|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 1577 births.|
Pages in category "1577 births"
The following 127 pages are in this category, out of 127 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 1577 births.|
The following 127 pages are in this category, out of 127 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. 1577 – Year 1577 was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar. March 17 – The Cathay Company is formed to send Martin Frobisher back to the New World for more gold. May 28 – The Bergen Book, better known as the Solid Declaration of the Formula of Concord, one of the Lutheran confessional writings, is published. The earlier version, known as the Torgau Book, had been condensed into an Epitome; both documents are part of the 1580 Book of Concord. September 17 – The Treaty of Bergerac is signed between Henry III of France and the Huguenots. November – The Great Comet of 1577 is observed from Earth. Supposed massacre of the MacDonald inhabitants of the Scottish island of Eigg by the Clan MacLeod. The church in San Pedro de Atacama is built in the Atacama Desert in Chile.1577 – December 13: Francis Drake.
2. Cristofano Allori – Cristofano Allori was an Italian portrait painter of the late Florentine Mannerist school. Allori also appears to have worked under Cigoli. His pictures are distinguished by their close adherence to technical perfection of their execution. His technical skill is shown by the fact that several copies he made of Correggio's works were thought to be duplicates by Correggio himself. His extreme fastidiousness limited the number of his works. Several examples are to be seen at Florence and elsewhere. His most famous work, in now, is Judith with the Head of Holofernes. There are several copies by studio and other hands. "Allori, Alessandro". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press. Orazio and Artemisia Gentileschi, a fully digitized exhibition catalog from The Metropolitan Museum of Art Libraries, which contains material on Cristofano AlloriCristofano Allori – Judith with the Head of Holofernes, Royal Collection version
3. Christopher Besoldus – Christopher Besoldus was a German jurist and publicist whose writing is seen as important for the history of the causes of the Thirty Years' War. He was born at Tübingen, Württemberg. He in the early 1590s was a close friend of Johannes Kepler. Besold asked permission of the classical scholar Vitus Müller to defend theses based on Kepler's dissertation; he was denied the chance. Later, when Johannes Kepler's mother, was prosecuted on witchcraft charges, Besold was one of the jurists dealing with the case, dropped. He graduated in 1598; and in 1610 became professor of law at Tübingen. Among his pupils was Johannes Valentinus Andreae. Besold was one of the influences on Andreae's Rosicrucian writings, along with Tobias Hess. His advice was frequently sought by the civil administration. He read the Scriptures, the writings of the Church Fathers, of the medieval mystics. He was publicly converted at Heilbronn in 1635. Two years later, he accepted the chair of Roman Law at the University of Ingolstadt. He was considering the offer of Bologna tendered him by Pope Urban VIII, when he died at Ingolstadt. He knew 9 languages including Arabic and Hebrew. His works are numerous, with 102 scholarly writings known.Christopher Besoldus – Title page of Principia Iuris Feudalis by Christoph Besold (Tübingen 1616).
4. Scipione Borghese – Scipione Borghese was an Italian Cardinal, art collector and patron of the arts. A member of the Borghese family, he was Bernini. His legacy is the establishment of the art collection at the Villa Borghese in Rome. Originally named Scipione Caffarelli, he was born in the son of Ortensia Borghese. His father ran into financial difficulties, so Scipione's education was paid for by his maternal uncle Camillo Borghese. In the classic pattern of papal nepotism, Cardinal Borghese wielded enormous power as the Pope's secretary and effective head of the Vatican government. On the Pope's behalf he acquired vast land holdings for the Borghese family. Scipione received many honours from his uncle. In each of these offices the cardinal received stipends. His income in 1609 was about 90,000 scudi, by 1612 it had reached 140,000 scudi. With his enormous wealth, he bought the villages of Montefortino and Olevano Romano from Pier Francesco Colonna, Duke of Zagarolo for 280,000 scudi. As Cardinal Nephew, Borghese was placed in charge of both the internal and external political affairs of the Papal States. In addition, Paul V entrusted his nephew with the management of the finances of both the papacy and the Borghese family. Borghese aroused a great deal of controversy and resentment by utilizing numerous "gifts" from the papal government to fund Borghese family investments. Exploiting his authority as Cardinal Nephew, he often compelled owners to sell their holdings to him at substantial discounts.Scipione Borghese – Scipione Borghese
5. John Bramston the Elder – Sir John Bramston the elder was an English judge and Chief Justice of the King’s Bench. On leaving the university he went into residence at the Middle Temple, applied himself diligently to the study of the law. His ability was recognised early by his university, which made him one of its counsel in 1607, with an annual fee of forty shillings. Shortly after his reading was concluded he was called to the degree of serjeant-at-law. In 1626 he defended the Earl of Bristol on his impeachment. A dissolution of parliament, however, soon relieved Bramston from this duty, by putting an end to the proceedings. Next year the Bishop of Ely appointed him chief justice of his diocese, a position he held until his elevation to the king's bench. In 1632 he was made queen's Serjeant, two years later King's Serjeant, being knighted 24 November in the same year. In 1635 he was created Chief Justice of the King's Bench. On 16 April 1640, during the indisposition of the lord keeper Finch, Bramston presided in the House of Lords. Next day it was resolved that the message usual in such cases should be sent to the House of Lords. The lord keeper was bound to the same effect the following day. From this time forward until Bramston's death persistent attempts were made to induce him to declare definitely in favour of the parliament, but without success. In the same year a resolution was come to that he should be appointed one of the judges of the Common Pleas. Bramston, however, excused himself on the ground of his advanced age.John Bramston the Elder – Sir John Bramston.
6. Robert Burton (scholar) – Robert Burton was an English scholar at Oxford University, best known for the classic The Anatomy of Melancholy. He was also the incumbent of of Seagrave in Leicestershire. He was born at Lindley, Leicestershire, Robert Burton was the brother of William Burton the antiquary. Burton spent most of his life at Oxford, first as a pupil at Brasenose College, then as a student of Christ Church. He studied a large number of diverse subjects, many of which informed the study of melancholia, for which he is chiefly famous. In 1630 he was also made the rector of Seagrave in Leicestershire. Burton was a dabbled in astrology. When not depressed he was an amusing companion, "very merry, facete, juvenile", a person of "great honesty, plain dealing, charity". Merry, indeed, Burton had favourite sources for laughter. There was a rumour that his death would match his prediction. Burton was buried at Christ Church Cathedral in Oxford. Burton's Melancholy focuses sharply on the self; unlike Bacon, Burton assumes that knowledge of not natural science, is humankind's greatest need. He wrote The Anatomy of Melancholy largely to write himself out of being a lifelong sufferer from depression. Therefore, the treatise itself was intended as treatment. Again, from the preface: I write of melancholy, by being busy to avoid melancholy.Robert Burton (scholar) – Robert Burton
7. Jacob Cats – Jacob Cats was a Dutch poet, humorist, jurist and politician. He is most famous for his emblem books. Being adopted with his three brothers by an uncle, Cats was sent to school at Breda. , returning to Holland, he settled at the Hague, where he began to practise as an advocate. His pleading in defence of a person accused of witchcraft brought many clients and some reputation. For medical change of air Cats went to England, where he consulted the highest authorities in vain. He was cured mysteriously with the powder of a travelling doctor. On the expiration of the twelve-year truce with Spain, the breaking of the dykes drove him from his farm. He was made pensionary of Middelburg; and two years afterwards of Dordrecht. In 1627 Cats came on a mission to Charles I, who made him a knight.. . Here he lived till his death occupied in the composition of his autobiography and of his poems. He became famous in his own lifetime from his moralistic Emblem books, most notably Sinne en Minnebeelden, for which Adrian van der Venne cut the plates. He was buried by torchlight, with great ceremony, in the Kloosterkerk at the Hague. He is still spoken as "Father Cats" by his countrymen.Jacob Cats – Jacob Cats by Michiel van Mierevelt
8. Giacomo Cavedone – Giacomo Cavedone was an Italian Baroque painter of the Bolognese School. He belonged to the generation of trained painters that included Giovanni Andrea Donducci; Alessandro Tiarini, Lucio Massari, Leonello Spada and Lorenzo Garbieri. He was able to obtain a three-year stipend to apprentice with Bernardino Baldi and Annibale Carracci. Upon Ludovico's death in 1619 became Caposindaco of the Accademia degli Incamminati. The 1911 Britannica claims his wife was accused of witchcraft. He died in poverty. Among his pupils were Giovanni Andrea Sirani, Giovanni Battista Cavazza, Ottavio Corradi, Flaminio Torre. "Cavedone, Jacopo". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press. The Art of Corregio and the Carracci. Monograph Wittkower, Rudolf. History of Art, ed. Art and Architecture Italy, 1600-1750. 1980.Giacomo Cavedone – St Stephen, 1601
9. Beatrice Cenci – Beatrice Cenci was an Italian noblewoman. She is famous as the protagonist in events leading to a lurid trial in Rome that gave rise to an enduring legend about her. The members of the extended living together included Beatrice's elder brother, Giacomo, Francesco's second wife, Lucrezia Petroni, Bernardo, Francesco's son from his second marriage. A castle also was among their possessions, a small village near Rieti, northeast of Rome. Due to the leniency with which the nobles were treated, he was freed early. Nothing happened although everybody in Rome knew what kind of person her father was. The four Cencis decided they together organised a plot. In 1598, this failed to kill Francesco. No one believed the death to be accidental, however. The papal police tried to find out what happened. Beatrice's lover died without revealing the truth. Meanwhile, a friend, aware of the murder ordered the killing of the second vassal to avoid any risk. Nonetheless, the four members of the Cenci family were arrested, found guilty, sentenced to death. The common people of Rome, knowing the reasons for the murder, protested against the tribunal's decision, obtaining a short postponement of the execution. Pope Clement VIII, fearing a spate of familial murders, however, showed no mercy.Beatrice Cenci – The portrait associated with Beatrice Cenci attributed to Guido Reni that Shelley saw in Palazzo Colonna in 1818, sparking his interest for a play
10. Christian IV of Denmark – His 59-year reign is the longest of Danish monarchs, of Scandinavian monarchies. A member of the house of Oldenburg, Christian began his personal rule of Denmark in 1596 at the age of 19. Christian is frequently remembered as one of the proactive Danish kings, having initiated many reforms and projects. Christian IV obtained for his kingdom a level of stability and wealth, virtually unmatched elsewhere in Europe. He renamed the Norwegian Oslo after himself, a name used until 1925. At the time, Denmark was still an elective monarchy, so in spite of being the eldest son Christian was not automatically heir to the throne. However, at the age of 3, his father had him elected successor to the throne. At the death of his father on 4 April 1588, Christian was 11 years old. It was consisted of the Rigsraadet council members Peder Munk, Christopher Walkendorf. His mother Queen Dowager Sophie, 30 years old, had wished to play a role in the government, but was denied by the Council. At the death of Niels Kaas in 1594, Jørgen Rosenkrantz took over leadership of the regency council. He received a good education with a reputation as a talented student. In 1595, the Council of the Realm decided that Christian would soon be old enough to assume personal control of the reins of government. On 17 August 1596, at the age of 19, Christian signed his haandfæstning, an identical copy of his father's from 1559. Christian was crowned with a Danish Crown Regalia, made by Dirich Fyring, assisted by the Nuremberg goldsmith Corvinius Saur.Christian IV of Denmark – King Christian IV by Pieter Isaacsz, Frederiksborg Castle, Hillerød
11. Thomas West, 3rd Baron De La Warr – "De La Warr" is pronounced "Delaware". There have been two creations of Baron De La Warr, West came from the second. He was died at sea while travelling to the Colony of Virginia. Thomas West received his education at Queen's College, Oxford. He succeeded his father as Baron De La Warr in 1602, became a member of the Privy Council. They arrived just in time to persuade the original settlers not to give up and go home to England. These tactics, identical to those practiced by the Powhatan themselves, proved effective. Lord De La Warr returned due to illness in the spring of 1611 leaving Sir Samuel Argall, in charge of the colony. He died at sea en route to Virginia. It was thought for many years that Lord De La Warr had been buried in the Azores or at sea. By 2006, researchers had concluded that his body was brought to Jamestown for burial. A grave site thought to contain the remains of Captain Bartholomew Gosnold may instead contain those of Lord De La Warr. Lord De La Warr's brother, John West, later became governor of Virginia, George Percy's daughter married the son of Governor West. On 25 De La Warr married daughter of Sir Thomas Kempe. They had children: Cecily or Cecilia, who married firstly Sir Francis Bindlosse and secondly after 1629 John Byron, 1st Baron Byron.Thomas West, 3rd Baron De La Warr – Lord De La Warr.
13. Countess Elisabeth of Nassau – Countess Elisabeth of Nassau was the second daughter of prince William of Orange and his third spouse Charlotte of Bourbon. She was Duchess of Bouillon by marriage. After her father was murdered in 1584, there was a shortage of money for Elisabeth, her stepmother Louise de Coligny. In 1594 Louise took Elisabeth to France where they met with several Protestant nobles. The couple had nine children. Henri had to deal with hostility emanating from his catholic French neighbors. After his death in 1623 she became regent for their son Frédéric Maurice de la Marck. She kept with her stepmother and five sisters, two of whom also acted as regents at some point. "Elisabeth van Nassau, Hertogin van Bouillon" last accessed April 1, 2007Countess Elisabeth of Nassau – Countess Elisabeth of Nassau
14. Ferdinand of Bavaria (bishop) – This article covers the life and career of the archbishop, the Prince-elector of Cologne, Ferdinand of Bavaria. For the life and career of his uncle, Ferdinand of Bavaria, see here. For the article on Ferdinand of Bavaria 1884-1958, Infante of Spain, see Prince Ferdinand of Bavaria. Ferdinand of Bavaria was Prince-elector archbishop of the Archbishopric of Cologne from 1612 to 1650, as successor of Ernest of Bavaria. He was also prince-bishop of Hildesheim, Liège, Münster, Paderborn. Ferdinand was born in Munich, one of the sons of William V, Duke of Bavaria. His parents decided early that he would have church life, they sent him to the Jesuit College of Ingolstadt for education in early 1587. He quickly became a canon in Mainz, Cologne, Würzburg, Trier, Salzburg, Passau. In 1595 he became Prince-Provost of Berchtesgaden and the coadjutor of his uncle Ernest of Bavaria. His uncle retired from most duties associated with his office, leaving Ferdinand to run the many lands he ruled. When Ernest died in 1612, Ferdinand was elected the Archbishop-Elector of Cologne and the Prince-Bishop of Liège, Hildesheim, Münster, and, from 1618, Paderborn. Ferdinand never received ordination in his lifetime, though. Ferdinand is responsible for numerous executions due to fanatic witch-hunts in his dioceses. Ferdinand worked hard throughout his reign to promote Catholicism in his lands. He pushed reforms and adoption of the Council of Trent's objectives, improved the position of the Wittelsbachs in Germany.Ferdinand of Bavaria (bishop) – Ferdinand of Bavaria
15. Fidelis of Sigmaringen – Fidelis of Sigmaringen, O.F.M. Fidelis was canonized in 1746. He was born Mark Roy or Rey in 1577, in Sigmaringen, a town in modern-day Germany, then under the Principality of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen. His father's name was John Rey. He studied law and philosophy at the University of Freiburg. Roy subsequently taught philosophy at this university, ultimately earning the degree of Doctor of Law. During his time as a student he did not drink wine, wore a hair-shirt. He was known for his modesty, meekness and chastity. In 1604, Roy accompanied, through the principal parts of Europe. During six years of travel, he attended Mass very frequently. Upon his return, Fidelis practiced law in Alsace where he came to be known as the ` poor man's lawyer'. He scrupulously forbore all invectives, detractions, whatever might affect the reputation of any adversary. Disenchanted with the evils associated with his profession, he was determined to enter the religious life as a member of the Capuchin friars. Fidelis finished his novitiate and studies for presiding over his first Mass on October 4, 1612. Soon as Fidelis finished his course of theology, Fidelis was immediately employed in hearing confessions.Fidelis of Sigmaringen – Saint Fidelis of Sigmaringen, O.F.M. Cap.
16. Francis, Duke of Pomerania – Francis of Pomerania was Duke of Pomerania-Stettin and Bishop of Cammin. Francis was his wife, Clara of Brunswick-Lüneburg. At the instigation of his father, he received the best possible education. He indicated at an early age that his interests tended towards military affairs. In 1592, he was appointed Coadjutor of the diocese; in 1593, he participated in the national synod. In 1594, he made a trip to Vienna and Hungary. He took part under Matthias, the later Archduke Matthias of Austria. He then returned to Pomerania. His residence was Köslin, where he had the castle equipped accordingly. In 1607, he made another journey. This brought him to the Spanish border. He returned via England, Scotland and the Netherlands. To secure the borders of his bishopric, he established a military force in 1614. After his brother Philip II had died without heirs in 1618, Francis succeeded him as ruler of Pomerania-Stettin. The Bishopric of Cammin went to his Ulrich.Francis, Duke of Pomerania – Francis, Duke of Pomerania
17. Cornelis van der Geest – Cornelis van der Geest was a spice merchant from Antwerp, who used his wealth to support the Antwerp artists and to establish his art collection. He was also the dean of the haberdashers guild. He is best known today for his collection. He owned two paintings by Quentin Matsys, one of which, a Madonna, can be seen in the Van Haecht painting. The painting also shows some of Van der Geest's sculptures, with copies of the Venus de' Medici, the Apollo Belvedere. Van der Geest also financed a new memorial against the tower of the Antwerp Cathedral.Cornelis van der Geest – Portrait of Cornelis van der Geest by Anthony van Dyck, before 1620, now in the National Gallery
18. Paul Guldin – Paul Guldin was a Swiss Jesuit mathematician and astronomer. He discovered the Guldinus theorem to determine the volume of a solid of revolution. Guldin was noted with the German mathematician and astronomer Johannes Kepler. Guldin composed a critique of Cavalieri's method of Indivisibles. He was a professor of mathematics in Graz and Vienna. List of Roman Catholic scientist-clericsPaul Guldin – Paul Guldin
19. Piet Pieterszoon Hein – Pieter Pietersen Heyn was a Dutch admiral and privateer for the Dutch Republic during the Eighty Years' War between the United Provinces and Spain. Hein was the last to capture such a large part of a Spanish "silver fleet" from America. He became a sailor while he was still a teenager. During his first journeys he suffered from extreme Motion sickness. Between 1607 he was again held captive by the Spanish, when captured near Cuba. In 1607, he left for Asia, returning with the rank of captain five years later. He settled in Rotterdam. In 1618, when he was captain of the Neptunus, both his ship were pressed into service by Venice. In 1621 he traveled overland to the Netherlands. In 1623, he sailed to the West Indies the following year. In Brazil, he briefly captured the Portuguese settlement of Salvador, personally leading the assault on the sea fortress of that town. After finding that Salvador had been recaptured by a Spanish-Portuguese fleet Hein returned home. The Dutch West India Company, pleased with Hein's leadership qualities, placed him in 1626. In subsequent raids during 1627 at Salvador, he captured over thirty richly laden Portuguese merchant ships before returning to the United Provinces. The Dutch did not take prisoners: they gave ample supplies for a march to Havana.Piet Pieterszoon Hein – 1629 copy after a lost 1625 original by Jan Daemen Cool
20. Otto Heurnius – Otto Heurnius was a Dutch physician, theologian and philosopher. He succeeded his father Johannes Heurnius as professor of medicine at the University of Leiden; and took over anatomy teaching from 1617. Alongside his anatomy teaching, he had the care of a very various collection of zoological and botanical specimens. The aims of the collection included reconstruction of the life of the Israelites as in the Book of Exodus. He was also a historian of philosophy, stressing the period before the philosophers of the Ancient Greeks. He based his ideas on the Corpus Hermeticum. Otto Heurnius at the Mathematics Genealogy Project WorldCat page Genealogy if Otto van HeurnOtto Heurnius – Otto Heurnius (1577–1652)
21. Pieter Huyssens – Pieter Huyssens was a Flemish Jesuit brother and Baroque architect. Huyssens was born in the son of Jacob and Cathelijne Boudens. Pieter was already a master mason when he entered the Society of Jesus in 1596 in Tournai. His architectural commission for the society was the construction of the college church of Maastricht in 1606. Called in 1613, he drew the plans of the Church of St Ignatius under the direction of François d'Aguilon. After Aguilon's death in 1617, Huyssens collaborated with Peter Paul Rubens decorating the church with paintings. Together they made this church into a Baroque masterpiece. During this period Huyssens started other projects for Jesuit churches. He made a trip in 1626-1627 for the Infanta Isabella Clara Eugenia who wanted marble for her new palace chapel in Brussels. On his return to Belgium he built the Church of St Francis Xavier in Bruges. Construction was completed after Huyssens' death. In 1628, he drew the plans in Ghent. Huyssens died after a long illness, aged 60. Plantenga, J. H. L'architecture religieuse The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, 1925. Thibaut de Maizières, M. L'architecture religieuse à l'époque de Rubens, Bruxelles, 1943. Les Jésuites à Namur, Namur, 1991.Pieter Huyssens – Facade of the Jesuit church in Maastricht
22. Nur Jahan – Nur Jahan born Mehr-un-Nissa, was the twentieth but most beloved, therefore most important consort of the Mughal Emperor Jahangir. She was a married woman when Akbar's eldest son, fell in love with her. Two years after Jahangir became Emperor, Sher Afgan met his death. However, three more years were to pass before a grieving Nur Jahan consented to marry the Emperor Jahangir. After the wedding, Nur Jehan quickly gained ascendency over her husband. More pro-active than her husband, she is considered by historians to have been the real power behind the throne for more than fifteen years. Nur Jehan was granted certain privileges which were never enjoyed by any Mughal Empress before or afterwards in history. She was the only Mughal Empress to have coinage struck in her name. She was often present when the Emperor held court, even held court independently when the Emperor was unwell. She was given charge of his imperial seal, implying that her consent were necessary before any document or order received legal validity. The Emperor sought her views before issuing orders. Nur Jehan is therefore unique in the annals of the Mughal Empire for the political influence she wielded. She was also favorite grandmother of the future Emperor Aurangzeb, to whom Princess Arzani Begum was married. Both of Nur Jahan's parents were Asmat Begum from the Aqa Mulla clan. For unknown reasons, Ghias Beg's family soon found circumstances in their homeland intolerable.Nur Jahan – Idealized portrait of the Mughal Empress Nur Jahan
23. Nicholas Kendall (Royalist) – Nicholas Kendall was an English politician who sat in the House of Commons in 1625 and 1640. He was killed in action fighting in the English Civil War. Kendall was the son of Walter Kendall of Pelyn, Cornwall. He matriculated at Oxford in October 1594 aged 17. He became recorder of Lostwithiel. In 1625, Kendall was elected Member of Parliament in a double return. He was elected again in April 1640 for the Short Parliament. Kendall became a colonel in the King's army. He led a troop of Royalist soldiers into Bodmin, where they routed the Parliamentarian troopers who were raiding the town. He was killed in 1643. He was buried in Lanlivery Church. Kendall married by daughter of Thomas Treffrey of Lostwithiel. Their son Walter was also MP for Lostwithiel.Nicholas Kendall (Royalist) – Coat of Arms of the Kendall family of Pelyn in Cornwall.
24. Petrus Kirstenius – Petrus Kirstenius, latinised form of Peter Kirstein was a physician and orientalist. He was born in Breslau. He was the Principal of a High School in Wrocław. He held the degrees of Doctor of Medicine and Philosophy. Kirstenius was founded an Arabic printer of his own publishing an Arabic grammar book. Petrus Kirstenius died in Uppsala. Johan Peter Kirstenius was a fortification officer and court engineer in Sweden. Svenskt biografiskt handlexikon I. Stockholm 1906, p. 582. Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie. Bd. 16. Leipzig, p. 34-35. Gustaf Elgenstierna, Den introducerade svenska adelns ättartavlor. Del IV, p. 128.Petrus Kirstenius – Petrus Kirstenius.
25. Kobayakawa Hideaki – Kobayakawa Hideaki was the fifth son of Kinoshita Iesada and the nephew of Toyotomi Hideyoshi. He called himself Hashu Hidetoshi and Shusen. He renamed himself Hideaki. During the Battle of Keicho he led reinforcements to rescue Ulsan Castle from the Ming army. Fighting on the front line with a spear, he broke the siege. However, Hideyoshi saw the danger of a reckless charge by the general commanding an army and deprived him after returning. Kobayakawa, angered by this, believed the lie circulated by Tokugawa Ieyasu that this had been the doing of a jealous Ishida Mitsunari. He never forgot nor worked to undermine his position. Moreover, Kobayakawa was known to attack children during the campaign, an act, despised by many of his fellow commanders. Even after the battle began, Kobayakawa kept his intentions hidden. Kobayakawa was hesitant to participate with either side. Ieyasu ordered troops to fire blanks against the Kobayakawa troops to force them into action. The battle was over within a day. Kobayakawa also had success in the mopping up operations that followed, defeating Ishida Masatsugu in the siege of Sawayama. Once the dust had settled, Kobayakawa was given the defeated Ukita clan's former fiefdoms of Bizen and Mimasaka, for a total of 550,000 koku.Kobayakawa Hideaki – Kobayakawa Hideaki
26. Fortunio Liceti – Fortunio Liceti, was an Italian physician and philosopher. He was born prematurely to Giuseppe Liceti and Maria Fini while the family was moving from Recco. His father was a doctor and created a makeshift incubator, thereby saving Fortunio. Fortunio studied until 1599 when he moved on to the University of Bologna, where he studied philosophy and medicine. There his teachers included two men whom Liceti respected so much he later named his first son in their honor. In October 1599, Fortunio returned to Genoa, where Giuseppe was now practicing medicine. On March 1600, Liceti received his doctorate in philosophy and medicine. On August 1609, he was given a professorship in philosophy at the University of Padua. Liceti was held several offices within the group. He held this position until his death. Liceti was buried in the church of Sant ` Agostino in Padua. Liceti's varied publications demonstrate his range from genetics and reproduction to gems and animals. His prodigious output once caused mathematician Bonaventura Cavalieri to write to Galileo Galilei that Liceti "makes a week." Liceti's philosophical works mainly deal with natural philosophy, which he preferred to call “physiology.” In the 1645 work De pietate Aristotelis erga Deum et homines, he argues that Aristotle most likely achieved eternal salvation in the afterlife.Fortunio Liceti – De centro et circumferentia, 1640
27. Louis V, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt – Louis V of Hesse-Darmstadt was the Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt from 1596 to 1626. He was born on 24 September 1577 as the son of George I, Magdalene of Lippe. In 1604 he inherited a part of Hessen-Marburg after the death of Louis IV of Hesse-Marburg, childless. Since Maurice was a Calvinist, Ludwig claimed a right on the whole of Hesse-Marburg. Lutheran professors of the University of Marburg who refused to convert to Calvinism founded in 1607 the University of Gießen, named Ludoviciana. Hesse-Darmstadt suffered severely from the ravages during the conflict. He was succeeded by George II, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt. In 1722, an astronomer at the University of Gießen, named a star, which he thought was a planet, Sidus Ludoviciana after Ludwig V. He had issue: Elisabeth Magdalene, Duchess of Württemberg-Montbéliard; 23 April 1600 -- 9 June 1624, married Louis Frederick, Duke of Württemberg-Montbéliard. Anne Eleonore of Hesse-Darmstadt; 30 July 1601 – 6 May 1659. Sofie Agnes of Hesse-Darmstadt; 12 January 1604 – 8 September 1664. George II, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt; 17 March 1605 – 11 June 1661. Juliane of Hesse-Darmstadt; 14 April 1606 – 15 January 1659. Amalie of Hesse-Darmstadt; 20 June 1607 – 11 September 1627. John of Hesse-Braubach; 17 June 1609, – 1 April 1651.Louis V, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt – Louis V of Hesse-Darmstadt
28. Everard Crijnsz. van der Maes – Everard Crynsz. van der Maes, was a Dutch Golden Age painter. Van Mander mentioned him together with another painter from The Hague, named Ravesteyn as being a good painter. According to the RKD he was a pupil of his father, the painter Crijn Coensz. van der Maes, Quirijn Coenraetsz. Karel van Mander himself. His father worked together with the painter Anthonie van Ravesteyn. He had several pupils later on in his own workshop. Everard Crynsz. van der Maes on ArtnetEverard Crijnsz. van der Maes – Portrait of Johan van Wassenaer
29. Philip de' Medici – Philip de' Medici was the youngest child of Francesco I de' Medici and Joanna of Austria. He was the heir to the Tuscan throne. Philip received his name in honour of the King Philip II of Spain. Philip became Grand Prince of Tuscany. When he was not quite eleven months old, his mother died in an accident falling down the stairs of the ducal apartments while heavily pregnant. His father then married Bianca Capello. Philip was one of seven children, but only two of the children survived till adulthood, Marie de' Medici. He had another sister Anna who died aged fourteen. Recent study of his remains have confirmed the diagnosis.Philip de' Medici – Philip and his mother
30. Mario MinnitiMario Minniti – Minniti at age 16, serving as a model for Caravaggio's painting Boy with a Basket of Fruit.
31. Roberto de Nobili – Not to be confused with Cardinal Roberto de' Nobili. Roberto de Nobili was an Italian Jesuit missionary to Southern India. He used a method of adaptation to preach Christianity, adopting many local customs of India which were, in his view, not contrary to Christianity. Born in Montepulciano, Tuscany in September 1577, Roberto de Nobili arrived on 20 May 1605. After a short stay in Cochin in Kerala, he took up residence in Madurai in Tamil Nadu in November 1606. He soon began to dress like a Sannyasin. Claiming noble parentage eagerly engaged in dialogue with Hindu scholars about the truths of Christianity. De Nobili mastered Sanskrit, Telugu and Tamil languages and literature, with the help of Shivadharma. As he expounded the Christian doctrine in Tamil he coined several words to communicate his message. He adopted also Indian customs, such as shaving one's head and keeping only a tiny tuft. He wore wooden sandals, to don the look of a sanyasin. Another symbol he embraced was the wearing of a three-stringed thread across the chest. He interpreted the three-stringed thread as representing the Holy Trinity, Father, Son and Holy Spirit. He was one of the first Europeans to gain a deep understanding of Sanskrit and Tamil. He contributed greatly to the development of modern Tamil prose writing.Roberto de Nobili – Roberto de Nobili
32. Michel Le Nobletz – Dom Michel Le Nobletz was a vigorous Counter-Reformation missionary active in the west of Brittany, responsible for a revival of popular Catholic culture. He invented distinctive painted placards -- known as taolennoù -- which became widely used in the area. He was forced to leave Douarnenez because of the animosity he engendered. The Church declared Nobletz "venerable" in 1897. It is still pending. Nobletz was born in the manor of Kerodern in Plouguerneau on 29 September 1577 into a noble family. His father was a royal notary. His father sent him to join his four brothers in 1596. He then studied at Agen learning theology, ancient languages and mathematics. It was before coming to deepen his theology at the Jesuit college of Madelaine de Bordeaux. Desiring to improve his knowledge, he went to study Hebrew at the Sorbonne. He was received into the priesthood in Paris. To the dismay of his parents, he retired to Plouguerneau in the rocks of the beach of Treménac ` h. He spent one year there in asceticism. He believed that the image would encourage worship like the statue of a saint.Michel Le Nobletz – Michel le Nobletz
33. William Noy – William Noy was a noted British jurist. He was born in St Buryan, Cornwall. He entered Lincoln's Inn in 1594. Until his death he was elected, with one exception, to each parliament, sitting invariably for a constituency of his native county. It was through his advice that the impost of money was levied, resulting in a controversy that helped trigger the English Civil War. Noy died in great pain; he was buried at New Brentford church. His principal works are On the Grounds and Maxims of the Laws of The Compleat Lawyer. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, ed.. "Noy, William". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press.William Noy – William Noy.
34. Antonio de Oquendo – Antonio de Oquendo was a Spanish admiral; in 1639 he was in command of the Spanish forces at the Battle of the Downs. In 1594 he entered naval service. He commanded a naval squadron made of his flagship, the Dobladilla, two 500 ton galleons. On August 1604 he captured an English privateer at the Battle of the Gulf of Cádiz. In 1607 he was appointed commander of the Biscay squadron, that year renamed the squadron of the Bay of Biscay. From the same year he also functioned as the General of the Fleet of the Viceroyalty of New Spain. Soon his imprisonment was changed for a forced stay in a convent. In 1626 De Oquendo became Admiral-General of the Ocean Fleet, under Captain-General Fadrique de Toledo. In 1628 by his own initiative he relieved La Mámora, at the time besieged by the Moors. In 1631 he commanded a convoy destined for Brazil, to retake the city of Pernambuco, the previous year conquered by the Dutch West India Company. On September he engaged and defeated a Dutch WIC fleet under Admiral Adriaan Pater, allowing him to successfully land the troop contingent. The Spanish lost the Dutch three. De Oquendo was now promoted to that of Captain-General. In 1636 he was arrested for duelling an Italian nobleman in Madrid. In 1637 he refused to reinforce the fleet of the Kingdom of Naples because his squadron was poorly supplied.Antonio de Oquendo – Statue for Antonio de Oquendo, San Sebastián
35. Richard Weston, 1st Earl of Portland – Weston was the eldest son and heir of Sir Jerome Weston, the former Mary Cave. He was a student of the Middle Temple. He served for a number of constituencies including Maldon, Midhurst, Essex, Arundel, Bossiney, Callington and Bodmin. He was knighted in 1603. During the reign of King James I of England, Weston was sent to Bohemia, Brussels, Spain. On the last assignment, he negotiated for the restitution of the Palatine. Weston was elevated to the peerage on 13 April 1628, of Neyland. He was subsequently invested with the Order of the Garter. His policies proving highly unpopular, he escaped impeachment by the dissolution of Parliament. By the time he died in 1635, the Crown was solvent. On 17 Weston was created Earl of Portland. Lord Portland was married twice. His first wife was Elizabeth Pincheon of Writtle in Essex. His second wife was Frances Walgrave of Boreley in Essex. Jeremy Clarke, became a Governor of Rhode Island in the American colonies.Richard Weston, 1st Earl of Portland – The Right Honourable The Earl of Portland KG PC
36. Jean Riolan the Younger – Jean Riolan was a French anatomist, an influential member of the Medical Faculty of Paris. Jean Riolan was also a French anatomist. Riolan was all his life personal physician to Marie de' Medici. Riolan is remembered for his traditional views towards medicine, was a major proponent of the teachings of Galen. He held a differing viewpoint in regards to William Harvey's theory involving the blood's circulatory system. Riolan calculated that blood returned to the heart a day. He also postulated that it was taken in by different parts of the body. Riolan had other disagreements with Harvey, such as the role of the liver as a blood-manufacturing organ. Riolan attacked Thomas Bartholin on the question of the latter's discovery of the lymphatic system. The eponymous "anastomosis of Riolan" is named after him, the arterial connection between the inferior mesenteric arteries. Marginal fibres of the palpebral part of the orbicularis oculi muscle is known as "Riolan's muscle". The cremasteric muscle is also eponymously named after Riolan. William Harvey Medical Research Foundation cdlib.org, Chapter 9 Analogical Reasoning: The Model.Jean Riolan the Younger – Jean Riolan the Younger
37. Gian Vittorio Rossi – Gian Vittorio Rossi, also known as Giano Nicio Eritreo, was an Italian poet, philologist, historian. Rossi lived his entire life in the city of his birth. He was educated at the Collegio Romano distinguishing himself by his extraordinary command of Latin. At the age of 19 he received his laurea in jurisprudence in 1603 became a member of the Accademia degli Umoristi. The subsequent misfortunes of his family forced him to enter the legal profession. He remained in a financial position until he received an appointment as secretary to Cardinal Andrea Baroni Peretti Montalto in 1610. Supplex libellus B.V. matrem. II. Paradoxa christiana. III. Christiano Fischero... Coloniae ubiorum: apud Iodocum Kalcovium, 1738 Aikin, John. "Rossi, Gian-Vittorio" in General biography: or, Lives, critical and historical, of the most eminent persons of all ages, countries, conditions, professions, Vol. 8, pp. 626–627. G. G. and J. Robinson. Doglio, Maria Luisa. "Rossi, Gian Vittorio, detto Giano Nicio Eritreo" in Vittore Branca, Dizionario critico della Letteratura Italiana, Vol. 3, pp. 252–253.Gian Vittorio Rossi – Frontispiece of Rossi's principal work, Pinacotheca Imaginum Illustrium
38. Peter Paul Rubens – Sir Peter Paul Rubens was a Flemish Baroque painter. Rubens was a prolific artist. The catalogue of his works by Michael Jaffé lists 1,403 pieces, excluding numerous copies made in his workshop. His commissioned works were mostly "history paintings", which included religious and mythological subjects, hunt scenes. Rubens in later life painted several landscapes. He designed prints, well as his own house. He also oversaw the ephemeral decorations of the royal entry into Antwerp by the Cardinal-Infante Ferdinand in 1635. His drawings are mostly extremely forceful but not overly detailed. He also made great use of oil sketches as preparatory studies. For altarpieces he sometimes painted on slate to reduce reflection problems. He was born to Maria Pypelincks. Following Jan Rubens' imprisonment for the affair, Peter Paul Rubens was born in 1577. The family returned to Cologne the next year. In 1589, two years after his father's death, Rubens moved with his mother Maria Pypelincks to Antwerp, where he was raised as a Catholic. Religion figured prominently in much of his work and Rubens later became one of the leading voices of the Catholic Counter-Reformation style of painting.Peter Paul Rubens – Self-portrait, 1623, Royal Collection
39. Richard Sibbes – Richard Sibbes was an Anglican theologian. He was born in Tostock, Suffolk, where his father was a wheelwright; other sources say Sudbury. He attended St John's College, Cambridge from 1595. He was lecturer at Holy Trinity Church, Cambridge, to 1615 or 1616. It was erroneously held by 19th century scholars that Sibbes was deprived of his various academic posts on account of his Puritanism. In fact he was never deprived of any of his posts, due to his ingenuity of the system. He was then preacher at Gray's Inn, London, returning to Cambridge as Master of Catherine Hall in 1626, without giving up the London position. Also in 1626, Sibbes was a founder member. It was closely linked for its seven years of existence: it was shut down in 1633. With others, he worked to provide platforms for preachers. He was one of four ministers in the other members being chosen as four lawyers and four laymen. He was the author of devotional works expressing intense religious feeling -- The Saint's Cordial, The Bruised Reed and Smoking Flax, The Soules Conflict, etc.. A volume of sermons appeared in 1630, dedicated to Horace Vere, his wife Lady Mare. Most of the other works were first published by Philip Nye, after Sibbes died. The content belied the mainly conforming attitudes for which Sibbes was known in his lifetime.Richard Sibbes – Richard Sibbes
40. Gabriel Sionita – Gabriel Sionita was a learned Maronite, famous for his role in the publication of the 1645 Parisian polyglot of the Bible. Although Sionita came at the age of seven, he always considered Arabic as his mother tongue. In Rome, he acquired a slight knowledge of Hebrew. He only went into the priesthood later, in Paris, aged 45. Savary de Breves was interested in Oriental studies. The two Maronites were John Hesronita, Gabriel being the more prominent of the two. Gabriel was appointed to the chair of Semitic languages at Sorbonne. Serious financial difficulties arose. The Maronites seem to have become involved in pecuniary embarrassments, which led with the leaders of the undertaking. In 1619, however, by royal diploma, Gabriel's stipend had been raised to 1,200 livres. He received the a doctorate, two years later, the priesthood. In 1626, as Gabriel held no classes owing to the lack of students, his stipend was curtailed. After some time, however, he was paid on the original offer; and in 1629, his salary was increased to 2,000 livres. In 1630, he recommenced work on the polyglot. He was even accused of carelessness in the work.Gabriel Sionita – Latin-Syriac psalter by Gabriel Sionita, 1625
41. Johan Skytte – Johan Skytte was a Swedish politician. Skytte was son of the Mayor of Nyköping, Bengt Nilsson Skräddare. In 1611, he was made governor of Vestmannia, in 1622 chancellor of Uppsala University, which he remained until his death. Skytte participated in drafting the 1617 Coronation Oath of king Gustav Adolf. In 1632, Skytte was in 1634 made president of the Göta appellate court in Jönköping. He became chancellor of Uppsala University, 1622, Skytte donated the Skyttean professorship of Eloquence and Government to the university. Since 1995, the Skytte Foundation at Uppsala University awards an annual prize in Political Science. He was parent to Bengt Skytte.Johan Skytte – Lithography by Johan Cardon
43. Hugo Mattheusz Steyn – Hugo Matheusz. Steyn, was a Dutch Golden Age member of the Haarlem schutterij. He was born as the son of the mayor and church warden Mattheus Steyn and Dirkje van der Graft-Gael. He was the brother of the Spaarndam collector Tyman Matheusz. Steyn. Hugo was a member of the Catholic St. James guild and married Cornelia van der Meyde in 1606. He was captain 1618-1621. He was portrayed by Frans Hals along with his son in 1616. He died in Haarlem. Hugo Matheusz. Steyn in De Haarlemse Schuttersstukken, by Jhr. Mr. C.C. van Valkenburg, pp. 67, Haerlem: jaarboek 1958, ISSN 0927-0728, on the website of the North Holland ArchivesHugo Mattheusz Steyn – Hugo Matheusz. Steyn, detail of Hals's banquet of 1616
44. Hendrik Swalmius – Hendrik Swalmius, was a Dutch theologian known today for his portrait by Frans Hals. It was in Rhoon that he changed his name to Swalmius. In 1650 an engraving based on the Hals portrait of Hendrick was made by Suyderhoef stating he was a preacher in Rhoon. After his wife died he remarried to IJfje Willems van Weert. He died in 1649. Hendrik Swalmius in biography of Eleazer, according to A.J. van der AaHendrik Swalmius – Portrait of Hendrik Swalmius, 1639, collection Detroit Institute of Arts
45. Alessandro Tiarini – Alessandro Tiarini was an Italian Baroque painter of the Bolognese School. He was born in Bologna. He initially apprenticed in Bologna under her father Prospero Fontana, subsequently with Bartolomeo Cesi. He was not inducted into the Carracci Academy. In Florence, he mainly worked under Domenico Passignano, but also Jacopo da Empoli. He was lured back by Ludovico Carracci. His Grieving over a dead Jesus is in the Pinacoteca Nazionale of Bologna. He painted a series of frescoes for the Brami Chapel in Reggio Emilia. He also painted in Cremona. In 1628, where he painted the Story of Gerusalemme Liberata for the Farnese Palazzo del Giardino in Parma. He also painted the Raising of the Cross in Reggio a work now displayed in the Galleria Estense of Modena. Tiarini died in Bologna. His closest pupils were Luca Barbieri. Francis P. Smyth and John P. O'Neill. Washington DC, ed.Alessandro Tiarini – Self-Portrait, (Galleria Savelli, Bologna)
46. Nicolas Trigault – Nicolas Trigault was a Walloon Jesuit, a missionary in China. He was also known by his Chinese name Jin Nige. Born in Douai, he became a Jesuit in 1594. Trigault left eventually arriving at Nanjing, China in 1611. In late 1612 Trigault was appointed in Europe. He arrived in Rome on October 11, 1614, by way of India, the Persian Gulf and Egypt. Peter Paul Rubens did January 1617 when Trigault was either in Antwerp or Brussels. De Christiana expeditione apud Sinas.. . The work was published in Augsburg; it was later translated into many European languages and widely read. The French translation, which appeared in 1616, was translated by Trigault's own nephew, David-Floris de Riquebourg-Trigault. In April 1618, Trigault arrived in Macau in April 1619. Trigault produced one of the first systems of Chinese Romanisation in his work Xiru Ermu Zi. Trigault wrote his book in Shanxi province. Aided by a converted Chinese, he also produced the Chinese version of Aesop's Fables, published in 1625.Nicolas Trigault – Nicolas Trigault in Chinese costume, by Peter Paul Rubens.
47. Tukaram – Tukaram was a 17th-century poet-saint of the Bhakti movement in Maharashtra. He was part of the egalitarian, personalized Varkari tradition. Tukaram is known with spiritual songs known as kirtans. His poetry was devoted to an avatar of Hindu god Vishnu. He is also referred to as Saint Tukaram, Bhakta Tukaram, Tukaram Maharaj, Tukobaraya. The year of death of Saint Tukaram has been a subject of research and dispute among 20th-century scholars. He was either born in a village named Dehu, near Pune in Mahārāshtra, India. Scholars consider his family to belong to the Kunbi caste. His parents were devotees of an avatar of Hindu deity Vishnu. Both his parents died when Tukaram was a teenager. They had a son named Santu. However, both wife starved to death in the famine of 1630-1632. His second wife was Avalai Jija Bai. He spent most of his later years in community kirtans and composing Abhanga poetry. According to Ranade, Tukaram's spiritual teacher was Babaji Chaitanya, who himself was fourth disciple of the 13th-century scholar Jnanadeva.Tukaram – Sant Tukaram
48. Gerardus Vossius – Gerrit Janszoon Vos, often known by his Latin name Gerardus Vossius, was a Dutch classical scholar and theologian. In 1600 he was devoted himself to philology and historical theology. From 1614 to 1619 he was director of the theological college at Leiden University. In the meantime, he was gaining a great reputation as a scholar, not only in the Netherlands, but also in France and England. In 1622, he was appointed professor of chronology, subsequently of Greek, in the university. He got permission from Charles I to return to the Low Countries. His son Isaac, after a career of scholarship in Sweden, became residentiary canon in 1673. He was the author of De septuaginta interpretibus, Variarum observationum liber. Others: His son Dionysius Vossius died 1633 or 1640. He made notes on the work of Moses Maimonides. Gerrit Vossius died 1640. He was an editor of Velleius Paterculus. His son Matthew died 1646. He made a chronicle of Holland. Francis Vossius was Gerardus Vossius's brother.Gerardus Vossius – Gerrit Johan Vossius
49. Samuel Ward (minister) – Samuel Ward was an English Puritan minister of Ipswich. Born in Suffolk, he was a son of John Ward, his wife, Susan. Nathaniel Ward was his younger brother. John, was rector of St. Clement's, Ipswich. Having finished his studies at the university, he became the ` spiritual father' of Samuel Fairclough. He was one of the preachers at London, in 1616. In 1621 he designed an engraving, the Double Deliverance, with an anti-Spanish message, showing the Spanish Armada and Gunpowder Plot. The Spanish ambassador in London, represented it as an insult to his royal master. Ward, whose name was engraved upon the print as the designer, was sent to and was committed to prison. In 1622 Bishop Samuel Harsnett prosecuted Ward in the consistory court of Norwich. Ward appealed to the king, who referred the articles exhibited to the examination of Lord-keeper John Williams. The king wrote to the Ipswich council to deter them. The Commons referred the complaint to the Archbishop of Canterbury. Ward subsequently incurred the displeasure of Archbishop William Laud. He was suspended from his ministry, enjoined to make a public submission and recantation, committed to prison.Samuel Ward (minister) – Not to be confused with Samuel Ward (scholar).
50. Adam Willaerts – Adam Willaerts was a Dutch Golden Age painter. Willaerts was born in London to Flemish parents who had fled from Antwerp for religious reasons. By 1585 the family lived in Leiden. Until his death Adam worked in Utrecht. He became a member of the Utrecht Guild of St. Luke in 1611 and subsequently became its dean in 1620. His sons Cornelis, Abraham, Isaac followed in his footsteps. He was known as a painter of river and canal pieces, coastal landscapes, genre scenes. He also painted villages and marine battle scenes. Adam Willaerts at the Netherlands Institute for Art History L. Otto Nelemans, Adam Willaerts, Londen 1577-Utrecht 1664. Zijn leven en zijn werk, de religieuze schilderijen in het bijzonder, 1999 Bryan, Michael. Walter Armstrong & Robert Edmund Graves, ed. Dictionary of Painters and Engravers, Biographical and Critical. York St. #4, Covent Garden, London; Original from Fogg Library, Digitized May 18, 2007: George Bell and Sons. Pp. age 716. Media related to Adam Willaerts at Wikimedia CommonsAdam Willaerts – Harbour scene, circa 1615