his sister, Margaret Kitson, married John Washington, ancestor of George Washington. Kitson came to London as a youth, and was apprenticed to the London mercer and Merchant Adventurer and he was admitted a freeman of the Mercers Company in 1507, and served as Warden in 1525-6 and 1533-4 and as Master in 1534-5. He served as Sheriff of London in 1533-4, and was knighted on 30 May of that year, in May 1534 he was associated with Rowland Lee, Bishop of Coventry and Lichfield, in taking oaths of fealty from priests and monks. Kitson had financial dealings with the Crown on a large scale, by 1509 his mercantile transactions were already extensive, and by 1534-5 only ten other merchants exported cloth in larger quantities. He was a member of the Company of Merchant Adventurers until his death, and traded at the cloth fairs or staples held by the company at Antwerp, Middelburg, and elsewhere in Flanders. Kitson had a house in London on Milk Street with a chapel, a garden on Coleman Street, like other wealthy London merchants he had a house in Antwerp. On the Dukes attainder and execution in the year, Kitson was for a time deprived of the estates. He obtained a licence from Henry VIII to build a manor house at Hengrave on a magnificent scale. The building was begun in 1525, and finished in 1538, a later inventory of the furniture and goods at Hengrave shows its extent and elegance. Kitson subsequently purchased several other manors in Suffolk from the crown, besides Hengrave, he had houses at Westley and Risby in Suffolk. Kitson died 11 September 1540, and was buried in Hengrave Church, in the north-east angle of the chapel is an ornate monument to the memory of his widow, Margaret, Countess of Bath, and her three husbands. Kitson married twice, Firstly to a lady of unknown name. By her he had a daughter, Elizabeth Kitson, the first wife of Edmund Croftes of Westow Hall, Little Saxham, Suffolk, son and heir of Sir John Croftes, Thomas Spencer William Spencer Richard Spencer, and six daughters. The three Spencer sisters were Phyllis, Charillis, and sweet Amaryllis’ in the poet Edmund Spensers Colin Clout’s Come Home Again, anne Kitson, who married, as his first wife, Sir William Spring of Pakenham, Suffolk. Following his death, Kitsons widow secured two further advantageous marriages which further enhanced the wealth and prestige of the family, a Genealogical and Heraldic History of the Extinct and Dormant Baronetcies of England. The Poetical Works of Edmund Spenser, London, Whittaker and Co. pp. 58–62. A New Survey of England, Devon, London, Whittaker and Co. pp. 83–108Thomas Kitson – Hengrave Hall, built by Sir Thomas Kitson
24. Thomas Knyvett – Sir Thomas Knyvett, of Buckenham, Norfolk was a young English nobleman who was a close associate of King Henry VIII shortly after that monarch came to the throne. According to Halls Chronicle, Knyvett was a frequent participant in the jousts and pageants of the new kings glittering court and was made Henrys Master of the Horse in 1510. Muriel Howard was the daughter of Thomas Howard, 2nd Duke of Norfolk, and Elizabeth Tilney, by Muriel Howard Knyvett had three sons and two daughters, Edmund, Katherine, Ferdinand, Anne, and Henry. Henry was the grandfather of Catherine Knyvett who married her third cousin Thomas Howard, 1st Earl of Suffolk and is the ancestor of the Earls of Suffolk, four months after her husbands death, Muriel Howard died in childbirth between 13 and 21 December 1512. Their five orphaned children were brought up by their grandmother, Eleanor Knyvett, the actress and theatre director Sally Knyvette, who starred as Jenna Stannis in the British science fiction TV series Blakes 7, is a direct descendant of Sir Thomas Knyvet. When Henry declared war on France in 1512, Knyvett, along with Sir John Carew, was given command of the royal flagship, with a number of court favourites commanding other vessels, a small fleet set sail for the coast of Brittany. On 10 August 1512 they engaged a slightly larger French fleet, knyvetts ship grappled with the Breton command vessel Cordelière, and was engaged in boarding her when the Cordelières powder magazine blew up. The two vessels burst into flame, Knyvett and Carew both perished, along with the Breton captain Hervé de Portzmoguer and more than 1,700 men, both French and English. On the TV series The Tudors, a fictionalized Sir Anthony Knivert is based on Knyvett, gunn, S. J. Knyvet, Sir ThomasThomas Knyvett – A contemporary image of the Cordeliere (bearing the Flag of Brittany) and Regent (with the Flag of England) on fire. Illustration to the poem Chordigerae navis conflagratio by Germain de Brie.
25. Stygge Krumpen – He was the brother of Danish marshal Otte Krumpen. With them, the Krumpen family died out, Stygge Krumpen was born the son of Jørgen Krumpen of Skjøtterup and Anne Styggesdatter Rosenkrantz. He was the brother of later marshal Otte Krumpen, in 1505, he started attending the University of Rostock, and took his Masters degree before 1513. In 1514, he was associated with Tranebjerg church, in 1515 he was named secretary of king Christian II of Denmark, and in 1518 he was promised the first priesthood available in Jutland. He was named bishop of the Diocese of Børglum in 1519 alongside his uncle, bishop Niels Stygge. He had the provost of Børglum Abbey expelled and his rights transferred to Niels Stygge and he was active in the uprising against Christian II in 1522-23. Under new king Frederick I of Denmark, Krumpen was credited for Sæby attaining market town rights in 1524, Krumpen actively opposed the Reformation in Denmark, and urged Johann Eck to preach in Denmark. While at Børglum, he sought to enhance his own holdings in numerous ways. Krumpen caused public scandal as he was living in sin with his relative Elsebeth Gyldenstjerne and he accompanied Prince Christian on a trip to Norway in 1529, but was otherwise not a close advisor to the crown. He opposed the ascension of Prince Christian as king in 1533, during the subsequent Counts Feud civil war between the Protestant Christian III and the catholic Christian II, Krumpen could not defend his holdings against the peasant uprising of Skipper Clement. After Christian III won the Counts Feud in 1536, all bishops were dispossessed and jailed. Krumpen was imprisoned at Sønderborg Castle during the time as Christian II. He spent his last years facing a number of legal trials regarding his conduct as a bishop and he was released in 1542 with support from his brother, after swearing allegiance to Christian III. He was granted Asmild Abbey for life in January 1543, and he died on 21 January 1551 and was buried in the family plot at Mariager Abbey. Stygge Krumpen,1936 fictional novel by Thit Jensen Stygge Krumpen - biskop og adelsmand,2008 historical biography by Gert JensenStygge Krumpen – Børglum Abbey
26. Jost de Negker – Jost de Negker was a cutter of woodcuts and also a printer and publisher of prints during the early 16th century, mostly in Augsburg, Germany. He was a leading formschneider or blockcutter of his day, and he is closely tied to the evolution of the fine woodcut in Northern Europe. Born in Antwerp c.1485, he worked as a cutter in the Netherlands to 1508, when a print he cut by Lucas van Leyden was published. He probably moved in that year to Augsburg and worked for Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor on his print projects, as well as cutting blocks from designs by Hans Burgkmair the Elder and others. He was probably not used by Burgkmair in 1508 on his first chiaroscuro woodcut, for precise cutting was essential to align the multiple blocks. Negker still seems to have been the co-ordinator of the side of the projects, though Albrecht Dürer brought in his own man. Giulia Bartrum says that the Imperial commissions enabled the block-cutter and printer Jost de Negker to raise the status of his profession to a high level. Negkers edition of this was published in 1544, and is his last known work, the cutters of most single-leaf woodcuts produced at the period are unknown, as they were usually only credited on the printed piece if they also acted as publisher, or at least printer. If the original block has survived these may be marked or signed, as they normally were in the case of Maximilians projects, with books there is more evidence, from title-pages. He is attributed with the cutting of the German chiaroscuro woodcut with the largest number of different colour blocks, a seven-block coat of arms by Hans Weiditz used as a book frontispiece. Jost de Negkers business was continued until at least the mid 1560s by his son David de Negker, another son, Samson, also cut blocks. Gert von der Osten & Horst Vey Painting and Sculpture in Germany, woods, Kim, Making Renaissance Art, Renaissance Art Reconsidered, Yale University Press,2007, ISBN 0-300-12189-X, ISBN 978-0-300-12189-6Jost de Negker – Lovers Surprised by Death, Chiaroscuro woodcut in three colours by Hans Burgkmair, cut by de Negker, 1510. In some states de Negker's name appears below the image.
27. John Poyntz – John Poyntz was an English courtier and politician, Member of Parliament for Devizes in 1529. Poyntz married, by 1528, Elizabeth, the daughter of Sir Matthew Browne of Betchworth Castle, Poyntz was sewer to Queen Catherine of Aragon in 1520. He was friends with the poet Sir Thomas Wyatt who wrote a satire on ‘mine own John Poyntz’, a painting and a drawing of Poyntz by Holbein survive. He was the brother of vice-admiral Anthony Poyntz and the uncle of Nicholas PoyntzJohn Poyntz – John Poyntz by Hans Holbein the Younger
28. Beatus Rhenanus – Beatus Rhenanus, also known as Beatus Bild, was a German humanist, religious reformer, classical scholar, and book collector. Rhenanus was born in Schlettstadt in Alsace and his father, Anton Bild, was a prosperous butcher from Rhinau. Anton emigrated to Schlettstadt and eventually one of its Burgermeisters. He was able to provide his son with an excellent education, Rhenanus attended the famous Latin school of Schlettstadt, and in 1503, went to the University of Paris, where he came under the influence of Jacobus Faber Stapulensis, an eminent Aristotelian. In 1511, he relocated to Basel, where he befriended Desiderius Erasmus and he returned to Schlettstadt in 1526 to devote himself to a life of learned leisure. He continued a correspondence with many contemporary scholars, including his friend Erasmus. He also wrote works on Tacitus, Livy, and a work on his friend Erasmus. Beatus Rhenanus invaluable collection of books went into the ownership of his hometown by his death and is still to be seen in its entirety in the Humanist Library of SélestatBeatus Rhenanus – Beatus Rhenanus
29. Antonio Semini – Antonio Semini was an Italian painter of the late-Renaissance, active in his native Genoa. He was born and trained in Genoa and died in Milan and he was the pupil of Ludovico Brea, and painted in collaboration with Teramo Piaggio. Antonio painted a Nativity for S. Domenico, Savona, among his pupils were his sons Andrea and Ottavio Semini. Charles Callahan Perkins, ed. Cyclopedia of Painters and Paintings, gaetano Schiepatti, Digitized by Googlebooks, July 19,2007Antonio Semini – Martyrdom of Saint Andrew (detail) by Antonio Semini and Teramo Piaggio, 1532
30. Sibylle of Baden – Sibylle of Baden was a Margravine of Baden by birth and by marriage, Countess of Hanau-Lichtenberg. Sibylle married on 24 January 1505 to Count Philipp III of Hanau-Lichtenberg and she brought a dowry of 5000 guilders into the marriage. They had six children, Johanna, married on 6 November 1522 to Count Wilhelm IV of Eberstein, christophora, a nun in Marienborn Abbey from November 1526, and later the last abbess there. Amalie, also a nun in Marienborn Abbey from November 1526, felicitas, also a nun in Marienborn Abbey from November 1526. By 1513, Sibylle had given birth to four daughters, and she vowed that she would donate an altar if she had a son. In 1514, Philipp was born and Sibylle donated an altar to the City Church of St. Nicholas in Babenhausen. This altar is considered a work of art from the Middle Rhine area in this period. With this artist, Sibylle created a monument to herself and her relatives, the left wing of the altar depicts, among other people, her great-uncle, the blessed Bernard II, who was famous for his pious life and was beatified in the 18th century. Sibylle died on 10 July 1518 and was buried in the crypt of the Hanau-Lichtenberg dynasty in the City Church of St. Nicholas in Babenhausen. M.20, Babenhausen,1990, p. 35-47 Sebastian Scholz, Die Inschriften der Stadt Darmstadt und des Landkreises Darmstadt-Dieburg und Groß-Gerau = Die deutschen Inschriften, vol. 6, edited by the Academy of Sciences at Mainz,1999 Reinhard Suchier, Genealogie des Hanauer Grafenhauses, in, august 1894, Hanau,1894 Ernst J. Zimmermann, Hanau Stadt und Land, 3rd ed. Hanau,1919, reprinted 1978Sibylle of Baden – Grave stone of Sibylle in the City Church of St. Nicholas in Babenhausen
31. Francis Stourton, 4th Baron Stourton – Francis Stourton, 4th Baron Stourton was the son and successor of the third Baron Stourton. He died quite young, and was succeeded by his uncle William, a younger son of the second Baron StourtonFrancis Stourton, 4th Baron Stourton – Arms of Stourton: Sable, a bend or between six fountains
32. Giovanni da Verrazzano – Giovanni da Verrazzano was an Italian explorer of North America, in the service of King Francis I of France. It is generally claimed that he was born in the Castello di Verrazzano, whatever the case, writes Ronald S. Love, Verrazzano always considered himself to be Florentine, and he was considered a Florentine by his contemporaries as well. He signed documents employing a Latin version of his name—“Janus Verrazanus”—and he called himself “Jehan de Verrazane” in his will dated 11 May 1526 in Rouen, Verrazzano left a detailed account of his voyages to North America, but little is known about his personal life. After 1506, he settled in the port of Dieppe in France and he embarked for the American coast, probably in 1508 in the company of captain Thomas Aubert, on a ship called La Pensée, equipped by ship owner Jean Ango. He explored the region of Newfoundland, possibly during a fishing trip, in September 1522, the surviving members of Ferdinand Magellan’s crew returned to Spain, having circumnavigated the globe. Competition in trade was becoming urgent, especially with Portugal, within months, four ships set sail due west for the Grand Banks of Newfoundland, but a violent storm and rough seas caused the loss of two ships. The remaining two damaged ships, La Dauphine and La Normande, were forced to return to Brittany, repairs were completed in the final weeks of 1523, and they set sail again. This time, the ships headed south toward calmer waters, which were under dangerous Spanish and it neared the area of Cape Fear on about March 1 and, after a short stay, reached the Pamlico Sound lagoon of modern North Carolina. In a letter to Francis I, Verrazzano wrote that he was convinced that the Sound was the beginning of the Pacific Ocean and this report caused one of many errors in the depiction of North America on contemporary maps. The continent was not fully mapped for hundreds of years, continuing to explore the coast further northwards, Verrazzano and his crew came into contact with Native Americans living on the coast. However, he did not notice the entrances to Chesapeake Bay or the mouth of the Delaware River, in New York Bay, he encountered the Lenape and observed what he deemed to be a large lake, which was in fact the entrance to the Hudson River. He then sailed along Long Island and entered Narragansett Bay, where he received a delegation of Wampanoag, the words Norman villa are found on the 1527 map by Visconte Maggiolo identifying the site. Historian Samuel Eliot Morison writes, this occurs at Angouleme rather than Refugio and it was probably intended to compliment one of Verrazzanos noble friends. There are several places called Normanville in Normandy, France, the main one is located near Fécamp and another important one near Evreux, which would naturally be it. West of it, conjecturally on the Delaware or New Jersey coast, is a Longa Villa and he stayed there for two weeks and then moved northwards. He discovered Cape Cod Bay, his claim proved by a map of 1529 which clearly outlined Cape Cod and he then followed the coast up to modern Maine, southeastern Nova Scotia, and Newfoundland, after which he returned to France by 8 July 1524. Verrazzano named the region that he explored Francesca in honor of the French king, Verrazzano arranged a second voyage, with financial support from Jean Ango and Philippe de Chabot, which departed from Dieppe with four ships early in 1527. The third ship returned later, also with a cargo of brazilwood and this partial success did not find the desired passage to the Pacific Ocean, but it inspired Verrazzano’s final voyage, which left Dieppe early in 1528Giovanni da Verrazzano – Giovanni da Verrazzano