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The following 129 pages are in this category, out of 129 total, this list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 1577 births.|
The following 129 pages are in this category, out of 129 total, this list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. 1577 – Year 1577 was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar. March 17 – The Cathay Company is formed to send Martin Frobisher back to the New World for more gold, may 28 – The Bergen Book, better known as the Solid Declaration of the Formula of Concord, one of the Lutheran confessional writings, is published. The earlier version, known as the Torgau Book, had been condensed into an Epitome, september 17 – The Treaty of Bergerac is signed between Henry III of France and the Huguenots. November – The Great Comet of 1577 is observed from Earth, supposed massacre of the MacDonald inhabitants of the Scottish island of Eigg by the Clan MacLeod. The church in San Pedro de Atacama is built in the Atacama Desert in Chile1577 – December 13: Francis Drake.
2. Cristofano Allori – Cristofano Allori was an Italian portrait painter of the late Florentine Mannerist school. Allori also appears to have worked under Cigoli and his pictures are distinguished by their close adherence to nature and the delicacy and technical perfection of their execution. His technical skill is shown by the fact that several copies he made of Correggios works were thought to be duplicates by Correggio himself and his extreme fastidiousness limited the number of his works. Several examples are to be seen at Florence and elsewhere and his most famous work, in his own day and now, is Judith with the Head of Holofernes. It exists in at least two versions by Allori, of which the version is perhaps that in the British Royal Collection, dated 1613. A version of 1620 in the Palazzo Pitti in Florence is the best known and there are copies by studio. Orazio and Artemisia Gentileschi, a digitized exhibition catalog from The Metropolitan Museum of Art LibrariesCristofano Allori – Judith with the Head of Holofernes, Royal Collection version
3. Christopher Besoldus – Christopher Besoldus was a German jurist and publicist whose writing is seen as important for the history of the causes of the Thirty Years War. He was born of Protestant parents in 1577 at Tübingen, Württemberg and he studied jurisprudence, and in the early 1590s was a close friend of Johannes Kepler. Besold asked permission of the classical scholar Vitus Müller to defend theses based on Keplers dissertation, later, when Katharina Kepler, Johannes Keplers mother, was prosecuted on witchcraft charges, Besold was one of the jurists dealing with the case, which was dropped. He graduated as Doctor of Law in 1598, and in 1610 became professor of law at Tübingen, among his pupils was Johannes Valentinus Andreae. Besold was one of the influences on Andreaes later Rosicrucian writings and his advice was frequently sought in juridical questions by the civil administration. He read the Scriptures, the writings of the Church Fathers and he was publicly converted to Catholicism at Heilbronn in 1635. Two years later, he accepted the chair of Roman Law at the University of Ingolstadt and he was considering the offer of a professorship at the University of Bologna, tendered him by Pope Urban VIII, when he died at Ingolstadt. He knew 9 languages including Arabic and Hebrew and his works are numerous, with 102 scholarly writings known. His theory of federalism was influential in explaining the workings of the Holy Roman Empire and he was one of the earliest writers on public finance, with Eberhard von Weyhe, Georg Obrecht, and Jacob Bornitz. The Thesaurus Practicus, an alphabetical and encyclopedic work defining legal and other terms, ran to many editions, being taken up by his student Johann Jacob Speidel and his publication of three volumes of documents from the Stuttgart archives was tendentious. Their contents suggested that the dependency of the Württemberg monasteries on the Empire implied for the local dukes the obligation of restoring the confiscated religious property. He translated the satirical Ragguagli di Parnaso of Trajano Boccalini, de verae philosophiae fundamento discursus, Tübingen 1619. WorldCat for Christophorus Besoldus Open Library page de, s, ADB, Besold, Christoph https, //books. google. com/booksChristopher Besoldus – Title page of Principia Iuris Feudalis by Christoph Besold (Tübingen 1616).
4. Scipione Borghese – Scipione Borghese was an Italian Cardinal, art collector and patron of the arts. A member of the Borghese family, he was the patron of the painter Caravaggio and his legacy is the establishment of the art collection at the Villa Borghese in Rome. Originally named Scipione Caffarelli, he was born in Artena, the son of Francisco Caffarelli and his father ran into financial difficulties, so Scipiones education was paid for by his maternal uncle Camillo Borghese. Upon Camillos election to the papacy as Pope Paul V in 1605, he conferred a cardinalship on Scipione and gave him the right to use the Borghese name. In the classic pattern of papal nepotism, Cardinal Borghese wielded enormous power as the Popes secretary, on his own and the Popes behalf he amassed an enormous fortune through papal fees and taxes, and acquired vast land holdings for the Borghese family. Scipione received many honours from his uncle, in each of these offices the cardinal received stipends. His income in 1609 was about 90,000 scudi, with his enormous wealth, he bought the villages of Montefortino and Olevano Romano from Pier Francesco Colonna, Duke of Zagarolo for 280,000 scudi. As Cardinal Nephew, Borghese was placed in charge of both the internal and external affairs of the Papal States. In addition, Paul V entrusted his nephew with the management of the finances of both the papacy and the Borghese family, Borghese aroused a great deal of controversy and resentment by utilizing numerous gifts from the papal government to fund Borghese family investments. Exploiting his authority as Cardinal Nephew, he often compelled owners to sell their holdings to him at substantial discounts, Borghese thus ensured that the fortunes of the family were not permanently dependent on ecclesiastical office. Cardinal Scipione Borghese died in Rome in 1633 and is buried in the Borghese chapel in Santa Maria Maggiore, contemporaries commented on the near-public scandals that resulted on occasions from Scipiones possible homosexuality, reflected in his taste for collecting art with strong homoerotic overtones. In 1605, Scipione allegedly angered his uncle the pope by bringing Stefano Pignatelli, to whom Scipione was closely attached, Scipione subsequently fell into a long and serious sickness, and only recovered when Pignatelli was allowed to come. The pope decided to keep a check on Pignatelli and had him ordained, indeed, the Italian historian Lorenzo Cardella notes that Pignatelli was cleared twice by the Roman Inquisition of having improper influence on Cardinal Borghese. Borghese took special interest in the development of the extensive gardens undertaken by artists at his Roman residences, the Palazzo Borghese on the Quirinal. Both these influential gardens featured innovative elements such as waterfalls, and they incorporated dense groves of trees, during the Ludovisi papacy the major focus of Borghese’s ecclesiastical patronage was on commemorative projects. The first was the embellishment of the Caffarelli chapel in Santa Maria sopra Minerva, the second was the massive timber catafalque decorated with life-size plaster figures designed by Gian Lorenzo Bernini, erected in Santa Maria Maggiore. Borghese’s first work after entering the Sacred College where he studied was the building and decoration of the chapels of St. Andrew. For Borghese to complete such a project declared his devotion to the city’s Christian heritage, the restoration of San Sebastiano fuori le mura, a church built under Constantine housing the greatest collection of relics known at the timeScipione Borghese – Scipione Borghese
5. John Bramston the Elder – Sir John Bramston the elder was an English judge and Chief Justice of the King’s Bench. On leaving the university he went into residence at the Middle Temple and his ability was recognised early by his university, which made him one of its counsel in 1607, with an annual fee of forty shillings. Shortly after his reading was concluded he was called to the degree of serjeant-at-law, in 1626 he defended the Earl of Bristol on his impeachment. A dissolution of parliament, however, soon relieved Bramston from this duty, in the following year he was chosen one of the counsel for the city of London on the motion of Sir Heneage Finch, then recorder, who was a close friend and connection by marriage. In 1629 he was one of the counsel for seven of the nine members of the House of Commons who were indicted for making seditious speeches in parliament. Next year the Bishop of Ely appointed him justice of his diocese. In 1632 he was made queens Serjeant, and two years later Kings Serjeant, being knighted 24 November in the same year, in 1635 he was created Chief Justice of the Kings Bench. In July of the same year Bramston was a member of the Star Chamber tribunal which tried the Bishop of Lincoln on the charge of tampering with witnesses, and committing other misdemeanors. The bishop was found guilty by a verdict, and sentenced to be deprived of his office, to pay a fine of £10,000. A similar sentence was passed on him at a date, Bramston being again a member of the court, on a charge of libelling the Archbishop of Canterbury. In the celebrated Ship money case, decided in the year, Bramston gave his judgment against the king, though on a purely technical ground. On 16 April 1640, during the indisposition of the lord keeper Finch, next day it was resolved that the message usual in such cases should be sent to the House of Lords. The lord keeper was bound to the effect the following day. From this time forward until Bramstons death persistent attempts were made to him to declare definitely in favour of the parliament. In the same year a resolution was come to that he should be appointed one of the judges of the Common Pleas. Even in the last year of his life Cromwell, then protector, sent for him privately, Bramston, however, excused himself on the ground of his advanced age. He was buried in Roxwell church, in person he is described as of middle height, in youth slight and active, in later years stout without being corpulent. Even the learned lawyers learned of him, as I have heard Twisden, Wild, Windham, and the admired Hales, and others acknowledge oftenJohn Bramston the Elder – Sir John Bramston.
6. Robert Burton (scholar) – Robert Burton was an English scholar at Oxford University, best known for the classic The Anatomy of Melancholy. He was also the incumbent of St Thomas the Martyr, Oxford and he was born at Lindley, Leicestershire, Robert Burton was the son of Ralph and Dorothy Burton and the brother of William Burton the antiquary. Burton spent most of his life at Oxford, first as a pupil at Brasenose College and he studied a large number of diverse subjects, many of which informed the study of melancholia, for which he is chiefly famous. He was appointed vicar of St Thomas Church in Oxford in 1616, Burton was a mathematician and dabbled in astrology. When not depressed he was a companion, very merry, facete, and juvenile, and a person of great honesty, plain dealing. Merry, indeed, Burton had favourite sources for laughter, there was a rumour that Burton hanged himself in his chambers at Christ Church, supposedly so that his death would match his prediction. Burton was buried at Christ Church Cathedral in Oxford, Burtons Melancholy focuses sharply on the self, unlike Bacon, Burton assumes that knowledge of psychology, not natural science, is humankinds greatest need. He wrote The Anatomy of Melancholy largely to himself out of being a lifelong sufferer from depression. As he described his condition in the preface Democritus Junior to the Reader, for I had gravidum cor, foetum caput, a kind of imposthume in my head, therefore, the treatise itself was intended as treatment. Again, from the preface, I write of melancholy, by being busy to avoid melancholy, there is no greater cause of melancholy than idleness, no better cure than business. However, this sentence may also be interpreted ironically, as Burton is citing a well-known adage of the time, the parenthetical aside is meant to be tongue-in-cheek. The work, published under the pseudonym Democritus Junior in 1621, was quite popular, in the words of Thomas Warton, the authors variety of learning, his quotations from rare and curious books, his pedantry sparkling with rude wit and shapeless elegance. Have rendered it a repertory of amusement and information, many later writers were deeply influenced by the books odd mix of pan-scholarship, humour, linguistic skill, and creative insights. This influence was so strong that later writers sometimes drew from the work without acknowledgment, samuel Johnson considered it one of his favourite books, being the only book that ever took him out of bed two hours sooner than he wished to rise. The book has continued as a favourite among many twentieth and twenty-first-century authors, such as Anthony Burgess, William H. Gass, apart from The Anatomy of Melancholy Burtons only other published work is Philosophaster, a satirical Latin comedy. Faulkner, Nicolas K. Kiessling, and Rhonda L. Blair and this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain, Cousin, John William. A Short Biographical Dictionary of English Literature, london, J. M. Dent & Sons. The Gilded Pill, The Reader-Writer Relationship in Robert Burton’s Anatomy of Melancholy, review and quotes at complete review Entry at the Columbia Encyclopedia The BBCs In Our Time discusses The Anatomy of MelancholyRobert Burton (scholar) – Robert Burton
7. Jacob Cats – Jacob Cats was a Dutch poet, humorist, jurist and politician. He is most famous for his emblem books, having lost his mother at an early age, and being adopted with his three brothers by an uncle, Cats was sent to school at Breda. He then studied law at Rotterdam and at Paris, and, returning to Holland, he settled at the Hague and his pleading in defence of a person accused of witchcraft brought him many clients and some reputation. He had a love affair about this time, which was broken off on the very eve of marriage by his catching a tertian fever which defied all attempts at cure for some two years. For medical advice and change of air Cats went to England and he returned to Zeeland to die, but was cured mysteriously with the powder of a travelling doctor. He married in 1602 a lady of property, Elisabeth van Valkenburg, and thenceforward lived at Grijpskerke in Zeeland. In 1621, on the expiration of the truce with Spain. He was made pensionary of Middelburg, and two years afterwards of Dordrecht, in 1627 Cats came to England on a mission to Charles I, who made him a knight. Here he lived from this time till his death, occupied in the composition of his autobiography and he became famous in his own lifetime from his moralistic Emblem books, most notably Sinne en Minnebeelden, for which Adrian van der Venne cut the plates. He died on 12 September 1660, and was buried by torchlight and he is still spoken of as Father Cats by his countrymen. He was, however, intimate with Constantijn Huygens, whose opinions were more nearly in agreement with his own. His diffuseness and the character of his matter and diction, have, however, come to be regarded as difficulties in the way of study. A statue to him was erected at Brouwershaven in 1829, see Jacob Cats, Alle de wercken, so ouden als nieuwe, published by Jan Jacobsz. Schipper, Amsterdam 1655, or, Jacob Cats, Complete works, later editions by van Vloten, Pigott, Moral Emblems, with Aphorisms, etc. from Jacob Cats, witsen Geijsbeek, Het Leven en de Verdiensten van Jacob Cats. Southey has a complimentary reference to Cats in his Epistle to Allan Cunningham. Emblemata or Minnebeelden with Maegdenplicht Selfstryt Houwelick Proteus Ofte Minne-Beelden Verandert In Sinne-Beelden, even today many of his coined phrases are still colloquialisms in everyday Dutch. Many of Cats moral poems were set to music, a selection of these, Klagende Maeghden en andere liederen, was recorded in 2008 by the Utrecht ensemble Camerata Trajectina. This article incorporates text from a now in the public domain, Chisholm, Hugh, ed. CatsJacob Cats – Jacob Cats by Michiel van Mierevelt
8. Giacomo Cavedone – Giacomo Cavedone was an Italian Baroque painter of the Bolognese School. He belonged to the generation of Carracci-inspired or trained painters that included Giovanni Andrea Donducci, Alessandro Tiarini, Lucio Massari, Leonello Spada and he was born in Sassuolo, near Modena, and was able to obtain a three-year stipend to apprentice with Bernardino Baldi and Annibale Carracci. In the autumn of 1609, he sojourned in Rome for a year to work under Guido Reni and he became one of Ludovico Carraccis primary assistants, and upon Ludovicos death in 1619 became Caposindaco of the Accademia degli Incamminati. His career as a painter was cut short by a set of misfortunes, these included a 1623 fall from a scaffold and, in 1630. The 1911 Britannica claims his wife was accused of witchcraft and he lived until 1660, and died in poverty. His paintings have a traditional Ludovico Carracci-inspired structure, with a Madonna and her wafting robes hovering above donors, among his pupils were Giovanni Andrea Sirani, Giovanni Battista Cavazza, Ottavio Corradi, and Flaminio Torre. Paul, Fogg Art Museum) The Miracle of the Loaves and Fishes Judith of Holofernes & Complaint of Job Attribution Chisholm, Hugh, ed. Cavedone, the Art of Corregio and the CarracciGiacomo Cavedone – St Stephen, 1601
9. Beatrice Cenci – Beatrice Cenci was an Italian noblewoman. She is famous as the protagonist in events leading to a murder trial in Rome that gave rise to an enduring legend about her. Beatrice was the daughter of an aristocrat, Francesco Cenci, who, due to his violent temper and immoral behaviour, found himself in trouble with papal justice more than once. The family lived in Rome at the Palazzo Cenci in the rione Regola, the members of the extended family living together included Beatrices elder brother, Giacomo, Francescos second wife, Lucrezia Petroni, and Bernardo, Francescos son from his second marriage. A castle also was among their possessions, La Rocca of Petrella Salto, according to historical details leading to the legend, Francesco Cenci abused his first wife Ersilia Santa Croce and his sons and raped Beatrice multiple times, thus being guilty of incest. He was jailed for crimes, but due to the leniency with which the nobles were treated he was freed early. Beatrice tried to inform the authorities about the frequent mistreatment, when he found out that his daughter had reported him, he sent Beatrice and Lucrezia away from Rome to live in the familys country castle at La Petrella del Salto in the Abruzzi mountains. The four Cencis decided they had no alternative but to try to get rid of Francesco, in 1598, during one of Francescos stays at the castle, two vassals helped them to drug him, but this failed to kill Francesco. Following this Beatrice, her siblings, and their stepmother bludgeoned Francesco to death with a hammer, No one believed the death to be accidental, however. Eventually his absence was noticed and the police tried to find out what happened. Beatrices lover was tortured and died without revealing the truth, meanwhile, a family friend who was aware of the murder ordered the killing of the second vassal to avoid any risk. Nonetheless, the plot was discovered and the four members of the Cenci family were arrested, found guilty, the common people of Rome, knowing the reasons for the murder, protested against the tribunals decision, obtaining a short postponement of the execution. Pope Clement VIII, however, fearing a spate of familial murders, on 11 September 1599, at dawn, they were taken to SantAngelo Bridge, where the scaffold was usually built. In the cart to the scaffold, Giacomo was subjected to continual torture, on reaching the scaffold his head was smashed with a mallet. The public spectacle continued with the executions of first Lucrezia and finally Beatrice, both took their turns on the block to be beheaded with a small axe. Only the 12-year-old, Bernardo, was spared, yet he, too, was led to the scaffold and forced to witness the execution of his relatives before returning to prison and it was decreed that Bernardo should then become a galley slave for the remainder of his life. However, he was released a year later, Beatrice was buried in the church of San Pietro in Montorio. Beatrice has become a symbol to the people of Rome of resistance against the arrogant aristocracy, and it is related that every year on the night before the anniversary of her death, she comes back to the bridge where she was executed, carrying her severed headBeatrice Cenci – The portrait associated with Beatrice Cenci attributed to Guido Reni that Shelley saw in Palazzo Colonna in 1818, sparking his interest for a play
10. Christian IV of Denmark – Christian IV, sometimes colloquially referred to as Christian Firtal in Denmark and Christian Kvart or Quart in Norway, was king of Denmark-Norway and Duke of Holstein and Schleswig from 1588 to 1648. His 59-year reign is the longest of Danish monarchs, and of Scandinavian monarchies, a member of the house of Oldenburg, Christian began his personal rule of Denmark in 1596 at the age of 19. He is frequently remembered as one of the most popular, ambitious, Christian IV obtained for his kingdom a level of stability and wealth that was virtually unmatched elsewhere in Europe. He engaged Denmark in numerous wars, most notably the Thirty Years War, which devastated much of Germany, undermined the Danish economy and he renamed the Norwegian capital Oslo as Christiania after himself, a name used until 1925. Christian was born at Frederiksborg Castle in Denmark on 12 April 1577 as the child and eldest son of King Frederick II of Denmark–Norway. He was descended, through his mothers side, from king John of Denmark, at the time, Denmark was still an elective monarchy, so in spite of being the eldest son Christian was not automatically heir to the throne. However, in 1580, at the age of 3, his father had him elected Prince-Elect, at the death of his father on 4 April 1588, Christian was 11 years old. He succeeded to the throne, but as he was still under-age a regency council was set up to serve as the trustees of the power while Christian was still growing up. It was led by chancellor Niels Kaas and consisted of the Rigsraadet council members Peder Munk, Jørgen Ottesen Rosenkrantz and his mother Queen Dowager Sophie,30 years old, had wished to play a role in the government, but was denied by the Council. At the death of Niels Kaas in 1594, Jørgen Rosenkrantz took over leadership of the regency council, Christian continued his studies at Sorø Academy and received a good education with a reputation as a headstrong and talented student. In 1595, the Council of the Realm decided that Christian would soon be old enough to assume control of the reins of government. On 17 August 1596, at the age of 19, Christian signed his haandfæstning, twelve days later, on 29 August 1596, Christian IV was crowned at the Church of Our Lady in Copenhagen by the Bishop of Zealand, Peder Jensen Vinstrup. He was crowned with a new Danish Crown Regalia which had made for him by Dirich Fyring. On 30 November 1597, he married Anne Catherine of Brandenburg, Christian took an interest in many and varied matters, including a series of domestic reforms and improving Danish national armaments. New fortresses were constructed under the direction of Dutch engineers, the Danish navy, which in 1596 had consisted of but twenty-two vessels, in 1610 rose to sixty, some of them built after Christians own designs. The formation of a national army proved more difficult, up until the early 1620s, Denmarks economy profited from general boom conditions in Europe. This inspired Christian to initiate a policy of expanding Denmarks overseas trade and he founded a number of merchant cities, and supported the building of factories. He also built a number of buildings in Dutch Renaissance styleChristian IV of Denmark – King Christian IV by Pieter Isaacsz, Frederiksborg Castle, Hillerød
11. Thomas West, 3rd Baron De La Warr – De La Warr is pronounced Delaware. There have been two creations of Baron De La Warr, and West came from the second. He was the son of Thomas West, 2nd Baron De La Warr, of Wherwell Abbey in Hampshire and Anne Knollys, daughter of Catherine Carey and he was born at Wherwell, Hampshire, England, and died at sea while travelling from England to the Colony of Virginia. Thomas West received his education at Queens College, Oxford and he served in the army under Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex, and, in 1601, was charged with supporting Essexs ill-fated insurrection against Queen Elizabeth, but he was acquitted of those charges. He succeeded his father as Baron De La Warr in 1602, Lord De La Warr was appointed governor-for-life and captain-general of the Colony of Virginia, to replace the governing council of the colony under the presidency of Captain John Smith. As part of Englands response, De La Warr recruited and equipped a contingent of 150 men, the supply fleet arrived in Jamestown in June, just in time to persuade the original settlers not to give up and go home to England. These tactics, identical to those practiced by the Powhatan themselves, Lord De La Warr returned to England due to illness in the spring of 1611, leaving his deputy, Sir Samuel Argall, in charge of the colony. Later that year, De La Warr wrote and published a book titled The Relation of the Right Honourable the Lord De-La-Warre, Lord Governour and Captaine Generall of the Colonie and he died at sea en route to Virginia. It was thought for years that Lord De La Warr had been buried in the Azores or at sea. By 2006, researchers had concluded that his body was brought to Jamestown for burial, a grave site thought to contain the remains of Captain Bartholomew Gosnold may instead contain those of Lord De La Warr. Lord De La Warrs brother, John West, later governor of Virginia. On 25 November 1596, De La Warr married Cecily, the daughter of Sir Thomas Shirley of Wiston, Sussex and Anne and they had children, Cecily or Cecilia, who married firstly Sir Francis Bindlosse and secondly after 1629 John Byron, 1st Baron Byron. She was buried at Hucknall-Torkard in Nottinghamshire, lucy, who married Sir Robert Byron, Governor of Liverpool and a Colonel in the service of the Royalist Infantry Forces who fought in the English Civil War. Henry, who succeeded his father as the 4th Baron De La Warr, married Isabella, daughter of Sir Thomas Edmunds and he died at the age of 24 and was succeed by his son Charles West, 5th Baron De La Warr. Lundy, Darryl Roger, ed. Thomas West, 3rd Baron Delaware, pp.14230 at §142296,13955 at §139543,14230 at §142295–§142296,20756 at §207553, §207556, §207558,24497 at §244965. Cokayne, George Edward, et al. eds, the Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain and the United Kingdom, Extant, Extinct or Dormant. Mosley, Charles, ed. Burkes Peerage, Baronetage & Knightage, the Complete Peerage or a History of the House of Lords and All its Members From the Earliest Times, Volume XIV, Addenda & Corrigenda. Biography at Encyclopedia Virginia De la Warr, Thomas West, LordThomas West, 3rd Baron De La Warr – Lord De La Warr.
12. Countess Elisabeth of Nassau – Countess Elisabeth of Nassau was the second daughter of prince William of Orange and his third spouse Charlotte of Bourbon. She was Duchess of Bouillon by marriage, after her father was murdered in 1584, there was a shortage of money for Elisabeth, her siblings and her stepmother Louise de Coligny. In 1594 Louise took Elisabeth with her to France, where met with several Protestant nobles. One of them, Henri de La Tour dAuvergne, of the Duchy of Bouillon, Henri tried to keep his Duchy Sedan Protestant, but had to deal with hostility emanating from his catholic French neighbors. During his absences Louise acted as regent, and after his death in 1623 she became regent for their son Frédéric Maurice de la Marck and she kept in close contact with her stepmother and five sisters, two of whom also acted as regents at some point. Elisabeth van Nassau, Hertogin van Bouillon last accessed April 1,2007Countess Elisabeth of Nassau – Countess Elisabeth of Nassau
13. Ferdinand of Bavaria (bishop) – This article covers the life and career of the archbishop, the Prince-elector of Cologne, Ferdinand of Bavaria. For the life and career of his uncle, Ferdinand of Bavaria, for the article on Ferdinand of Bavaria 1884-1958, Infante of Spain, see Prince Ferdinand of Bavaria. Ferdinand of Bavaria was Prince-elector archbishop of the Archbishopric of Cologne from 1612 to 1650 and he was also prince-bishop of Hildesheim, Liège, Münster, and Paderborn. Ferdinand was born in Munich, one of the sons of William V and his parents decided early that he would have church life, and they sent him to the Jesuit College of Ingolstadt for education in early 1587. He quickly became a canon in Mainz, Cologne, Würzburg, Trier, Salzburg, in 1595 he became Prince-Provost of Berchtesgaden and the coadjutor of his uncle Ernest of Bavaria. His uncle retired from most duties associated with his office, leaving Ferdinand to run the many lands he ruled, when Ernest died in 1612, Ferdinand was elected the Archbishop-Elector of Cologne and the Prince-Bishop of Liège, Hildesheim, Münster, and, from 1618, Paderborn. Ferdinand never received ordination in his lifetime, though, Ferdinand is responsible for numerous executions due to fanatic witch-hunts in his dioceses. Ferdinand worked hard throughout his reign to promote Catholicism in his lands and he pushed reforms and adoption of the Council of Trents objectives, and improved the position of the Wittelsbachs in Germany. In 1612 he attempted to get his brother Duke Maximilian I of Bavaria elected the Holy Roman Emperor, in 1618 the Thirty Years War broke out. Ferdinand had initial success in supporting the Catholic leaders and keeping his dioceses safe from war with Spanish aid, by the end of the war, Swedish, Spanish, French and Imperial armies had all fought in and raided the bishoprics. In 1642 Ferdinand appointed his nephew Maximilian Henry coadjutor and he retired from most of the affairs of the dioceses. In the period of the persecution of witches 37 people were executed in Cologne, the most famous victim of his witch-hunt was Katharina Henot. Ferdinand died in 1650 in the ducal Westphalian capital Arnsberg and was buried in Cologne Cathedral and he was succeeded by Maximilian Henry of BavariaFerdinand of Bavaria (bishop) – Ferdinand of Bavaria
14. Fidelis of Sigmaringen – Cap. was a Capuchin friar who was a major figure in the Counter-Reformation, and was murdered by his opponents at Seewis im Prättigau, now part of Switzerland. He was born Mark Roy or Rey in 1577, in Sigmaringen and his fathers name was John Rey. He studied law and philosophy at the University of Freiburg, Roy subsequently taught philosophy at this university, ultimately earning the degree of Doctor of Law. During his time as a student he did not drink wine and he was known for his modesty, meekness and chastity. In 1604, Roy accompanied, as preceptor, three young Swabian gentlemen on their travels through the parts of Europe. During six years of travel, he attended Mass very frequently, upon his return, he practiced law as a counselor or advocate, at Colmar, in Alsace where he came to be known as the poor mans lawyer. He scrupulously forbore all invectives, detractions, and whatever might affect the reputation of any adversary, disenchanted with the evils associated with his profession, he was determined to enter the religious life as a member of the Capuchin friars. He finished his novitiate and studies for the priesthood, presiding over his first Mass at the Capuchin friary in Fribourg, as soon as Fidelis finished his course of theology, he was immediately employed in preaching and in hearing confessions. After becoming guardian of the Capuchin friary in Weltkirchen, Feldkirch, many residents of the town and neighboring places were reformed by his zealous labors, the Congregation of the Doctrine of the Faith commissioned Fidelis to preach in the Graubünden region of eastern Switzerland. Eight other Capuchin friars were to be his assistants, and they labored in this mission under his direction, the Calvinists of that territory, being incensed at his success in converting their brethren, loudly threatened Fidelis life, and he prepared himself for martyrdom. Ralph de Salis and another Calvinist gentleman were both converted by his missionary efforts, Fidelis and his companions entered into Prättigau, a small district of Graubünden, in 1622, on the Feast of the Epiphany, January 6. The effects of his ardent zeal, where the Bishop of Coire sent a lengthy and full account to the Congregation for the Propagation of the Faith, on April 24,1622, Fidelis made his confession, celebrated Mass and then preached at Grüsch. At the end of his sermon, which he had delivered more than ordinary zeal, he stood silent all of a sudden, with his eyes fixed upon Heaven. He foretold his death to persons in the clearest terms. After the service at Grüsch he and several companions traveled to Seewis and his companions noted that he was particularly cheerful. During the sermon, his listeners were called to arms by the Calvinist agitators outside, some of the people went to face the Austrian troops outside the church. Fidelis had been persuaded by the remaining Catholics to immediately flee with the Austrian troops out of Seewis, which he did, but then returned alone to Grüsch. On his way back he was confronted by 20 Calvinist soldiers who demanded unsuccessfully that he renounce the Catholic faith, a local account, From Grüsch he went to preach at Seewis, where, with great energy, he exhorted the Catholics to constancy in the faithFidelis of Sigmaringen – Saint Fidelis of Sigmaringen, O.F.M. Cap.
15. Francis, Duke of Pomerania – Francis of Pomerania was Duke of Pomerania-Stettin and Bishop of Cammin. Francis was the son of Duke Bogislaw XIII and his wife, at the instigation of his father, he received the best possible education. He indicated at an age that his interests tended towards knighthood. His plans to go to the Saxon court, however were thwarted by John Frederick, who brought him into the Bishopric of Cammin, in 1592, he was appointed Coadjutor of the diocese, in 1593, he participated in the national synod. In 1594, he made a trip to Vienna and Hungary and he took part in the siege of Esztergom fortress under Matthias, the later Archduke Matthias of Austria. He went to Italy in 1596 and then returned to Pomerania, after his uncle Casimir had resigned from his post as Bishop of Cammin in 1602, Francis was elected as the next bishop in a carefully predetermined election. His residence was Köslin, where he had the castle equipped accordingly, when in 1604 the King of Sweden offered him the command of 3000 men infantry and 1000 cavalry in the Polish-Swedish war, he had to refuse, in view of the neutrality of Pomerania. In 1607, he made another journey and this brought him first to Prague and from there via Switzerland and France to the Spanish border. He returned via England, Scotland and the Netherlands, to secure the borders of his bishopric, he established a small military force in 1614. After his brother Philip II had died without heirs in 1618, the Bishopric of Cammin went to his brother Ulrich. His efforts to strengthen the capabilities of Pomerania were largely unsuccessful. They rejected his demand to provide the Stettin arsenal with weapons and equipment and he did not share the scientific interests of his predecessor Philip II. Projects on geography or national history such as Valentin von Winthers Pomeranographia and he devoted himself intensively to the affairs of government and the city of Stettin. Documents requiring his signature were always checked thoroughly, because of his kindness and affability in dealing with his subjects, he was very popular among the population. During Duke Franciss time in office, the 80-year-old nun Sidonia von Borcke from the Marienfließ Convent was tried for witchcraft. She was accused of having caused the death of the Dukes Philip II and George II. She was found guilty, and executed, three month later, Duke Francis fell ill. He was still healthy in the morning, felt ill after lunch, in 1610, Duke Francis was married to Sophie of Saxony, a daughter of Elector Christian I of SaxonyFrancis, Duke of Pomerania – Francis, Duke of Pomerania
16. Cornelis van der Geest – Cornelis van der Geest was a spice merchant from Antwerp, who used his wealth to support the Antwerp artists and to establish his art collection. He was also the dean of the haberdashers guild and he is best known today for his art collection. He owned two paintings by Quentin Matsys, one of which, a Madonna, can be seen in the Van Haecht painting, the painting also shows some of Van der Geests sculptures, with copies of the Venus de Medici, the Farnese Hercules, and the Apollo Belvedere. Paintings by Willem van Haecht of his art gallery, Paintings hanging in his art gallery followed by the numbers of the five gallery paintings above, Van der Geest also functioned as a maecenas. He arranged for Rubens to get the order for a triptych for the Saint Walpurga church in Antwerp, Van der Geest also financed a new memorial for Quentin Metsys against the tower of the Antwerp CathedralCornelis van der Geest – Portrait of Cornelis van der Geest by Anthony van Dyck, before 1620, now in the National Gallery
17. Paul Guldin – Paul Guldin was a Swiss Jesuit mathematician and astronomer. He discovered the Guldinus theorem to determine the surface and the volume of a solid of revolution, Guldin was noted for his association with the German mathematician and astronomer Johannes Kepler. Guldin composed a critique of Cavalieris method of Indivisibles and he was born in Mels, Switzerland, and was a professor of mathematics in Graz and ViennaPaul Guldin – Paul Guldin
18. Piet Pieterszoon Hein – Pieter Pietersen Heyn was a Dutch admiral and privateer for the Dutch Republic during the Eighty Years War between the United Provinces and Spain. Hein was the first and the last to capture such a part of a Spanish silver fleet from America. Hein was born in Delfshaven, the son of a sea captain, during his first journeys he suffered from extreme Motion sickness. In his twenties, he was captured by the Spanish, and served as a slave for about four years. Between 1603 and 1607 he was held captive by the Spanish. In 1607, he joined the Dutch East India Company and left for Asia and he married Anneke Claesdochter de Reus and settled in Rotterdam. In 1618, when he was captain of the Neptunus, both he and his ship were pressed into service by Venice, in 1621 he left his vessel behind and traveled overland to the Netherlands. For a year in 1622 he was a member of the government of Rotterdam, although he did not have citizenship of this city. In 1623, he became vice-admiral of the new Dutch West India Company, in Brazil, he briefly captured the Portuguese settlement of Salvador, personally leading the assault on the sea fortress of that town. In August with a small and undermanned fleet he sailed for the African west coast and attacked a Portuguese fleet in the strongly defended bay of Luanda, after finding that Salvador had been recaptured by a large Spanish-Portuguese fleet Hein returned home. The Dutch West India Company, pleased with Heins leadership qualities, in subsequent raids during 1627 at Salvador, he attacked and captured over thirty richly laden Portuguese merchant ships before returning to the United Provinces. Also, he never was an individual privateer but rather commanded entire fleets of warships, in 1628, Admiral Hein, with Witte de With as his flag captain, sailed out to capture a Spanish treasure fleet loaded with silver from their American colonies and the Philippines. With him was Admiral Hendrick Lonck and he was joined by a squadron of Vice-Admiral Joost Banckert. The Dutch did not take prisoners, they gave the Spanish crews ample supplies for a march to Havana, the capture of the treasure fleet was the Dutch West India Companys greatest victory in the Caribbean. As a result, the money funded the Dutch army for eight months, Hein returned to the Netherlands in 1629, where he was hailed as a hero. Hein was the first and the last to capture such a part of a Spanish silver fleet from America. He died the year, in a campaign against the Dunkirkers. As it happened his flotilla intercepted three privateers from Ostend and he deliberately moved his flagship in between two enemy ships to give them both simultaneous broadsidesPiet Pieterszoon Hein – 1629 copy after a lost 1625 original by Jan Daemen Cool
19. Otto Heurnius – Otto Heurnius was a Dutch physician, theologian and philosopher. He succeeded his father Johannes Heurnius as professor of medicine at the University of Leiden, alongside his practical anatomy teaching, he had the care of a very various collection of zoological and botanical specimens. The aims of the collection included reconstruction of the life of the Israelites in Egypt and he was also a historian of philosophy, stressing the period before the philosophers of the Ancient Greeks. He based his ideas on the Corpus Hermeticum, Otto Heurnius at the Mathematics Genealogy Project WorldCat page Genealogy if Otto van HeurnOtto Heurnius – Otto Heurnius (1577–1652)
20. Pieter Huyssens – Pieter Huyssens was a Flemish Jesuit brother and Baroque architect. Huyssens was born in Bruges, the son of Jacob and Cathelijne Boudens and his father and grandfather were master masons, and Pieter was already a master mason when he entered the Society of Jesus in 1596 in Tournai. His first architectural commission for the society was the construction of the church of Maastricht in 1606. Called to Antwerp in 1613, he drew the plans of the Church of St Ignatius under the direction of François dAguilon, after Aguilons death in 1617, Huyssens became the contractor and collaborated with Peter Paul Rubens decorating the church with paintings. Together they made this church into a Baroque masterpiece, during this period Huyssens started other projects in Namur and Bruges for Jesuit churches. He made a trip to Rome in 1626-1627 for the Infanta Isabella Clara Eugenia who wanted marble for her new chapel in Brussels. On his return to Belgium he built the Church of St Francis Xavier in Bruges, construction was completed in 1641 after Huyssens death. In 1628, he drew the plans for the church of the abbey of St Peter in Ghent, Huyssens died in his native city of Bruges, after a long illness, aged 60. Plantenga, J. H. L’architecture religieuse du Brabant au XVIIe siècle, The Hague, thibaut de Maizières, M. Larchitecture religieuse à lépoque de Rubens, Bruxelles,1943. Les Jésuites à Namur, Namur,1991, meulemeester, J. L. Pieter Huyssens, een Brugse barokarchitect met faamPieter Huyssens – Facade of the Jesuit church in Maastricht
21. Nur Jahan – Nur Jahan was Empress consort of the Mughal Empire from 25 May 1611 to 28 October 1627 and was the eighteenth and most beloved wife of the Mughal emperor Jahangir. She acted as his consort and Padshah Begum, officially from 1620–1627, after the titles previous holder. She was a woman when Prince Salim, Akbars eldest son. Two years after Akbar died and Salim became Emperor, Sher Afgan met his death, however, three more years were to pass before a grieving Nur Jahan consented to marry the Emperor Jahangir. In fact, the relationship between Jahangir and Nur Jahan was even more scandalous in its time than the legend of Anarkali, after the wedding, Nur Jehan quickly gained ascendency over her husband. More decisive and pro-active than her husband, she is considered by historians to have been the power behind the throne for more than fifteen years. Nur Jehan was granted certain honours and privileges which were never enjoyed by any Mughal empress before or afterwards and she was the only Mughal empress to have coinage struck in her name. She was often present when the Emperor held court, and even held court independently when the Emperor was unwell and she was given charge of his imperial seal, implying that her perusal and consent were necessary before any document or order received legal validity. The Emperor sought her views on most matters before issuing orders, however, Mumtaz Mahal took no interest at all in affairs of state, and her husband, who loved her to distraction, is not known to have consulted her on any important matter. Nur Jehan is therefore unique in the annals of the Mughal Empire for the influence she wielded. Both of Nur Jahans parents were descendants of illustrious families – Ghias Beg from Muhammad Sharif, for unknown reasons, Ghias Begs family had suffered a reversal in fortunes in 1577 and soon found circumstances in their homeland intolerable. Hoping to improve his family’s fortunes, Ghias Beg chose to relocate to India where the Emperor Akbars court was said to be at the centre of the trade industry. Half way along their route the family was attacked by robbers who took them the remaining meager possessions they had. Left with only two mules, Ghias Beg, his pregnant wife, and their three children were forced to take turns riding on the backs of the animals for the remainder of their journey, when the family arrived in Kandahar, Asmat Begum gave birth to their second daughter. The family was so impoverished they feared they would be unable to care of the newborn baby. Fortunately, the family was taken in by a led by the merchant noble Malik Masud. Believing that the child had signaled a change in the family’s fate and her father was appointed diwan for the province of Kabul. Due to his skills at conducting business he quickly rose through the ranks of the high administrative officialsNur Jahan – Idealized portrait of the Mughal Empress Nur Jahan
22. Nicholas Kendall (Royalist) – Nicholas Kendall was an English politician who sat in the House of Commons in 1625 and 1640. He was killed in fighting on the Royalist side in the English Civil War. Kendall was the son of Walter Kendall of Pelyn, Cornwall and he matriculated at Exeter College, Oxford in October 1594 aged 17. In 1625, Kendall was elected Member of Parliament for Lostwithiel in a double return and he was elected again as MP for Lostwithiel in April 1640 for the Short Parliament. Kendall became a colonel in the Kings army and he led a troop of Royalist soldiers into Bodmin, where they routed the Parliamentarian troopers who were raiding the town. He was killed at the siege of Bristol in 1643 and he was buried in Lanlivery Church. Kendall married by Emlyn Treffrey, daughter of Thomas Treffrey of Lostwithiel and their son Walter was also MP for LostwithielNicholas Kendall (Royalist) – Coat of Arms of the Kendall family of Pelyn in Cornwall.
23. Petrus Kirstenius – Petrus Kirstenius, latinised form of Peter Kirstein was a physician and orientalist. He studied medicine at Jena, Basel and was the Principal of a High School in Wrocław and he held the degrees of Doctor of Medicine and Philosophy. Kirstenius was interested in Oriental languages, and founded an Arabic printer of his own publishing an Arabic grammar book, later he lived in Prussia but was invited by Axel Oxenstierna to become a personal physician of Queen Christina of Sweden and Professor of Medicine at Uppsala University in 1636. His son Johan Peter Kirstenius was an officer and court engineer in Sweden. Gustaf Elgenstierna, Den introducerade svenska adelns ättartavlorPetrus Kirstenius – Petrus Kirstenius.
24. Kobayakawa Hideaki – Kobayakawa Hideaki was the fifth son of Kinoshita Iesada and the nephew of Toyotomi Hideyoshi. He was adopted by Hideyoshi and called himself Hashu Hidetoshi and Shusen and he was then again adopted by Kobayakawa Takakage and renamed himself Hideaki. Because he had gained the rank of Saemon no Kami or in China Shikkingo at genpuku and held the title of Chūnagon, during the Battle of Keicho he led reinforcements to rescue Ulsan Castle from the Ming army. Fighting on the front line with a spear, he managed to capture an enemy commander, however, Hideyoshi saw the danger of a reckless charge by the general commanding an army and deprived him of his domain, Chikugo after returning. Kobayakawa, angered by this, believed the lie circulated by Tokugawa Ieyasu that this had been the doing of a jealous Ishida Mitsunari and he never forgot nor forgave Mitsunari and worked to undermine his position. Moreover, Kobayakawa was known to women and children during the campaign. Knowing Kobayakawa held ill feelings, Mitsunari and Ōtani Yoshitsugu promised him two additional domains around Osaka and the position of kampaku if he helped them to victory, even after the battle began, Kobayakawa kept his intentions hidden. Ieyasus force was not faring well against Mitsunari from the west, Ukita Hideie was winning against Fukushima Masanori, Kobayakawa was hesitant to participate with either side. Ieyasu ordered troops to fire blanks against the Kobayakawa troops to force them into action, Kobayakawa then ordered an attack on the Otani troop and while this attack was beaten back temporarily, his action forced the other armies who had pledged betrayal to also turn. The battle was over within a day, Kobayakawa also had success in the mopping up operations that followed, defeating Mitsunaris father, Ishida Masatsugu in the siege of Sawayama. Once the dust had settled, Kobayakawa was given the defeated Ukita clans former fiefdoms of Bizen and Mimasaka, for a total of 550,000 koku. In the video game Kessen he is portrayed as a pathetic general dressed in splendid ochre armor, in Samurai Warriors 2, he is portrayed as young, inexperienced, and very indecisive. Shima Sakon refers to him as Bitty Baby Kobayakawa, as mentioned previously in this article, he panics and joins the Tokugawa ranks when he is fired upon by Magobei Fuse, an officer of the Eastern Army. He is also present in Nenes Dream Stage, acting as her son, in the game Sengoku Basara 3, he is portrayed as a coward and a glutton, and refers to himself as The Gourmet General. During his boss battle, the player will face him in a fortress that surrounds a gigantic nabe pot and he also wears armor that makes him look like a rhinoceros beetle, his helmet represents the horn, and the nabe pot he wears on his back represents the shell. Also in one of the Sekigahara scenarios Tadakatsu Honda fires at Hideaki with his cannons to make him go over Ieyasus side, Hideaki was played by Louis Ozawa Changchien in the 2008 BBC Docudrama series Heroes and Villains, centering on the Battle of Sekigahara. Hideaki appears in the 2017 video game, Nioh, media related to Kobayakawa Hideaki at Wikimedia Commons samurai-archives. com - page on Kobayakawa Hideaki, contains information on the Battle of Sekigahara as well City of OkayamaKobayakawa Hideaki – Kobayakawa Hideaki
25. Fortunio Liceti – Fortunio Liceti, was an Italian physician and philosopher. He was born prematurely at Rapallo, near Genoa to Giuseppe Liceti and Maria Fini and his father was a doctor and created a makeshift incubator, thereby saving Fortunio. Fortunio studied with his father from 1595 until 1599, when he moved on to the University of Bologna, there his teachers included Giovanni Costeo and Federico Pendasio, two men whom Liceti respected so much he later named his first son in their honor. In October 1599, Giuseppe Liceti fell fatally ill and Fortunio returned to Genoa, on March 23,1600, Liceti received his doctorate in philosophy and medicine. On November 5 of that year, Liceti took a position as lecturer of logic at the University of Pisa and in 1605, on August 25,1609, he was given a professorship in philosophy at the University of Padua. Liceti was elected to the Accademia dei Ricovrati in 1619 and held several offices within the group and he was denied promotion when senior colleagues died in both 1631 and 1637, so Liceti moved to the University of Bologna from 1637 to 1645, where he taught philosophy. On September 28,1645, the University of Padua invited him to return as the first professor of medicine, the most prestigious chair in medicine. He held this position until his death, throughout his life, Liceti remained committed philosophically to an Aristotelian viewpoint, although some recent scholars, such as Giuseppe Ongaro, have suggested he was not a rigid dogmatist. Liceti died on May 17,1657 and was buried in the church of SantAgostino in Padua, the church was later demolished but his grave marker, inscribed with an epitaph composed by Liceti himself, was saved and is now housed in the citys Civic Museum. Liceti and Galileo Galilei were colleagues at the University of Padua for nearly a year and, in fact, Licetis varied publications demonstrate his range of interests, from genetics and reproduction to gems and animals. His prodigious output once caused mathematician Bonaventura Cavalieri to write to Galileo Galilei that Liceti “makes a book a week, Licetis philosophical works mainly deal with natural philosophy, which he preferred to call “physiology. In the 1645 work De pietate Aristotelis erga Deum et homines, many of Licetis works in this area are especially concerned with problems of generation and development. In 1602, he published De ortu animae humanae, which examines the way in which the three parts of the come to be joined with the human fetus. In De perfecta constitutione hominis in utero liber unus, published in 1616, in this work, he differed from Aristotle in arguing that, in addition to a male seed, there is also a female seed, which contributes the vegetative soul to a fetus. Furthermore, he argued that these seeds were composed of particles from all over the parents bodies, Liceti then used this theory to explain the inheritance of acquired characteristics, genetic abnormalities and interspecies hybrids. Here, Liceti described and classified a variety of developmental abnormalities and, for the first time, classified based on their morphology. Liceti did, however, provide explanations for these abnormalities, including the narrowness of the uterus, problems with the placenta, Liceti was thus the first to recognize that fetal diseases could lead to the malformation of offspring. In 1630, he published a work which answered the objections of some of his criticsFortunio Liceti – De centro et circumferentia, 1640
26. Louis V, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt – Louis V of Hesse-Darmstadt was the Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt from 1596 to 1626. He was born on 24 September 1577 as the son of George I, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt, in 1604 he inherited a part of Hessen-Marburg after the death of Louis IV of Hesse-Marburg who was childless. The other half went to Maurice of Hesse-Kassel, but since Maurice was a Calvinist, lutheran professors of the University of Marburg who refused to convert to Calvinism founded in 1607 the University of Gießen which was named Ludoviciana. This led to a conflict during the Thirty Years War, between Louis V, who stood on the side of the Emperor, and Maurice, who was on the side of the Protestants, Hesse-Darmstadt suffered severely from the ravages from the Swedes during the conflict. The Landgrave died in 1626 and he was succeeded by George II, in 1722, Johann Georg Liebknecht, an astronomer at the University of Gießen, named a star, which he thought was a planet, Sidus Ludoviciana after Ludwig V. He married Magdalena von Brandenburg and had issue, Elisabeth Magdalene, Duchess of Württemberg-Montbéliard,23 April 1600 –9 June 1624, married Louis Frederick, anne Eleonore of Hesse-Darmstadt,30 July 1601 –6 May 1659. Sofie Agnes of Hesse-Darmstadt,12 January 1604 –8 September 1664, George II, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt,17 March 1605 –11 June 1661. Juliane of Hesse-Darmstadt,14 April 1606 –15 January 1659, amalie of Hesse-Darmstadt,20 June 1607 –11 September 1627. John of Hesse-Braubach,17 June 1609, –1 April 1651, henry of Hesse-Darmstadt,1 April 1612 –21 October 1629. Hedwig of Hesse-Darmstadt,22 June 1613 Darmstadt –2 March 1614, Louis of Hesse-Darmstadt,12 September 1614 –16 September 1614. Frederick of Hesse-Darmstadt,28 February 1616 –19 February 1682, wikisource, Allgemeine Deutsch Biographie Ludwig VLouis V, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt – Louis V of Hesse-Darmstadt
27. Everard Crijnsz. van der Maes – Everard Crynsz. van der Maes, was a Dutch Golden Age painter. According to Karel van Mander he was a painter from The Hague who had travelled to Italy and had returned home shortly before the Schilder-boeck was written, van Mander mentioned him together with another painter from The Hague, named Ravesteyn as being a good painter. According to the RKD he was a pupil of his father, Maes and Karel van Mander himself. His father worked together with the painter Anthonie van Ravesteyn and he painted portraits and had several pupils later on in his own workshop. Everard Crynsz. van der Maes on ArtnetEverard Crijnsz. van der Maes – Portrait of Johan van Wassenaer
28. Roberto de Nobili – Not to be confused with Cardinal Roberto de Nobili. Roberto de Nobili was an Italian Jesuit missionary to Southern India and he used a novel method of adaptation to preach Christianity, adopting many local customs of India which were, in his view, not contrary to Christianity. Born in Montepulciano, Tuscany in September 1577, Roberto de Nobili arrived in Goa in western India on 20 May 1605. It is probable that he met here Fr Thomas Stephens, SJ, who had arrived in Goa in 1579, after a short stay in Cochin in Kerala, he took up residence in Madurai in Tamil Nadu in November 1606. He soon called himself a teacher of wisdom, and began to dress like a Sannyasin, claiming noble parentage he approached high-caste people, and eagerly engaged in dialogue with Hindu scholars about the truths of Christianity. De Nobili mastered Sanskrit, Telugu and Tamil languages and literature, with the help of his teacher, as he expounded the Christian doctrine in Tamil he coined several words to communicate his message. He used the word kovil for a place of worship, arul and prasadam for grace, guru for priest or teacher, Vedam for the Bible, poosai for Mass and he adopted also local Indian customs, such as shaving ones head and keeping only a tiny tuft. He wore a dhoti and wooden sandals, to don the look of a sanyasin. Another symbol he embraced was the wearing of a three-stringed thread across the chest and he interpreted the three-stringed thread as representing the Holy Trinity, Father, Son and Holy Spirit. He was one of the first Europeans to gain an understanding of Sanskrit. He composed Catechisms, apologetic works and philosophic discourses in Tamil and his method raised a fierce controversy among his fellow Jesuits and with the Archbishop of Goa Cristóvão de Sá e Lisboa. The dispute was settled by Pope Gregory XV with the Constitution Romanæ Sedis Antistes issued on 31 January 1623, the customs of the three-stringed thread, the tuft, the use of sandalwood paste on the forefront and baths were allowed, inasmuch they did not imply any superstitious ritual. The Pope invited also the Indian neophytes to overcome their caste sensitivity, dharmic thinker Rajiv Malhotra calls this method as Inculturation. By adopting native culture, he made sure that Christianity appear less alien to natives and his adoption of native culture was out of respect and guided by his missionary zeal to spread Christianity using deception. Some have alleged that Roberto de Nobili was the author of a document written in French. Max Mueller, a great Orientalist who edited the series The Sacred Books of the East has concluded convincingly that de Nobili did not author the forged work. Ludo Rocher has published a study about the Ezourvedam which shows that the author of this text must have been a French missionary. He offered several names, The question who the French Jesuit author of the EzV was we can only speculate on, the author of the EzV may be one of these, but he may also be one of their many more or less well known confreresRoberto de Nobili – Roberto de Nobili
29. Michel Le Nobletz – Dom Michel Le Nobletz was a vigorous Counter-Reformation missionary active in the west of Brittany, who was responsible for a revival of popular Catholic culture. He developed new methods of teaching, and invented distinctive painted placards — known as taolennoù – which became used in the area. His, his extremely severe views and denunciations of alleged vice among local leaders and even other priests led to accusations that he was a fanatic. He was forced to leave Douarnenez because of the animosity he engendered, the Church declared Nobletz venerable in 1897. The Bishop of Leon initiated his beatification in 1701, but it is still pending, Nobletz was born in the manor of Kerodern in Plouguerneau on 29 September 1577 into a noble family. His father was a royal notary and his father sent him to join his four brothers at the University of Bordeaux in 1596. He then studied at the College of Jesuits at Agen, learning theology, ancient languages and it was during a pilgrimage to Toulouse he had decided his vocation, before coming to deepen his theology at the Jesuit college of Madelaine de Bordeaux. He returned to his parish in 1606, where he devised a systematic method of meditation which includes a description of the ten pitfalls threatening the priestly life. Desiring to improve his knowledge, he went to study Hebrew at the Sorbonne and he was received into the priesthood in Paris. Back in Leon, motivated by his religious ideals, he refused a career that offered him a comfortable job. To the dismay of his parents, he retired to Plouguerneau in a kind of cell erected in the rocks of the beach of Treménach and he spent one year there in poverty and asceticism. In 1608 he began his first mission, to the island of Ouessant, after a period with the Dominicans in Morlaix, he was forced to leave following a major scandal caused by his vandalizing a portrait-sculpture of a young woman placed over her grave. He believed that the image would encourage worship like the statue of a saint and he went on a preaching tour with Fr. Together they travelled around Trégor and Léon from 1608 to 1611, Nobletz travelled to the islands of Ouessant, Mullein, Batz, before returning to Conquet. His sister Margaret joined him there, here in 1614 he developed the use of painted placards. These were created by Marguerite Alain Lestobec, the draw on the tradition of emblem books to use symbols to teach both religious and secular knowledge. To communicate with his audience of sailors and farmers Nobletz wrote words to be sung to popular tunes, the Bishop of Leon, who did not speak Breton, banned these songs where the tune seemed vulgar, until he was told the meaning of the words. Nobletz also drew on help from pious women, starting with his sisters Anne, for his reliance on women he was harshly criticizedMichel Le Nobletz – Michel le Nobletz
30. William Noy – William Noy was a noted British jurist. He was born on the estate of Pendrea in St Buryan. He left Exeter College, Oxford, without taking a degree, from 1603 until his death he was elected, with one exception, to each parliament, sitting invariably for a constituency of his native county. A few years before his death he changed political allegiance, went over to the side of the court, and in October 1631 he was created Attorney-general, but was never knighted. It was through his advice that the impost of ship money was levied, Noy suffered from stones, and died in great pain, he was buried at New Brentford church. His principal works are On the Grounds and Maxims of the Laws of this Kingdom and this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain, Chisholm, Hugh, ed. Noy, WilliamWilliam Noy – William Noy.
31. Antonio de Oquendo – Antonio de Oquendo was a Spanish admiral, in 1639 he was in command of the Spanish forces at the Battle of the Downs. Antonio was the son of Captain-General Miguel de Oquendo, who died in October 1588 when his ship foundered off Pasajes, in 1594 he entered naval service. He commanded a naval squadron made of his flagship, the Delfín de Escocia, on 7 August 1604 he captured an English privateer at the Battle of the Gulf of Cádiz. In 1607 he was appointed commander of the Biscay squadron, which was that year enlarged and renamed the squadron of the Bay of Biscay, from the same year he also functioned as the General of the Fleet of the Viceroyalty of New Spain. In 1619 he temporarily replaced Juan Fajardo de Entenza y de Guevara, arrested for insubordination, as commander of the Squadron of the Ocean, the Atlantic high seas navy. Ordered to be Fajardos successor he refused, at the time trying to make the government aware of the many shortcomings in the naval organisation. Soon his imprisonment was changed for a stay in a convent. After a while Prince Philbert arranged his release, De Oquendo was then given command for a few years of the yearly Spanish treasure fleet, transporting the silver from the Andes to Spain. In 1624 he was brought to trial on accusations of fraud and nepotism, in 1626 De Oquendo became Admiral-General of the Ocean Fleet, under Captain-General Fadrique de Toledo. In 1628 by his own initiative he relieved La Mámora, at the besieged by the Moors. In 1631 he commanded a troop convoy destined for Brazil, to retake the city of Pernambuco, on 12 September he engaged and defeated a Dutch WIC fleet under Admiral Adriaan Pater, allowing him to successfully land the troop contingent. The Spanish lost one vessel, the Dutch three, De Oquendo was now promoted to the highest rank, that of Captain-General. In 1636 he was arrested for duelling an Italian nobleman in Madrid, in 1637 he refused to reinforce the fleet of the Kingdom of Naples because his squadron was undermanned and poorly supplied. He was punished by being appointed governor of Mahón, the capital of the island of Minorca, however, in 1639 the situation of Spain in the Thirty Years War strongly deteriorated. France had blocked the land route to the Army of Flanders and in August De Oquendo was made a viscount. On 15 September he was intercepted near the Strait of Dover by the squadron of Dutch Lieutenant-Admiral Maarten Tromp, who was reinforced two days later by a flotilla of Vice-Admiral Witte de With. Though the Dutch force was small, consisting of only seventeen vessels, it managed by a clever use of the line-of-battle to severely damage the larger. De Oquendo feared that if he entered the channel to Dunkirk, he would be trapped in that port, so he opted to take refuge in The DownsAntonio de Oquendo – Statue for Antonio de Oquendo, San Sebastián
32. Richard Weston, 1st Earl of Portland – Weston was the eldest son and heir of Sir Jerome Weston, High Sheriff of Essex for 1599, and the former Mary Cave. He was born at Roxwell, Essex, and was a student of the Middle Temple and he served as Member of Parliament for a number of constituencies including Maldon, Midhurst, Essex, Arundel, Bossiney, Callington and Bodmin. During the reign of King James I of England, Weston was sent on embassies to Bohemia, Brussels, on the last assignment, he negotiated for the restitution of the Palatine. He opposed wars with Spain in 1623 and France in 1626, Weston was elevated to the peerage on 13 April 1628, as Baron Weston, of Neyland. He was subsequently made Lord Treasurer of England and invested with the Order of the Garter and his policies proving highly unpopular, he escaped impeachment in 1629 only by the dissolution of Parliament. He persuaded the King to make peace with France in 1629 and Spain in 1630, removing the biggest drain on the treasury, by the time he died in 1635, the Crown was solvent. On 17 February 1633, Weston was created Earl of Portland and his first wife was Elizabeth Pincheon of Writtle in Essex. His second wife was Frances Walgrave of Boreley in Essex and he had seven children by his second marriage, including his son Thomas, who later succeeded as 4th Earl, and Lady Anne Weston, the first of the four wives of Basil Feilding, 2nd Earl of Denbigh. His nephew, Jeremy Clarke, became a Governor of Rhode Island in the American colonies, on his death, he was succeeded by his second but eldest surviving son, Jerome. Mr. Richard Weston Sir Richard Weston The Rt Hon, the Lord Weston The Rt Hon. The Lord Weston, KG The Rt Hon, the Earl of Portland, KG Lee, Sidney, ed. Weston, Richard. London, Smith, Elder & Co. Leigh Rayments Peerage Pages www. british-civil-wars. co. ukRichard Weston, 1st Earl of Portland – The Right Honourable The Earl of Portland KG PC
33. Jean Riolan the Younger – Jean Riolan was a French anatomist who was an influential member of the Medical Faculty of Paris. His father, Jean Riolan was also a noted French anatomist, Riolan was the personal physician to Marie de Medici for all his life. Riolan is remembered for his views towards medicine, and was a major proponent of the teachings of Galen. He held a differing viewpoint in regards to William Harveys theory involving the bloods circulatory system, Riolan calculated that blood traveled through the blood vessels to the bodys extremities and returned to the heart only two or three times a day. He also postulated that blood often ebbed and flowed in the veins, Riolan also did not believe that the heart propelled the blood, instead he proposed that the blood kept the heart in motion, analogous to a stream moving the wheel of a water mill. Riolan had other disagreements with Harvey, such as the role of the liver as a blood-manufacturing organ, Riolan attacked Thomas Bartholin on the question of the latters discovery of the lymphatic system. Riolans best known works are Anthropographie, which is a treatise on human anatomy. The eponymous anastomosis of Riolan is named after him, which is the mesenteric arterial connection between the superior and inferior mesenteric arteries, marginal fibers of the palpebral part of the orbicularis oculi muscle are known as Riolans muscle — also commonly referred to as the Grey Line. The cremasteric muscle is also named after Riolan. William Harvey Medical Research Foundation cdlib. org, Chapter 9 Analogical Reasoning, The ModelJean Riolan the Younger – Jean Riolan the Younger
34. Gian Vittorio Rossi – Gian Vittorio Rossi, also known as Giano Nicio Eritreo, was an Italian poet, philologist, and historian. Rossi was born in Rome to a family and lived his entire life in the city of his birth. He was educated by the Jesuits at the Collegio Romano distinguishing himself by his command of Latin. At the age of 19 he received his laurea in jurisprudence at La Sapienza, the subsequent misfortunes of his family forced him to enter the legal profession. He remained in a financial position until he received an appointment as secretary to Cardinal Andrea Baroni Peretti Montalto in 1610. The image of Rossi that emerges from writings about him and from his own works is that of a man, a meticulous philologist. Leida, apud Iodocum Kalcouium & socios,1645 Exempla virtutum et vitiorum, Coloniae Vbiorum, i. e. Amsterdam, apud Iodocum Kalcovium et socios,1645 Opuscola spiritualia tria, supplex libellus ad deum & B. V. matrem. Coloniae ubiorum, apud Iodocum Kalcovium,1738 Aikin, John, Rossi, Gian-Vittorio in General biography, or, Lives, critical and historical, of the most eminent persons of all ages, countries, conditions, and professions, Vol.8, pp. 626–627. Rossi, Gian Vittorio, detto Giano Nicio Eritreo in Vittore Branca, Dizionario critico della Letteratura Italiana, Vol.3, un umanista nel Secento, Giano Nicio Eritreo. Città di Castello, Lapi Works by and about Gian Vittorio Rossi on WorldCatGian Vittorio Rossi – Frontispiece of Rossi's principal work, Pinacotheca Imaginum Illustrium
35. Peter Paul Rubens – Sir Peter Paul Rubens was a Flemish/Netherlandish draughtsman and painter. He is widely considered as the most notable artist of Flemish Baroque art school, the catalogue of his works by Michael Jaffé lists 1,403 pieces, excluding numerous copies made in his workshop. His commissioned works were mostly history paintings, which included religious and mythological subjects and he painted portraits, especially of friends, and self-portraits, and in later life painted several landscapes. Rubens designed tapestries and prints, as well as his own house and he also oversaw the ephemeral decorations of the royal entry into Antwerp by the Cardinal-Infante Ferdinand in 1635. His drawings are mostly extremely forceful but not overly detailed and he also made great use of oil sketches as preparatory studies. For altarpieces he painted on slate to reduce reflection problems. Rubens was born in the city of Siegen to Jan Rubens and he was named in honour of Saint-Peter and Paul, because he was born on their solemnety. His father, a Calvinist, and mother fled Antwerp for Cologne in 1568, after increased religious turmoil and persecution of Protestants during the rule of the Spanish Netherlands by the Duke of Alba. Jan Rubens became the adviser of Anna of Saxony, the second wife of William I of Orange. Following Jan Rubens imprisonment for the affair, Peter Paul Rubens was born in 1577, the family returned to Cologne the next year. In 1589, two years after his fathers death, Rubens moved with his mother Maria Pypelincks to Antwerp, religion figured prominently in much of his work and Rubens later became one of the leading voices of the Catholic Counter-Reformation style of painting. In Antwerp, Rubens received a Renaissance humanist education, studying Latin, by fourteen he began his artistic apprenticeship with Tobias Verhaeght. Subsequently, he studied under two of the leading painters of the time, the late Mannerist artists Adam van Noort. Much of his earliest training involved copying earlier works, such as woodcuts by Hans Holbein the Younger. Rubens completed his education in 1598, at time he entered the Guild of St. Luke as an independent master. In 1600 Rubens travelled to Italy and he stopped first in Venice, where he saw paintings by Titian, Veronese, and Tintoretto, before settling in Mantua at the court of Duke Vincenzo I Gonzaga. The colouring and compositions of Veronese and Tintoretto had an effect on Rubenss painting. With financial support from the Duke, Rubens travelled to Rome by way of Florence in 1601, there, he studied classical Greek and Roman art and copied works of the Italian mastersPeter Paul Rubens – Self-portrait, 1623, Royal Collection
36. Richard Sibbes – Richard Sibbes was an Anglican theologian. He was born in Tostock, Suffolk, where his father was a wheelwright and he attended St Johns College, Cambridge from 1595. He was lecturer at Holy Trinity Church, Cambridge, from 1610 or 1611 to 1615 or 1616 and it was erroneously held by 18th and 19th century scholars that Sibbes was deprived of his various academic posts on account of his Puritanism. In fact he was never deprived of any of his posts and he was then preacher at Grays Inn, London, from 1617, returning to Cambridge as Master of Catherine Hall in 1626, without giving up the London position. Also in 1626, the group known as the Feoffees for Impropriations was set up. It was closely linked to St Antholin, Budge Row, for its seven years of existence, with others, he worked to fund and provide platforms for preachers. He was one of four ministers in the original feoffees, the members being chosen as four lawyers. He was the author of devotional works expressing intense religious feeling – The Saints Cordial, The Bruised Reed and Smoking Flax, The Soules Conflict. A volume of sermons appeared in 1630, dedicated to Horace Vere, 1st Baron Vere of Tilbury, most of the other works were first published by Thomas Goodwin and Philip Nye, after Sibbes died. The content belied the mainly moderate and conforming attitudes for which Sibbes was known in his lifetime, beames of Divine Light, A Description of Christ in Three Sermons and Bowels Opened appeared in 1639, as did The Returning Backslider, sermons on the Book of Hosea. A complete edition was published 1862–1864 in Edinburgh, in seven volumes, by James Nichol, with a biographical memoir by Alexander Grosart. The clerical leaders of the Feoffees, Davenport, Gouge and Sibbes, all adhered to Calvinist covenant theology, as shaped by the English theologians Perkins, Preston, William Ames, there was a tacit assumption of a state church. Sibbes believed the Second Coming was necessary to complete the work that Christ had begun, efforts to define further the Puritanism of Sibbes – which is a term much debated – place him in various groups. Under pious non-separatists, he is with Preston, Richard Baxter, Robert Bolton, under those who would conform to set forms of worship, he is with Dod, Nicholas Byfield, Richard Capel, John Downame, Arthur Hildersham, and Richard Stock. He is also a fully conforming Puritan, with Preston, Samuel Ward, with Richard Bernard, he was a moderate Calvinist who promoted religious tolerance. With Perkins, Preston, Baxter and Henry Newcome, he was a moderate, however one classifies him, it is undeniable that he was a faithful member of the Elizabethan church. His perspective was European, or even wider, and he saw Catholicism in terms of a repressive conspiracy, laud brought up Sibbes, Davenport, Gouge and Taylor in front of the Court of High Commission for this. The Fountain Opened advocated mission work and his works were much read in New EnglandRichard Sibbes – Richard Sibbes
37. Gabriel Sionita – Gabriel Sionita was a learned Maronite, famous for his role in the publication of the 1645 Parisian polyglot of the Bible. Although Sionita came to Rome at the age of seven, he always considered Arabic as his mother tongue, in Rome, he learnt Latin and Syriac, and acquired a slight knowledge of Hebrew. He studied theology, but only went into the later, in Paris. Savary de Breves was French ambassador to Turkey and was interested in Oriental studies, when recalled from Rome, he took two Maronites with him to Paris, to assist in the publication of the polyglot under the auspices of de Thou, the royal librarian, and Cardinal Duperron. The two Maronites were Gabriel Sionita and John Hesronita, Gabriel being the prominent of the two. They received a stipend of 600 livres, and Gabriel was appointed to the chair of Semitic languages at Sorbonne. Both de Thou and Duperron died within four years, and serious difficulties arose. The Maronites seem to have involved in pecuniary embarrassments, which led to feuds with the leaders of the undertaking. In 1619, however, by royal diploma, Gabriels stipend had been raised to 1,200 livres, the following year he received the a doctorate, and two years later, the priesthood. In 1626, as Gabriel held no classes owing to the lack of students, after some time, however, he was paid on the original offer, and in 1629, his salary was increased to 2,000 livres. In 1630, he recommenced work on the polyglot and he did not apply himself fully to the work, and was even accused of carelessness in the work. He again found himself in difficulties, in the quarrel which ensued, Richelieu supported the editor, Guy Michel Le Jay, against the Maronites. As it was feared that Gabriel might leave the country, the cardinal had him imprisoned in Vincennes and he was released after three months, when he had signed an undertaking and given sureties that he would prepare the texts for the polyglot. He completed his great task some time before his death, at the age of 71, Gabriels work in the polyglot included revising and correcting almost all of the Syriac and Arabic texts. He translated the Arabic and Syriac texts into Latin, with the exceptions of the Book of Ruth, but he only made a revision and not a fresh translation of the Gospels into Latin, nor did he translate from Syriac into Latin the Sapiential Books or the Apocalypse. Together with John Hesronita and Victor Sciala, he published a Latin translation of the Psalter in 1614, in 1616, he published a document on Arabic grammar, of which one division appeared, containing the rules for reading. In 1619, his Geographia Nubiensis of Edrisis geography, with a small treatise as an appendix, in 1634, he was issued a Poema enigmaticum in praise of Divine wisdom by an ancient Syrian philosopher. 1630 saw the publication of his Testamentum et pactiones inter Mohammedem et Christianae fidei cultores, an edition of the medieval Arabic document, the Achtiname of Muhammad, with Latin translationGabriel Sionita – Latin-Syriac psalter by Gabriel Sionita, 1625
38. Johan Skytte – Johan Skytte was a Swedish politician. Skytte was son of the Mayor of Nyköping, Bengt Nilsson Skräddare and he was sent to London in 1610 on a diplomatic mission, an attempt to seek the hand of Elizabeth Stuart, the daughter of James I for the young prince. In 1611, he was governor of Vestmannia, in 1617 a high councillor and in 1622 chancellor of Uppsala University. Skytte participated in drafting the 1617 Coronation Oath of king Gustav Adolf, in 1632, Skytte returned from Livonia and was in 1634 made president of the Göta appellate court in Jönköping. The same year he became chancellor of Uppsala University,1622, Skytte donated the Skyttean professorship of Eloquence, since 1995, the Skytte Foundation at Uppsala University awards an annual prize in Political Science. Because of this contribution to education in the relatively under-developed northern Sweden and he was parent to Vendela Skytte and Bengt SkytteJohan Skytte – Lithography by Johan Cardon
39. Hugo Mattheusz Steyn – Steyn, was a Dutch Golden Age notary and member of the Haarlem schutterij. He was born in Haarlem as the son of the mayor and church warden Mattheus Steyn and he was the brother of the Spaarndam toll collector Tyman Matheusz. Hugo became the city secretary and was a member of the Catholic St. James guild and he became lieutenant of the St. George militia in Haarlem from 1612-1615 and was captain 1618-1621. He was portrayed by Frans Hals along with his son in The Banquet of the Officers of the St George Militia Company in 1616, Steyn in De Haarlemse Schuttersstukken, by Jhr. Mr. C. C. van Valkenburg, pp.67, Haerlem, jaarboek 1958, ISSN 0927-0728, on the website of the North Holland ArchivesHugo Mattheusz Steyn – Hugo Matheusz. Steyn, detail of Hals's banquet of 1616
40. Hendrik Swalmius – Hendrik Swalmius, was a Dutch theologian known today for his portrait by Frans Hals. He was born in Rhoon as the son of Hendrick van de Swalme, or Henricus Swalmius and it was in Rhoon that he changed his name from Swalme to Swalmius. In 1650 an engraving based on the Hals portrait of Hendrick was made by Suyderhoef stating he was a preacher in Rhoon, after his wife died he remarried in Haarlem in 1640 to IJfje Willems van Weert. He died in Haarlem in 1649, hendrik Swalmius in biography of Eleazer, according to A. J. van der AaHendrik Swalmius – Portrait of Hendrik Swalmius, 1639, collection Detroit Institute of Arts
41. Alessandro Tiarini – Alessandro Tiarini was an Italian Baroque painter of the Bolognese School. His mother died when he was a child, and he was raised by an aunt and he was the godson of painter Lavinia Fontana and initially apprenticed in Bologna under her father Prospero Fontana, and subsequently with Bartolomeo Cesi. He was not inducted into the Carracci Academy, in Florence, he mainly worked under Domenico Passignano, but also Bernardino Poccetti and Jacopo da Empoli. He was lured back to Bologna and Reggio Emilia, by Ludovico Carracci and his Grieving over a dead Jesus is in the Pinacoteca Nazionale of Bologna. He painted a series of frescoes for the Brami Chapel in the sanctuary, as well as other works, in 1628, where he painted the Story of Gerusalemme Liberata for the Farnese Palazzo del Giardino in Parma. He also painted the Raising of the Cross for the Oratorio della Buona Morte in Reggio, other works in Bologna include a Martyrdom of St. Barbara for the San Petronio Basilica, a Nativity for Santissimo Salvatore, and a Flight to Egypt for San Vitale. His closest pupils were Francesco Carbone and Luca Barbieri, francis P. Smyth and John P. ONeill. National Gallery of Art, Washington DC, ed, the Age of Correggio and the Carracci, Emilian Painting of the 16th and 17th Centuries. Vite de Pittori ed Artifici Bolognesi, tipografia Governativa alla Volpe ed Nobili, Bologna. Walter Armstrong & Robert Edmund Graves, ed, dictionary of Painters and Engravers, Biographical and Critical. York St. #4, Covent Garden, London, Original from Fogg Library, Digitized May 18,2007, George Bell and SonsAlessandro Tiarini – Self-Portrait, (Galleria Savelli, Bologna)
42. Nicolas Trigault – Nicolas Trigault was a Walloon Jesuit, and a missionary in China. He was also known by his latinised name Trigautius or Trigaultius, born in Douai, he became a Jesuit in 1594. Trigault left Europe to do work in Asia around 1610, eventually arriving at Nanjing. He was later brought by the Chinese Catholic Li Zhizao to his hometown of Hangzhou where he worked as one of the first missionaries ever to reach that city and was eventually to die there in 1629. In late 1612 Trigault was appointed by the China Missions Superior and he sailed from Macau on February 9,1613, and arrived in Rome on October 11,1614, by way of India, the Persian Gulf and Egypt. Peter Paul Rubens did a portrait of Trigault on 17 January 1617 and it was during this trip to Europe that Trigault edited and translated Matteo Riccis China Journal, or De Christiana expeditione apud Sinas. The work was published in 1615 in Augsburg, it was translated into many European languages. The French translation, which appeared in 1616, was translated from Latin by Trigaults own nephew, in April 1618, Trigault sailed from Lisbon with over 20 newly recruited Jesuit missionaries, and arrived in Macau in April 1619. Trigault produced one of the first systems of Chinese Romanisation in 1626, Trigault wrote his book in Shanxi province. Aided by a converted Chinese, he produced the first Chinese version of Aesops Fables. Brockey, Journey to the East, The Jesuit mission to China, 1579-1724, dehaisnes, Vie du Père Nicolas Trigault, Tournai,1861. D’Elia, Daniele Bartoli e Nicola Trigault, Rivista Storica Italiana, dunne, Generation of Giants, Notre Dame,1962, pp. 162–182. L. Fezzi, Osservazioni sul De Christiana Expeditione apud Sinas Suscepta ab Societate Iesu di Nicolas Trigault, Rivista di Storia e Letteratura Religiosa 1999, – Amanuensis or Propagandist. J. in China. September 11–16,1983, II, Taipei,1983, pp. 1–94, J. Gernet, Della Entrata della Compagnia di Giesù e Cristianità nella Cina de Matteo Ricci et les remaniements de sa traduction latine, Académie des Inscriptions & Belles Lettres. E. Lamalle, La propagande du P, Nicolas Trigault en faveur des missions de Chine, Archivum Historicum Societatis Iesu IX,1940, pp. 49–120. Liam M. Brockey, “The Death and Disappearance of Nicolas Trigault, S. J. ”The Journal of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, vol. Bibliographical information of Xiru Ermu Zi at the Ricci 21st Century Roundtable database, supported only by 5.0 or later versions of Internet Explorer Facsimile of Xiru Ermu Zi at GallicaNicolas Trigault – Nicolas Trigault in Chinese costume, by Peter Paul Rubens.
43. Tukaram – Tukaram, also referred to as Saint Tukaram, Bhakta Tukaram, Tukaram Maharaj, Tukoba and Tukobaraya, was a 17th-century poet-saint of the Bhakti movement in Maharashtra. He was part of the egalitarian, personalized Varkari devotionalism tradition, Tukaram is best known for his Abhanga devotional poetry and community-oriented worship with spiritual songs known as kirtans. His poetry was devoted to Vitthala or Vithoba, an avatar of Hindu god Vishnu, the year of birth and death of Saint Tukaram has been a subject of research and dispute among 20th-century scholars. He was either born in the year 1598 or 1608 in a village named Dehu, near Pune in Mahārāshtra, Saint Tukaram was born to Kanakar and Bolhoba More, and scholars consider his family to belong to the Kunbi caste. His parents were devotees of Vithoba, an avatar of Hindu deity Vishnu, both his parents died when Tukaram was a teenager. Saint Tukarams first wife was Rakhama Bai, and they had a son named Santu, however, both his son and wife starved to death in the famine of 1630-1632. Tukaram married again, and his wife was Avalai Jija Bai. He spent most of his years in devotional worship, community kirtans. According to Ranade, Tukarams spiritual teacher was Babaji Chaitanya, who himself was fourth generation disciple of the 13th-century scholar Jnanadeva and their continued interaction is the subject of legends. Eleanor Zelliot states Bhakti movement poets including Tukaram were influential in Shivajis rise to power, Tukaram died in 1649 or 1650. Sant Tukaram composed Abhanga poetry, a Marathi genre of literature which is metrical, simple, direct, Tukaram Gatha is a Marathi language compilation of his works, likely composed between 1632 and 1650. Also called Abhanga Gatha, the Indian tradition believes it includes some 4,500 abhangas, the poems considered authentic cover a wide range of human emotions and life experiences, some autobiographical, and places them in a spiritual context. Ranade states there are four major collations of Tukarams Abhanga Gathas, numerous inconsistent manuscripts of Tukaram Gatha are known, and scholars doubt that most of the poems attributed to Tukaram are authentic. Of all manuscripts so far discovered, four are most studied and labelled as, the Dehu MS, the Kadusa MS, the Talegeon MS and the Pandharpur MS. Of these, the Dehu MS is most referred to because Indian tradition asserts that it is based on the writing of Tukarams son Mahadeva, but there is no historical evidence that this is true. The first compilation of Tukaram poems were published, in format, by Indu Prakash publishers in 1869. The 1869 edition noted, some of the manuscripts on which the compilation relied, had been corrected, the known manuscripts are jumbled, randomly scattered collections, without chronological sequence, and each contain some poems that are not found in all other known manuscripts. Early 20th-century scholars on Tukaram considered his teachings to be Vedanta-based, Edwards wrote, Tukaram is never systematic in his psychology, his theology, or his theodicyTukaram – Sant Tukaram
44. Gerardus Vossius – Gerrit Janszoon Vos, often known by his Latin name Gerardus Vossius, was a Dutch classical scholar and theologian. In 1600 he was rector of the latin school in Dordrecht. From 1614 to 1619 he was director of the college at Leiden University. In the meantime, he was gaining a reputation as a scholar, not only in the Netherlands. But in spite of the moderation of his views and his abstention from controversy, he came under suspicion of heresy, and escaped expulsion from his office only by resignation. The year before he had published his ‘Historia Pelagiana a history of the Pelagian controversies, in 1622, he was appointed professor of rhetoric and chronology, and subsequently of Greek, in the university. D. He was on terms with Thomas Farnaby, and Farnabys ‘Latin Grammar’ is based to a certain extent upon that which Vossius wrote for the Elzevir press in 1629. He got permission from Charles I to return to the Low Countries, in 1632 he left Leiden to take the post of professor of history in the newly founded Athenaeum Illustre at Amsterdam, which he held till his death. His son Isaac, after a career of scholarship in Sweden and he was the author of De septuaginta interpretibus, De poematum cantu et viribus rhythmi, and Variarum observationum liber. Others, His son Dionysius Vossius died 1633 or 1640 and he made notes on the work of Moses Maimonides. His third son Gerrit Vossius died 1640 and he was an editor of Velleius Paterculus. He made a chronicle of Holland, Francis Vossius was Gerardus Vossiuss brother. A person also called Gerardus Vossius, a Roman Catholic who made annotated Latin translations of Gregory Thaumaturgus and Cicero, Vossius was amongst the first to treat theological dogmas and the non-Christian religions from the historical point of view. His collected works were published at Amsterdam, in rhetoric, his works enjoyed a wide circulation, being used as textbooks. He supported Aristotles definitions, and opposed Ramism, with the major influences being Aristotle and Cicero, he also cited Hermogenes, Menander Rhetor, Bartholomeus Keckermann and Nicolas Caussin. Jean-Pierre Nicéron, Mémoires pour servir de lhistoire des hommes illustres, Vossius Vossius, Gerhard Johannes, Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie,40, Leipzig, Duncker & Humblot,1896, pp. 367–370 C. S. M. Rademaker ss. cc. Life and Works of Gerardus Joannes Vossius, G. J. Vossius, chisholm, Hugh, ed. Vossius, Gerhard Johann. Reynolds, Francis J. ed. Voss, Gerhard Johann, attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain, Vossius, IsaacGerardus Vossius – Gerrit Johan Vossius
45. Samuel Ward (minister) – Samuel Ward was an English Puritan minister of Ipswich. Born in Suffolk, he was a son of John Ward, minister of Haverhill, Nathaniel Ward was his younger brother. Another brother, John, was rector of St. Clements, on the nomination of Lord Burghley, Samuel was admitted a scholar of St. Johns College, Cambridge on 6 November 1594 – a college established in 1511 thanks to a foundation from Lady Margaret Beaufort. He graduated with a B. A. in 1596–7, was appointed one of the first fellows of Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge in 1599, and commenced there with an M. A. in 1600. Having finished his studies at the university, he became a lecturer at Haverhill, on 1 November 1603 he was elected by the corporation of Ipswich to the office of town preacher, and he occupied the pulpit of St. Mary-le-Tower with little intermission for about thirty years. In 1604 he vacated his fellowship at Sidney College by his marriage to Deborah Bolton, widow, of Isleham, Cambridgeshire and he was one of the preachers at St Pauls Cross, London, in 1616. In 1621 he designed an engraving, the Double Deliverance, with an anti-Catholic and anti-Spanish message, showing the Spanish Armada, count Gondomar, the Spanish ambassador in London, represented it as an insult to his royal master. Ward, whose name was engraved upon the print as the designer, was sent to and examined by the Privy Council, and was committed to prison. After a brief detention he was permitted to return to Ipswich, in 1622 Bishop Samuel Harsnett prosecuted Ward for nonconformity in the consistory court of Norwich. Ward appealed to the king, who referred the articles exhibited against him to the examination of Lord-keeper John Williams and he was accordingly released from the prosecution, but the king wrote to the Ipswich council to deter them. In 1624 Ward and Yates, another Ipswich clergyman, complained to a committee of the House of Commons about the Arminian tenets broached in A New Gag for an Old Goose by Richard Montagu. The session was drawing to a close, and the Commons referred the complaint to the Archbishop of Canterbury, Ward subsequently incurred the displeasure of Archbishop William Laud. He was suspended from his ministry, enjoined to make a submission and recantation, condemned in costs of suit. His fellow-townsmen declined to ask the Bishop of Norwich to appoint another preacher, having at last obtained his release, Ward retired to Holland, where he first became a member of William Bridges church at Rotterdam, and afterwards his colleague in pastoral work. Ward did not remain long in Holland, for in April 1638 he purchased the house which had provided for him by the town of Ipswich in 1610. He died in March 1640, and was buried on the 8th of that month in the church of St. Mary-le-Tower, a school is named in his honour in his home town of Haverhill. Samuel Wards works are, A Coal from the Altar to kindle the Holy Fire of Zeal, edited by Ambrose Wood, London,1615, balme from Gilead, to recover Conscience, edited by Thomas Gataker, London,1617,1618. Jethros Justice of Peace, edited by Nathaniel Ward, London,1618,1621,1623, the Happiness of Practice, London,1621,1622,1627Samuel Ward (minister) – Not to be confused with Samuel Ward (scholar).
46. Adam Willaerts – Adam Willaerts was a Dutch Golden Age painter. Willaerts was born in London to Flemish parents who had fled from Antwerp for religious reasons, by 1585 the family lived in Leiden. From 1597 until his death, Adam lived and worked in Utrecht and he became a member of the Utrecht Guild of St. Luke in 1611 and subsequently became its dean in 1620. His sons Cornelis, Abraham, and Isaac followed in his footsteps and he was known as a painter of river and canal pieces, coastal landscapes, fish-markets, processions, and genre scenes. He also painted villages and marine battle scenes, Adam Willaerts at the Netherlands Institute for Art History L. Otto Nelemans, Adam Willaerts, Londen 1577-Utrecht 1664. Zijn leven en werk, de religieuze schilderijen in het bijzonder,1999 Bryan. Walter Armstrong & Robert Edmund Graves, ed, dictionary of Painters and Engravers, Biographical and Critical. York St. #4, Covent Garden, London, Original from Fogg Library, Digitized May 18,2007, George Bell, media related to Adam Willaerts at Wikimedia CommonsAdam Willaerts – Harbour scene, circa 1615