Category:Activists from Alabama
Pages in category "Activists from Alabama"
The following 111 pages are in this category, out of 111 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 111 pages are in this category, out of 111 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Lewis Adams – Little is known of his early life. It is known, however, that despite having no formal education, Adams could read, speak several languages. He was an experienced tinsmith, shoemaker. He was married to "Sallie" Sarah Adams with whom he had sixteen children. He was an acknowledged leader of the county's African-American community. Adams was especially concerned that, without an education, the recently freed former slaves would not be able to fully support themselves. There were no institutions at that time to teach essential skills. In 1880, Adams was approached on behalf of two white candidates seeking election to the Alabama Senate. He was asked what it would take to get the votes of the community's black citizens. Another former slave, Booker T. Washington, was recruited upon recommendation of Samuel C. Armstrong, the founder and principal of another normal school for blacks in Hampton, Virginia, to become the first principal. Like Lewis Adams, Dr. Washington embraced the concept that former slaves needed practical job skills to support their families. Despite widespread work, Dr. Washington remained principal of Tuskegee until his death in 1915, at the age of 59. At the time of his death, Tuskegee's endowment exceeded US$ million. Another famous African American who taught at the school of Lewis Adams' dreams was Dr. George Washington Carver.Lewis Adams – Lewis Adams
2. Robert Aderholt – Robert Brown Aderholt is the U.S. Representative for Alabama's 4th congressional district, serving since 1997. Aderholt is a member of the Republican Party. He has taken conservative stands on issues such as abortion, tax reform, defense spending. He was born to Mary Frances Brown and Bobby Ray Aderholt. A part-time minister for a small group of Congregational churches in northwest Alabama, was a circuit judge for more than 30 years. Aderholt attended the University of North Alabama and then Birmingham-Southern College from which he graduated. During college, he was a member of Kappa Alpha Order. He practiced law after graduation. In 1992, he was appointed municipal judge. In the same year, Aderholt was a delegate to the Republican National Convention. In 1995, Aderholt became the top aide to Governor Fob James. Aderholt won the 1996 Republican primary in the race to succeed 15-term incumbent Tom Bevill. He is a signer of Americans for Tax Reform's Taxpayer Protection Pledge. Saying he will not raise taxes on any bracket.Robert Aderholt – Robert Aderholt
3. Charles Barkley – Charles Wade Barkley is an American retired professional basketball player and current analyst on the television program Inside the NBA. Nicknamed "Chuck", "Sir Charles", "The Round Mound of Rebound", Barkley established himself as one of the National Basketball Association's most dominating power forwards. He was drafted by the Philadelphia 76ers with the 5th pick of the 1984 NBA draft. Barkley was selected to five times, once to the All-NBA Third Team. He earned eleven NBA All-Star Game appearances and was named the All-Star MVP in 1991. In 1993, he was voted the league's Most Valuable Player and during the NBA's 50th anniversary, named one of the 50 Greatest Players in NBA History. Barkley won two gold medals as a member of the United States' "Team". Barkley was popular with the fans and media and made the NBA's All-Interview Team for his last 13 seasons in the league. Short for a power forward, Barkley used his strength and aggressiveness to become one of the NBA's most dominant rebounders. He was a versatile player who had the ability to score, create plays, defend. In 2000, Barkley retired as the fourth player in NBA history to achieve 4,000 assists. Since retiring as a player, he has had a successful career as a analyst. Barkley was born and raised in Leeds, Alabama, ten miles outside Birmingham, attended Leeds High School. As a junior, Barkley stood 5'10" and weighed 220 pounds. He failed to make the varsity team and was named as a reserve.Charles Barkley – Charles Barkley in 2008
4. Mark Barnes – Mark Barnes is an American attorney and advocate based in Boston. He worked in the Clinton Administration. His work includes focus on the fields of research compliance, medical privacy. He is President-Elect of the New York State Bar Association's Health Law Section. Barnes is a native of Tallapoosa County, Alabama. His family has lived around Tallapoosa for generations. According to his family oral history, he is a direct descendant of Daniel Boone. Barnes plans to retire to Dadeville, where he purchased property. He has been since 1983. Barnes attended Bennington College. In 1991 he received his L.L.M. from Columbia University School of Law. As an associate professor of the Columbia Law School, Barnes founded the AIDS Law Clinic. He is a Lecturer at the Yale Medical School, where he teaches each Fall. The clinical director at Columbia said of Barnes:" is a leader in the field, we're lucky to have him. He's highly knowledgeable, he's litigated on a precedented case, he's sensitive to the AIDS crisis."Mark Barnes – Mark Barnes
5. Alva Belmont – Known for having an aristocratic manner that antagonized many people, she was also noted for her energy, intelligence, willingness to challenge convention. She was married first to William Kissam Vanderbilt, with whom she had three children, secondly to Oliver Hazard Perry Belmont. Murray Smith was Delia Forbes of Dumfries, Virginia. Phoebe Desha was the daughter of Eleanor Shelby, both originally from Sumner County, Tennessee. Alva was one of six children. Two of Alice and Eleanor, both died as children before she was born. Murray Forbes Smith, Jr. died in 1857 and was buried in Magnolia Cemetery in Mobile. Armide Vogel Smith and Mary Virginia "Jennie" Smith, were her only siblings to survive into adulthood. Jennie first married the brother of Alva's childhood best friend, Duchess of Manchester. Following a divorce from Fernando Yznaga in 1886, Jennie remarried to William George Tiffany. As a child, Alva accompanied them on European vacations. In 1859 the Smiths relocated to New York City, where they briefly settled in Madison Square. When Murray went to Liverpool, England, to conduct his business, Phoebe Smith, moved to Paris where Alva attended a private boarding school in Neuilly-sur-Seine. After the Civil War, the Smith family returned to New York, where her mother died in 1869. At a party for one of Smith's best friend, Consuelo Yznaga introduced her to William Kissam Vanderbilt, grandson of Cornelius Vanderbilt.Alva Belmont – Alva E. Belmont sometime during 1911, aged 57–58.
6. James G. Birney – James Gillespie Birney was an abolitionist, politician and jurist born in Danville, Kentucky. From 1816 to 1818, he served in the Kentucky House of Representatives. In 1836, he started his weekly publication in Cincinnati, Ohio titled The Philanthropist. He was twice a US Presidential candidate for the anti-slavery Liberty Party. Born to an affluent Episcopalian slaveholder of the same name in Danville, Kentucky, James G. Birney lost his mother during his youth. His sister were raised by their aunt, who had come over from Scotland at the request of his father to look after the two. By 1795, their families had migrated from Ireland, settling on farms near his home. Most of his mother's relatives had also migrated nearby, settling in other areas of Kentucky. Up, he saw the issue of slavery from a variety of perspectives. Other members of Birney's family refused to own slaves. Most notably, the aunt that raised him paid them when they performed services for her. For his own part, Birney received his first slave at age six. However, for much of his education, he was under the influence of teachers and friends with strong anti-slavery views. For example, he attended several sermons by the name of David Barrow in his youth, which he later recalled with fondness. He excelled in his studies there, which were mostly based in the sciences.James G. Birney – James G. Birney
7. Patricia Swift Blalock – Patricia Swift Blalock was an American librarian, social worker, civil rights activist born in Gadsden, Alabama. She studied social work at the University of Chicago. Patricia Blalock was born in Gadsden, Alabama. Blalock had two siblings, a brother. Her parents more liberal than most families in her area. Her grandfather had taught her "not to fear blacks." Blalock received a master's degree in social work from the University of Chicago. She had a daughter in 1946, after which she retired from social work. In 1951, "Miss Betty" asked Blalock to work in the Dallas County Public Library on a part-time basis. She began working as an assistant for a position she held for nearly ten years. When the director became ill, she became temporary director. The board then asked her to become the permanent director when it was clear that the current director would not be able to continue. She was apprehensive at first because she was, instead, a social worker. The board asked that she take the position which she assumed in 1963. At the time, there was only one library in Selma.Patricia Swift Blalock – Patricia Swift Blalock was instrumental in desegregating the Selma library in 1963.
8. Joyce Bryant – Joyce Bryant is an African-American singer and actress who achieved fame in the late 1940s and early 1950s as a theater and nightclub performer. She left the industry at the height of her popularity to devote herself to the Seventh-day Adventist Church. A decade later, Bryant later became a vocal coach. The oldest of eight children, was born in Oakland, California, raised in San Francisco. Her father worked as a chef for her mother was a devout Seventh-day Adventist. A quiet child raised in a strict home, had ambitions of becoming a sociology teacher. The marriage ended that same evening. In 1946, while visiting cousins in Los Angeles, Bryant agreed on a dare to participate in an impromptu singalong at a local club. "After a while," Bryant recounted in a 1955 Jet interview, "I found I was the only one singing. I took it because I to get home." Her profile eventually grew to the level that one night, Bryant appeared on the same bill as Josephine Baker. Not wanting to be upstaged, Bryant colored her silver using radiator paint, performed wearing a tight silver dress and silver floor-length mink. She recalled when she arrived onstage, "I stopped everything!" Etta James noted in Rage to Survive: The Etta James Story: "I didn't want to look innocent. I wanted to look like Joyce Bryant.Joyce Bryant – Carl Van Vechten photo portrait of Joyce Bryant, May 28, 1953
9. Robert D. Bullard – Robert Doyle Bullard is Dean of the Barbara Jordan - Mickey Leland School Of Public Affairs at Texas Southern University. Previously Ware Professor of the Environmental Justice Resource Center at Clark Atlanta University, Bullard is known as the ` father of environmental justice'. Born in Elba, Alabama, Robert Bullard is the son of Myrtle Brundidge Bullard; he was "the fourth of five children." He graduated from Elba's Mulberry Heights High School, in 1964. Continuing his education, Bullard received a bachelor's degree in Government at Alabama A&M University, in 1968. Upon graduating from college, he served two years at an "air control station in North Carolina". His M.A. in Sociology was earned in 1972. Bullard obtained his Ph.D. in Sociology at Iowa State University, under the supervision of urban sociologist Robert O. Richards. Suburban Northwood Manor neighborhood was an unlikely location for a garbage dump except that it was over 82 percent black. Bullard, having received his doctoral degree only a couple of years before, was drawn into the case as an witness. In this role Bullard conducted a study which documented the location of municipal disposal facilities in Houston. Entitled ` the Black Houston Community', the study was the first comprehensive account of ecoracism in the United States. His researchers found that African American neighbourhoods in Houston were often chosen for toxic waste sites. This discovery prompted Bullard to begin a long activist campaign against environmental racism. Again he found a clear overrepresentaion of environmental hazards in black areas compared to white areas causing increased health risks to black citizens.Robert D. Bullard – October 2012
10. Mary Fair Burks – Mary Fair Burks was an American educator, scholar, civil rights activist from Montgomery, Alabama. Burks was born on July 31, 1914, the daughter of Gustavus "Gus" Samuel and Ollie Fair. She was head of the English department at Alabama State College in early 1950s. In 1946, she founded an organization that promoted civic involvement, helped increase voter registration, lobbied city officials to address racist policies. She continued to be a part of the WPC. In 1955-56, other WPC members helped initiate and provide support for the Montgomery bus boycott. In 1960, Burks resigned from Alabama State College after several professors were fired for their involvement in civil issues. She then taught literature until her retirement in 1986. Burks was appointed for the Humanities reviewing panel in 1979. She died on July 1991. Burks, Mary Fair. "Women in the Montgomery Bus Boycott". King Chronologies. "Burks, Mary Fair." The photo on this page is NOT Mary Fair Burks.Mary Fair Burks – Mary Fair Burks
11. Samuel A. Cartwright – Samuel Adolphus Cartwright was a physician who practiced in Mississippi and Louisiana in the antebellum United States. He is best known as the inventor of an outspoken critic of germ theory. He was born to Mr. and Mrs. John S. Cartwright. Prior to 1812, Cartwright began his medical training to Dr. John Brewer. Thereafter, Cartwright was apprenticed to Dr. Benjamin Rush of Philadelphia. Cartwright also attended the University of Pennsylvania Medical School. He was at one time a surgeon under General Andrew Jackson. Cartwright practiced medicine in Huntsville, Alabama, then Natchez, finally New Orleans, where he relocated in 1858. They had at least one child. Cartwright died in the Mississippi state capital, two months before the surrender of Vicksburg to the forces of General Ulysses S. Grant. Even though he had studied under the abolitionist Dr. Rush in Philadelphia, he contributed ideas and literature to those southerners who defended slavery. Cartwright is now most well known for describing a condition he the desire to flee from servitude. According to Cartwright, drapetomania is a mental disorder akin to alienation. If they nonetheless became dissatisfied with their condition, they should be whipped against running away. In describing his cure for drapetomania, he relied on passages of Christian scripture dealing with slavery.Samuel A. Cartwright – Samuel Cartwright
12. Sidney Johnston Catts – Sidney Johnston Catts was an American politician and anti-Catholic spokesman. He served from 1917 to 1921. He earned a law degree from Cumberland School of Law at Cumberland University in 1882. Soon he moved to Florida. Catts then left his job as a pastor to sell insurance. In 1916, he ran as a Democrat. A recount was ordered and he came in second. After that, he received the nomination of the Prohibition Party. Catts also espoused anti-Catholicism and racism. On election he won the election with 43 % of the vote. Catts served as governor to January 4, 1921. As Governor, his proposals for reform were stopped by the legislature. This actually caused a fair number of German settlers to move to friendlier parts of the country. The abbot of Right Rev. Charles Mohr, OSB published several dignified responses to these outlandish conspiracy theories. In support of the St. Leo monks, many Pasco County Protestants made a point to appear in public with local Catholics.Sidney Johnston Catts – Sidney Johnston Catts
13. J. L. Chestnut – J. L. Chestnut was an author, attorney, a figure in the Civil Rights Movement. Chestnut attended Howard University Law School. He represented civil rights demonstrators at trial there when the Selma Movement began in the 1960s. In 1994, Chestnut was active in protesting the jailing of political activist Lyndon LaRouche. He was interviewed in Alabama." He aged 77, of kidney failure, after an illness lasting several months in a hospital in Alabama. "The Legacy of Rosa Parks", article by Chestnut in Counterpunch, October 26, 2005J. L. Chestnut
14. Adele Goodman Clark – Adele Goodman Clark was an American artist and suffragist. The family lived before moving to Richmond, Virginia in 1894. They decided that the white suffragists would patrol polling locations in cars. Clark and Houston continued to be involved after this election. She was its president from 1921 to 1925, then again from 1929 to 1944. Also in 1928, Clark and Houston bought a house together on Chamberlayne Avenue in Richmond, which came to be known as "The Brattery." She was on the Virginia Arts Commission from 1941–64, having helped establish it in 1916. She met fellow artist Nora Houston at the Art School of Richmond, where she taught after returning to Virginia. Houston became Clark's "very intimate friend" in 1942. An Episcopalian, also converted to Roman Catholicism, Houston's religion, chaired the Richmond Diocesan Council of Catholic Women's Legislative Committee from 1949-59. She continued opposing the Equal Rights Amendment in the belief that it was unnecessary. Clark died on June 4, 1983, aged 100. Documenting February 28, 1964. Audio and transcripts. Finding Aid to the Adele Clark Papers, Special Collections and Archives, James Branch Cabell Library, VCU Libraries, Richmond, Virginia.Adele Goodman Clark – Clark in 1916.
15. Artur Davis – Artur Genestre Davis is an American attorney, former politician. He served for Alabama's 7th congressional district from 2003 to 2011. Davis was also a candidate for the Democratic nomination for Governor of Alabama in the 2010 election. After losing in the primary, Davis joined the Republican Party. Davis was defeated in his attempt to be elected Mayor of Montgomery, Alabama in the 2015 election. He was one of the national co-chairs for Obama's 2008 campaign. Known for his oratorical skills, he made one of the nominating speeches for Obama at the 2008 Democratic National Convention. In 2010 Davis, voted against the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, the only member of the Congressional Black Caucus to do so. In 2009, he sought to become Alabama's first African American Governor. Davis lost to Agriculture Commissioner Ron Sparks, a more liberal Democrat. He changed his party affiliation in 2012. Shortly after, he announced he would not be running to the House in 2010, instead returning to the practice of law. Davis subsequently joined the Republican Party. A 1990s honors graduate of Harvard Law School, in 2012 Davis became a visiting fellow at the Harvard Institute of Politics. Davis also began writing a column for the conservative National Review.Artur Davis – Artur Davis
16. Virginia Foster Durr – Virginia Foster Durr was an American and a white civil rights activist and lobbyist. Durr was born to Dr. Sterling Foster, an Alabama Presbyterian minister, Ann Patterson Foster. At 22 Durr married lawyer Clifford Durr, with whom she had 5 children, one of whom died in infancy. Her circle of friends extended to Alger Hiss. Durr was inducted in 2006. She was born in Birmingham, Alabama, where she was also taught that the Ku Klux Klan were protectors of southern womanhood. One of her grandfathers had owned slaves, while the other was a member of the Ku Klux Klan. She attended Wellesley College in Massachusetts from 1920 to 1923. She has explicitly acknowledged Wellesley as the catalyst of her moral transformation from a racist to civil rights activist. Durr came to question segregation after her experience with her college's hall. The dining halls had a rotating tables policy that required students to eat meals with random students regardless of their race. This led to a new phrase, "Virginia Durr Moment", which refers to an event that promotes the moral development of an individual. She was returned home to Birmingham, Alabama. After withdrawing from school in 1923, Virginia Durr returned home to Birmingham, Alabama where she met her future husband Clifford Durr at church. Virginia Durr and Clifford Durr had five children.Virginia Foster Durr – Virginia Foster Durr
17. Morris Ernst – Morris Leopold Ernst was an American lawyer and co-founder of the American Civil Liberties Union. He was born in Uniontown, Alabama, to a Czech-born father and German mother. His parents were Jewish. He lived around New York City from the age of 2. He graduated from Williams College in Williamstown, Massachusetts, in 1909. He studied law at New York Law School where he graduated in 1912 and was admitted to the New York bar in 1913. Ernst practiced law in 1915 co-founded the law firm of Greenbaum, Wolff & Ernst. In 1917, he helped found the National Civil Liberties Bureau, which later became the American Civil Liberties Union. From 1929 to 1959, he shared the title of general counsel with Arthur Garfield Hays. He became chairman of the ACLU's board in 1955. In 1933, on behalf of Random House, he successfully defended James Joyce's novel Ulysses against obscenity charges, leading to its distribution in the U.S. Because he wrote the foreword to the book, he earned several hundred thousand dollars in royalties from its sales. He won similar cases on behalf of Arthur Schnitzler's Casanova's Homecoming. The case established the right of employees to organize labor unions. Ernst was a strong supporter of the FBI.Morris Ernst – Morris Ernst
18. Thelma Glass – Thelma Glass was an American civil rights activist, noted for helping to organize the Montgomery Bus Boycott of 1955, a professor of geography. Glass was born Thelma McWilliams in Mobile, Alabama, to homemaker. She attended Alabama State University and Columbia University. Glass had joined the organization in 1955 was its secretary. The Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. worked with her. She passed out fliers, urged passengers to walk or car-pool. Soon she noticed every bus that went by was empty of passengers. Eventually the Supreme Court ruled that segregation on buses was unconstitutional and the boycott ended. Both taught geography at Alabama State University, where her husband was also a professor. Glass died at the age of 96. Jo Ann Robinson, The Montgomery Bus Boycott and the Women Who Started ItThelma Glass – Thelma Glass
19. Dixie Bibb Graves – Dixie Bibb Graves was a First Lady from the state of Alabama, the first woman United States Senator from Alabama. Dixie Bibb was born on Isabel Thorpe Bibb on the family plantation. After attending the public schools, in 1900, at the age of 18, she married state legislator and first cousin David Bibb Graves. Graves became a civic leader. She was a trustee of Alabama Boys’ Industrial School in Birmingham and president of the United Daughters of the Confederacy from 1915 to 1917. She was active in the women's suffrage movement. She served until her resignation on January 1938. He wanted their continued support for his programs. During her term, she voted in support of New Deal programs directed at labor policy. Graves was active including public welfare, education. During World War II, she worked for the United Service Organizations. One WAC group was designated as the Dixie Bibb Graves Unit. She was also chair or honorary chair of the Women's Division of the State Democratic Campaign in 1952, 1960. She was a member of the Alabama Historical Association, the United Daughters of the Confederacy. Graves died on January 1965.Dixie Bibb Graves – Dixie Bibb Graves
20. Paul Hall (labor leader) – Paul Hall was an American labor leader from Inglenook in Jefferson County, Alabama. He was a founding president of the Seafarers International Union from 1957 to 1980. He was the senior president of the AFL-CIO at the time of his death. He started shipping as a teenager in the early 1930s, mostly as Fireman/Watertender and Oiler. He also never sailed under it. 1938 saw the founding of SIU and Paul Hall was a member. He made his presence felt immediately. His early waterfront battles left him with ugly knife scars on his arms and legs. His official post in the union was as patrolman in the port of Baltimore in 1944. He rapidly moved up to become then Director of Organizing for the SIU Atlantic and Gulf District. Then in 1947, he became executive officer of SIU-Atlantic Gulf Lakes and Inland Water District, at the age of 32. He held this post until his death. Paul Hall led the SIU in the General strike of 1947 when seamen won unprecedented gains in conditions. He also organized key breakthroughs in bringing Isthmian Lines and Cities Service Tankers under the SIU banner. Through collective bargaining, he also established the Seafarers Welfare, Pension and Vacation Plans.Paul Hall (labor leader) – Second President of SIU
21. Micky Hammon – Micky Hammon is an American politician. He serves as Majority Leader of the Alabama House of Representatives, representing the 4th district, Limestone and Morgan counties. He received an electrical degree from Calhoun Community College. He works as an electrical contractor. He currently serves as Majority Leader. He has been endorsed by The Alabama Tea Party Express. In 2011, he co-authored an anti-immigration bill, calling it "a jobs-creation bill for Americans". They have three children. Campaign contributions: 2008, 2006, 2002Micky Hammon – U.S. Senators
22. William E. Harbour – William E. Harbour is an American civil rights activist who participated in the Freedom Rides. Harbour was born into a black family in Piedmont, Alabama. Although his father hoped that he would take over the barbershop, Harbour was determined to become the first person in his family to attend college. Following a rejection by Jackson State University in 1960, he was able to fulfill this dream to Tennessee State University the following year. His activism brought him to SC where he served jail time with other students imprisoned after a lunch counter sit-in. Harbour’s involvement led to him being arrested twice in rapid succession. The first arrest occurred at the tail end of a Nashville -- Montgomery Freedom Ride. Following his expulsion from Tennessee State University, Harbour’s mother advised him against returning to Piedmont due to fear for his safety. Consequently, from 1961 to 1966 he made only "one brief visit" home. In late 1961, Harbour was reinstated to Tennessee State University. Currently a resident of Atlanta, Georgia, Harbour remains "an active alumnus" of Tennessee State University. The Atlanta Alumni Association sponsors a scholarship named in The William E. Harbour Academic Scholarship.William E. Harbour – William E. Harbour
23. Richmond P. Hobson – Richmond Pearson Hobson was a United States Navy Rear Admiral who served from 1907–1915 as a U.S. Representative from Alabama. A veteran of the Spanish–American War, he received the Medal of Honor years later for his part in that conflict. He was born at Magnolia Grove in Greensboro in Hale County in the western Black Belt of Alabama. He was the son of James M Hobson. He was the grandson of Justice Richmond Mumford Pearson. He graduated in 1889. He was ostracized from alcohol and tobacco. He became the highest ranking midshipman: Cadet Battalion Commander. After duty in Chicago, he was appointed Assistant Naval Constructor in 1891. Hobson then served including a tour of duty as instructor at the Naval Academy. In the early days of Spanish -- American War, he arrived off Santiago on June 1, 1898. The attempt was made early June 3, under Spanish fire, which disabled the steering gear of the collier. Hobson was unable to place her in the shallowest part of the channel. With his crew of six, he was treated quite chivalrously.Richmond P. Hobson – Richmond P. Hobson
24. Beth Holloway – Elizabeth Ann "Beth" Holloway, also previously known as Beth Twitty, is an American speech pathologist and motivational speaker. She specializes in teaching special children in public schools. Following Natalee's disappearance, she has become a speaker on the topic of personal safety. Elizabeth Ann Reynolds was raised in the town of Pine Bluff, Arkansas, where her parents, Ann and Paul Mundell Reynolds, still reside. Holloway later worked in Tennessee. Holloway received her bachelor's degree in speech pathology with a minor in special education at Little Rock. Holloway continued her studies at Arkansas State University in Jonesboro, where she received a master's degree in pathology. Holloway is a member of Alabama. Beth Holloway settled in Jackson, Mississippi. They had a daughter Natalee Ann, born in Clinton, a younger son Matthew. After they divorced in 1993, Holloway raised the two children on her own. In 2000, she moved with her children to Mountain Brook, Alabama. However, Ramsey downplayed their relationship, stating that they "developed a friendship of admiration" out of common interests related to their children. She resides with her son Matthew. In May 2005, Holloway's Natalee was in Aruba on a graduation trip with fellow students from Mountain Brook High School.Beth Holloway – Holloway's daughter Natalee was last seen leaving Carlos'n Charlie's with Joran van der Sloot in Oranjestad, Aruba.
25. James Hood – On June 1963, in a ceremonial demonstration, Wallace stood in front of the university's Foster Auditorium. Hood arrived to pay his fees, accompanied by U.S. Deputy Attorney General Nicholas Katzenbach. Wallace intended to keep true to his promise of stopping "integration at the schoolhouse door". President Kennedy federalized later the same day, which put them under the command of the President, rather than the Governor of Alabama. Guardsmen escorted Hood and Malone back to the auditorium, where Wallace moved aside at the request of General Henry Graham. Hood and Malone then entered the building, albeit through another door. Hood returned in 1995 to begin earning his doctorate degree. On May 1997 he received his Ph.D. in interdisciplinary studies. Poor health prevented him from attending the ceremony. Hood attended Wallace's funeral in 1998, imploring others to forgive Wallace as he had, as Wallace had publicly apologized for his actions. Hood also received a bachelor's degree from Michigan State University. He later moved to Wisconsin, where he worked for 26 years. He retired in 2002 in charge of police and fire training. Stand in the Schoolhouse DoorJames Hood – Plaque commemorating Hood at the University of Alabama in Tuscaloosa, Alabama
26. Patti Ruffner Jacobs – Pattie Ruffner Jacobs was an American women's suffragist from Birmingham, Alabama. She was inducted in 1978. Pattie Ruffner was born in West Virginia, the daughter of salt merchant Lewis Ruffner. She was unable to continue her studies during the economic crisis of the 1890s. Her parents' marriage dissolved in Pattie moved with her mother to Birmingham to stay with an older sister's family. Ruffner took advantage of his means to travel and to enroll in voice classes in New York City. Over time, she became more politically active in the swirl of Progressivism, reshaping Birmingham as a New South city of industry. She joined the fight against child labor, prostitution which were all endemic in the Birmingham District. She was an active member of the Jefferson County Anti-Tuberculosis Association. Her national standing led to her participation in the campaign for the sale of Liberty Bonds during World War I. She founded the Birmingham Equal Suffrace Association in 1910, followed by a year later. In 1913, Jacobs spoke on behalf of Southern women's suffragists at the Annual Convention of the National Woman Suffrage Association in Washington D. C.. The AESA then turned its efforts toward promoting a national amendment. Jacobs was elected in 1915.Patti Ruffner Jacobs – Mrs. Patti Ruffner Jacobs, Alabama, between 1918 and 1921
27. Hilliard P. Jenkins – Hilliard P. Jenkins was an American farmer, philanthropist, civic leader. He earned distinction for his agricultural techniques. Jenkins also maintained leadership positions including the Alabama Democratic Conference. One of Jenkins was a lifelong resident of Loxley. John Wesley Jenkins, purchased a 40-acre turpentine farm in 1926. After his death in 1935, the custody of the farm fell to Jenkins' mother, the older Jenkins children. Over the next two and a half decades, Amelia oversaw the dramatic growth of the farm into a 1,052-acre enterprise. During his youth, Jenkins, despite a lack of agricultural training, had a knack for learning the best scientific farming practices. He also garnered the Negro Farm Family Merit Award, bestowed by the Tuskegee Institute in 1952. The Jenkins' social stature gained them national press in Ebony magazine. For several decades, Jenkins was committed to public service in various ways, often as a organizer. For over 20 years, he served for of the ADC's Baldwin County unit. Jenkins' legacy is carried throughout Alabama and the South. In the consulting group Frontline Solutions established the Hilliard P. Jenkins Undergraduate Fellowship Program as a way to honor the Alabama farmer. Frontline SolutionsHilliard P. Jenkins – Hilliard P. Jenkins
28. Paul Lambert (TV personality) – Paul Anthony Lambert, an Alabama native, is best known as "Engineer Ed" in the children's television show, "Fun Junction Depot". Currently, he works as small owner, specializing in mobile television production. Lambert, who resides in Maylene, AL, is married to Tracy Sanders Lambert, of Birmingham, Alabama, is the father of twelve children. Lambert has announced his plans to run in the 2010 election cycle for Alabama's 6th congressional district, US House of Representatives, against incumbent Spencer Bachus. Raised in Birmingham, Alabama, Lambert is the oldest child of Opal Blackmon Lambert. He has Dennis Lambert. Lambert served as an adult volunteer for the Boy Scouts of America, holding multiple leadership positions. On the level, he served as Shelby District Popcorn Sale Chairman. In 2002, Lambert received the Shelby District Award of Merit for his years of service to Cub Scouting. Lambert also created and developed the "Closer to Him" Bible study for mid-week children's ministry programs. Paul received his degree in Electronic Engineering with emphasis in computers and telecommunications in 1991. Additional credentials include Certified Technician -- The National Association of Certified Fiber Optic Technician. Lambert now owns Solutions, located in Shelby County, Alabama. Paul Lambert for Congress 2010Paul Lambert (TV personality) – Paul Lambert
29. Charles Langford – Charles Douglas Langford was an Alabama state senator who represented Rosa Parks in the famous civil rights case of the 1960s. He was the sixth child of Lucy Brown Langford. Mr. Langford was one of two black lawyers in Montgomery at this time. Mr. Langford had an honorable discharge from the Army in 1946. Mr. Langford earned his degree from The Catholic University. He continued his education at Tennessee State University, earning a Bachelor of Science Degree in Business in 1948. He was a partner in the firm of Gray, Langford, Sapp, McGowan, Gray and Nathanson. In 1964 he represented Arlam Carr in a lawsuit against Montgomery’s Board of Education that led to the desegregation of the city’s public schools. In 1953, he opened his law office on Monroe Street in Montgomery. Langford continued to represent local African-Americans in civil rights cases. He served five terms in the Senate before retiring in 2002. Survivors include Mattie Lee Langford. Mr Langford died at his home in Montgomery. He was 84. Mr. Langford died in his sleep, his niece Audrey Anderson told The Associated Press.Charles Langford – Charles Langford
30. John Lewis (civil rights leader) – John Robert Lewis is an American politician and civil rights leader. He is the U.S. Representative for Georgia's 5th congressional district, serving since 1987, is the dean of the Georgia congressional delegation. His district includes the northern three-quarters of Atlanta. As Senior Chief Deputy Whip he has led other Chief Deputy Whips and serves as the primary assistant to the Democratic Whip. Lewis was born in Troy, Alabama, the third son of Willie Mae and Eddie Lewis. His parents were sharecroppers. Lewis grew up in Pike County, Alabama. He has several siblings, including brothers Edward, Grant, Freddie, Sammy, Adolph, William, sisters named Ethel, Rosa, Ora. Lewis had only seen two white people in his life until age six. There he became a dedicated adherent to the discipline and philosophy of nonviolence, which he still practices today. The Nashville sit-in movement was responsible for the desegregation of lunch counters in downtown Nashville. Lewis was arrested and jailed many times in the struggle to desegregate the downtown area of the city. In an interview, John Lewis said "I saw racial discrimination as a young child. I saw those signs that said ` Colored Women'.John Lewis (civil rights leader) – John Lewis
31. Fred L. Lowery – The broadcasts reached a weekly audience of 15 million. Lowery announced on May 5, 2013, that he would retire that year from his ministry. Jurkovich's Sunday sermon is now carried on The First Word. The senior Lowerys are interred in Montevallo. The late Clark Burkhalter, was also a pastor. Metts is a professor of Greek and New Testament at Criswell College in Dallas. Before he received the call to the ministry, Lowery wanted to be an pilot. At SWBTS, Lowery was a teaching fellow in the fields of evangelism and church growth. After seminary, Lowery worked full-time in evangelism. Lowery previously lived in Avon Park in Highlands County in southern Florida and Inman in Spartanburg County in northwestern South Carolina. In 1960 at the age of seventeen, Lowery was called as the pastor of a Southern Baptist congregation in Aiken, South Carolina. For a time after he completed seminary, Lowery was the pastor of First Baptist Church of North Spartanburg in Spartanburg, South Carolina. Lowery came to First Baptist Bossier in 1983, when he was forty. A fire erupted in the baptistry and burned much of the church; temporary quarters were found, rebuilding was completed in 1986. On November 1998, FBC raised $1.3 million in one day for its expansion program.Fred L. Lowery – Previous sanctuary of First Baptist Church of Bossier City
32. Autherine Lucy – Autherine Juanita Lucy was the first African-American student to attend the University of Alabama, in 1956. Lucy was born in Shiloh, Alabama. Her father was a sharecropper; she was the youngest child in a family of five sons and four daughters. After attending public school in Shiloh through grade ten, she attended Linden Academy in Linden, Alabama. She graduated from Miles with a BA in English in 1952. In a friend, a civil rights activist with the NAACP, applied to the University of Alabama. Lucy later said that she wanted a second undergraduate degree, not for political reasons but to get the best possible education in the state. Although the women were accepted, their admittance was rescinded when the authorities discovered they were not white. Backed by the NAACP, Lucy and Myers charged the University with racial discrimination in a court case that took almost three years to resolve. While waiting, Lucy worked as an English teacher in Carthage, Mississippi, as a secretary at an insurance company. On June 29, 1955, the NAACP secured a court order preventing the University from rejecting the admission applications of Lucy and Myers based upon their race. Even though Lucy was officially admitted, she was still barred from all dormitories and dining halls. Days later, the court amended the order to apply to all other African-American students seeking admission. Lucy attended her first class on Friday, February 3, 1956. Threats were made against her life and the University president's home was stoned.Autherine Lucy – Autherine Lucy with Roy Wilkins and Thurgood Marshall of NAACP, 1955
33. Martin Luther King III – Martin Luther King III, or MLK3, is an American human rights advocate and community activist. He is oldest living child of civil rights leader Martin Luther King Jr. and Coretta Scott King. Martin Luther King III was born on October 23, 1957, to civil rights advocates Martin Luther King, Jr. and Coretta Scott King. Martin Luther King III has three siblings; the late Yolanda Denise King, Rev. Bernice Albertine King. They were raised in an urban neighborhood in Atlanta, Georgia. When he complimented him on a drawing of his, the harassment ceased. He was ten years old when his father was assassinated. Years prior to Harry Belafonte set up a trust fund for King and his siblings. After he attended The Galloway School, he attended Morehouse College, the same school his father, his great-grandfather attended. Martin Luther King III is a member of Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, as was his father. He received his B.A. degree from Morehouse in 1979. King lived until his adulthood. Rev. E. Randel T. Osburn, said of King, "Watching him is like watching somebody trying to outrun themselves. He's always trying to catch it." On June 1986 he announced his candidacy for the Fulton County Commission, becoming the first of his father's immediate family to become involved in politics.Martin Luther King III – Martin Luther King III
34. Randy Phillips – There was a wave of video postings when the anti-homosexual policy ended, with many pointing to Phillips as their model or inspiration. Another wrote: "Phillips has masterfully used good timing to place himself at the centre of a civil rights success story." Born Steven Randy Phillips in Eclectic, Alabama, on May 1990, he graduated from Elmore County High School in May 2008. His high school sports were wrestling. Phillips began a six-year enlistment on March 17, 2009. While deployed in Southwest Asia in April 2011, a Senior Airman since March 15, became determined to reveal his homosexuality. To seek support, Phillips launched a social media campaign under the anonymous heading "AreYouSuprised." The Twitter account identified him as "Just an average GI, who happens to be gay." In a series of thirteen videos posted over the next five months, Phillips asked the public for encouragement. The motivation behind his social media campaign was to build support to help in his coming out, himself describing it as "selfish". Another motivation was to share his experience so that closeted homosexuals could learn from it. In his YouTube and Twitter postings, Phillips filmed himself so that only his headless torso could be seen. That's even hard to say." Phillips struggled noting that choosing to be heterosexual would be "easier all the way around" while homosexuality meant "going against the grain." Phillips noted negative attitudes toward homosexuality in the area where he ended his account: "It's not a choice.Randy Phillips – Phillips appearing anonymously in a video posted on YouTube on September 6, 2011
35. I. T. Quinn – I.T. Quinn was born in Belgreen, Alabama on January 13, 1887. He was re-elected in 1930. As Alabama commissioner, Quinn rebuilt a wildlife population, virtually eliminated by poor conservation practices in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Immediately upon assuming office, Quinn hired a force of Alabama's first. He also instituted the annual Alabama Deep Sea Fishing Rodeo near Dauphin Island. In 1939, he began to serve as director of public relations for the Federation. By 1947, Quinn had become executive director of the Virginia Commission of Game and Inland Fisheries. He served until 1958 when he retired to Grove Hill, Alabama. Quinn died on February 5, 1972.I. T. Quinn – I.T. Quinn
36. Frederick D. Reese – Frederick Douglas Reese, or F. D. Reese, is a civil rights activist, educator, minister from Selma, Alabama. This campaign eventually gave birth to Montgomery marches, which later led to the passage of the Voting Rights Act. Reese retired from teaching and as of February 2015 was still active as a minister at Selma's Ebenezer Missionary Baptist Church. Reese graduated from Alabama State University, where he majored in science. He received a Master's degree from Livingston University and two degrees from Selma University: a Doctorate of Divinity and an educational specialist's degree. Reese spent nine years in Alabama, ending in 1960. This is where he began his career, teaching science and serving as assistant principal. Two years after joining the DCVL, he was elected its president. In 1965, Reese held the simultaneous leadership positions of DCVL president of the Selma Teachers Association. Fellow teacher and DCVL member Margaret Moore challenged their colleagues, "How can we teach American civics if we ourselves can not vote?" The teachers were barred from entering to register. They were pushed down the steps twice, the police jabbing them with nightsticks. During the time the SCLC often played the role of mediator when differences of opinion arose. Reese is portrayed by Bob Banks in the 1999 film Selma, Lord, Selma. The Grio, "Frederick D. Reese Remembers Bloody Sunday in Selma"Frederick D. Reese – F.D. Reese in hat and coat, marching from Selma to Montgomery, behind and to the right of children
37. Amelia Boynton Robinson – In 1984, she became founding Vice-President of the Schiller Institute affiliated with Lyndon LaRouche. She was awarded the Martin Luther King, Jr. Freedom Medal in 1990. In 2014, actress Lorraine Toussaint played Robinson in the Ava DuVernay film Selma. Amelia Platts was born in Savannah, Georgia on August 18, 1911 to George and Anna Platts, both of whom were African-American. She also had Cherokee and German ancestry. Church was central to Amelia and her nine siblings' upbringing. As a young girl, she became involved in campaigning for women's suffrage. Her family encouraged the children to read. Amelia attended two years at Georgia State College. She transferred to Tuskegee Institute, earning a degree in home economics. She taught before starting as the home demonstration agent for Dallas County. She educated the county's largely other subjects related to agriculture and homemaking. She met her future husband Samuel W. Boynton in Selma, where he was working as a county extension agent during the Great Depression. They had two sons, Bruce Carver Boynton. Later they adopted Amelia's two nieces Sharon and Germaine Platts.Amelia Boynton Robinson – Robinson in 2015
38. Arthur Shores – Arthur Davis Shores was an American civil rights attorney, considered Alabama's "drum major for justice". Shores graduated from Talladega College where he became a member of Alpha Phi Alpha fraternity. Shores immediately began using his legal skills to support civil rights issues. In 1938, Shores successfully sued on behalf of seven school teachers who denied the right to vote by the Alabama Board of Registrars. Shores was general counsel for the International Association of Railway Employees. A whites-only union could not exclude blacks and then deny them better jobs because they were not union members. He worked on this case with attorney Charles H. Houston, who argued it in 1944. Shores represented black teachers in the Jefferson County School Board to receive the same pay as white teachers. Autherine Lucy became the first African-American to attend the school when she was admitted in 1956. On the third day of classes, a hostile mob assembled to prevent Lucy from attending classes. That evening, the University suspended Lucy on the grounds that it could not provide a safe environment. Shores' campaign in 1963 to integrate the Birmingham public schools brought violence to other residents. Shore's home was fire-bombed in retaliation for black parents registering their children at white schools. A bomb killed four girls at 16th Street Baptist Church. He argued before the Supreme court in the same year that the arrests of peaceful demonstrators in Birmingham should be ruled unconstitutional.Arthur Shores – Birmingham, Alabama residents viewing the bomb-damaged home of Arthur Shores on September 5, 1963. The bomb exploded the previous day, September 4, injuring Shores' wife.
39. Courtney Shropshire – Courtney Shropshire, a prominent doctor in Birmingham, Alabama, was the founder and first president of Civitan International. Shropshire was born in Louisiana in 1877. While living in Jackson, Mississippi, he briefly attended Mississippi A&M, Ward's Business College. After moving to Franklin, Tennessee, to avoid an outbreak of yellow fever, he took a job for a local doctor. This experience led him to enroll in Nashville. After graduating in 1900, Shropshire began to practice in small towns. He moved in 1903. He completed post-graduate studies at the Johns Hopkins University School of the Mayo Clinic. Shropshire also served as the president of the Jefferson County Medical Society. Shropshire was attending a newly organized Rotary club in 1917. Several of the other Rotarians decided that the club was too focused on increasing the business of its members. By creating a healthy-whole community, the businesses would naturally thrive. They held their first meeting with 37 charter members. They named the "Civitan Club." Shropshire was elected president for two successive terms as the club grew to 200 members.Courtney Shropshire – Courtney Shropshire
40. Fred Shuttlesworth – Shuttlesworth returned after his retirement in 2007. Shuttlesworth helped Martin Luther King Jr. during the Civil Rights Movement. The Birmingham-Shuttlesworth International Airport was named in his honor in 2008. In May 1956 Shuttlesworth and Ed Gardner established the Alabama Christian Movement for Human Rights to take up the work formerly done by the NAACP. The ACMHR raised almost all of its funds at mass meetings. It used both litigation and direct action to pursue its goals. When the authorities ignored the ACMHR's demand that the City hire black police officers, the organization sued. On December 1956, unknown persons tried to kill Shuttlesworth by placing sixteen sticks of dynamite under his bedroom window. He somehow escaped unhurt even though his house was heavily damaged. Shuttlesworth told him to tell the Klan that he was not leaving and "I wasn't raised to run." The SCLC adopted a motto to underscore its commitment to nonviolence: "Not one hair of one head of one person should be harmed." In 1961 he moved to Cincinnati, Ohio, to take up the pastorage of the Revelation Baptist Church. Shuttlesworth remained frequently returned to help lead actions. He was apparently personally fearless, even though he was aware of the risks he ran. Committed activists were scared off or mystified by his willingness to accept the risk of death.Fred Shuttlesworth – Shuttlesworth pastored Bethel Baptist Church from 1953 to 1961. The church served as headquarters and a frequent meeting place for the Alabama Christian Movement for Human Rights (ACMHR), which Shuttlesworth founded in 1956. Shuttlesworth and his church endured three bombings, the first on December 25, 1956.
41. Channing Tatum – Channing Matthew Tatum is an American actor, dancer, former stripper. He made his debut in the drama film Coach Carter. His role was in the 2006 dance film Step Up, which introduced him to a wider audience. He is known for his portrayal of the character Duke in the 2009 action film G.I. Joe: The Rise of Cobra and its 2013 sequel G.I. Joe: Retaliation. Although both G.I. Joe films received negative reviews from critics, they were commercially successful, grossing more than $300 million at the box office. Tatum appeared as Dear John and The Vow. His other films include She's the Man, The Dilemma, White House Down, the drama Foxcatcher, Hail, Caesar!. . He was born in Cullman, the son of Kay, an airline worker, Glenn Tatum, who worked in construction. Tatum has a sister named Paige. Tatum is mostly of English ancestry, from elsewhere in Europe. His family moved to Mississippi area when he was six.Channing Tatum – Tatum at the premiere of Magic Mike XXL in Sydney Australia, July 2015
42. Lucille Times – Lucille Times was an active participant in the struggle for civil rights in Montgomery, Alabama throughout her adult life. She worked for the cause at a time when the city was at the center of the national movement. Lucille was born April 1922, in Egypt, Alabama. She was raised by her father, William Sharp in a Christian home with six siblings. During her childhood years the family lived in Chicago, Detroit and Alabama. Mr. Sharp strongly imprinted two ideas on Lucille: the second: "When you're right don't back down." The day after she married Charlie Times on February 3, 1939, they moved in across Mill Street from E.D. Nixon, she met him for the first time. She and Charlie joined the NAACP thereafter. In 1951, they opened the Time’s Café on Holt Street, which operated continuously until 1984. When Lucille lived in Detroit, she was part of a successful boycott of a shop on 12th Street. The shop's Polish proprietor refused to replace the meat or give him a refund. The shop went out of business in less than a month. On June 1955, Lucille drove her 1955 Buick LeSabre to the cleaners on the Mobile Highway. On the way, driver James Blake tried to force her car off of the road three times.Lucille Times – Lucille Times
43. Hattie Hooker Wilkins – She was inducted into the Alabama Women's Hall of Fame in 1997. The daughter of Frederick Josiah Hooker and Alexina Hooker, was born on July 28, 1875, at Selma, Alabama in Dallas County, Alabama. Hattie later attended Normal College in Nashville, Tennessee to prepare to teach school. Along with all of her schooling she was also involved with the Broad Streed Presbyterian Church. After graduating in 1894, she began a career teaching up until she got married. They resided in Selma. Together they had four children, although one of her children died after drinking lye water. Wilkins was one of the first suffragists in the state of Alabama. Wilkins was the Alabama League of Women Voters. Because democracy gives to each person this opportunity for development, democracy is right. Because democracy is right, Woman Suffrage is right.” In 1922, she was one of three candidates for a seat in the 1923 Alabama Legislature. Wilkins became the first woman elected to a seat in the Alabama Legislature. Her main agenda was aimed towards reforming education, the special needs of her constituents while being head of the committee on public health. Her efforts as a legislator gained the respect of her colleagues with in the legislation.Hattie Hooker Wilkins – Hattie Hooker Wilkins
44. Ruby G. Woodson – She was raised in Sarasota. Her mother, Ella Mae Garrard worked as a maid and later owned a small country store. David Garrard, was a farmer, later a circus roustabout. She had William G. Woodson. At the age of fifteen, she was the valedictorian of her class of 1947 when she was graduated from Booker High School in Sarasota. She received her master of arts degree in education in 1960. Her masters thesis was entitled, Some Effects of the Atomic Era on the Teaching of High School Chemistry in the United States. She made a formal objection to her treatment that she took to city and government officials. Her efforts led to community services paid for by the taxation of all residents. Soon all residents were granted access to the library. The inspiration for the name of the academy was an educator, the first black woman awarded a Ph.D. by Yale University. Bill Cosby sent his son, the president of Venezuela sent his daughter. Initial difficulties encountered in operating expenses often were resolved by donations from Woodson's personal savings. The body of the academy was small and familial. Donations were sought to develop a program to assist many of the students.Ruby G. Woodson – Memorial resolution honoring the contributions and achievements of Ruby Garrard Woodson
45. Sammy Younge Jr. – Samuel "Sammy" Leamon Younge Jr. was a civil rights and voting rights activist, murdered for trying to desegregate a "whites only" restroom. Younge was an enlisted service member in the United States Navy, where he served for two years before being medically discharged. Younge was an active member of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee and a leader of the Tuskegee Institute Advancement League. Younge was the African-American student to be murdered due to his actions in support of the Civil Rights Movement. Younge was born on November 17, 1944, in Tuskegee, Alabama. His father, Samuel Younge Sr. was an occupational therapist, his mother was a local schoolteacher. From the age of 12 to 14, from 1956 to 1958, Younge attended Cornwall Academy, in Massachusetts. He graduated from Tuskegee Institute High School in 1962, after which he joined the United States Navy. Upon his discharge from the Navy, Younge began attending the Tuskegee Institute, in 1965, as a political science student. Younge became involved in the Civil Rights Movement during his first semester at the Tuskegee Institute. He soon started helping to lead protests by the organizations against civil rights infractions in Alabama. In the Summer of 1965, Younge lead Tuskegee Institute students in challenging overt discrimination in Tuskegee. The group attempted to enter white restaurants, held rallies, picketed establishments that refused to hire black people. Several times they attempted to attend segregated white churches and were brutally beaten twice. In September 1965, Younge was arrested and jailed after attempting to drive a group of African-Americans to get registered to vote in Lee County, Alabama.Sammy Younge Jr. – Official image of Sammy Younge Jr. as an enlisted member in the United States Navy.