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|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 1553 births.|
The following 96 pages are in this category, out of 96 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. 1553 – Year 1553 was a common year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar. May – The first Royal Charter is granted to St Albans in England, june 26 – Christs Hospital and King Edwards School, Witley, England, are created by Royal Charter. July 9 – Battle of Sievershausen, Prince-elector Maurice of Saxony defeats the Catholic forces of Margrave Albert of Brandenburg-Kulmbach. July 10 – Four days after the death of her cousin King Edward VI of England, July 18 – The Lord Mayor of London proclaims Mary I the rightful Queen, Lady Jane Grey voluntarily abdicates. July 19 – Queen Mary I of England begins her reign, august 3 – Queen Mary I of England arrives in London from East Anglia. August 22 – John Dudley, 1st Duke of Northumberland, a supporter of Lady Jane Grey, is executed. August – English explorer Richard Chancellor enters the White Sea and reaches Arkhangelsk, going on to the court of Ivan IV of Russia, September – Anglican bishops in England are arrested and Roman Catholic bishops are restored. October 6, Şehzade Mustafa, oldest son of Suleiman the Magnificent is executed in Konya by order of his father, September 23 – The Sadians consolidate their power in Morocco by defeating the last of their enemies. October 27 – Genevas governing council burns Michael Servetus at the stake as a heretic, december 25 – Battle of Tucapel, Mapuche rebels under Lautaro defeat the Spanish conquistadors and execute Pedro de Valdivia, the first Royal Governor of Chile. Tonbridge School founded by Sir Andrew Judde under letters patent of Edward VI of England, publication in London of The xiii Bukes of Eneados of the famose Poete Virgill, the first published complete translation of any major work of classical antiquity into one of the English languages. In Ming dynasty China, The addition of a new section of the Outer City fortifications is completed in southern Beijing, bringing the size of Beijing to 18 square miles. Shanghai is fortified for the first time, July 1 – Peter Street, English carpenter July 15 – Archduke Ernest of Austria September 26 – Nicolò Contarini, Doge of Venice October 8 – Jacques Auguste de Thou, French historian October 181553 – July 18: Queen Mary of England.
2. Albert Frederick, Duke of Prussia – Albert Frederick was Duke of Prussia from 1568 until his death. He was a son of Albert of Prussia and Anna Marie of Brunswick-Lüneburg and he was the second and last Prussian duke of the Ansbach branch of the Hohenzollern family. Albert became Duke of Prussia after paying homage to the King of Poland, Zygmunt August. The homage was described by the Polish chronicler Jan Kochanowski in his work Proporzec, Albert Frederick initially refused to recognize the election of Stefan Bathory and supported the candidacy of Maximilian of Habsburg. However, at the Toruń sejm of October 1576 he gave his support to the new monarch and he particularly enjoyed the support of Polish Lutherans. In 1572 he began to exhibit signs of mental disorder, in early 1578, the regency was taken over by his cousin, George Frederick of Brandenburg-Kulmbach. After George Fredericks death in 1603, the Polish king Sigismund III Vasa appointed Joachim Frederick as regent in 1605, the latter became Duke of Prussia after Albert Fredericks death in 1618. Albert Frederick was married in 1573 to Marie Eleonore of Cleves, Maria was a daughter of Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor and Anna of Bohemia and Hungary. Albert Frederick and Marie were parents to seven children, Anna of Prussia, married John Sigismund, Elector of Brandenburg. Married Joachim Frederick, Elector of Brandenburg, married John George I, Elector of Saxony. At his death, the passed to his son-in-law John Sigismund, Margrave of BrandenburgAlbert Frederick, Duke of Prussia – Albert Frederick
3. Cherubino Alberti – Cherubino Alberti, also called Borghegiano, was an Italian engraver and painter. He is most often remembered for the Roman frescoes completed with his brother Giovanni Alberti during the papacy of Clement VIII and he was most prolific as an engraver of copper plates. Alberti was born in 1553 in Borgo San Sepolcro, Tuscany and he was the second son of Alberto Alberti, a carver and sculptor, and his brothers Alessandro Alberti and Giovanni Alberti were artists as well. Alberti studied in Rome under Cornelius Cort and worked as an engraver and his early influences included Raphael and contemporary Mannerist art. Between 1571 and 1575 he made engravings after works of Federico, over the next ten years his engravings included works after Raphael, Michelangelo, Polidoro da Caravaggio, Andrea del Sarto, Rosso Fiorentino, Marco Pino, Pellegrino Tibaldi, and Cristofano Gherardi. He also produced based on ancient statues. Later in life Alberti decorated palaces and churches with paintings in fresco and his most famous work was the fresco decoration of Sala Clementina in the Vatican, which he completed with his brother Giovanni. He painted for the church of Santa Maria in Via Lata and he may have been first a pupil of Cornelis Cort, and afterwards by studying the works of Agostino Carracci and Francesco Villamena. At his death in Rome Alberti was Director of the Academy of Saint Luke, over 180 engravings are attributed to Alberti, including, Portrait of Pope Gregory XIII. St. Susannah resting against a pedestal, with a sword St. Jerome, meditating on the Crucifix The Crucifixion, after Michelangelo St. The Death of the Children of Niobe, in five sheets Rape of the Sabines, after another frieze from Polidoro da Caravaggio The Triumph of Camillus, the Presentation at the Temple, The Resurrection, and the The Holy Family after Raphael. A piece of architecture, after the same, in two prints, the Baptism of our Saviour, by St. John and The Miracle of St. Philip Benizzo after Andrea del Sarto. Tobit and the Angel, after Pellegrino Tibaldi Christ praying in the Garden, the Adoration of the Shepherds, The Holy Family, The Scourging of Christ, Conversion of St. Paul, and Assumption of the Virgin, after Taddeo Zuccari. Assumption and The Coronation of the Virgin, after Federico Zuccari, Dictionary of Painters and Engravers, Biographical and Critical. York St. #4, Covent Garden, London, Original from Fogg Library, Digitized May 18,2007, George Bell, Painters and their Works, A Dictionary of Great Artists who are Not Now Alive. Notices of Engravers and their Works, London, Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown & Green. Firenze, Grafica European Center of Fine ArtsCherubino Alberti – Portrait of Cherubini Alberti by Carlo Lasinio (1759-1838)
4. Prospero Alpini – Prospero Alpini, was an Italian physician and botanist from the Republic of Venice. Born at Marostica, a town near Vicenza, in his youth he served for a time in the Milanese army, after taking his doctors degree in 1578, he settled as a physician in Campo San Pietro, a small town in the Paduan territory. But his tastes were botanical, and to extend his knowledge of plants he travelled to Egypt in 1580 as physician to George Emo or Hemi. On his return, he resided for some time at Genoa as physician to Andrea Doria, and in 1593 he was appointed professor of botany at Padua and he was succeeded in the botanical chair by his son Alpino Alpini. His best-known work is De Plantis Aegypti liber and this work introduced a number of plant species previously unknown to European botanists. The new species included Abrus, Abelmoschus, Lablab, and Melochia, another was Sesban meaning Sesbania sesban. Early adopters of Alpinis new botanical names included the botanists Carolus Clusius, Johann Bauhin, Caspar Bauhin, Prospero Alpinis De Plantis Exoticis was published in 1629 after his death. It has an expansion of the material in De Plantis Aegypti plus some other material and his De Medicina Egyptiorum is said to contain the first account of the coffee plant published in Europe. The genus Alpinia, belonging to the order Zingiberaceae, was named after him by Linnaeus, franciscus de Franciscis, Venitiis 1592 Digital edition by the University and State Library Düsseldorf De Plantis Exoticis, by Prosperi Alpini, year 1629, in Latin. De Plantis Aegypti liber, by Prosperi Alpini with comments by Johann Vesling, published year 1640, online Galleries, History of Science Collections, University of Oklahoma Libraries High resolution images of works by and/or portraits of Prospero Alpini in. jpg and. tiff format. Includes some pages from the 1592 edition of De Plantis Aegypti liberProspero Alpini – Prospero Alpini (1553-1617)
5. Ralph Brooke – Ralph Brooke was an English Officer of Arms in the reigns of Elizabeth I and James I. Brooke was educated at the Merchant Taylors School and he was appointed Rouge Croix Pursuivant in 1580 and York Herald in 1593. As York Herald, he bore the helm and crest in the procession of Elizabeth I. Such bitter infighting among the heralds was common, Sir William Segar also objected that Cooke made numberless grants to base, in December 1616 Brooke tricked Segar into confirming foreign royal arms to Gregory Brandon, a common hangman of London who was masquerading as a gentleman. Brooke then reported Segar to James I, who imprisoned both Brooke and Segar in Marshalsea and they were released a few days later and the Lord Chamberlain hoped that the experience would make Brooke more honest and Segar more wise. Brookes Catalogue and Succession of the Kings, Princes, Dukes, Marquesses, Earles, as Catalogue and Succession of the Kings, Princes, Dukes, Marquesses, Earles and Viscounts of this Realme of England since the Norman Conquest, to this present year 1622. Dictionary of National Biography, index and epitome, oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Ralph Brooke. Britannia, Ralph Brooke, and the Representation of Privilege in Elizabethan England, heralds of England, A History of the Office and College of Arms. A Discoverie of Certaine Errours Published in Print in the Much Commended Britannia 1594, printed for James Woodman and David LyonRalph Brooke – Ralph Brooke in the funeral procession of Elizabeth I.
6. John Chamberlain (letter writer) – John Chamberlain was the author of a series of letters written in England from 1597 to 1626, notable for their historical value and their literary qualities. In the view of historian Wallace Notestein, Chamberlains letters constitute the first considerable body of letters in English history and they are an essential source for scholars who study the period. Chamberlains father was an ironmonger, who left him enough money to live on for the rest of his life without needing to earn a living. Carleton preserved the long correspondence between himself and Chamberlain, which contains the majority of Chamberlains surviving letters, Chamberlain maintained a similar correspondence with Sir Ralph Winwood, for many years ambassador at The Hague, and he presumably sent many other letters to his friends. Chamberlain wrote at least one letter a week. Chamberlain is valued not just as a commentator but as a writer, historian A. L. Rowse has called him the best letter writer of his time. Chamberlain takes care to observe without intruding his own opinions, though his disapproval of the laxity of the day is apparent and he entertains his correspondents by leavening factual information with humour and vivid details, and includes lighter topics and anecdotes to keep the readers interest. In the view of scholar Maurice Lee, Jr. the letters that passed between John Chamberlain and Dudley Carleton are the most interesting private correspondence of Jacobean England. Chamberlains letters provide a portrait of a typical London gentleman of late Elizabethan and Jacobean times, moderate in politics, Chamberlain emerges from his letters as a kind man and a considerate friend, who preferred a peaceful life and commented on the contemporary world as an onlooker. Though he willingly sought career openings for his friends, he was uninterested in office or financial gain for himself and lived the life of a quiet, even timid bachelor. As he once wrote, I am past all ambition, and wish nor seek nothing but how to live suaviter and this detached approach lends an objective quality to Chamberlains letters. As a conscientious correspondent, he took pains to get his facts right and he saw through pretence and delusions but was never cynical or indignant. His generosity as a man is reflected in the fairness of outlook that pervades his letters, just as his friends confided and trusted in him, often with important secrets, historians have trusted his information and insights into the Jacobean scene. Historian Alan Stewart calls Chamberlain, a barometer of public opinion. Chamberlain certainly had personal shortcomings, of which he was fully aware and he was naturally inquisitive and a gossip, qualities that served as an asset to him as a letter writer. He had been a sickly and delicate child, and although he attended both Cambridge University and the Inns of Court, he never took his degree or qualified as a lawyer. Wallace Notestein, who included an essay on Chamberlain in his Four Worthies. He always lived in the households of friends and relatives, on the one occasion he attempted to run his own establishment and he was also timid in love, and though hints that he considered marriage creep into his letters now and then, nothing came of these opportunitiesJohn Chamberlain (letter writer) – William Gilbert, natural philosopher, in whose house Chamberlain lodged
7. John Croke – Sir John Croke was Speaker of the English House of Commons between October–December 1601. He was a lawyer and judge by profession, and was Recorder of London, Croke won the City of London constituency in his election to the 1601 parliament, and was the last Speaker before the death of Elizabeth I, in 1603. Croke spent the part of his career as a lawyer. He entered the Inner Temple in 1570, and received a call to the bar shortly after and he was rewarded for his service as a lawyer with a silver gilt from the Lord Chancellor, Sir Christopher Hatton. Upon his fathers death in 1584, he was deeded the Chilton manor house his grandfather had built, and Studley Priory, Croke built his own manor house at Studley, though he moved his family to Chilton after his fathers death. Croke sat in the Windsor constituency in 1585, and was first elected for the City of London in 1597 and he was made Lent Reader of the Inner Temple in 1596. He became Treasurer in 1598, and was subsequently appointed Recorder, Croke, in an era when intimidation of counsel was frequent, was noted for his discretion in court. The evidence obtained was used in trial, though Sir Edmund Anderson was principal judge, Jackson was convicted to one years imprisonment and he was elected Speaker unanimously in 1601. Manning, in his work on the Commons speakers, repeats the recommendation given by William Knolles, Comptroller of the Household, for Croke to hold the office, the House was almost wholly in favour the proposals, although they were referred to a committee. The committee of the House was adopted, and a motion was passed asking for an address by the Speaker expressing their gratitude, which Croke duly delivered. On a bill for resorting to Church which received 105 ayes and 106 nays, Sir Edward Hobbie and it was debated whether he had a voice, and Croke, after hearing the arguments of Sir Walter Raleigh amongst others, decided that he did not. Other events of note in this parliament included The Golden Speech by Elizabeth, and the passing of a number of grants, after Elizabeths promise to revoke the subsidies. He was knighted in the first year of James Is reign, Croke was also made deputy to the Chancellor of the Exchequer, Sir George Hume, in 1604. As serjeant, one of his functions was to bring messages, downe came grave auntient Sir John Crooke And redd his message in his booke. Fearie well, Quoth Sir William Morris, Soe, But Henry Ludlowes Tayle cryd Noe, after also serving as a Welsh judge, he was made one of the justices of the Court of Kings Bench in 1607. He performed judicial duties for nearly thirteen years, and died on 23 January 1620, crokes father, also Sir John Croke, was born in 1531, and was a knight of Chilton. His father was an MP in the Commons for the borough of Southampton in 1571, and the county of Buckinghamshire the following year and his paternal lineage included most of the royal families in Europe. Crokes mother, Elizabeth, was the daughter of Sir Alexander Unton and his brother, Henry, was barrister-at-law and had several children by his wife BennetJohn Croke – Sir John Croke
8. Anne Knollys, Baroness De La Warr – Anne West, Lady De La Warr was a lady at the court of Queen Elizabeth I of England. Anne Knollys was the daughter of Sir Francis Knollys, Treasurer of the Royal Household to Queen Elizabeth I. Her maternal grandparents were Sir William Carey and Mary Boleyn, Mary was a sister of Anne Boleyn, second wife of Henry VIII of England. Anne Knollys mother was thus a first cousin of Queen Elizabeth, daughter of Anne Boleyn, Mary Boleyn had preceded her more famous sister in the Kings affections, and had affairs with both Francis I of France and Henry VIII. Both Catherine Carey and Henry Carey may have been Henrys children, if true, this would make Anne the granddaughter of Henry VIII. Annes eldest sister was Lettice Knollys, chief Lady of the Bedchamber to Queen Elizabeth and the mother of the queens favourite, Robert Devereux, Earl of Essex. Anne Knollys married, on 19 November 1571, Thomas West, 2nd Baron De La Warr, by whom she had six sons and eight daughters, Sir Robert West, who married Elizabeth Coks and predeceased his father. Thomas West, 3rd Baron De La Warr, who married Cecily Shirley, youngest daughter of Sir Thomas Shirley and Anne Kempe, daughter of Sir Thomas Kempe of Olantigh, Kent. John West, Governor of Virginia, who emigrated to Virginia, lieutenant Colonel Nathaniel West, who emigrated to Virginia, where in 1621 he married Frances Greville, by whom he had a son, Nathaniel West. His widow married secondly Abraham Peirsey, esquire, and thirdly Captain Samuel Mathews, Lettice West, who married Henry Ludlow. Katherine West, who married Nickolas Strelby, helen West, who married Sir William Savage of Winchester, Hampshire, by whom she had a son, John Savage, and two daughters, Cecily and Anne. Elizabeth West, who married Sir Richard Saltonstall of Huntwick, Yorkshire, the US state of Delaware is named after Annes son, Thomas West, Baron De La Warre. A History of the House of Percy, from the Earliest Times Down to the Present, everingham, Kimball G. ed. Magna Carta Ancestry, A Study in Colonial and Medieval Families. The William and Mary Quarterly, 2nd Ser,1, pp. 137–138 Southside VA Families by John Bennett Boddie Vol 1, Genealogical Pub. 1955, pages 398–402 De La Warr, Thomas West, 12th BaronAnne Knollys, Baroness De La Warr – Portrait of Anne West by Robert Peake, 1582
9. Johannes Eccard – Johannes Eccard was a German composer and kapellmeister. He was a principal conductor at the Berlin court chapel. Eccard was born at Mühlhausen, in present-day Thuringia, Germany, at the age of eighteen he went to Munich, where he became the pupil of Orlando Lasso. In his company, Eccard is said to have visited Paris, but in 1574, he was again at Mühlhausen, there he, together with Joachim a Burck, edited his first master, a collection of sacred songs, called Crepundia sacra Helmboldi. Soon afterwards he obtained an appointment as musician in the house of Jacob Fugger, in 1583 he became assistant conductor, and in 1599 conductor at Königsberg to Georg Friedrich, Margrave of Brandenburg-Anspach, the administrator of the Duchy of Prussia. In 1608 he was called by Joachim Frederick, Elector of Brandenburg as principal conductor in Berlin, Eccards works consist exclusively of vocal compositions, such as songs, sacred cantatas and chorales for four or five, and sometimes for seven, eight, or even nine voices. Their polyphonic structure is a marvel of art and still garners the admiration of musicians, at the same time his works are instinct with a spirit of true religious feeling. Before the First World War, his setting of Martin Luthers words Ein feste Burg ist unser Gott was regarded by the Germans as their representative national hymn, Eccard and his school are inseparably connected with the history of the Protestant Reformation. Of Eccards songs a great many collections are extant such as published in Der Evangelische Kirchengesang by Baron Karl Georg August Vivigens von Winterfeld. Nun schürz dich, Gretlein, schürz dich Übers Gebirg Maria geht Christ ist erstanden Es rühmt die Heilige Schrift Nachdem die Sonn beschlossen Maria wallt zum Heiligtum Johannes Eccard, archived from the original on 2007-08-07. Attribution This article incorporates text from a now in the public domain, Chisholm, Hugh, ed. Eccard. Free scores by Johannes Eccard at the International Music Score Library Project Free scores by Johannes Eccard in the Choral Public Domain LibraryJohannes Eccard – Johannes Eccard
10. Archduke Ernest of Austria – Archduke Ernest of Austria was an Austrian prince, the son of Maximilian II, Holy Roman Emperor and Maria of Spain. Born in Vienna, he was educated with his brother Rudolf II, Holy Roman Emperor, in 1573 and 1587, he was a candidate for the throne of Poland. From 1576 onwards, he was governor in the Archduchy of Austria, in 1590, he became governor of Inner Austria as regent for his young cousin Ferdinand, and from 1594 to 1595 he served as governor of the Spanish Netherlands. He died in Brussels in 1595Archduke Ernest of Austria – Portrait of Archduke Ernest of Austria by Alonso Sánchez Coello c. 1580
11. Patriarch Philaret of Moscow – The second son of a prominent boyar Nikita Romanovich Feodor was born in Moscow and was the first to bear the Romanov surname. He was made a Boyar in 1583, in 1609 Filaret fell into the hands of False Dmitriy II, who named him Patriarch of all Russia, though his jurisdiction only extended over the very limited area which acknowledged the impostor. From 1610 to 1618 he was a prisoner in the hands of the Polish king, Sigismund III Vasa and he was released on the conclusion of the truce of Deulino, and on 2 June of the same year was canonically enthroned Patriarch of Moscow and all of Russia. Thenceforth, until his death, the government of Muscovy was a diarchy. From 1619 to 1633 there were two actual sovereigns, Tsar Michael and his father, the most holy Patriarch Filaret, theoretically they were co-regents, but Filaret frequently transacted affairs of state without consulting the tsar. He replenished the treasury by a more equable and rational system of assessing and collecting the taxes, the taxation of the tsars military tenants was a first step towards the proportional taxation of the hitherto privileged classes. Another great service rendered by Filaret to his country was the reorganization of the Muscovite army with the help of foreign officers. His death in October 1633 put an end to the Russo-Polish War, thus, formed as a state within a state. His policy streamlined the management, but also created more complex structure. Church department - was in charge of the affairs of the church decorum, treasury department - was responsible for collecting taxes from the clergy. Palace department- managed the patriarchal estates, every order sat patriarchal nobleman with the clerks and clerks. Filaret also conducted an inventory of the church and monastery property. In 1620 he created a new, Diocese of Tobolsk, in 1625, the patriarch got a gift from the Persian king was transferred part of the Lords robe, which was placed in the ark in the Assumption Cathedral. This orthodox relic is kept in the Cathedral of Christ the SaviorPatriarch Philaret of Moscow – Patriarch Filaret
12. John Florio – John Florio, known in Italian as Giovanni Florio, was a linguist and lexicographer, a royal language tutor at the Court of James I, and a possible friend and influence on William Shakespeare. He was also the first translator of Montaigne into English and he was born in London, and in 1580 he married Aline, the sister of poet Samuel Daniel. The couple had three children, Joane Florio, baptised in Oxford in 1585, Edward, in 1588 and Elizabeth and he died in Fulham, London in 1625 Born in London, John Florio was of Anglo-Italian origin. He referred to himself as an Englishman in Italiane, johns father, Michelangelo Florio, born in Tuscany, had been a Franciscan friar before converting to the Protestant faith. He got into trouble with the Inquisition in Italy, after preaching in Naples, Padua, seeking refuge in England during the reign of Edward VI, he was appointed pastor of the Italian Protestant congregation in London in 1550. He was also a member of the household of William Cecil and he was dismissed from both on a charge of immorality, but William Cecil later fully forgave him. Little is known of Florios mother, she may have been English and he dedicated a book to Henry Herbert and Jane Grey, his highest-ranking pupils, Regole de la lingua thoscana. Lady Jane Greys youth, faith, and death affected him deeply and later, in seclusion, in Soglio in Switzerland and it was only published in 1607 but written around 1561/1562. He describes her as a martyr and innocent saint and it is possible that he had witnessed some of the events surrounding her or had told her about the persecutions in Italy. Anthony à Wood says that the Florio family, which now included infant John Florio, in Strasburg, Florio met members of the aristocratic de Salis family of Bregaglia, in the Alpine canton of the Grisons. Count de Salis offered Michelangelo the post of pastor at Soglio, which offered him the manse on the edge of a precipice, the post of school teacher. Soglio was remote from the Inquisition and was situated near Chiavenna, John Florio grew up speaking Italian with his father. His father would have taught him French and German, John returned to England, possibly with his mother, in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, in the early 1570s, in possession of a formidable Christian Reformed and humanist education. John Florio considered the English uncouth and barbaric and set about teaching the Protestant aristocrats European manners, linguistic skills and polished expressions. This mission was in ways similar to that of reformer Philip Sidney who sought to educate the English to write. Florio introduced the English to Italian proverbs, Florio was a friend of Giordano Bruno, while he worked as tutor and spy in the home of the French Ambassador. John Florio resided for a time at Oxford, and was appointed, about 1576, as tutor to the son of Richard Barnes, Bishop of Durham, then studying at Magdalen College. In 1578 Florio published a work entitled First Fruits, which yield Familiar Speech, Merry Proverbs, Witty Sentences and this was accompanied by A Perfect Induction to the Italian and English TonguesJohn Florio – Giovanni Florio, 1611. Engraving by William Hole from the 2nd edition of Florio's dictionary
13. Gortzius Geldorp – Gortzius Geldorp was a Flemish Renaissance artist who was active in Germany where he distinguished himself through his portrait paintings. The early Flemish biographer Karel van Mander reported that Geldorp first learned to paint from Frans Francken I, Frans Pourbus the Elder was a prominent portrait painter in Flanders. Frans Francken I and Frans Pourbus the Elder were both pupils of Frans Floris, the leading Renaissance painter in Antwerp, Geldorp became court painter to the Duke of Terra Nova, Carlo dAragona Tagliavia, whom he accompanied on his trips. He travelled to Cologne with the Duke who was participating in negotiations with the Dutch Republic. Geldorp stayed in the city while remaining a companion of the Duke on his travels, in 1610 Geldorp took over the seat of Barthel Bruyn the Younger on the city council of Cologne. Geldorp was a portrait painter working for the aristocracy and other prominent patrons. Geldorp died in Cologne, aged about 65, the painter Georg Geldorp who was mainly active in England was his son. The painter Melchior Geldorp who worked in Cologne was probably his son or nephew, Geldorp was mainly a painter of individual and group portraits. Van Mander also mentions some history paintings such as a Diana, a Susanna, an Evangelist, there are 70 known works by him which are mostly painted on panel. A series of nine family portraits are part of the collection of the Rijksmuseum and he had a brilliant and powerful palette in which the browns dominate. His later works are characterised by soft transitions and a tone in the wrists. Some of his paintings were engraved by Crispijn van de PasseGortzius Geldorp – Portrait of Hortensia del Prado, Wife of Jean Fourmenois
14. Henry IV of France – Henry IV, also known by the epithet Good King Henry, was King of Navarre from 1572 to 1610 and King of France from 1589 to 1610. He was the first French monarch of the House of Bourbon, baptised as a Catholic but raised in the Protestant faith by his mother Jeanne dAlbret, Queen of Navarre, he inherited the throne of Navarre in 1572 on the death of his mother. As a Huguenot, Henry was involved in the French Wars of Religion, barely escaping assassination in the St. Bartholomews Day massacre, and later led Protestant forces against the royal army. Henry, as Head of the House of Bourbon, was a direct descendant of Louis IX of France. Upon the death of his brother-in-law and distant cousin Henry III of France in 1589 and he initially kept the Protestant faith and had to fight against the Catholic League, which denied that he could wear Frances crown as a Protestant. To obtain mastery over his kingdom, after four years of stalemate, as a pragmatic politician, he displayed an unusual religious tolerance for the era. Notably, he promulgated the Edict of Nantes, which guaranteed religious liberties to Protestants and he was assassinated in 1610 by François Ravaillac, a fanatical Catholic, and was succeeded by his son Louis XIII. Considered a usurper by some Catholics and a traitor by some Protestants, an unpopular king immediately after his accession, Henrys popularity greatly improved after his death, in light of repeated victories over his enemies and his conversion to Catholicism. The Good King Henry was remembered for his geniality and his concern about the welfare of his subjects. He was celebrated in the popular song Vive le roi Henri, Henry was born in Pau, the capital of the joint Kingdom of Navarre with the sovereign principality of Béarn. His parents were Queen Joan III of Navarre and her consort, Antoine de Bourbon, Duke of Vendôme, although baptised as a Roman Catholic, Henry was raised as a Protestant by his mother, who had declared Calvinism the religion of Navarre. As a teenager, Henry joined the Huguenot forces in the French Wars of Religion, on 9 June 1572, upon his mothers death, he became King of Navarre. At Queen Joans death, it was arranged for Henry to marry Margaret of Valois, daughter of Henry II, the wedding took place in Paris on 18 August 1572 on the parvis of Notre Dame Cathedral. On 24 August, the Saint Bartholomews Day Massacre began in Paris, several thousand Protestants who had come to Paris for Henrys wedding were killed, as well as thousands more throughout the country in the days that followed. Henry narrowly escaped death thanks to the help of his wife and he was made to live at the court of France, but he escaped in early 1576. On 5 February of that year, he formally abjured Catholicism at Tours and he named his 16-year-old sister, Catherine de Bourbon, regent of Béarn. Catherine held the regency for nearly thirty years, Henry became heir presumptive to the French throne in 1584 upon the death of Francis, Duke of Anjou, brother and heir to the Catholic Henry III, who had succeeded Charles IX in 1574. Because Henry of Navarre was the senior agnatic descendant of King Louis IX, King Henry III had no choiceHenry IV of France – Henry IV
15. Robert Hues – Robert Hues was an English mathematician and geographer. He attended St. Mary Hall at Oxford, and graduated in 1578, Hues became interested in geography and mathematics, and studied navigation at a school set up by Walter Raleigh. During a trip to Newfoundland, he made observations which caused him to doubt the accepted published values for variations of the compass. Between 1586 and 1588, Hues travelled with Thomas Cavendish on a circumnavigation of the globe, performing astronomical observations, beginning in August 1591, Hues and Cavendish again set out on another circumnavigation of the globe. During the voyage, Hues made astronomical observations in the South Atlantic, Cavendish died on the journey in 1592, and Hues returned to England the following year. Hues work subsequently went into at least 12 other printings in Dutch, English, French, Hues continued to have dealings with Raleigh in the 1590s, and later became a servant of Thomas Grey, 15th Baron Grey de Wilton. While Grey was imprisoned in the Tower of London for participating in the Bye Plot, Hues tutored Northumberlands son Algernon Percy at Oxford, and subsequently Algernons younger brother Henry. In later years, Hues lived in Oxford where he was a fellow of the University and he died on 24 May 1632 in the city and was buried in Christ Church Cathedral. Robert Hues was born in 1553 at Little Hereford in Herefordshire, in 1571, at the age of 18 years, he entered Brasenose College, University of Oxford. English antiquarian Anthony à Wood wrote that when Hues arrived at Oxford he was only a scholar or servitor. He continued for some time a very sober and serious servant, but being sensible of the loss of time which he sustained there by constant attendance, he transferred himself to St Marys Hall. Hues graduated with a Bachelor of Arts degree on 12 July 1578 and he later gave advice to the dramatist and poet George Chapman for his 1616 English translation of Homer, and Chapman referred to him as his learned and valuable friend. It is possible he travelled to Continental Europe, Hues was a friend of the geographer Richard Hakluyt, who was then regent master of Christ Church. In the 1580s, Hakluyt introduced him to Walter Raleigh and explorers and navigators whom Raleigh knew, in addition, it is likely that Hues came to know astronomer and mathematician Thomas Harriot and Walter Warner at Thomas Allens lectures in mathematics. The four men were associated with Henry Percy, the 9th Earl of Northumberland. Hues became interested in geography and mathematics – an undated source indicates that he disputed accepted values of variations of the compass after making observations off the Newfoundland coast. He either went there on a trip, or may have joined a 1585 voyage to Virginia arranged by Raleigh and led by Richard Grenville. Hues perhaps become acquainted with the sailor Thomas Cavendish at this time, in the year that book appeared, Hues was with Edward Wright on the Earl of Cumberlands raiding expedition to the Azores to capture Spanish galleonsRobert Hues – The title page of a 1634 version of Hues' Tractatus de globis in the collection of the Biblioteca Nacional de Portugal
16. Jeong Bal – Navy captain Jeong Bal was a Joseon dynasty navy captain who commanded a garrison at Busan port. He was killed in action in 1592, during the Siege of Busan, while defending the garrison from elements of the Japanese vanguard, eventually, his entire battalion was overrun and massacred by Japanese forces. He was the first high-ranking officer to be killed in combat during the Japanese invasions of Korea, some Korean accounts of the war say that Jeong fled the battle rather than fight, but the accepted version is that he stayed and died fighting the invaders. Nanjungjaprok contains the witness reports of survivors of the Siege of Busan, there is a statue of him defending the city in the centre of Busan. He was enshrined in the Chungnyeolsa in 1624Jeong Bal – General Jeong Bal
17. Vitsentzos Kornaros – Vitsentzos or Vikentios Kornaros or Vincenzo Cornaro was a Cretan poet, who wrote the romantic epic poem Erotokritos. He wrote in vernacular Greek, and was a figure of the Cretan Renaissance. Vitsentzos Kornaros is considered to be the greatest of all the Cretan poets and one of the most significant, the son of a Venetian-Cretan aristocrat and a scion of the noble Venetian family of Cornaro, he was born near Sitia, Crete in 1553. Later, when he married, he came to live in Candia where he joined the Accademia dei Stravaganti, Kornaros died in 1613, just before his contemporaries, William Shakespeare and Miguel de Cervantes. Not many biographic sources exist about Kornaros apart from the last verses of Erotokritos and it is believed that he was born to a wealthy family in Trapezonda, a village near Sitia, Crete, in 1553, and lived there roughly up to 1590. He then moved to Candia, where his marriage to Marietta Zeno took place, together they had two daughters named Helen and Katerina. In 1591 Kornaros became an administrator, and during the outbreak of plague from 1591 to 1593 he worked as a sanitary supervisor. He showed interest in literature and was a member of a group called Accademia degli Stravaganti. He died in Candia, in 1613, and was buried at the church of San Francesco, the cause of his death remains unknown. Alternate spellings of his first name include Vicenzo and Vitzentzos, Kornaros Erotokritos was a source of inspiration for Dionysios Solomos and influenced Greek poets such as Kostis Palamas, Krystallis and Seferis. After him named, A square in Heraklion and, a ferryboat, connecting the Greek islands Kythera and Antikythera with Crete, the Peloponnese and Piraeus. Athens 1978, p.78 K. ThVitsentzos Kornaros – Cover of The Sacrifice of Abraham by Vitsentzos Kornaros (1713 edition)
18. Johann Schweikhard von Kronberg – Johann Schweikhard von Kronberg was the Archbishop-Elector of Mainz from 1604 to 1626. Born on July 15,1553, Johann Schweikhard von Kronberg was the son of Hartmut XIII von Kronburg. His father was an administrator for the Archbishopric of Mainz, with his older brothers taking over the familys offices, Johann was destined for a career in the church from an early age. He was elected to the chapter of Mainz Cathedral at a young age through his fathers influence. He was a canon of St. Albans Abbey, Mainz from 1564 to 1566 and he was then sent to the Collegium Germanicum in Rome. There, he became friends with Johannes Busaeus, who was later a Jesuit theologian teaching at the University of Mainz, after his return to Mainz, the papal legate Giovanni Morone appointed him prior of Stiftes St. Peter vor Mainz. He became a Domkapitular in 1582, then became schoolmaster in 1584 and he was dean of St. Albans Abbey by 1588, and then dean of the Marienstiftes in 1599. He became the treasurer of the Archbishopric in 1599, after Pope Clement VIII confirmed his election, he was consecrated as archbishop in November 1604. He completed the work of the Counter-Reformation in the Archbishopric of Mainz that had begun by his predecessors. He supported the work of the Jesuits and Capuchins in the Archbishopric and he did not persecute Protestants, however, and maintained the religious freedom of Erfurt. He commissioned the Schloss Johannisburg, which was built in Aschaffenburg from 1605 to 1614, Johann Schweikhard von Kronberg opposed the intervention of Henry IV of France in the War of the Jülich succession in 1609. In 1618, he opposed the decision of Frederick V, Elector Palatine to accept the Bohemian Crown, in the imperial election of 1619, he voted for Ferdinand II. He died in Aschaffenburg on September 17,1626 and this page is based on this page on German WikipediaJohann Schweikhard von Kronberg – Johann Schweikhard von Kronberg
19. Louise of Lorraine – Louise of Lorraine was a member of the House of Lorraine who became Queen consort of France from 1575 until 1589. Born in Nomeny in the Duchy of Bar, she was the daughter of Nicholas, Duke of Mercœur and her mother died whilst she was a baby and she was brought up by her father and step-mother. Her childhood was unhappy, unloved by her father and stepmother, Catherine de Lorraine-Aumale and this upbringing would result in her being quiet and dutiful as an adult. She first caught the eye of her husband, Henry, Duke of Anjou. Recently elected King of Poland, he was paying a visit to her cousin, the Duke of Lorraine on his way to his new kingdom, and caught sight of Louise whilst he was there. Henry was attracted to Louise, who was not only attractive, and sweet-natured and he remembered Louise long after he left France. Louise herself was on a pilgrimage to Saint-Nicolas-de-Port at the time, the match was a general surprise, as Louise was not considered to have high enough status to be queen. The wedding took place on 15 February 1575, two days after Henrys coronation, the couple were finally married at the Cathedral of Reims by Charles, Cardinal de Bourbon that evening. Louise did, however, suffer because of the hostility between the family of her father and her spouse, although Louise worshipped her husband, the marriage failed to produce children. She is believed to have suffered a miscarriage in the Spring of 1576, if so, as a result, the heir presumptive being by the end of the reign the controversial Henry III of Navarre – the relationship between the couple became more unhappy because of this pressure. The Queen as a result became thin, suffered fits of depression, between 1579 and 1586, they made numerous such pilgrimages, especially to Chartres. In 1584, there were rumours that Henry would divorce her, Queen Louise was not neglected but often in the company of Henry, and participated in ceremonies, parties and receptions at his side. In 1589 Queen Louise inherited Château de Chenonceau and was staying there at the time her husband was assassinated on 2 August and she fell into a state of depression and spent the remainder of her days in mourning clothes amidst somber tapestries at the Chenonceau palace. The traditional mourning colour of French queens was white, and she was thereby called The White Queen, as a widow, she was given the title Duchess of Berry. Queen Dowager Louise wanted to restore the name of Henry, who had been excommunicated after the murder of Cardinal de Guise. The 6 September 1589, she asked Henry IV to clear her husbands name. Queen Louise died in Moulins, Allier in 1601 and was buried at the Convent of the Capuchins, in 1817 her remains were reinterred next to her husband in the Saint Denis BasilicaLouise of Lorraine – Louise in 1580
20. Margaret of Valois – Margaret of Valois was a French princess of the Valois dynasty who became queen consort of Navarre and later also of France. Charles IX arranged for her to marry a distant cousin, King Henry III of Navarre, and she thus became Queen of Navarre in 1572. In 1589, after all her brothers had died leaving no sons, Margarets husband, the senior-most agnatic heir to France, succeeded to the French throne as Henry IV, the first Bourbon King of France. A queen of two kingdoms, Margaret was subjected to political manipulations, including being held prisoner by her own brother, Henry III of France. However, her life was anything but passive and she was famous for her beauty and sense of style, notorious for a licentious lifestyle, and also proved a competent memoirist. She was indeed one of the most fashionable women of her time, while imprisoned, she took advantage of the time to write her memoirs, which included a succession of stories relating to the disputes of her brothers Charles IX and Henry III with her husband. The memoirs were published posthumously in 1628, Margaret was born Marguerite de Valois on May 14,1553, at the royal Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye, the seventh child and third daughter of Henry II and Catherine de Medici. Three of her brothers would become kings of France, Francis II, Charles IX and her sister, Elisabeth of Valois, would become the third wife of King Philip II of Spain. In 1565, her mother Catherine met with Philip IIs chief minister Duke of Alba at Bayonne in hopes of arranging a marriage between Margaret and Philips son Don Carlos, however, Alba refused any consideration of a dynastic marriage. Margaret was secretly involved with Henry of Guise, the son of the late Duke of Guise, when Catherine found this out, she had her daughter brought from her bed. Catherine and the king then beat her and sent Henry of Guise from court. The marriage of the 19-year-old Margaret to Henry, who had become King of Navarre upon the death of his mother, Jeanne dAlbret, the groom, a Huguenot, had to remain outside the cathedral during the religious ceremony. It was hoped this union would reunite family ties and create harmony between Catholics and the Protestant Huguenots, traditionally believed to have been instigated by Catherine de Medici, the marriage was an occasion on which many of the most wealthy and prominent Huguenots had gathered in largely Catholic Paris. Margaret has been credited with saving the lives of several prominent Protestants, including her husband, during the massacre, by keeping them in her rooms, Henry of Navarre had to feign conversion to Catholicism. After more than three years of confinement at court, Henry escaped Paris in 1576, leaving his wife behind, finally granted permission to return to her husband in Navarre, for the next three and a half years Margaret and her husband lived in Pau. Both openly kept other lovers, and they quarrelled frequently, after an illness in 1582, Queen Margaret returned to the court of her brother, Henry III, in Paris. Her brother was soon scandalized by her reputation and behavior, and forced her to leave the court, after long negotiations, she was allowed to return to her husbands court in Navarre, but she received an icy reception. Determined to overcome her difficulties, Queen Margaret masterminded a coup détat and seized power over Agen and she spent several months of fortifying the city, but the citizens of Agen revolted against her, and Queen Margaret fled to the castle of CarlatMargaret of Valois – Detail of painting by Pieter Paul Rubens
21. George More – Sir George More was an English courtier and politician who sat in the House of Commons at various times between 1584 and 1625. More was the son of Sir William More of Loseley Park and he was a Justice of the Peace for Surrey and Sussex and Deputy Lieutenant for Surrey. In 1584, More was elected Member of Parliament for Guildford and was re-elected MP for Guildford in 1586 and 1589 and he was provost marshal for Surrey in 1589. In 1593 he was MP for Guildford again and he was High Sheriff of Surrey and Sussex in 1596. In 1597 he was elected MP for Surrey and he was knighted in February 1598. From 23 June 1601 to 1613, he was Chamberlain of the Receipt in the Exchequer and he was re-elected MP for Surrey in 1601. He was re-elected MP for Guildford in 1604 and for Surrey in 1614, from 1615 to 1617, he was Lieutenant of the Tower of London. He was elected MP for Surrey again in 1621, in 1624 he was elected MP for Guildford and was elected MP for Surrey again in 1625. Among his other roles, More was treasurer and receiver general to James Is son, Henry, Prince of Wales and he was subsidy and loan commissioner, muster commissioner, and commissioner for recusants and seminaries for Surrey. He was a verderer of Windsor Forest and constable of Farnham Castle, More married firstly Anne Poynings, daughter of Sir Adrian Poynings of Burnegate, Dorset, and Mary West, by whom he had four sons and five daughters, Sir Robert More. Mary More, who married Sir Nicholas Throckmorton, margaret More, who married Sir Thomas Grimes. Anne More, who married the poet John Donne, elizabeth More, who married Sir John Mills. Frances More, who married Sir John Oglander and he married secondly Constance Michell, widow of Richard Knight, esquire, and daughter and co-heir of John Michell of Stammerham, Sussex, by whom he had no issue. Everingham, Kimball G. ed. Magna Carta Ancestry, A Study in Colonial and Medieval FamiliesGeorge More – Bishops of Salisbury (1477–1550)
22. Thomas Muffet – Thomas Muffet was an English naturalist and physician. Thomas Muffet was born in 1553 to Thomas Moffet in Shoreditch, from the ages 8 to 16, Muffet attended the Merchant Taylors School. In May 1569, he matriculated at Trinity College, Cambridge and he graduated in 1573, when he received his bachelors degree. Afterward, Muffet studied medicine with Thomas Lorkin and John Caius, three years later, he began his masters degree at Trinity and was expelled from Gonville. In Spring 1578 Muffet boarded with Felix Platter, chief physician of Basel, in 1579, Muffet was awarded a doctorate in medicine from Basel University. His thesis was entitled De amodinis medicamentis, the year after receiving his MD, in 1580, Thomas Muffet studied silkworm anatomy in Italy before finally returning to England. That December, Muffet married his first wife, Jane, in St Mary Colechurch, two years later, he was recognized as a qualified physician by the College of Physicians in London. This was not expected, as Muffet was an advocate for the Paracelsian system of medicine. The same year, Muffet met both Tycho Brahe and Petrus Severinus, though there is no evidence as to eithers intellectual influence upon him, two years later, in 1584, Muffet finished his De jure et praestantia chemicorum medicamentorum. This document is said to have anticipated Bacons emphasis on the advancement of learning and that same year, Muffet wrote a letter attacking the London College of Physicians for Papist influences through the lens of his own Puritan beliefs. The following year, however, he was admitted to the College of Physicians, later in 1588, Muffet published his Nosomantica Hippocratea, advocating support for the work and writings of Hippocrates. Nine years later, in October 1597, Muffet was elected as a Member of Parliament for Wilton, three years later, in 1600, Muffets wife, Jane, died. He married Catherine Brown that same year, Thomas Muffet died at the Bulbridge Farm, in Wilton, Wiltshire on 5 June 1604. Thomas Muffet first studied silkworms while working in Italy, beginning his continued fascination with arthropods in general and he is most well known for editing and expanding the work Insectorum sive Minimorum Animalium Theatrum, an illustrated guide to the classification and lives of insects. Although he is believed to have authored it, he merely inherited and furthered its progress toward publication. The book contained significant contributions by scientists, notably the Swiss scientist Conrad Gesner. The prime reason it was published posthumously was that the English market for books on science was weak at the time. It appears that it was ready for the press in 1589 or 1590, the original title page is dated 1589Thomas Muffet – Title page of Theatrum Insectorum (Theatre of Insects)
23. Juan Pantoja de la Cruz – Juan Pantoja de La Cruz was a Spanish painter, one of the best representatives of the Spanish school of court painters. He worked for Philip II and Philip III, the Museo del Prado contains examples of his severe portraiture style. Juan Pantoja de La Cruz was born in 1553 in Valladolid, very little is known of his formative years as a painter. He was a pupil of the court painter Alonso Sánchez Coello in Madrid and he must have assisted his master in complying with his duties as painter of the Spanish King, Pantoja probably continued to work in his master studio after completing his training. He married in 1585 beginning to paint for the court around that time, after Sanchez Coellos death in 1588, Pantoja took over his master workshop and became court painter to Philip II of Spain. Pantoja kept working for the court and the nobility, painting portraits of Prince Philip, among his most well known works is the portrait of Philip II wearing a cape and hat all in black, painted around 1594 for the Escorial. This portrait is one of the best representations of the idea of Spanish majesty, on Philip IIs death in 1598, Philip III confirmed Pantojas status as court painter. When the court settled in Valladolid in 1601, Pantoja moved to the new capital, remaining in this city, juan Pantoja de la Cruz painted a great number of state portraits with the combined forces of his studio, his attendants, apprentices, and collaborators. He was primarily a painter to the royal family. Pantoja also painted religious works primarily commissioned by the Spanish Queen, Margarita of Austria, Pantojas paintings of religious themes also contain many portraits as auxiliary figures as in The Birth of the Blessed Virgin in which he included the mother of the Queen. He painted still lifes as well, but, like his ceiling frescoes, Pantoja returned with the court to Madrid and he died there on 26 October 1608. Pantoja represents one of the highest points in the Mannerism aesthetic of portrait painting and he followed the Spanish tradition of Royal Portraits, initiated with the famous portrait of Charles V by Titian, a copy of which, made by Pantoja, is at the Escorial. Antonis Mor, Alonso Sanchez Coello and Pantoja himself continued the tradition, the compositional formula of Velázquezs state portraits derives from his Spanish predecessors, among them Pantoja de la Cruz. In his best works, Pantoja introduced an impressive combination of sophistication and geometric abstraction achieved by means of powerful contrast of light and his portraits are noted for the meticulous detail of representing the intricate embroidery of dresses and jewelry designs. The subject is portrayed standing against a dark background. The face and hands are depicted with a flat and subtle technique. Among his portraits are, Philip III, Queen Margarita of Austria,1606, Prado, infanta Isabel Clara Eugenia, Alte Pinakothek, Munich. Marquess of Viana, D. Diego de Valmayor,1605, Hermitage, Pantoja besides scoring a great success as the foremost portraitist of his time, was a highly versatile painter at home in all genresJuan Pantoja de la Cruz – Portrait of Philip III of Spain by Juan Pantoja de la Cruz
24. Thomas Perrot – Sir Thomas Perrot was an Elizabethan courtier, soldier, and Member of Parliament. He campaigned in Ireland and the Low Countries, and was involved in the defence of England against the Spanish Armada. Perrots only daughter, Penelope, married Sir Robert Naunton, author of Fragmenta Regalia, anne Perrott, who married Sir John Phillips, 1st Baronet, of Picton Castle. Lettice, who married firstly Walter Vaughan of Golden Grove, Carmarthenshire, secondly John Langhorne of St Brides, Perrot also had at least four illegitimate siblings, Sir James Perrot, John Perrot, Elizabeth Perrot, and another sister whose name is unknown. Perrot saw his first service as a soldier when he accompanied his father to Ireland in 1579 and he was knighted when the English forces landed at Waterford. On his return home he was imprisoned in the Fleet to prevent a duel with Sir Walter Raleigh, shortly thereafter Perrot was again imprisoned in the Fleet for his secret marriage to Dorothy Devereux, one of the Queen’s ladies in waiting. Perrot then campaigned in the Low Countries, where he fought at the Battle of Zutphen on 22 September 1586, the suit was not resolved in Perrots lifetime, and was reopened by his daughter, Penelope, in 1619. In 1590 Perrot was removed from the Deputy Lieutenancy of Pembrokeshire, allegedly at the behest of Sir Christopher Hatton, in 1591 he was again was in prison, although no charges were brought against him. In 1592 his father, Sir John Perrot, was convicted of treason and attainted, Perrot was a member of two committees in the 1581 session of the prorogued 1572 Parliament, although the identity of his constituency at the time is uncertain. He sat in the 1586 Parliament as Knight of the Shire for Cardiganshire, in February 1593 he was elected for Pembrokeshire. Perrot fell ill in early 1594, and made his will on 12 February, as he had no male heir, his property was divided between his wife, Dorothy, and his daughter, Penelope. Perrot married Dorothy Devereux, daughter of Walter Devereux, 1st Earl of Essex, by whom he is said to have had a son who predeceased him without issue, and a daughter, Penelope. Perrots daughter, Penelope, married firstly the astronomer Sir William Lower, Sir Robert Nauntons Fragmenta Regalia is the source of the claim that Thomas Perrots father, Sir John Perrot, was an illegitimate son of Henry VIII. After Perrots death his widow, Dorothy, married Henry Percy, westminster, Archibald Constable & Co. Ltd. Percy, Henry, ninth earl of Northumberland, everingham, Kimball G. ed. Magna Carta Ancestry, A Study in Colonial and Medieval Families. Schreiber, Roy E. Naunton, Sir Robert, the Book of Honor and Armes and Honor Military and Civil. New York, Scholars Facsimiles & Reprints, smith, David L. Herbert, Philip, first earl of Montgomery and fourth earl of Pembroke. Will of Sir Thomas Perrott, proved 15 February 1594, PROB 11/83/171, will of Sir Thomas Cheyney or Chayney, Treasurer of the Queens Majestys Most Honorable Household, proved 25 April 1559, PROB 11/42B/105, National Archives Retrieved 21 August 2013Thomas Perrot – Portrait of Dorothy Devereux (left) and her sister, Penelope Devereux (right)
25. John Stourton, 9th Baron Stourton – John Stourton, 9th Baron Stourton was the elder son of Charles Stourton and Lady Anne Stanley, daughter of Edward Stanley, 3rd Earl of Derby. His father was executed for murder when he was a small child, the ninth Baron was one of the peers who tried Mary, Queen of Scots. He was succeeded by his brother Edward in 1588John Stourton, 9th Baron Stourton – Arms of Stourton: Sable, a bend or between six fountains
26. Jacques Auguste de Thou – Jacques Auguste de Thou was a French historian, book collector and president of the Parlement de Paris. His uncle was Nicolas de Thou, Bishop of Chartres, with this family background, he developed a love of literature, a firm but tolerant piety, and a loyalty to the Crown. He was at first intended for the Church, he received the minor orders, during the next ten years he seized every opportunity for profitable travel. In 1573 he accompanied Paul de Foix on an embassy, which enabled him to visit most of the Italian courts, he formed a friendship with Arnaud dOssat, who was secretary to the ambassador. In the following year he formed part of the brilliant cortege which brought King Henry III back to France and he also visited several parts of France, and at Bordeaux met Michel de Montaigne. On the death of his elder brother Jean, who was maître des requêtes to the parlement, his relations prevailed on him to leave the Church, in the same year he was appointed conseiller détat. He served faithfully both Henry III and Henry IV, because they both represented legitimate authority and he succeeded his uncle Augustin as président à mortier, and used his authority in the interests of religious peace. He negotiated the Edict of Nantes with the Protestants, while in the name of the principles of the Gallican Church he opposed the recognition of the Council of Trent. This was to him a demotion, he continued, however, to serve under her, argent, a chevron between three flies sable. His attitude exposed him to the animosity of the League party and of the Holy See and this history was his lifes work. In a letter of March 31,1611, addressed to the president Pierre Jeannin and his materials were drawn from his rich library, which he established in the Rue des Poitevins in the year 1587, with the two brothers, Pierre and Jacques Dupuy, as librarians. His object was to produce a scientific and unbiased work, and for this reason he wrote it in Latin, giving it as title Historia sui temporis. The first 18 books, embracing the period from 1545–1560, appeared in 1604, the second part, dealing with the first wars of religion including the St. Bartholomews Day massacre, was put on the Index Librorum Prohibitorum. The third part, and the fourth, which appeared in 1607 and 1608, caused an outcry, in spite of de Thous efforts to remain just. As an answer to his detractors, he wrote his Mémoires, to de Thou we also owe certain other works, a treatise De re accipitraria, a Life, in Latin, of Papyre Masson, some Poemata sacra, etc. A hundred years later, Samuel Buckley published a critical edition, De Thou was treated as a classic, an honour which he deserved. As the reasons which had led de Thou to forbid the translation of his monumental history disappeared with his death and it was translated first into German. A Protestant pastor, G Boule, who was converted to Catholicism, translated it into FrenchJacques Auguste de Thou – Jacques Auguste de Thou
27. Eleonora di Garzia di Toledo – Leonora was born in Florence, where she was brought up by Cosimo and Eleanor of Toledo, her aunt and namesake. Betrothed to their son Pietro at the age of 15, she blossomed under the wing of Pietros older sister and her marriage, like Isabellas, was not a success, and she followed her mentors example of taking lovers. For this reason, Pietro had her brought in 1576 to the retreat of Cafaggiolo. Cosimos successor, Francesco I, tacitly approved the murder, until recently, little was known of Leonora di Garzia di Toledo, and she was not identified as the sitter of several portraits of her. The facts of her life have emerged from the growing scholarship on Isabella de Medici, in the view of art historian Gabrielle Langdon, Her story is valuable in revealing attitudes and legalities attendant on the lives and decorum of women in the early-modern Italian court. Born at the Florentine court in March 1553, Leonora was the daughter of García Álvarez de Toledo y Osorio, Marquis of Villafranca del Bierzo and Duke of Fernandina, and Vittoria dAscanio Colonna. Her father and mother were staying in Florence because García Álvarez had charge of the castles of Valdichiana in the region, when Vittoria Colonna died a few months later, Leonora was left in the care of her aunt Eleonora, the Duchess of Florence. García Álvarez went on to become the Viceroy of Catalonia and the Viceroy of Sicily on behalf of Philip II of Spain and he was the son of Pedro Álvarez de Toledo, the Spanish Viceroy of Naples. She went on to bear Cosimo 11 children, including the grand dukes Francesco and Ferdinando, as well as Pietro. After Eleonora died in 1562, Cosimos daughter Isabella replaced her as the first lady of Florence and she acted as a surrogate consort and also took over the supervision of Leonoras upbringing. The red-headed Leonora, who possessed a charm, was popular in the Medici family. At the age of five, she was reported as being a comfort to Cosimos second daughter Lucrezia, from whom she became inseparable, when Lucrezia was apart from her husband Alfonso dEste. Lucrezia died in 1561, leaving Isabella as Cosimos only surviving daughter, the duke was, however, extremely fond of Leonora and he was charmed by her vivacity and physical vigour—she delighted in horsemanship and arms—though he occasionally gently reminded her to behave with more decorum. The couple were betrothed in 1568 when Leonora was 15, with the approval of Philip II of Spain, garcia Álvarez de Toledo provided her with a dowry of 40,000 gold ducats. They were married at the Palazzo Vecchio in April 1571, and it was reported that Pietro had to be forced to consummate the union. On 10 February 1573, Leonora gave birth to a son, Cosimo, for Leonora, the marriage brought both advantages and disadvantages. As a result, the marriage, unlike that of Cosimo, in this it resembled that of Isabella de Medici, whose protégée Leonora became, and Paolo Giordano I Orsini. Duke Cosimo had married his beloved daughter Isabella into the House of Orsini for political reasons, although Isabella had two children by Paolo Giordano, she had chosen not to live at her husbands castle at Bracciano or in Rome, where he conducted his political and amorous affairsEleonora di Garzia di Toledo – "This Eleonora was a tall young woman, charming and beautiful, of becoming presence and endowed with courtly manners and virtuous habits." Portrait by 16th century unknown painter.
28. Hieronymus Wierix – Hieronymus Wierix was a Flemish engraver and member of the Antwerp Wierix family who made engravings after well-known artists, including Albrecht Dürer. Wierix was born and died in Antwerp, according to Cornelis de Bies book of artist biographies Het Gulden Cabinet he and his brothers Jan and Antoine were all engravers. His pupils were Abraham van Merlen, Jan Baptist van den Sande the elder and his daughter Christina married the engraver Jan-Baptist Barbé, who later had his other daughter Cecilia declared insane in order to claim her inheritance, a set of Dürer drawingsHieronymus Wierix – Adam and Eve after Durer
29. Sir John Wynn, 1st Baronet – Sir John Wynn, 1st Baronet, was a Welsh baronet, Member of Parliament and antiquary. He was the son of Morys Wynn ap John, who he succeeded in 1580, John was educated at All Souls College, Oxford and studied law at Furnivals Inn and the Inner Temple. He claimed to be descended from the princes of Gwynedd through Rhodri ab Owain son of Owain Gwynedd. The male line from his family died out in 1779 and the male line passed to the Anwyl of Tywyn family. However, this claim is disputed in a publication of 1884 entitled Gweithiau Gethin published by W. J. Roberts in Llanrwst. He was Member of Parliament for this county in 1586 and served as Sheriff of Caernarvonshire for 1587–88 and 1602–03 and Sheriff of Merionethshire for 1588–89 and 1600–01. He was appointed Deputy Lieutenant of Caernarvonshire in 1587, a member of the Council of the Marches of Wales c.1603, in 1606 he was made a knight and in 1611 became the first of the Wynn baronets. He was interested in mining ventures and also found time for antiquarian studies. He married Sydney, the daughter of William Gerard, and had 10 sons and 2 daughters and his successor was his second and eldest surviving son Richard. Wynns work The History of the Gwydir Family, which had a reputation in North Wales, was intended to assert his claim to royal ancestry. In a legal challenge to these claim Thomas Prys of Plas Iolyn brought a case against him and he won the case and afterwards was recognised as the most prominent male heir of the House of Gwynedd. John Wynns book was first published by Daines Barrington in 1770 and it is valuable as the only work which describes the state of society in North Wales in the 15th and the earlier part of the 16th century. His estate of Gwydir came to Robert Bertie, first Duke of Ancaster, in the 17th century, by his marriage with the heiress of the Wynns. On the death of the last duke in 1779, Gwydir was inherited by his sister Priscilla, Baronness Willoughby de Eresby in her own right, whose husband was created Baron Gwydyr. On the death of Alberic, Baron Willoughby de Eresby in 1870, Gwydir itself was sold by the earl of Ancaster in 1895, the house and part of the estate being bought by Lord Carrington, who also claimed descent from Sir John Wynn. On 28 May 2010, Llanrwst celebrated the 400th anniversary of the almshouses there, today, those twelve rooms are used to show different periods of history. The History of Parliament, the House of Commons 1558-1603, attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain, Chisholm, Hugh, ed. Wynn, Sir John. History of the Gwydir family and memoirsSir John Wynn, 1st Baronet – The coat of arms of the Wynn of Gwydir Family were: Vert, three eagles displayed in fess Or