Category:Activists from Alabama
Pages in category "Activists from Alabama"
The following 111 pages are in this category, out of 111 total, this list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 111 pages are in this category, out of 111 total, this list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Lewis Adams – Little is known of his early life. It is known, however, that despite having no education, Adams could read, write. He was a tinsmith, harness-maker, and shoemaker. He was married to Sallie Sarah Adams with whom he had sixteen children and he was an acknowledged leader of the countys African-American community. Adams was especially concerned that, without an education, the freed former slaves would not be able to fully support themselves. There were no institutions at that time to teach them essential skills, in 1880, Adams was approached on behalf of two white candidates seeking election to the Alabama Senate. He was asked what it would take to get the votes of the black citizens. Another former slave, Booker T. Washington, was recruited upon recommendation of Samuel C, armstrong, the founder and principal of another normal school for blacks in Hampton, Virginia, to become the first principal. Like Lewis Adams, Dr. Washington embraced the concept that former slaves needed practical job skills to support themselves, despite his travels and widespread work, Dr. Washington remained principal of Tuskegee until his death in 1915, at the age of 59. At the time of his death, Tuskegees endowment exceeded US$1.5 million, another famous African American who taught at the school of Lewis Adams dreams was Dr. George Washington CarverLewis Adams – Lewis Adams
2. Robert Aderholt – Robert Brown Aderholt is the U. S. Representative for Alabamas 4th congressional district, serving since 1997 and he is a member of the Republican Party. Aderholt is a member of the congressional Tea Party Caucus and has taken stands on issues such as abortion, tax reform. Aderholt was born in Haleyville, Alabama, to Mary Frances Brown, aderholts father, a part-time minister for a small group of Congregational churches in northwest Alabama, was a circuit judge for more than 30 years. He attended the University of North Alabama and then Birmingham-Southern College from which he graduated, during college, Aderholt was a member of Kappa Alpha Order. Aderholt received his J. D. from the Samford University Cumberland School of Law, in 1992, Aderholt was appointed Haleyville municipal judge. In the same year, he was a delegate to the Republican National Convention, in 1995, he became the top aide to Governor Fob James. He won the 1996 Republican primary in the race to succeed 15-term Democratic incumbent Tom Bevill, Aderholt is a signer of Americans for Tax Reform’s Taxpayer Protection Pledge. Saying he will not raise taxes on any tax bracket, in December 2011, Aderholt voted in support of H. R. ” Aderholt is opposed to same-sex marriage. He has received ratings from the Family Research Council, the Traditional Values Coalition. In 2013, the Human Rights Campaign gave him a score of 0 on its Congressional Scorecard, Aderholt opposes government spending to stimulate economic growth. He voted against the $787 Billion Stimulus Package in February 2009, Aderholt is a supporter of the Second Amendment. He was endorsed by the NRA in the 2010 general election, effectively prevents the executive branch from levying any form of carbon tax without Congressional approval. Since a carbon tax would be destructive to the economy as a whole. However, his votes on economic issues have generally based on the concerns of his district rather than an overarching ideology. He has been notable in his support of quotas on steel imports and he voted against the free trade agreements with Chile, Morocco, and Singapore, but supported the US-Australia FTA. As a member of the Appropriations Committee, Aderholt has secured a significant amount of highway, Aderholt voted in favor of a joint resolution to withdraw the United States from the World Trade Organization in 2000 and 2005. He is involved with the NASA Space Launch System and has urged to increase funding for the programs based in Alabama, Aderholt is a supporter of Roy MooreRobert Aderholt – Robert Aderholt
3. Charles Barkley – Charles Wade Barkley is an American retired professional basketball player and current analyst on the television program Inside the NBA. Nicknamed Chuck, Sir Charles, and The Round Mound of Rebound, an All-American center at Auburn, he was drafted as a junior by the Philadelphia 76ers with the 5th pick of the 1984 NBA draft. He was selected to the All-NBA First Team five times, the All-NBA Second Team five times and he earned eleven NBA All-Star Game appearances and was named the All-Star MVP in 1991. In 1993, he was voted the leagues Most Valuable Player and during the NBAs 50th anniversary and he competed in the 1992 and 1996 Olympic Games and won two gold medals as a member of the United States Dream Team. Barkley is an inductee into the Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame, being inducted in 2006 for his individual career. Barkley was popular with the fans and media and made the NBAs All-Interview Team for his last 13 seasons in the league, short for a power forward, Barkley used his strength and aggressiveness to become one of the NBAs most dominant rebounders. He was a player who had the ability to score, create plays. In 2000, he retired as the player in NBA history to achieve 20,000 points,10,000 rebounds and 4,000 assists. Since retiring as a player, Barkley has had a career as a television NBA analyst. He works with Turner Network Television alongside of Shaquille ONeal, Kenny Smith, and Ernie Johnson as a studio pundit for its coverage of NBA games and is a spokesman for CDW. In addition, Barkley has written books and has shown an interest in politics, in October 2008, he announced that he would run for Governor of Alabama in 2014. Barkley was born and raised in Leeds, Alabama, ten miles outside Birmingham, as a junior, Barkley stood 510 and weighed 220 pounds. He failed to make the varsity team and was named as a reserve, however, during the summer Barkley grew to 64 and earned a starting position on the varsity as a senior. He averaged 19.1 points and 17.9 rebounds per game, an assistant to Auburn Universitys head coach, Sonny Smith, was at the game and reported seeing, a fat guy. Who can play like the wind, Barkley was soon recruited by Smith and majored in business management while attending Auburn University. Barkley played collegiate basketball at Auburn for three seasons, although he struggled to control his weight, he excelled as a player and led the SEC in rebounding each year. He became a popular crowd-pleaser, exciting the fans with dunks and it was not uncommon to see the hefty Barkley grab a defensive rebound and, instead of passing, dribble the entire length of the court and finish at the opposite end with a two-handed dunk. His physical size and skills earned him the nickname The Round Mound of ReboundCharles Barkley – Charles Barkley in 2008
4. Mark Barnes – Mark Barnes is an American attorney and advocate based in Boston. He worked on the National Health Care Reform Task Force in the Clinton Administration and his work includes focus on the fields of research compliance, the ethics of clinical trials, and medical privacy. He is President-Elect of the New York State Bar Associations Health Law Section, Barnes is a native of Dadeville, Tallapoosa County, Alabama. He is the son of Elaine Robinson and Mike Barnes, according to his family oral history, he is a direct descendant of Daniel Boone. Barnes plans to retire to Dadeville, where he purchased family property and he has been with his partner since 1983. In 1984 Barnes graduated from Yale Law School with a juris doctor, in 1988, as an associate professor of the Columbia Law School, Barnes founded the AIDS Law Clinic. He is a Lecturer at the Yale Medical School, where he teaches each Fall and he has also been an Adjunct Professor at a number of law schools, including NYU Law School, Brooklyn Law School, Cardozo Law School, and New York Law School. He has taught courses in the ethics and law of human research, healthcare law, public health, managed care law, occupational health and safety. The program was funded in part by the U. S. Department of Education and received referrals from the New York City Commission on Human Rights, the clinical education director at Columbia said of Barnes, is a leader in the field, and were lucky to have him. Hes highly knowledgeable, hes litigated on a discrimination case. The clinic was praised by health officials and by students as hands-on experience. When it did not renew Barnes contract, students protested, on April 12,1989,200 students protested Columbia Law Schools attempts to close the schools successful and much praised AIDS legal clinic. They held a sit-in at the law school building to demand the faculty committee renew Barness contract for another year. We thought one of the reasons for him not being reappointed is the lack of support for the clinic by the university, said Maya Wiley, 3L, dean Barbara Black said the school supported the clinic, but declined to say why Barnes was not offered another one-year contract. Student Matt Levine said, We do care about Mark Barnes because he has run the clinic extremely well, but the core issue is the continuation of the AIDS clinic. On April 19, co-founder Deborah Green announced the school would keep the clinic open, on June 28,1989, the Columbia Spectator reported that Barnes was reappointed and promoted from Clinic Advisor to the Assistant Clinical Professor of Law by the faculty. Im gratified that the clinic will continue for an additional semester, in 1989, Barnes began working as the AIDS policy director for the New York State Department of Health. In 1992, he was appointed commissioner for medical and legal policy at the New York City Department of HealthMark Barnes – Mark Barnes
5. Alva Belmont – Alva Belmont, née Alva Erskine Smith, and known as Alva Vanderbilt from 1875 to 1896, was a prominent multi-millionaire American socialite and a major figure in the womens suffrage movement. Known for having an aristocratic manner that many people, she was also noted for her energy, intelligence, strong opinions. She was married first to William Kissam Vanderbilt, with whom she had three children, and secondly to Oliver Hazard Perry Belmont. Alva Erskine Smith was born on January 17,1853 at 201 Government Street in Mobile, Alabama to Murray Forbes Smith, a commission merchant, Murray Smith was the son of George Smith and Delia Forbes of Dumfries, Virginia. Phoebe Desha was the daughter of US Representative Robert Desha and Eleanor Shelby, Alva was one of six children. Two of her sisters, Alice and Eleanor, both died as children before she was born and her brother, Murray Forbes Smith, Jr. died in 1857 and was buried in Magnolia Cemetery in Mobile. Two other sisters, Armide Vogel Smith and Mary Virginia Jennie Smith, were her siblings to survive into adulthood. Jennie first married the brother of Alvas childhood best friend, Consuelo Yznaga, following a divorce from Fernando Yznaga in 1886, Jennie remarried to William George Tiffany. As a child, Alva summered with her parents in Newport, Rhode Island, in 1859 the Smiths left Mobile and relocated to New York City, where they briefly settled in Madison Square. When Murray went to Liverpool, England, to conduct his business, her mother, Phoebe Smith, after the Civil War, the Smith family returned to New York, where her mother died in 1869. At a party for one of William Henry Vanderbilts daughters, Smiths best friend, Consuelo Yznaga introduced her to William Kissam Vanderbilt, on April 20,1875, William and Alva were married at Calvary Church in New York City. The couple would have three children, Consuelo Vanderbilt was born on March 2,1877, followed by William Kissam Vanderbilt II on March 2,1878, and Harold Stirling Vanderbilt on July 6,1884. Alva would maneuver Consuelo into marrying Charles Spencer-Churchill, 9th Duke of Marlborough on November 6,1895, the marriage would be annulled much later, at the Dukes request and Consuelos assent, in May 1921. The annulment was fully supported by Alva, who testified that she had forced Consuelo into the marriage, by this time Consuelo and her mother enjoyed a closer, easier relationship. Consuelo went on to marry Jacques Balsan, a French aeronautics pioneer, William Kissam II would become president of the New York Central Railroad Company on his fathers death in 1920. Harold Stirling graduated from Harvard Law School in 1910, then joined his father at the New York Central Railroad Company. He remained the only representative of the Vanderbilt family in the New York Central Railroad after his brothers death, serving as a director. Supposedly, this forced Astor to come calling, in order to secure an invitation to the ball for her daughter, the chief effect of the ball was to raise the bar on society entertainments in New York to heights of extravagance and expense that had not been previously seenAlva Belmont – Alva E. Belmont sometime during 1911, aged 57–58.
6. James G. Birney – James Gillespie Birney was an abolitionist, politician and jurist born in Danville, Kentucky. From 1816 to 1818, he served in the Kentucky House of Representatives, in 1836, he started his abolitionist weekly publication in Cincinnati, Ohio titled The Philanthropist. He was twice a US Presidential candidate for the anti-slavery Liberty Party, born to an affluent Irish Episcopalian slaveholder of the same name in Danville, Kentucky, James G. Birney lost his mother during his youth. He and his sister were raised by their aunt, who had come over from Scotland at the request of his father to look after the two, by 1795, his fathers two sisters and their families had migrated from Ireland, settling on farms near his home. Most of his mothers relatives had also migrated nearby, settling in areas of Mercer County. Growing up, he saw the issue of slavery from a variety of perspectives, other members of Birneys family felt personal moral responsibility and refused to own slaves. Most notably, the aunt that raised him did not own slaves, for his own part, Birney agreed with his father and received his first slave at age six. However, for much of his youth and education, he was under the influence of teachers, for example, he attended several sermons given by a Baptist abolitionist by the name of David Barrow in his youth, which he later recalled with fondness. When Birney turned eleven he was sent to Transylvania University in Lexington, Kentucky and he excelled in his studies there, which were mostly based in the sciences. In 1808, he entered the College of New Jersey at age seventeen and he studied political philosophy, logic and moral philosophy, and became known as a proficient debater. Among his classmates, he became good friends with George M. Dallas. He studied under the president of the school, who was both a logician and author that held weak anti-slavery sentiments and he believed that slavery was morally wrong, but upheld the citizens right of ownership. Birney graduated from Princeton on September 26,1810, when he returned to Danville following graduation, he worked for the campaign of Henry Clay for one month. After this, he began to study law at the office of Alexander J. Dallas in Philadelphia and he lived among well means, having a horse carriage for transportation and always being well-dressed. He also made friends with members of the local Quaker community and he remained in Philadelphia with Dallas for the next three years, until he passed the Philadelphia bar examination and was admitted to the bar association. In May 1814 Birney returned to his hometown and took up the practice of law there and he handled both civil and criminal lawsuits in Danville and other outlying counties of Kentucky. The economy of Kentucky was rather poor at this time, as the War of 1812 had caused a schism in trade within the state, having trouble making ends meet, Birney made his living at this time primarily as a claims adjuster. Following in the footsteps of his father, Birney became a freemason upon his return to Danville and he also fell in love with Agatha McDowell and married her on February 1,1816 at a Presbyterian churchJames G. Birney – James G. Birney
7. Patricia Swift Blalock – Patricia Swift Blalock was an American librarian, social worker, and civil rights activist born in Gadsden, Alabama. Blalock graduated from the University of Montevallo and studied social work at the University of Chicago and she returned to Alabama and worked for the State Department of Education and Rehabilitation, where she helped establish clinics for children with birth defects and other illnesses. She was director of the Selma-Dallas County Public library for 27 years, where she was instrumental in integrating the institution during the 1960s, patricia Blalock was born on May 9,1914 in Gadsden, Alabama. She had two siblings, a sister, Irene, and a brother, James and her parents were racially moderates, and more liberal than most families in her area. Her grandfather was one of the first members of the Populist Party in the area and had taught her not to fear blacks and she attended the University of Montevallo in Montevallo, Alabama and received a masters degree in social work from the University of Chicago. In 1937, she moved to Selma, Alabama where she became the supervisor of the State Crippled Children’s Services. Blalock got married and had a daughter in 1946, after which she retired from social work, in 1951, Miss Betty asked Blalock to work in the Dallas County Public Library in Selma, Alabama, on a part-time basis. Blalock began working as an assistant for the library, a position she held for ten years. When the library director became ill, Blalock became temporary director, the library board then asked her to become the permanent director when it was clear that the current director would not be able to continue. Blalock was apprehensive at first because she did not have a degree but was, instead. The board expressed their faith in her and asked that she take the position which she assumed in 1963, at the time, there was only one library in Selma. The Selma Library began in 1904 with a $10,000 grant from Andrew Carnegie, unlike other segregated southern communities which provided a branch for black patrons, Selma’s minority population was served through the back door of the library by the library maid. At the time Blalock assumed her role as the director, Selma was being informally. Created in 1955 in response to the Supreme Court’s Brown v. Board of Education, two influential ex officio members of the library board who attended board meetings regularly were Mayor Chris Heinz and Judge Bernard Reynolds, both leaders in the Citizen’s Council. Both orthodox segregationists, Heinz and Reynolds wanted to protect Selma’s way of life people who they considered outside agitators. Blalock, upon becoming library director, immediately pushed for desegregation of the library with the library board and this was a difficult task, especially during the political climate of the 1960s, but Blalock was persistent. She personally visited each board member in order to try to convince them that desegregation was inevitable, Blalock had used recent integration orders by the federal government in Montgomery and protests in Birmingham as examples of trouble the people of Selma could expect. She argued that Selma could take control of its own process rather than have outsiders do it for themPatricia Swift Blalock – Patricia Swift Blalock was instrumental in desegregating the Selma library in 1963.
8. Joyce Bryant – Joyce Bryant is an African-American singer and actress who achieved fame in the late 1940s and early 1950s as a theater and nightclub performer. Bryant left the industry in 1955 at the height of her popularity to devote herself to the Seventh-day Adventist Church, a decade later, she returned to show business as a trained classical vocalist and later became a vocal coach. Joyce Bryant, the oldest of eight children, was born in Oakland, California and her father worked as a chef for the Southern Pacific Railroad and her mother was a devout Seventh-day Adventist. Bryant, a child raised in a strict home, had ambitions of becoming a sociology teacher. She eloped at the age of 14 but the marriage ended that same evening, in 1946, while visiting cousins in Los Angeles, she agreed on a dare to participate in an impromptu singalong at a local club. After a while, Bryant recounted in a 1955 Jet interview, a few minutes later the club owner offered me $25 to go up on stage, and I took it because I to get home. Her reputation and profile eventually grew to the level that one night, not wanting to be upstaged, Bryant colored her hair silver using radiator paint, and performed wearing a tight silver dress and silver floor-length mink. Bryant recalled when she arrived onstage, I stopped everything, Etta James noted in her 2003 autobiography, Rage to Survive, The Etta James Story, I didnt want to look innocent. I wanted to look like Joyce Bryant, I thought Joyce was gutsy and I copied her style–brazen and independent. Beginning in 1952, Bryant released a series of records for Okeh, including A Shoulder to Weep On, After Youve Gone, two of her most well-known standards, Love for Sale and Drunk with Love, were banned from radio play for their provocative lyrics. Upon the release of Runnin Wild two years later, Jet noted that the song was Bryants first to be passed by CBS and NBC radio censors, Bryant remarked in 1980, what an irony that my biggest hit record was Love for Sale. Banned in Boston it was, and later. just about everywhere else and she was critical of racial billing practices at night clubs and hotels and advocated for entertainers as a group to fight Jim Crow laws. It was a thrill, she said, to see them enter. A Life magazine layout in 1953 depicted Bryant in provocative poses, the following year, Bryant–along with Lena Horne, Hilda Simms, Eartha Kitt, and Dorothy Dandridge–was named in an issue of Ebony one of the five most beautiful black women in the world. Bryant earned up to $3500 a performance in the early 1950s, the silver paint had damaged her hair, she didnt enjoy working on the Sabbath, and she felt uneasy with her image. Religion has always been a part of me, she said, and it was a very sinful thing I was doing – being very sexy, with tight, low cut gowns. Then I overheard my manager say, I dont care what you do, further, Bryant hated the men, often gangsters, who frequented the clubs in which she worked. She was once beaten in her room after rejecting a mans advancesJoyce Bryant – Carl Van Vechten photo portrait of Joyce Bryant, May 28, 1953
9. Robert D. Bullard – Robert Doyle Bullard is Dean of the Barbara Jordan - Mickey Leland School Of Public Affairs at Texas Southern University. Previously Ware Professor of Sociology and Director of the Environmental Justice Resource Center at Clark Atlanta University, born in Elba, Alabama, Robert Bullard is the son of Nehemiah and Myrtle Brundidge Bullard, he was the fourth of five children. He graduated from Elbas Mulberry Heights High School, as class salutorian, continuing his education, Bullard received a bachelors degree in Government at Alabama A&M University, in Huntsville, in 1968. Upon graduating from college, he served two years in the United States Marine Corps, at an air station in North Carolina. His M. A. in Sociology was earned at Atlanta University, Bullard obtained his Ph. D. in Sociology at Iowa State University, in 1976, under the supervision of urban sociologist Robert O. Richards. The lawsuit, Bean v. Southwestern Waste Management, Inc. was the first of its kind in the United States that charged environmental discrimination in waste facility siting under the civil rights laws. Houstons middle-class, suburban Northwood Manor neighborhood was a location for a garbage dump except that it was over 82 percent black. Bullard, having received his degree only a couple of years before, was drawn into the case as an expert witness. In this role Bullard conducted a study which documented the location of waste disposal facilities in Houston. Entitled Solid Waste Sites and the Black Houston Community, the study was the first comprehensive account of ecoracism in the United States, Bullard and his researchers found that African American neighbourhoods in Houston were often chosen for toxic waste sites. This discovery prompted Bullard to begin an academic and activist campaign against environmental racism. Again he found a clear overrepresentaion of environmental hazards in black areas as compared to white areas, in 1990 Bullard published his first book, Dumping in Dixie, Race, Class and Environmental Quality. This group later became the Office of Environmental Equity, and then the Office of Environmental Justice under EPA Administrator Carol Browner in 1993, Bullard also played a key role in the organising of the First National People of Color Environmental Leadership Summit in 1991. It was these groups attended the Leadership Summit in October 1991. Bullard continued to act on behalf of struggling African American groups across the U. S and it was his expert testimony that won the case of Citizens Against Nuclear Trash v. In 2006 when asked what keeps him going in his quest for justice, Bullard answered. People who do not let the garbage trucks and the landfills and that has kept me in this movement for the last 25 years. And in the last 10 years, weve been winning, lawsuits are being won, reparations are being paid and these companies have been put on notice that they cant do this anymore, anywhereRobert D. Bullard – October 2012
10. Mary Fair Burks – Mary Fair Burks was an American educator, scholar, and activist during the Civil Rights Movement from Montgomery, Alabama. Burks was born in Montgomery, Alabama, on July 31,1914 and she attended Alabama State University and earned a Bachelor of Science degree in 1933, and Michigan State University where she earned a Master of Arts degree in 1934. She was head of the English department at Alabama State College in the late 1940s, in 1946, she founded the Womens Political Council, an organization that promoted civic involvement, helped increase voter registration, and lobbied city officials to address racist policies. Burks was president of the WPC until 1950, when she decided to step down, The position was demanding and she continued to be a part of the WPC. In 1955-56, she and other WPC members helped initiate and provide support for the Montgomery bus boycott, in 1960, Burks resigned from Alabama State College after several professors were fired for their involvement in civil rights issues. She then taught literature at the University of Maryland until her retirement in 1986, Burks was appointed to a National Endowment for the Humanities reviewing panel in 1979. She died on July 21,1991, Women in the Montgomery Bus Boycott. In Vicki L. Crawford, Jacqueline Anne Rouse, and Barbara Woods, Women in the Civil Rights Movement, Trailblazers and Torchbearers 1941-1965, Bloomington, Indiana University Press,1993, the photo on this page is NOT Mary Fair Burks. The woman pictured is Thelma GlassMary Fair Burks – Mary Fair Burks
11. Samuel A. Cartwright – Samuel Adolphus Cartwright was a physician who practiced in Mississippi and Louisiana in the antebellum United States. Cartwright is best known as the inventor of the disease of drapetomania, Cartwright was born in Fairfax County, Virginia, to Mr. and Mrs. John S. Cartwright. Prior to 1812, he began his training as an apprentice to Dr. John Brewer. Thereafter, he was apprenticed to Dr. Benjamin Rush of Philadelphia and he also attended the University of Pennsylvania Medical School. Cartwright was at one time a surgeon under General Andrew Jackson and he practiced medicine in Huntsville, Alabama, then Natchez, Mississippi, and finally New Orleans, where he relocated in 1858. Dr. Cartwright married the former Mary Wren in 1825, and he died in Jackson, the Mississippi state capital, two months before the surrender of Vicksburg to the forces of General Ulysses S. Grant. Even though he had studied under the abolitionist Dr. Rush in Philadelphia, Cartwright contributed ideas and he is now most well known for describing a condition he called drapetomania, or the desire to flee from servitude. According to Cartwright, drapetomania is a mental disorder akin to alienation and he said that slaves should be kept in a submissive state and treated like children, with care, kindness, attention, and humanity to prevent and cure them from running away. If they nonetheless became dissatisfied with their condition, they should be whipped as a prevention against running away, in describing his theory and cure for drapetomania, Cartwright relied on passages of Christian scripture dealing with slavery. Cartwright also described another disorder, Dysaesthesia aethiopica, a disease affecting both mind and body, Cartwright used his theory to explain the apparent lack of work ethic among slaves. Other symptoms included lesions of the body discoverable to the medical observer, — indeed, according to Cartwright, nearly all are more or less afflicted with it, that have not got some white person to direct and to take care of them. In the antebellum period, southerners largely considered blacks to be inferior to whites. They sought scientific proof for their argument to counter the human rights claims of the abolitionists, cartwright’s explanation concentrated on psychological issues of African Americans. In his Diseases and Peculiarities of the Negro Race, Cartwright viewed blacks as people largely incapable of performing certain duties. His arguments were in line with those of such pro-slavery defenders as Thomas Roderick Dew of the College of William and Mary in Williamsburg, Virginia, Cartwright contributed some fourteen articles to DeBows Review between 1851 and 1862, primarily on sanitary conditions. Cartwright was referenced in the 2004 film C. S. A, Cartwright is also portrayed in the 1971 Mondo exploitation film Goodbye Uncle Tom alongside many other figures from the time. Drapetomania Samuel Adolphus Cartwright, A Dictionary of Louisiana Biography, Vol.1, p.157 Dictionary of American Medical Biography, Vol.1 Marshall, Samuel A. Cartwright and States Rights Medicine. New Orleans Medical and Surgical Journal, in Our Own Voice, African-American Stories of Oppression, Survival and Recovery in Mental Health SystemsSamuel A. Cartwright – Samuel Cartwright
12. Sidney Johnston Catts – Sidney Johnston Catts was an American politician and anti-Catholic spokesman. He served as the 22nd Governor of Florida from 1917 to 1921, Catts was born in Pleasant Hill, Alabama and he earned a law degree from Cumberland School of Law at Cumberland University in 1882. Catts became a pastor in Alabama and soon he moved to Florida, Catts then left his job as a pastor to sell insurance. In 1916, he ran for Governor of Florida as a Democrat and he won the nomination at first, but a recount was ordered and he came in second. After that, he received the nomination of the Prohibition Party, Catts called for reform but also espoused anti-Catholicism and racism. On election day, he won the election with 43% of the vote, Catts served as governor from January 2,1917 to January 4,1921. As Governor, his proposals for reform were stopped by the state legislature, the governor publicly theorized that the monks of St. This actually caused a number of German settlers to move to friendlier parts of the country. The abbot of St. Leo, Right Rev. Charles Mohr, in support of the St. Leo monks, many Pasco County Protestants made it a point to appear in public with local Catholics. Because of the backlash, Catts was forced to tone down his rhetoric when in the area, Catts publicly labeled black residents as part of an inferior race, and refused to criticize two lynchings in 1919. Your people not to kill our white officers and disgrace our white women, Catts was ineligible to run for reelection in 1920 and he ran for the United States Senate as a Democrat, losing by a large margin to Senator Duncan U. Catts ran for Governor in 1924 and 1928, losing both times, Catts was one of the Democrats who worked against Presidential nominee Al Smith due to his religion. Catts died in DeFuniak Springs, Florida on March 9,1936, cracker Messiah, Governor Sidney J. Catts of Florida. 359 pp. Museum of Florida History, Sidney Johnston Catts Gov. Sidney J. Catts Inauguration Brief film clip from 1917, from the State Library & Archives of Florida. Sidney Johnston Catts at Find a GraveSidney Johnston Catts – Sidney Johnston Catts
13. J. L. Chestnut – J. L. Chestnut was an author, attorney, and a figure in the Civil Rights Movement. The New York Times review of Chestnuts autobiography says that As the paradoxical nigger lawyer, Chestnut was born in Selma, and attended Howard University Law School. He returned home as Selmas only black attorney, and represented civil rights demonstrators at trial there when the Selma Movement began in the 1960s, in 1994, Chestnut was active in protesting the jailing of political activist Lyndon LaRouche. He was interviewed in the Tuscaloosa News saying that when he met LaRouche, I told him that he might as well be black and he died, aged 77, of kidney failure, after an illness lasting several months in a hospital in Alabama. The Legacy of Rosa Parks, article by Chestnut in Counterpunch, October 26,2005J. L. Chestnut
14. Adele Goodman Clark – Adele Goodman Clark was an American artist and suffragist. Clark was born in 1882 in Montgomery, Alabama to Robert Clark, a worker originally from Belfast, and Estelle Goodman Clark. The family lived in New Orleans, Louisiana and Pass Christian, Mississippi before moving to Richmond, Clark attended the Virginia Randolph Ellett School, and in 1906 went to the New York School of Art on a scholarship, studying under artists including Robert Henri and William Merritt Chase. When the Art Club of Richmond dissolved in 1917, Clark and Houston opened a studio together and they decided that the white suffragists would patrol polling locations in cars. Clark and Houston continued to be involved in the movement after this election. When women were given the vote in 1920, the Equal Suffrage League became the Virginia League of Women Voters and she was its president from 1921 to 1925, and then again from 1929 to 1944. Clark was elected to the board of the National League of Women Voters in 1924 as a director, and in 1925 she was elected Second Vice-President. Also in 1928, Clark and Houston bought a house together on Chamberlayne Avenue in Richmond, during the New Deal, she was a field supervisor for the National Reemployment Service before becoming, in 1936, the director of the Virginia Arts Project in the Works Progress Administration. She was on the Virginia Arts Commission from 1941–64, having helped establish it in 1916 and she met fellow artist Nora Houston at the Art School of Richmond, where she had previously taken classes and where she taught after returning to Virginia. Houston became Clarks very intimate friend until her death in 1942, soon after, Nora Houston died in 1942, Clarks cousin Willoughby Ions, also an artist, moved in with Clark at the Chamberlayne Avenue house she had shared with Houston. Clark, an Episcopalian, also converted to Roman Catholicism, Houstons religion and she continued to be outspoken on political issues, opposing the Equal Rights Amendment in the belief that it was unnecessary. Clark died in a retirement community in Richmond, Virginia on June 4,1983, documenting the American South, Oral History Interview with Adele Clark, February 28,1964. Finding Aid to the Adele Clark Papers, Special Collections and Archives, James Branch Cabell Library, VCU Libraries, Richmond, VirginiaAdele Goodman Clark – Clark in 1916.
15. Artur Davis – Artur Genestre Davis /ɑːrˈtʊr/ is an American attorney, and former politician. Davis served as a Democratic member of the United States House of Representatives for Alabamas 7th congressional district from 2003 to 2011 and he was also a candidate for the Democratic nomination for Governor of Alabama in the 2010 election. After losing in the primary, he moved to Virginia and joined the Republican Party and he was defeated in his attempt to be elected Mayor of Montgomery, Alabama in the 2015 election. Davis was a supporter of Barack Obamas 2008 bid for the presidency. Known for his skills, Davis made one of the nominating speeches for Obama at the 2008 Democratic National Convention. In 2009 and 2010 Davis, voted against the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, in 2009, Davis sought to become Alabamas first African American Governor. In attempting to appeal to an electorate, he lost the support of black voters by opposing national health care reform. He lost in the Democratic primary to Agriculture Commissioner Ron Sparks, Davis changed his party affiliation to the Republican Party in 2012. Shortly after, Davis announced he would not be running for re-election to the House in 2010 and he subsequently moved to Virginia and joined the Republican Party. A 1990s honors graduate of Harvard University and Harvard Law School and he also began writing a column for the conservative National Review. He considered running for Congress as a Republican in the 2014 House elections in Virginia, a resident of Virginia from 2011 until 2014, Davis spoke at the 2012 Republican National Convention in support of the Republican nominee for President, Mitt Romney. He was defeated in his attempt to be elected Mayor of Montgomery, Davis was born in Montgomery, Alabama, and was raised by his mother and grandmother. He graduated from Jefferson Davis High School and then magna cum laude from Harvard University in 1990 and he earned a J. D. cum laude from Harvard Law School before returning to Alabama. He was the recipient of the Best Oralist Award in the Ames Moot Court Competition at Harvard Law School, after working as an intern at the Southern Poverty Law Center and then as a civil rights lawyer, he served as an assistant United States Attorney. 2000 Davis ran for the House in the Democratic primary against 10-year incumbent and former civil rights activist and he criticized Hilliard for taking a trip to Libya in 1997 despite U. S. sanctions. Davis lost the 2000 primary election 58%–34%,2002 Davis ran again in 2002. During the campaign, Hilliard questioned whether Davis was black enough to represent the district, Davis narrowly won the primary requiring a runoff in June. He won the runoff easily, assuring him victory in November in the heavily Democratic district,2004 Davis was challenged in the 2004 primary by Albert Turner Jr. a son of a leader of Selmas Bloody Sunday marchArtur Davis – Artur Davis
16. Virginia Foster Durr – Virginia Foster Durr was an American and a white civil rights activist and lobbyist. She was born in Birmingham, Alabama in 1903 to Dr. Sterling Foster, an Alabama Presbyterian minister, at 22 she married lawyer Clifford Durr, with whom she had 5 children, one of whom died in infancy. Durr was a friend of Rosa Parks and Eleanor Roosevelt, and was sister-in-law to. Her circle of friends extended to Alger Hiss and she was inducted into the Alabama Womens Hall of Fame in 2006. Durr was born in Birmingham, Alabama, where she was raised by black women, one of her grandfathers had owned a plantation and slaves, while the other was a member of the Ku Klux Klan. Durr attended Wellesley College in Massachusetts from 1920 to 1923, Durr has explicitly acknowledged Wellesley as the catalyst of her moral transformation from a racist to civil rights activist. She came to question segregation after her experience with her college’s dining hall, the dining halls had a rotating tables policy that required students to eat meals with random students regardless of their race. This led to a new phrase, Virginia Durr Moment, which refers to an event that promotes the development of an individual. Durr was forced to withdraw from Wellesley College due to reasons in 1923 and returned home to Birmingham. After withdrawing from school in 1923, Virginia Durr returned home to Birmingham, Virginia Durr and Clifford Durr got married in April,1926, and had five children. Clifford married Virginia Foster Durr in hopes of her being a wife and great social figure while he became a very successful. While accepting the role of housewife, Virginia was bothered by the many workers and their families were in. Virginia and Clifford Durr gave legal, financial, and moral support to civil rights activists, eventually it was where they became New Dealers. It was in Washington where Virginia Durr’s activism began and she met important people through her husbands New Deal contacts, some of which changed her conservative views on civil matters. While her husband was working for the Reconstruction Finance Corporation, Durr joined the Womans National Democratic Club, in 1938, she was one of the founding members of the Southern Conference for Human Welfare, an interracial group working to reduce segregation and improve living conditions in the South. The group was formed in part as a response to Franklin Roosevelts proclamation that the South was the economic problem in the nation. By 1941, Durr became the president of the SCHWs civil rights subcommittee. Working together with First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt, she lobbied for legislation to abolish the poll tax and she worked jointly with liberal political leaders in order to gain the necessary support needed for legislation, which ultimately resulted in the passing of the Voting Rights Act of 1965Virginia Foster Durr – Virginia Foster Durr
17. Morris Ernst – Morris Leopold Ernst was an American lawyer and co-founder of the American Civil Liberties Union. He was born in Uniontown, Alabama, on August 23,1888, to a Czech-born father and he lived in various locations around New York City from the age of 2. He attended the Horace Mann School and graduated from Williams College in Williamstown, Massachusetts and he studied law at night at New York Law School where he graduated in 1912 and was admitted to the New York bar in 1913. Ernst practiced law in New York City and in 1915 co-founded the law firm of Greenbaum, in 1917, he helped found the National Civil Liberties Bureau, which later became the American Civil Liberties Union. From 1929 to 1959, he shared the title of general counsel at the ACLU with Arthur Garfield Hays and he became vice chairman of the ACLUs board in 1955. In 1933, on behalf of Random House, he successfully defended James Joyces novel Ulysses against obscenity charges, because he wrote the foreword to the book, he earned several hundred thousand dollars in royalties from its sales. He won similar cases on behalf of Radclyffe Halls The Well of Loneliness, the case established the right of media employees to organize labor unions. Ernst was a supporter of J. Edgar Hoover and the FBI. In 1946, President Harry Truman appointed him to the Presidents Committee on Civil Rights and he counted Justice Louis Brandeis as a close friend and later had close personal relationships with Presidents Franklin Roosevelt and Harry Truman and New York Governor Herbert Lehman. Besides politicians, he also was friendly with many figures, including Edna Ferber. White, Groucho Marx, Compton Mackenzie, Al Capp, Charles Addams, Grandma Moses, Heywood Broun, and Margaret Bourke-White. In 1956, Jesús Galíndez, a critic of the regime of Rafael Trujillo in the Dominican Republic, disappeared, abducted from New York City, it was charged, by Trujillos agents. Hired by Trujillo to investigate the affair, Ernsts resulting report cleared the Trujillo regime of involvement in Galindezs disappearance, but the FBI, in 1912, he married Susan Leerburger, with whom he had a son who died in infancy and a daughter. Ernst married Margaret Samuels in 1923, and together they had a son, Ernst kept a summer home on Nantucket, Massachusetts, and enjoyed sailing small boats. He died at home in New York City on May 21,1976, Morris Ernsts papers are housed at the Harry Ransom Center at the University of Texas at Austin. Author Co-author New York Times, Morris Ernst, Ulysses Case Lawyer, Dies, May 23,1976 Papers of Lawyer, Ernst Now Cataloged, Harry Ransom Center Guide to the Morris L. Ernst Banned Books Collection Papers, 1933-1937, schlesinger Library, Radcliffe Institute, Harvard UniversityMorris Ernst – Morris Ernst
18. Thelma Glass – Thelma Glass was an American civil rights activist, noted for helping to organize the Montgomery Bus Boycott of 1955, and a professor of geography. Glass was born Thelma McWilliams in Mobile, Alabama, to a hotel cook and she graduated from Dunbar High School and attended Alabama State University and Columbia University. Glass had joined the organization in 1947 and in 1955 was its secretary, the Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. joined in the protests as well and worked with her. She passed out fliers, alerted the community, and urged passengers to walk or car-pool, soon she noticed every bus that went by was empty of passengers. Although there was sometimes violent retaliation, the continued and eventually the Supreme Court ruled that segregation on buses was unconstitutional. She married Arthur Glass in 1942, and both taught geography at Alabama State University, where her husband was also a professor, Glass died in 2012 at the age of 96. Jo Ann Robinson, The Montgomery Bus Boycott and the Women Who Started ItThelma Glass – Thelma Glass
19. Dixie Bibb Graves – Dixie Bibb Graves was a First Lady from the state of Alabama, and the first woman United States Senator from Alabama. Dixie Bibb was born on July 26,1882, outside Montgomery, Alabama to Peyton, after attending the public schools, in 1900, at the age of 18, she married state legislator and first cousin David Bibb Graves. She was a trustee of Alabama Boys’ Industrial School in Birmingham and she was active in the Women’s Christian Temperance Union, the Alabama Federation of Women’s Clubs, and the women’s suffrage movement. She served from August 20,1937, until her resignation on January 10,1938, governor Graves decision to appoint his wife as interim senator until a special election could be held, was made in order to favor none of the possible candidates over any other. He wanted their continued support for his programs, during her term, she voted in support of New Deal programs directed at agriculture, crop control, and labor policy. Graves was active in many causes, including welfare, health. During World War II, she recruited for the Womens Army Corp, and worked for the Red Cross, one WAC group was designated as the Dixie Bibb Graves Unit. She was also chair or honorary chair of the Womens Division of the State Democratic Campaign in 1948,1952,1956 and she was a member of the Alabama Historical Association, the American Legion Auxiliary, the No Name Club, and the United Daughters of the Confederacy. Graves died in Montgomery, Montgomery County, Alabama, on January 21,1965 and she is interred at Greenwood Cemetery, Montgomery, Alabama. She was named to the Alabama Womens Hall of Fame in 1972, biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Encyclopedia of Alabama Dixie Bibb Graves at Find a GraveDixie Bibb Graves – Dixie Bibb Graves
20. Paul Hall (labor leader) – Paul Hall was an American labor leader from Inglenook in Jefferson County, Alabama. He was a member and president of the Seafarers International Union from 1957 to 1980. He was the vice president of the AFL-CIO at the time of his death. He started shipping as a teenager in the early 1930s, mostly as a wiper and Fireman/Watertender and Oiler and he also earned a 2nd Engineer license, but never sailed under it. 1938 saw the founding of SIU and Paul Hall was a charter member and he made his presence felt immediately. He was a tough, hard-nosed union activist and his early waterfront battles left him with ugly knife scars on his arms and his first official post in the union was as patrolman in the port of Baltimore in 1944. He rapidly moved up to become port agent in New York and then Director of Organizing for the SIU Atlantic, then in 1947, he became chief executive officer of SIU-Atlantic Gulf Lakes and Inland Water District, at the age of 32. He held this post until his death, Paul Hall led the SIU in the General strike of 1947 when seamen won unprecedented gains in wages and conditions. He also organized key breakthroughs for the union in bringing Isthmian Lines and Cities Service Tankers under the SIU banner, through collective bargaining, he also established the Seafarers Welfare, Pension and Vacation Plans. By 1954, the SIU had aided with, as Paul used to say, money, marbles and chalk a total of 75 brother unions in strikes and organizing campaigns. These constant battles to help other unions earned Paul Hall the lifelong reputation of one who got things done, in 1957, Paul Hall became president of SIU-North America, succeeding the late Harry Lundeberg, a post he held until his death. In the same year, he became president of the AFL-CIO Maritime Trades Department, when Hall took over the Maritime Trades Department, it was a struggling organization made up of only six small unions. He built it into the most active and effective force in the family of the trade union movement. At his death, it comprised 43 national and international unions representing nearly 8 million American workers, in 1962, he was elected to the AFL-CIO Executive Council. He was senior president of the AFL-CIO and one of its most influential members at the time of his death. He fought continually at the bargaining table, in the words of SIU Vice President Red Campbell, Paul Hall would go into a room of shipowners. Theyd throw apples and oranges on the table and hed come out with the fruit salad and he established the Seafarers Harry Lundeberg School of Seamanship in Piney Point, Maryland in 1967 in order to give young people the chance for a career at sea. Since then, the school has developed into among the finest maritime training schools in the country, thousands of SIU members have advanced their skills, and thousands of young people from deprived backgrounds have found employment through the schoolPaul Hall (labor leader) – Second President of SIU
21. Micky Hammon – Micky Hammon is an American politician. He serves as Republican member and Majority Leader of the Alabama House of Representatives, representing the 4th district, Limestone and he received an electrical degree from Calhoun Community College. He works as an electrical contractor and he was first elected in 2002 and currently serves as Majority Leader. He has been endorsed by The Alabama Tea Party Express, in 2011, he co-authored an anti-immigration bill, calling it a jobs-creation bill for Americans. He is married to Pat Hammon, and they have three childrenMicky Hammon – U.S. Senators
22. William E. Harbour – William E. Harbour is an American civil rights activist who participated in the Freedom Rides. He was one of several youth activists involved in the actions, along with John Lewis, William Barbee, Paul Brooks, Charles Butler, Allen Cason, Catherine Burks. Harbour was born into a family in Piedmont, Alabama. Although his father hoped that he would take over the barbershop, following a rejection by Jackson State University in 1960, he was able to fulfill this dream upon admission to Tennessee State University the following year. Soon after arriving in Tennessee, Harbour joined the Student Central Committee of the Nashville Christian Leadership Council at the behest of John Lewis, a fellow activist and close friend. While at the university, he participated in acts of civil disobedience, including sit-in, stand-in. His activism brought him to Rock Hill, SC where he served time with other students imprisoned after a lunch counter sit-in. Catherine Burks and Lucretia Collins —, and two whites — James Zwerg and Salynn McCollum, Harbour’s involvement led to him being arrested twice in rapid succession. The first arrest occurred in Montgomery at the end of a Nashville – Montgomery Freedom Ride. The second arrest occurred on 28 May 1961 at the end of a Nashville – Jackson, Mississippi Freedom Ride, and resulted in Harbour being imprisoned for 30 days. In Montgomery, Harbour was the first activist to exit the bus as it arrived at the Montgomery Greyhound Bus Station — and thus the first to encounter the waiting mob. Although he survived the resultant riot, upon return to Tennessee he and 14 other students were expelled from Tennessee State University due to their involvement in the civil rights movement. Following his expulsion from Tennessee State University, Harbour’s mother advised him against returning to Piedmont due to fear for his safety, consequently, from 1961 to 1966 he made only one brief visit home. In late 1961, Harbour was reinstated to Tennessee State University, after a short stint as a Georgia school teacher, and a period of involvement in the War on Poverty under President Johnson, he became a federal civil servant specializing in U. S. Army base closings. Currently a resident of Atlanta, Georgia, Harbour remains an active alumnus of Tennessee State University, the Atlanta Alumni Association sponsors a scholarship named in his honor, The William E. Harbour Academic ScholarshipWilliam E. Harbour – William E. Harbour
23. Richmond P. Hobson – Richmond Pearson Hobson was a United States Navy Rear Admiral who served from 1907–1915 as a U. S. A veteran of the Spanish–American War, he received the Medal of Honor years later for his part in that conflict and he was born at Magnolia Grove in Greensboro in Hale County in the western Black Belt of Alabama. He was the son of Sarah Pearson and James M Hobson and he was the nephew of Richmond Pearson and the grandson of Justice Richmond Mumford Pearson. He graduated from the U. S. Naval Academy in 1889 and he was ostracized by his fellow midshipmen for his total abstinence from alcohol and tobacco. He maintained an academic record, graduating first in his class and became the highest ranking midshipman. After duty in Chicago, he underwent additional training and was appointed Assistant Naval Constructor in 1891, Hobson then served at various Navy Yards and facilities, including a tour of duty as instructor at the Naval Academy. In the early days of Spanish–American War, he was with Admiral William T. Sampson in New York, and arrived off Santiago on June 1,1898. In order to bottle up the Spanish squadron of Admiral Pascual Cervera y Topete, Hobson took temporary command of the collier Merrimac, the attempt was made early June 3, under heavy Spanish fire, which disabled the steering gear of the collier. Hobson did sink the Merrimac, but was unable to place her in the shallowest part of the channel, with his crew of six, he was picked up by Admiral Cervera himself and treated quite chivalrously. Hobson became a hero of the American press while he was a prisoner of war in Cuba and his portrait appeared in hundreds of newspapers with embellished stories of his bravery in volunteering for what was perceived as a suicide mission. A fund was raised to aid his parents in avoiding foreclosure of their mortgage, when Hobson was released during a prisoner exchange on July 6,1898, hundreds of American troops snapped to attention, then burst into cheers as he passed. He was deluged with speaking invitations when he returned to the United States, after dining with President William McKinley, Hobson traveled west by train en route to San Francisco and the Philippines. Crowds greeted his train at stations, and his enthusiasm for kissing admiring young women made him a sex symbol of the Victorian age. He became a sort of celebrity during the rise of journalism at the turn of the century and was referred to as the most kissed man in America. Hobson authored a book about the surrounding the sinking of the Merrimac. Hobson was advanced ten numbers in grade after the war and was promoted to naval constructor with the rank of lieutenant to date from June 23,1898. Following the end of the war, he helped repair and refit captured Spanish cruisers at Cavite, in 1899 he became a Veteran Companion of the Pennsylvania Commandery of the Military Order of Foreign Wars. He was also a Companion of the New York Commandery of the Naval, as of January 1,1902 Hobson had been promoted to captain with date of rank of June 23,1898Richmond P. Hobson – Richmond P. Hobson
24. Beth Holloway – Following her daughters disappearance, Twitty became a speaker on the topic of personal safety. She founded the International Safe Travels Foundation to educate the public to help them more safely. Elizabeth Ann Reynolds was born and raised in the town of Pine Bluff, Arkansas to parents Ann and she later lived and worked in Tennessee. She received her bachelors degree in speech pathology with a minor in education from University of Arkansas at Little Rock. She continued her studies at Arkansas State University in Jonesboro, where she received a degree in speech pathology. Beth Reynolds married college classmate David Holloway and settled in Jackson and they had a daughter Natalee Ann, who was born in Clinton, Mississippi in 1986, and a younger son Matthew. After the couple divorced in 1993, she raised her two children on her own, in 2000, Holloway married George Jug Twitty, an Alabama businessman, and moved with her children to Mountain Brook, Alabama. On December 29,2006, Jug Twitty began divorce proceedings, Beth now lives in Birmingham, Alabama with her son Matthew. In May 2005, Twittys daughter Natalee was in Aruba on a trip with fellow students from Mountain Brook High School. Natalee was scheduled to fly home on May 30, but failed to appear for her flight. She was last seen by her classmates outside Carlosn Charlies, a Caribbean restaurant and nightclub in Oranjestad, in a car with locals Joran van der Sloot and brothers Deepak and Satish Kalpoe. Immediately after receiving word about Natalees missed flight, Jug and Beth Twitty flew to Aruba with friends by private jet. Within four hours of landing in Aruba, the Twittys presented the Aruba Police Force with the name, Twitty stated that Van der Sloots full name was given to her by the night manager at the Holiday Inn, who supposedly recognized him on a videotape. The Twittys and their friends, with two Aruban policemen, went to the Van der Sloot home looking for Natalee. m. Beth Twitty alleged in televised interviews that Joran van der Sloot and the Kalpoe brothers knew more than they told, Holloway stated that she received copies of police statements stating that van der Sloot admitted having sex with Natalee at his home and described intimate details of her. She added, I dont feel any further along than the day I got here, Twitty subsequently stated that her complaints were not addressed specifically at the Aruban government, but arose from frustration at not knowing what happened to her daughter. Twitty was criticized for her focus on Joran van der Sloot, according to the lawsuit filed by the Kalpoe brothers, she has repeatedly accused them and van der Sloot of sexual assault and gang rape of her daughter. Twitty was also criticized for making what have been deemed to be inconsistent, the lawsuit alleged personal injury against Natalee Holloway and also alleged that Van der Sloots father created a permissive environmentBeth Holloway – Holloway's daughter Natalee was last seen leaving Carlos'n Charlie's with Joran van der Sloot in Oranjestad, Aruba.
25. James Hood – On June 11,1963, in a ceremonial demonstration, Wallace stood in front of the universitys Foster Auditorium. Hood arrived to pay his fees, accompanied by Vivian Malone, Wallace intended to keep true to his promise of upholding segregation in the state and stopping integration at the schoolhouse door. Of the might of the Central Government offers frightful example of the oppression of the rights, privileges, after seeing that Wallace would not step aside, Katzenbach called upon the assistance of President John F. Kennedy to force Wallace to permit the black students entry into the university. President Kennedy federalized the Alabama National Guard later the same day, guardsmen escorted Hood and Malone back to the auditorium, where Wallace moved aside at the request of General Henry Graham. Hood and Malone then entered the building, albeit through another door, Hood left the university after only two months but returned in 1995 to begin earning his doctorate degree. On May 17,1997 he received his Ph. D. in interdisciplinary studies, in 1997, Wallace planned to give Hood his degree, but poor health prevented him from attending the ceremony. Hood himself was convinced that Wallace was sincere after that meeting, as he wrote in a following the PBS documentary on Wallace. Hood attended Wallaces funeral in 1998, imploring others to forgive Wallace as he had, Hood also received a bachelors degree from Michigans Wayne State University and a masters degree from Michigan State University. He later moved to Wisconsin, where he worked at the Madison Area Technical College for 26 years and he retired in 2002 as chairman of public safety services in charge of police and fire training. He then moved back to Gadsden, Alabama, the city in which he was born, where he died at home on January 17,2013 at the age of 70James Hood – Plaque commemorating Hood at the University of Alabama in Tuscaloosa, Alabama
26. Patti Ruffner Jacobs – Template, InforBox person Pattie Ruffner Jacobs was an American womens suffragist from Birmingham, Alabama. She was inducted into the Alabama Womens Hall of Fame in 1978, Pattie Ruffner was born in 1875 in West Virginia, the daughter of salt merchant Lewis Ruffner. She was educated at Wards Seminary in Nashville, Tennessee, but was unable to continue her studies during the crisis of the 1890s. Her parents marriage dissolved in that period and Pattie moved with her mother to Birmingham to stay with an older sisters family, Ruffner married Birmingham businessman Solon Jacobs and took advantage of his means to travel and to enroll in voice classes in New York City. Over time, she became politically active in the swirl of Progressivism which was reshaping Birmingham as a New South city of industry. Jacobs joined the fight against child labor, convict leasing, and she was an active member of the Salvation Army and the Jefferson County Anti-Tuberculosis Association. Her increasing national standing led to her participation in the campaign for the sale of Liberty Bonds during World War I and it was after several failed efforts toward improving public schools that Jacobs concluded that womens suffrage was necessary in order to achieve social reforms through the political process. She founded the Birmingham Equal Suffrace Association in 1910, followed by the Alabama Equal Suffrage Association a year later, in 1913, Jacobs spoke on behalf of Southern womens suffragists at the Annual Convention of the National Woman Suffrage Association in Washington D. C. The AESA then turned its efforts promoting a national suffrage amendment. Jacobs was elected as an officer in the National Equal Suffrage Association in 1915, after the passage of the 19th Amendment, Jacobs led the transition of her local organizations into Leagues of Women Voters. She also became secretary for the National League of Women Voters. Jacobs led efforts toward other socially-progressive laws as well, such as an attempt to establish an 8-hour work day. In 1933 she was the first woman appointed to the Democratic National Committee from Alabama, Jacobs is buried in Birminghams Elmwood Cemetery. Patti Ruffner Jacobs at Find a Grave Patti Ruffner Jacobs article, Encyclopedia of Alabama editor, Edward T. James, editor, Janet Wilson James, associate editor, Paul S. Boyer, notable American women, 1607-1950 a biographical dictionary. Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, wheeler, Marjorie Spruill New Women of the New South, The Leaders of the Woman Suffrage Movement in the Southern States. ISBN 0-19-508245-1 Goodrich, Gillian “Romance and Reality, The Birmingham Suffragists 1892-1920. ”Thomas, Mary Martha, editor Stepping Out of the Shadows, Alabama Women, 1819-1990. ISBN 0-8173-0756-7 Dalyrymple, Dolly “Mrs. Solon Jacobs Will Represent Alabama at Suffrage Annual Anniversary. ”The Birmingham News “Funeral Is Held for Mrs. Jacobs. ”Suffragists Urged to Worry Congress,335 Delegates to Washington Convention Settling Down to Real Business. Gallitz, Shenandoah Bossie OBrien Hundley and the Alabama Equal Suffrage Associations Campaign for Womens Suffrage, 1914-1915Patti Ruffner Jacobs – Mrs. Patti Ruffner Jacobs, Alabama, between 1918 and 1921
27. Hilliard P. Jenkins – Hilliard P. Jenkins was an American farmer, philanthropist, and civic leader. His family homestead, located in Loxley, Alabama, was considered one of the state’s richest farms, Jenkins also maintained leadership positions in a number of statewide and county organizations, including the Alabama Democratic Conference. One of 10 children, Jenkins was a resident of Loxley. His father, John Wesley Jenkins, purchased a 40-acre turpentine farm in 1926, after his death in 1935, the custody of the farm fell to Jenkins’ mother, Amelia Taylor Jenkins, and the older Jenkins children. Over the next two and a decades, Amelia oversaw the dramatic growth of the farm into a 1. During his youth, Jenkins, despite a lack of agricultural training, had a knack for learning the best scientific farming practices. His self-taught knowledge of methods and their application helped make the farm a vastly profitable enterprise that earned the Jenkins prestige among farmers white. He also garnered the Negro Farm Family Merit Award, bestowed by the Tuskegee Institute in 1952, the Jenkins’ financial and social stature gained them national press in Ebony magazine. As an Alabaman living under Jim Crow, Jenkins followed a set by Amelia of using economic power to improve the sociopolitical status of fellow African-American neighbors. For several decades, Jenkins was committed to service in various ways. For over 20 years, he served as chairman for of the ADC’s Baldwin County unit, Jenkins legacy is carried on by his four children,12 grandchildren, three great-grandchildren, and numerous citizens throughout Alabama and the South. In late 2009, the consulting group Frontline Solutions established the Hilliard P. Jenkins Undergraduate Fellowship Program as a way to honor the Alabama farmerHilliard P. Jenkins – Hilliard P. Jenkins
28. Paul Lambert (TV personality) – Paul Anthony Lambert, an Alabama native, is best known as Engineer Ed in the childrens television show, Fun Junction Depot. Currently, he works as technology consultant and small business owner, Lambert, who resides in Maylene, AL, is married to Tracy Sanders Lambert, of Birmingham, Alabama, and is the father of twelve children. Lambert has announced his plans to run in the 2010 election cycle for Alabamas 6th congressional district, US House of Representatives, born and raised in Birmingham, Alabama, Lambert is the oldest child of Phillip Lambert and Opal Blackmon Lambert. He has one sibling, a brother, Dennis Lambert. Lambert served as a volunteer for the Boy Scouts of America. As a leader in Cub Scout Pack 72 and later Cub Scout Pack 007, he served as Cub Master, Assistant Cub Master, Tiger Cub Coach, Wolf Den Leader, Bear Den Leader, Pack Trainer, and Advancement Chair. On the district level, he served on the Shelby District Round Table Staff, in 2002, Lambert received the Shelby District Award of Merit for his years of service to Cub Scouting. Lambert also created and developed the Closer to Him Bible study for mid-week childrens ministry programs, Paul received his degree in Electronic Engineering with emphasis in computers and telecommunications in 1991. Additional credentials include Certified Technician—The National Association of Radio and Telecommunications Engineers, Inc. Lambert now owns a technology consulting firm, Paul Lambert Consulting and Solutions, located in Shelby County, AlabamaPaul Lambert (TV personality) – Paul Lambert
29. Charles Langford – Charles Douglas Langford was an Alabama state senator who represented Rosa Parks in the famous civil rights case of the 1960s. He was the child of Nathan G. and Lucy Brown Langford. Mr. Langford was one of two lawyers in Montgomery at this time. Mr. Charles Langford completed two years at Tuskegee Institute before being drafted in the US Army during World War II, Mr. Langford had an honorable discharge from the Army in 1946. Mr. Langford earned his law degree from The Catholic University and he continued his education at Tennessee State University, earning a Bachelor of Science Degree in Business in 1948. He was a partner in the law firm of Gray, Langford, Sapp, McGowan, Gray and Nathanson. Mr. Langford was also a lawyer who represented civil rights activist Rosa Parks subsequent to her arrest on December 1,1955 for refusing to give up her seat to a man on a Montgomery bus. In 1993, representing a group of legislators, Mr. Langford helped end the flying of a Confederate battle flag from the dome of the State Capitol in Montgomery. In 1964 he represented Arlam Carr in a lawsuit against Montgomery’s Board of Education that led to the desegregation of the public schools. In 1953, he was admitted to the Alabama State Bar, Langford stayed in Montgomery and continued to represent local African-Americans in civil rights cases. He served five terms in the Senate before retiring in 2002, survivors include a sister, Mattie Lee Langford. Mr Langford died on February 11,2007 at his home in Montgomery, Mr. Langford died in his sleep, his niece Audrey Anderson told The Associated PressCharles Langford – Charles Langford
30. John Lewis (civil rights leader) – John Robert Lewis is an American politician and civil rights leader. Representative for Georgias 5th congressional district, serving since 1987, and is the dean of the Georgia congressional delegation and his district includes three quarters of Atlanta. John Lewis was born in Troy, Alabama, the son of Willie Mae. Lewis grew up in Pike County, Alabama and he has several siblings, including brothers Edward, Grant, Freddie, Sammy, Adolph, and William, and sisters Ethel, Rosa, and Ora. Lewis had seen only two people in his life until age six. While a student, he was invited to attend nonviolence workshops held in the basement of Clark Memorial United Methodist Church by the Rev. James Lawson and Rev. Kelly Miller Smith. There he and many of his students became dedicated adherents to the discipline and philosophy of nonviolence. The Nashville sit-in movement was responsible for the desegregation of lunch counters in downtown Nashville, Lewis was arrested and jailed many times in the nonviolent movement to desegregate the downtown area of the city. In an interview, John Lewis said, I saw racial discrimination as a young child, I saw those signs that said White Men, Colored Men, White Women, Colored Women. Lewis listened to Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. and Rosa Parks on the radio, Lewis met Parks in 1957 when he was 17, and he met King the following year. John Lewis was the youngest of the Big Six civil rights leaders as chairman of SNCC from 1963 to 1966, during his tenure, SNCC opened Freedom Schools, launched the Mississippi Freedom Summer, and organized some of the voter registration efforts during the 1965 Selma voting rights campaign. As the chairman of SNCC, Lewis had written a speech in reaction to the Civil Rights Bill of 1963 and he denounced the bill because it didnt protect African Americans against police brutality or provide African Americans with the right to vote. Lewis graduated from the American Baptist Theological Seminary in Nashville and then received a degree in Religion. As a student, he was dedicated to the Civil Rights Movement. He organized sit-ins at segregated lunch counters in Nashville and took part in other civil rights activities as part of the Nashville Student Movement. He was instrumental in organizing student sit-ins, bus boycotts and nonviolent protests in the fight for voter, in 1960, Lewis became one of the 13 original Freedom Riders. There were seven whites and six blacks who were determined to ride from Washington, at that time, several states of the old Confederacy still enforced laws prohibiting black and white riders from sitting next to each other on public transportation. Virginia that declared segregated interstate bus travel to be unconstitutional, in the South, Lewis and other nonviolent Freedom Riders were beaten by angry mobs, arrested at times and taken to jailJohn Lewis (civil rights leader) – John Lewis
31. Fred L. Lowery – The broadcasts reached a total weekly audience of 15 million. Lowery announced on May 5,2013, that he would retire that year from his ministry, jurkovichs Sunday morning sermon is now carried on The First Word. The senior Lowerys are interred at the Providence Baptist Church Cemetery in Montevallo, Lowerys maternal uncle, the late Clark Burkhalter, was also a pastor. Lowerys brother, John Daniel Lowery of Aiken, South Carolina, metts is a professor of Greek and New Testament at Criswell College in Dallas. Before he received the call to the ministry, Lowery wanted to be an airline pilot, at SWBTS, Lowery was accepted into the honors program and was a teaching fellow in the fields of evangelism and church growth. After seminary, Lowery worked full-time in evangelism, Lowery previously lived in Avon Park in Highlands County in southern Florida and Inman in Spartanburg County in northwestern South Carolina. In 1960 at the age of seventeen, Lowery was called as the pastor of Bethel Baptist Church, for a time after he completed seminary, Lowery was the pastor of First Baptist Church of North Spartanburg in Spartanburg, South Carolina. He then moved to Pisgah Baptist Church in Spartanburg, where he expected to remain for his preaching career, Lowery came to First Baptist Bossier in 1983, when he was forty. The next year, a fire erupted in the baptistry and burned much of the church, temporary quarters were found, on November 19,1998, FBC raised $1.3 million in one day for its expansion program. More than a thousand did so, First Baptist Bossier has more than seven thousand members. Lowerys website describes himself as having a sense of humor, goes straight to Gods word. To him, lifes bottom line is faith, family and friends, the First Word broadcasts began in June 1983. The program airs at 7 a. m, for a number of years, it has been the top-rated Sunday program in the tri-state area of northwestern Louisiana, east Texas, and southwestern Arkansas. In November 1989, Lowery was elected as the president of the Louisiana Baptist Convention at its 142nd annual meeting, which was held that year at Louisiana College in Pineville. He won the position by a margin,723 to 719, over Dr. Sid Young. Lowery was the candidate in the contest, most in the moderate faction supported Young. At the convention, Lowery stressed the needed for greater evangelism when he warned that oil and he also affirmed his pro-life credentials, I stand strongly against abortion. Im as pro-life as anyone could ever be, I would oppose the lottery as an answer to our problems in the stateFred L. Lowery – Previous sanctuary of First Baptist Church of Bossier City
32. Autherine Lucy – Autherine Juanita Lucy was the first African-American student to attend the University of Alabama, in 1956. Lucy was born in Shiloh, Alabama and her father was a sharecropper, she was the youngest child in a family of five sons and four daughters. After attending public school in Shiloh through grade ten, she attended Linden Academy in Linden and she graduated in 1947, and went on to attend Selma University in Selma for two years, after which she studied at the historically black Miles College in Fairfield. She graduated from Miles with a BA in English in 1952, in September 1952, she and a friend, Pollie Myers, a civil rights activist with the NAACP, applied to the University of Alabama. Lucy later said that she wanted an undergraduate degree, not for political reasons. Although the women were accepted, their admittance was rescinded when the authorities discovered they were not white, backed by the NAACP, Lucy and Myers charged the University with racial discrimination in a court case that took almost three years to resolve. While waiting, Lucy worked as an English teacher in Carthage, Mississippi, on June 29,1955, the NAACP secured a court order preventing the University from rejecting the admission applications of Lucy and Myers based upon their race. Lucy was finally admitted to the University but it rejected Hudson on the grounds that a child she had conceived before marriage made her an unsuitable student, even though Lucy was officially admitted, she was still barred from all dormitories and dining halls. Days later, the court amended the order to apply to all other African-American students seeking admission, Lucy attended her first class on Friday, February 3,1956. On Monday, February 6,1956, riots broke out on the campus, threats were made against her life and the University presidents home was stoned. The police were called to secure her attendance and these riots at the University were what was, to date, the most violent, post-Brown, anti-integration demonstration. After the riots, the University suspended Lucy from school because her own safety was a concern, on February 29, the Federal Court in Birmingham ordered that Lucy be reinstated and that the University must take adequate measures to protect her. The University trustees then expelled her permanently on a hastily contrived technicality, the University used the court case as a justification for her permanent expulsion, claiming that Lucy had slandered the University and they could not have her as a student. The NAACP, feeling that further action was pointless, did not contest this decision. In April 1956, in Dallas, Lucy married Hugh Foster, for some months afterward she was a civil rights advocate, making speeches at NAACP meetings around the country. But by the end of the year, her involvement in the Civil Rights Movement had ceased. For the next seventeen years, Lucy and her family lived in cities in Louisiana, Mississippi. Her notoriety made it difficult at first for her to find employment as a teacher, the Fosters moved back to Alabama in 1974, and Lucy obtained a position in the Birmingham school systemAutherine Lucy – Autherine Lucy with Roy Wilkins and Thurgood Marshall of NAACP, 1955
33. Martin Luther King III – Martin Luther King III is an American human rights advocate and community activist. He is the oldest son and oldest living child of civil rights leaders Martin Luther King Jr. Martin Luther King III was born on October 23,1957, to civil rights advocates Martin Luther King, Jr. and Coretta Scott King. His mother had reservations about naming him after his famous father, realizing the burdens it can create for the child, kings birth occurred as his father was speaking to members of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, and he announced his sons name after being told of the birth. Kings birth caused much of his mothers time to be away from her artistry and she spent the remainder of his birth year caring for him. Martin Luther King III has three siblings, the late Yolanda Denise King, Dexter Scott King and Rev. Bernice Albertine King and they were raised in Vine City, an urban neighborhood in Atlanta, Georgia. When he was eight years old and only in the grade, he began to endure racial comments and insults from a Caucasian boy in his class. When he approached the boy and complimented him on a drawing of his and he was ten years old when his father was assassinated. Years prior to his fathers death, Harry Belafonte set up a trust fund for King, after he attended The Galloway School, he attended Morehouse College, the same school his father, his grandfather, and his great-grandfather attended. Martin Luther King III is a member of Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity and he received his B. A. degree in political science from Morehouse in 1979. King lived with his mother in his home until his adulthood. King has been described as a shy man who rarely socialized, one friend, Rev. E. Randel T. Osburn, said of King, Watching him is like watching somebody trying to outrun themselves. Its like theres a ghost in front of him and hes trying to catch it. On June 26,1985, King was arrested, along with his mother and his sister Bernice, while taking part in an anti-apartheid protest at the Embassy of South Africa in Washington, D. C. On June 9,1986 he announced his candidacy for the Fulton County Commission, becoming the first of his fathers immediate family to become involved in politics. Alongside Kerry Kennedy, King opposed the death penalty in 1989, stating If we believed in an eye for an eye, King served as an elected county commission member in Fulton County, Georgia, the county encompassing most of Atlanta, from 1987 to 1993. He was defeated for reelection after revealing that he owed the government more than $200,000 in back taxes and fines. Also in 1993, King helped found the Estate of Martin Luther King Jr. Inc. the company manages the license of Martin Luther King Jr. s image. King remains a commissioner in the company as of 2008, during his service as a commissioner in Fulton County, King expressed appreciation to an officer who potentially saved his mother from harm from a crazed manMartin Luther King III – Martin Luther King III
34. Randy Phillips – Randy Phillips is an airman of the United States Air Force whose coming out in September 2011 following the repeal of the Dont ask, dont tell policy garnered media attention. There was a wave of video postings when the military anti-homosexual policy ended, the timing of his revelations to his family at the end of the militarys restrictions on service by homosexuals made him, in one journalists estimation, the poster boy for the DADT repeal. Another wrote, Phillips has masterfully used social media and good timing to place himself at the centre of a civil rights success story, born Steven Randy Phillips in Eclectic, Alabama, on May 8,1990, Phillips graduated from Elmore County High School in May 2008. His high school sports were baseball and wrestling and he began a six-year enlistment in the U. S. Air Force on March 17,2009. The date when homosexuals could serve openly in the military remained uncertain, while deployed in Southwest Asia in April 2011, Phillips, a Senior Airman since March 15, became determined to reveal his homosexuality. To seek support, he launched a media campaign by posting videos on YouTube. He described himself as a member in the closet, using social media to build up the courage to come out to family, my girlfriend, friends. The Twitter account identified him as Just an average GI, who happens to be gay, in a series of thirteen videos posted over the next five months, he asked the public for advice and encouragement. The motivation behind his social media campaign was to support to help in his coming out. Another motivation was to share his experience so that other closeted homosexuals could learn from it, in his YouTube and Twitter postings, he revealed only general details about his identity and filmed himself so that only his headless torso could be seen. He gave varying estimates of the time he thought it would take to complete his disclosure process and he struggled to describe his self-acceptance, noting that choosing to be heterosexual would be easier all the way around while homosexuality meant going against the grain. He noted negative attitudes toward homosexuality in the area where he grew up and in the military and its the way I was born and its a big stumbling block. His concerns focused on his parents reaction, I wish this wasnt something that wasnt expected of me, I wish I went along with what my parents planned for me, and what they thought I would develop into, and its not. Phillips used secluded locations for several of the videos he posted from Southwest Asia, including a bunker and he taped others outdoors and kept looking left and right to make sure no one else was coming within earshot. He reported another closeted airmans fear of disclosing his sexual orientation and it was a great presentation that nobody listened to. On June 5, he reported via video that he had out to a member of the military in late May. After reacting disrespectfully to the use of the word faggot in his work group, he apologized the next day in private to his immediate supervisor in the Air Force. Later he wrote on Twitter, It has been kinda awkward since I told my boss, on July 7 he came out to a friend and fellow airman who reacted positivelyRandy Phillips – Phillips appearing anonymously in a video posted on YouTube on September 6, 2011
35. I. T. Quinn – Irvin Talton Quinn was an American conservationist who served as game commissioner of Alabama and Virginia and was one of the founders of the National Wildlife Federation. Quinn was born in Belgreen, Alabama on January 13,1887 and he was educated at the Sixth District Agricultural School in Hamilton, Alabama and at the Alabama Polytechnic Institute, receiving a Bachelor of Science from the latter school in 1913. After graduation, he served as principal of Clarke County High School in Grove Hill, Alabama from 1913 to 1914, and Lee County High School in Auburn, Alabama from 1914 to 1915. Quinn was appointed to the post of Conservation Commissioner of Alabama in February 1922 by Governor Thomas Kilby, replacing John H. Wallace and he was re-elected as Commissioner of Game and Fisheries in 1930. As Alabama game commissioner, Quinn rebuilt a wildlife population which had virtually eliminated by poor conservation practices in the late 19th. Immediately upon assuming office, Quinn hired a force of game wardens, Quinn was also instrumental in the passage of the Migratory Bird Conservation Act in 1929 and its successor law, the 1934 Migratory Bird Hunting Stamp Act, or Duck Stamp Act. He also instituted the annual Alabama Deep Sea Fishing Rodeo near Dauphin Island, in 1939, he began to serve as director of public relations for the Federation. By 1947, Quinn had become director of the Virginia Commission of Game. He served as director and executive secretary of that body until 1958. Quinn died in Grove Hill on February 5,1972I. T. Quinn – I.T. Quinn
36. Frederick D. Reese – Frederick Douglas Reese, or F. D. Reese, is a civil rights activist, educator, and minister from Selma, Alabama. To come to Selma to amplify the citys voting rights campaign. This campaign eventually gave birth to the Selma to Montgomery marches, Reese was also president of the Selma Teachers Association, and in January 1965 he mobilized Selmas teachers to march as a group for their right to vote. Reese retired from teaching and as of February 2015 was still active as a minister at Selmas Ebenezer Missionary Baptist Church, Reese graduated from Alabama University, where he majored in math and science. Reese spent nine years in Millers Ferry, Alabama, ending in 1960 and this is where he began his teaching career, teaching science and serving as assistant principal. In 1960, Reese moved home to Selma, started teaching science, hudson High School, and joined the Dallas County Voters League, the major civil rights organization in Selma since the state of Alabama started actively suppressing the NAACP in 1956. Two years after joining the DCVL, he was elected its president, in 1965, Reese held the simultaneous leadership positions of DCVL president and president of the Selma Teachers Association. Reese and fellow teacher and DCVL member Margaret Moore challenged their colleagues, the teachers climbed the steps but were barred from entering to register. They were pushed down the steps twice, the police jabbing them with nightsticks, Reese is portrayed by E. Roger Mitchell in Ava DuVernays 2014 film Selma, and by Bob Banks in the 1999 film Selma, Lord, Selma. The Grio, Frederick D. Reese Remembers Bloody Sunday in SelmaFrederick D. Reese – F.D. Reese in hat and coat, marching from Selma to Montgomery, behind and to the right of children
37. Amelia Boynton Robinson – Amelia Isadora Platts Boynton Robinson was an American activist who was a leader of the American Civil Rights Movement in Selma, Alabama and a key figure in the 1965 Selma to Montgomery marches. In 1984, she became founding Vice-President of the Schiller Institute affiliated with Lyndon LaRouche and she was awarded the Martin Luther King, Jr. In 2014, actress Lorraine Toussaint played Robinson in the Ava DuVernay film Selma, Amelia Isadora Platts was born in Savannah, Georgia on August 18,1911 to George and Anna Eliza Platts, both of whom were African-American. She also had Cherokee and German ancestry, Church was central to Amelia and her nine siblings upbringing. As a young girl, she involved in campaigning for womens suffrage. Her family encouraged the children to read, Amelia attended two years at Georgia State Industrial College for Colored Youth. She transferred to Tuskegee Institute, earning a degree in economics in 1927. Platts taught in Georgia before starting with the U. S. Department of Agriculture in Selma as the home demonstration agent for Dallas County and she educated the countys largely rural population about food production and processing, nutrition, healthcare, and other subjects related to agriculture and homemaking. She met her future husband Samuel William Boynton in Selma, where he was working as a county extension agent during the Great Depression and they married in 1936 and had two sons, Bill Jr. and Bruce Carver Boynton. Later they adopted Amelias two nieces Sharon Seay and Germaine Bowser, Amelia and Samuel had known the noted scholar George Washington Carver at the Tuskegee Institute, from which they both graduated. It had effectively excluded most blacks from politics for decades, an exclusion that continued into the 1960s. In 1954 the Boyntons met Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr. and his wife Coretta Scott King at the Dexter Avenue Baptist Church in Montgomery, Alabama and it was a time of increased activism in the Civil Rights Movement. Amelia made her home and office in Selma a center for strategy sessions for Selmas civil rights battles, in 1964 Boynton ran for the Congress from Alabama, hoping to encourage black registration and voting. She was the first female African American to run for office in Alabama and she received 10% of the vote. In 1964 and 1965 Boynton worked with Martin Luther King, Diane Nash, James Bevel, while Selma had a population that was 50 percent black, only 300 of the towns African-American residents were registered as voters in 1965, after thousands had been arrested in protests. By March 1966, after passage of the Voting Rights Act of 1965,11,000 were registered to vote, Boynton was beaten unconscious, a photograph of her lying on Edmund Pettus Bridge went around the world. I thought, Why should I be running, then an officer on horseback hit me across the back of the shoulders and, for a second time, on the back of the neck. Boynton suffered throat burns from the effects of tear gas and she participated in both of the subsequent marchesAmelia Boynton Robinson – Robinson in 2015
38. Arthur Shores – Arthur Davis Shores was an American civil rights attorney who was considered Alabamas drum major for justice. Shores graduated from Talladega College where he became a member of Alpha Phi Alpha fraternity and he attended only one year of law school at the University of Kansas and then pursued his law studies through the correspondence school La Salle Extension University. Shores passed the Alabama State Bar exam in 1937 and immediately began using his skills to support civil rights issues. In 1938, Shores successfully sued on behalf of seven school teachers who denied the right to vote by the Alabama Board of Registrars, Shores was general counsel for the International Association of Railway Employees. A whites-only railroad union could not exclude blacks and then deny them better jobs because they were not union members and he worked on this case with attorney Charles H. Houston, who argued it successfully in front of the Supreme Court of the United States in 1944. Shores represented black teachers in the Jefferson County School Board to receive the pay as white teachers. In 1955, Shores successfully argued before the U. S. Supreme Court in Lucy v. Adams to prevent the University of Alabama from denying admission solely based on race or color, autherine Lucy became the first African-American to attend the school when she was admitted in 1956. On the third day of classes, a hostile mob assembled to prevent Lucy from attending classes, the police were called to secure her admission but, that evening, the University suspended Lucy on the grounds that it could not provide a safe environment. Shores campaign in 1963 to integrate the Birmingham public schools brought violence to him, Shores home was fire-bombed on August 20 and September 4 in retaliation for black parents registering their children at white schools. Eleven days later a bomb killed four girls at 16th Street Baptist Church and he argued before the Supreme court in the same year that the arrests of peaceful demonstrators in Birmingham should be ruled unconstitutional. During the 1960s, he became the first black member of the Birmingham City Council, in 1977, the NAACP honored Shores by awarding him the William Robert Ming Advocacy Award for the spirit of financial and personal sacrifice displayed in his legal work. Shores died in December 1996 at his home in Birmingham, Alabama, biography–Arthur Davis Shores Oral History Interview with Arthur Shores from Oral Histories of the American SouthArthur Shores – Birmingham, Alabama residents viewing the bomb-damaged home of Arthur Shores on September 5, 1963. The bomb exploded the previous day, September 4, injuring Shores' wife.
39. Courtney Shropshire – Courtney Shropshire, a prominent doctor in Birmingham, Alabama, was the founder and first president of Civitan International. Shropshire was born in New Orleans, Louisiana in 1877, while living in Jackson, Mississippi, he briefly attended Mississippi A&M, Millsaps College, and Wards Business College. After moving to Franklin, Tennessee, to avoid an outbreak of yellow fever and this experience led him to enroll in the medical school of the University of Tennessee in Nashville. After graduating in 1900, Shropshire began to practice in small towns. He moved to Birmingham, Alabama in 1903 and he completed post-graduate studies at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine and the Mayo Clinic. Shropshire also served as the United States Public Health Service representative for Birmingham, Shropshire was attending a newly organized Rotary club in 1917. He and several of the other Rotarians decided that the club was too focused on increasing the business of its members, by serving and creating a healthy-whole community, the businesses would naturally thrive. They held their first meeting on March 17,1917, with 37 charter members and they named the group the Civitan Club. Shropshire was elected president for two terms as the club grew to 200 members. He envisioned an organization of clubs, but the nations focus on World War I prevented the club from becoming anything more than a local club. With businessmen in other cities asking to form clubs, the International Association of Civitan Clubs was established in 1920, Shropshire was elected as the first international president for two years in a row, he remains the only individual to serve two terms as international president. After his terms ended, Shropshire continued to actively promote Civitan and he was a frequent speaker at Civitans international conventions, and he visited clubs across the country until his death in 1965Courtney Shropshire – Courtney Shropshire
40. Fred Shuttlesworth – Frederick Lee Fred Shuttlesworth, was a U. S. civil rights activist who led the fight against segregation and other forms of racism as a minister in Birmingham, Alabama. He returned to Birmingham after his retirement in 2007 and he helped Martin Luther King Jr. during the Civil Rights Movement. The Birmingham-Shuttlesworth International Airport was named in his honor in 2008, in May 1956 Shuttlesworth and Ed Gardner established the Alabama Christian Movement for Human Rights to take up the work formerly done by the NAACP. The ACMHR raised almost all of its funds from sources at mass meetings. It used both litigation and direct action to pursue its goals, when the authorities ignored the ACMHRs demand that the City hire black police officers, the organization sued. On December 25,1956, unknown persons tried to kill Shuttlesworth by placing sixteen sticks of dynamite under his bedroom window, Shuttlesworth somehow escaped unhurt even though his house was heavily damaged. A police officer, who belonged to the Ku Klux Klan, told Shuttlesworth as he came out of his home. Shuttlesworth told him to tell the Klan that he was not leaving, the SCLC adopted a motto to underscore its commitment to nonviolence, Not one hair of one head of one person should be harmed. He alienated some members of his congregation by devoting as much time as he did to the movement at the expense of weddings, funerals, as a result, in 1961 Shuttlesworth moved to Cincinnati, Ohio, to take up the pastorage of the Revelation Baptist Church. He remained intensely involved in the Birmingham campaign after moving to Cincinnati, Shuttlesworth was apparently personally fearless, even though he was aware of the risks he ran. Other committed activists were scared off or mystified by his willingness to accept the risk of death, Shuttlesworth himself vowed to kill segregation or be killed by it. His assailants included Bobby Frank Cherry, who six years later was involved in the 16th Street Baptist Church Bombing, the mob beat Shuttlesworth with chains and brass knuckles in the street while someone stabbed his wife. Shuttlesworth drove himself and his wife to the hospital where he told his kids to always forgive, in 1958, Shuttlesworth survived another attempt on his life. A church member standing guard saw a bomb and quickly moved it to the street before it went off, Shuttlesworth participated in the sit-ins against segregated lunch counters in 1960 and took part in the organization and completion of the Freedom Rides in 1961. Shuttlesworth originally warned that Alabama was extremely volatile when he was consulted before the Freedom Rides began, however, the planners of the Rides were undeterred and decided to continue preparing. Shuttlesworth mobilized some of his clergy to assist the rides. After the Riders were badly beaten and nearly killed in Birmingham and Anniston during the Rides and he himself had been brutalized earlier in the day and had faced down the threat of being thrown out of the hospital by the hospital superintendent. Shuttlesworth took in the Freedom Riders at the Bethel Baptist Church, the violence in Anniston and Birmingham almost led to a quick end to the Freedom RidesFred Shuttlesworth – Shuttlesworth pastored Bethel Baptist Church from 1953 to 1961. The church served as headquarters and a frequent meeting place for the Alabama Christian Movement for Human Rights (ACMHR), which Shuttlesworth founded in 1956. Shuttlesworth and his church endured three bombings, the first on December 25, 1956.
41. Channing Tatum – Channing Matthew Tatum is an American actor, dancer, and former stripper. Tatum made his debut in the drama film Coach Carter. His breakthrough role was in the 2006 dance film Step Up and he is known for his portrayal of the character Duke in the 2009 action film G. I. Joe, The Rise of Cobra and its 2013 sequel G. I, Joe films received negative reviews from critics, they were commercially successful, grossing more than $300 million at the box office. Tatum is also known for his role in Magic Mike. He appeared in films as Dear John and The Vow and his other films include Shes the Man, The Dilemma, White House Down, the drama Foxcatcher, The Hateful Eight and Hail, Caesar. Tatum was born in Cullman, Alabama, the son of Kay, a worker, and Glenn Tatum. He has a sister named Paige and he is mostly of English ancestry. His family moved to the Pascagoula, Mississippi area when he was six and he grew up in the bayous near the Mississippi River, where he lived in a rural setting. Tatum has discussed having dealt with attention deficit disorder and dyslexia while growing up, athletic while growing up, he played football, soccer, track, baseball, and performing martial arts, he has said that girls were always biggest distraction in school. As a child, he practiced wuzuquan kung fu, Tatum spent most of his teenage years in the Tampa area, and initially attended Gaither High School. He later attended Glenville State College in Glenville, West Virginia on a football scholarship and he returned home and started working odd jobs. US Weekly reported that around this time Tatum left his job as a roofer and began working as a stripper at a local nightclub, in 2010, he told an Australian newspaper that he wanted to make a movie about his experiences as a stripper. That idea led to the movie Magic Mike, Tatum moved to Miami, where he was discovered by a model talent scout. In 2000, Tatum was first cast as a dancer in Ricky Martins She Bangs music video, after an audition in Orlando, Florida and his experience in the fashion industry began as a model working for noted clients such as Armani and Abercrombie & Fitch. He soon moved into television commercials, landing spots for Mountain Dew. He subsequently signed with Page 305, an agency in Miami. He was cast by Al David for Vogue magazine and soon appeared in campaigns for Abercrombie & Fitch, Nautica, Dolce & Gabbana, American Eagle OutfittersChanning Tatum – Tatum at the premiere of Magic Mike XXL in Sydney Australia, July 2015
42. Lucille Times – Lucille Times was an active participant in the struggle for civil rights in Montgomery, Alabama throughout her adult life. She worked for the cause at a time when the city was at the center of the national movement, Lucille was born April 12,1922, in Egypt, Alabama. Her mother died when Lucille was very young and she was raised by her father, during her childhood years the family lived in Chicago, Detroit and Alabama. Mr. Sharp strongly imprinted two ideas on Lucille, The first, “You are no better than anyone else” and the second, “When youre right don’t back down. ”Lucille married her husband, Charlie Times on February 3,1939. She and Charlie joined the NAACP shortly after marriage, and when the NAACP was banned the couple hosted meetings in their home, in 1952, they opened the Time’s Café on Holt Street, which operated continuously until 1986. When Lucille lived in Detroit, she was part of a boycott of a butcher shop on 12th Street. The shop’s Polish proprietor sold some bad meat to a black man, the neighborhood residents became indignant and refused to shop there and the shop went out of business in less than a month. On June 15,1955, Lucille drove her 1955 Buick LeSabre to the cleaners on the Mobile Highway, on the way, bus driver James Blake tried to force her car off of the road three times. After she pulled into the parking lot, Mr. Blake exited his bus and confronted her with, “you’re a black son of a bitch. ”Lucille responded with “you’re a white son of a bitch. ”. Soon two motorcycle policemen arrived to break them up, at that time Lucille bit Mr. Blake’s left biceps. After splitting them up one of the policemen talked to Mr. Blake separately and then approached Lucille angrily with “do you know that was a man you called a ‘white son of a bitch’. ”That night E. D. Nixon came to the Time’s Holt Street house. Mr. Nixon responded, “I cannot do anything about what happened off of the bus, something’s got to happen on the bus. ”Lucille’s reply was, “I’m starting a boycott tomorrow. ”Mr. Nixon said, “wait until after Thanksgiving when the come on and we’ll hit them in the pocket. ”Lucille repeated emphatically. She drove people in her neighborhood to their destinations and would pick up waiting at the bus stops. Her husband helped with his car and they had a jar at the café where people made contributions for gasoline. The café became a de facto transportation hub, and people would call the café when they needed rides, twice during this time, Mr. Nixon brought A. Philip Randolph to the Time’s Holt Street house and Lucille told him her story, during this time Charlie Times began meeting secretly with Mr. Nixon at the café and planning for a large organized boycott. Mr. Times even kept these secret from Lucille until after the big boycott started in December. At that time, Lucille continued driving people as she had been until the big boycott ended in December 1956Lucille Times – Lucille Times
43. Hattie Hooker Wilkins – Hattie Wilkins was an American progressive era suffragist and womens rights activist who is best known for being the first woman elected to a seat in the Alabama Legislature. She was inducted into the Alabama Womens Hall of Fame in 1997, Hattie Hooker, the daughter of Frederick Josiah Hooker and Alexina Hooker, was born on July 28,1875, at Selma, Alabama in Dallas County, Alabama. Hattie was educated at Boss Calloways School in Selma, and later attended Normal College in Nashville, along with all of her schooling she was also involved with the local church, the Broad Streed Presbyterian Church. After graduating in 1894, she began a career teaching up until she got married, in 1898 Hattie married Joseph G. Wilkins, an industrialist, and they resided in Selma. Together they had four children, although one of her children died at the age of three after drinking lye water. ”Wilkins was one of the first suffragists in the state of Alabama. Wilkins was a member of the Alabama Equal Suffrage Association. Because democracy gives to each person this opportunity for development, democracy is right. Because democracy is right, Woman Suffrage is right. ”After women gained suffrage, Wilkins stayed involved in politics and in 1922, Wilkins beat the incumbent candidate for the Alabama House of Representatives, and became the first woman elected to a seat in the Alabama Legislature. Wilkins joined the legislature as a democrat with the belief that in a nation of both men and women, the government should cater to the needs of men and women alike. Her main agenda was aimed towards reforming education, healthcare and the needs of her constituents while being head of the committee on public health. Her efforts as a legislator gained the respect of her colleagues with in the legislation, in 1977, Wilkins was selected as one of twenty-five Alabama women who were highlighted in the historical exhibit, Faces and Voices of Alabama Women. This exhibit is a permanent collection at the University of Alabama in Tuscaloosa, after being highlighted in this historical exhibit she was once again memorialized in 1997 when she was inducted into the Alabama Women’s Hall of Fame. This was hosted by Judson College in Marion, Perry CountyHattie Hooker Wilkins – Hattie Hooker Wilkins
44. Ruby G. Woodson – She was born in Houston County, Alabama, but raised in Sarasota. Her mother, Ella Mae Garrard worked as a maid and later owned a country store. Her father, David Garrard, was a farmer, and later a circus roustabout and she had one child, William G. Woodson. At the age of fifteen, she was the valedictorian of her class of 1947 when she was graduated from Booker High School in Sarasota. At the age of nineteen, in June 1951 Woodson was awarded her bachelor of degree in chemistry from Florida A & M University in Tallahassee. She received her master of arts degree in education from American University in Washington and her masters thesis was entitled, Some Effects of the Atomic Era on the Teaching of High School Chemistry in the United States. In 1957, while she was on a vacation in her hometown of Sarasota and researching materials for completion of her masters degree and she made a formal objection to her treatment that she took to city and county government officials. Her efforts led to the elimination of barriers to community services paid for by the taxation of all residents. Soon the vestiges of segregation began to fall in Sarasota and all residents were granted access to the library. The academy was founded in 1973 in an annex and soon was sending many of its students to classes at Georgetown University. The inspiration for the name of the academy was Otelia Cromwell, bill Cosby sent his son, Ennis, and the president of Venezuela sent his daughter. Woodson was a figure in the day-to-day administration of the academy and fulfilled many other roles such as college placement adviser, guidance counselor. Initial difficulties encountered in operating expenses often were resolved by donations from Woodsons personal savings, the student body of the academy was small and familial. Donations were sought to develop a program to assist many of the students. Woodson had overcome dyslexia in her efforts to excel and was able to provide insights to children coping with similar hurdles. She inspired the students with her own standards of ethics and morality and helped them develop personal discipline. She taught them how to make applications to colleges appropriate to their interests and abilities, the academy became recognized for academic excellence. One 1979 graduate of the academy, Lisa S. Martin, later was graduated from Yale University, Woodsons achievements were lauded in the Washington Post and by the United States Department of EducationRuby G. Woodson – Memorial resolution honoring the contributions and achievements of Ruby Garrard Woodson
45. Sammy Younge Jr. – Samuel Sammy Leamon Younge Jr. was a civil rights and voting rights activist who was murdered for trying to desegregate a whites only restroom. Younge was a service member in the United States Navy. Younge was an member of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee. Younge was the first African-American university student to be murdered in the United States due to his actions in support of the Civil Rights Movement, Younge was born on November 17,1944, in Tuskegee, Alabama. His father, Samuel Younge Sr. was an occupational therapist, from the age of 12 to 14, from 1956 to 1958, Younge attended Cornwall Academy, in Massachusetts. He graduated from Tuskegee Institute High School in 1962, after which he joined the United States Navy, Younge served in the United States Navy from 1962 until July 1964, when he was given a medical discharge as a result of having to have one of his kidneys removed. Upon his discharge from the Navy, Younge began attending the Tuskegee Institute, in 1965, Younge became involved in the Civil Rights Movement during his first semester at the Tuskegee Institute. He participated in the Selma to Montgomery protest march in Montgomery, Alabama, Younge joined the SNCC and the Tuskegee Institute for Advancement League — a local civil rights student group formed with the help of the SNCC. He soon started helping to lead protests by the organizations against civil rights infractions in Alabama, then, in April 1965, he went to Mississippi and worked with Unita Blackwell and Fannie Lou Hamer to help the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party get black voters registered. In the Summer of 1965, Younge lead Tuskegee Institute students in challenging overt discrimination in Tuskegee, the group attempted to enter white restaurants, held rallies, and picketed establishments that refused to hire black people. Several times they attempted to attend segregated white churches and were beaten twice. In September 1965, Younge was arrested and jailed after attempting to drive a group of African-Americans to get registered to vote in Lee County, Alabama. Younge continued his efforts to get registered to vote in Macon County, Alabama four months after being released from jail. Younge was shot in the back of the head by Marvin Segrest, the shooting came after a verbal altercation between Younge and the attendant about Younge using the whites-only bathroom. Younge became the first black student to be murdered for his actions in support of the Civil Rights Movement. His death and the subsequent acquittal of his murderer sparked outraged protests in TuskegeeSammy Younge Jr. – Official image of Sammy Younge Jr. as an enlisted member in the United States Navy.