Category:Ancient Egyptian mummies
Pages in category "Ancient Egyptian mummies"
The following 81 pages are in this category, out of 81 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 81 pages are in this category, out of 81 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Animal mummy – Animal mummification originated in ancient Egypt. They mummified various animals. It was an enormous part of Egyptian culture, not only in their role as food and pets, but also for religious reasons. Bast, the cat goddess is an example of one such deity. Throughout the history of ancient Egypt, animals were highly respected. It is estimated that 2 in every 4 or 5 Egyptian hieroglyphs relates to animals. The Egyptian religion taught of life after death. In order to determine a person’s admittance or denial to the afterlife, the gods would ask a series of judgment questions. One of these crucial questions would be whether they had mistreated any animals during their life on earth. Because of this religious belief, the killing of an animal was considered a serious crime punishable by death. The most common Egyptian pets included cats, dogs, mongooses, birds. The customary process of mourning the loss of a loved pet included shaving one's eyebrows. Egyptian pets were given names like we name today evidenced by over 70 names deciphered inscriptions identifying pet dog mummies. Pets were often depicted on the tombs of Egyptians, indicating their masters’ affection toward the animals. Specific archaeological findings have confirmed that pets were mummified.Animal mummy – Egyptian mummies of animals in the British Museum.
2. Ahmose I – Ahmose I was a pharaoh of ancient Egypt and the founder of the Eighteenth dynasty. During the reign of his grandfather, Thebes rebelled against the Hyksos, the rulers of Lower Egypt. Ahmose I assumed the throne upon coronation became known as Neb-Pehty-Re. The Ahmose is a combination of the divine name'Ah' and the combining form' - mose'. This program culminated in the construction of the last pyramid built by native Egyptian rulers. Ahmose's reign laid the foundations for the New Kingdom, under which Egyptian power reached its peak. His reign is usually dated to the mid-16th BC. Ahmose descended from the Theban Seventeenth Dynasty. Senakhtenre Ahmose and Tetisheri, had at least twelve children, including Seqenenre Tao and Ahhotep. The sister, according to the tradition of Egyptian queens, married; their children were Kamose, Ahmose I and several daughters. Ahmose I married several of his sisters, making Ahmose-Nefertari his chief wife. They had several children including daughters Meritamun B, sons Siamun A, Ahmose-ankh, Amenhotep I and Ramose A. They may also have been the parents of Mutnofret, who would become the wife of later successor Thutmose I. Ahmose-ankh was Ahmose's heir apparent, but he preceded his father in death sometime between Ahmose's 17th and 22nd regnal year. Ahmose was succeeded instead by Amenhotep I, with whom he might have shared a short coregency.Ahmose I – Copper axe blade inscribed with the titulary of pharaoh Ahmose I, Ashmolean Museum.
3. Ahmose Inhapy – Ahmose-Inhapy or Ahmose-Inhapi was a princess and queen of the late 17th dynasty and early 18th dynasty. Ahhotep and Sitdjehuti. She probably married Seqenenre Tao, but it is possible she dates to the later time of Ahmose I. She had a daughter named Ahmose-Henuttamehu. Ahmose Inhapy was mentioned in a copy of the Book of the Dead owned by her daughter Ahmose-Henuttamehu, in the tomb of Amenemhat. Her titles were: King's Wife" and "King's Daughter". The mummy was found in the outer coffin of Lady Rai, the nurse of Inhapy's niece Queen Ahmose-Nefertari. Smith dates her burial to the later years of the reign of Ahmose I. The mummy had a garland of flowers around its neck. The body was laid out with her arms by her side, the skin of the mummy was of a dark-brown color. The outer layer of the skin was still present and no evidence of salt was found. This may mean that the body was not immersed in natron as described by others. An incision was made in the left side to allow for the removal of the organs and the cavity may have been treated with natron. The body was wrapped in resin linen.Ahmose Inhapy – Ahmose Henuttamehu and another royal lady, Possibly Ahmose Inhapi
4. Ahmose Sapair – Ahmose-Sapair was an prince of the late Seventeenth Dynasty of Egypt. He was probably the child of Ahmose I. During the Eighteenth Dynasty, he appears on several monuments. However, the mummy identified as his is that of a 5- to 6-year-old boy. The mummy was unwrapped by Grafton Elliot Smith and A. R. Ferguson on September 9, 1905. The location of his tomb is unknown, however it was still known from the Twentieth Dynasty mentioned on the Abbott Papyrus. His coffin and mummyAhmose Sapair – Ahmose-Sapair at the Louvre (E 15682)
5. Ahmose-Henutemipet – Ahmose-Henutemipet was a princess of the late seventeenth dynasty of Egypt. She was a daughter of Pharaoh Seqenenre Tao and probably Queen Ahhotep I. She was the sister of Ahmose I. She bore King's Daughter and King's Sister. Her mummy was found in the DB320 in 1881 and now is in the Egyptian Museum in Cairo. It was examined by Grafton Elliot Smith in June 1909. Henutemipet died as an old woman; she had grey hair and worn teeth. Her mummy was damaged, probably by tomb robbers. It is likely that the mummy was moved to DB320 after Year 11 of Pharaoh Shoshenq I.Ahmose-Henutemipet – Mummy of Ahmose-Henutemipet, found in DB320
6. Ahmose-Henuttamehu – Ahmose-Henuttamehu was a princess and queen of the late 17th-early 18th dynasties of Egypt. Ahmose-Henuttamehu was a daughter of Pharaoh Seqenenre Tao by his sister-wife Ahmose Inhapy. She was probably married to her half-brother Pharaoh Ahmose I, since her titles include Great King's Wife, King's Daughter and King's Sister. Ahmose-Henuttamehu was God's Wife of Amun Ahmose-Nefertari. Not much is known about the life of Ahmose-Henuttamehu. The Queen is mentioned on a stela as depicted in Lepsius' Denkmahler. Ahmose-Henuttamehu's mummy is now in the Egyptian Museum in Cairo. It was examined by Gaston Maspero in December 1882. Henuttamehu was an old woman when she died, with worn teeth. Quotes from the Book of the Dead were written on her mummy bandages. She was probably buried together with her mother; her mummy was taken to DB320 along with other mummies after Year 11 of Pharaoh Shoshenq I. Ahmose-Henuttamehu is included in the list of royal ancestors worshipped in the Nineteenth Dynasty. She appears in Thebes. MummyAhmose-Henuttamehu – Mummy of Ahmose-Henuttamehu, found in DB320
7. Ahmose-Meritamun – Ahmose-Meritamun was a Queen of Egypt during the early Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt. She was both the sister and the wife of Pharaoh Amenhotep I. She died fairly young and was buried in tomb TT358 in Deir el-Bahari. Meritamun took over the role of God's Wife of Amun from her mother Ahmose Nefertari. The title king’s mother is also recorded in later sources, even though she was never the mother of a king. A limestone statue of this queen was discovered by Giovanni Belzoni while he was working in Karnak in 1817. Ahmose-Meritamun is depicted in the tomb of Inherkau which dates to the 20th dynasty as one of the "Lords of the West". She is shown in the top row behind Queen Ahhotep I and in front of Queen Sitamun. Her remains were discovered at Deir el-Bahri in TT358 in 1930 by Herbert Eustis Winlock. Her mummy was found in two cedarwood coffins and a cartonage outer case. Her mummy had been rewrapped and reburied by priests who had found her tomb, vandalized by robbers. It appears that she died when she was relatively young, with evidence of being afflicted with arthritis and scoliosis. The eyes and eyebrows are inlaid with glass. The body is carefully carved with chevrons painted in blue to create the illusion of feathers. The coffin was covered in gold, stripped in antiquity.Ahmose-Meritamun – Fragmentary colossal bust of Ahmose-Meritamon, wearing a wig fashioned after a style associated with Hathor - British Museum
8. Ahmose-Meritamon (17th dynasty) – Ahmose-Meritamon was a princess of the 17th Dynasty of Egypt, probably a daughter of pharaoh Seqenenre Tao. She is also called Ahmose-Meritamun, Ahmose-Meryetamun or just Meryetamun. Her mummy is now in the Egyptian Museum in Cairo. The shroud covering her body gives her name and titles as the royal sister Meritamon. The remains are those of an old woman, relatively short in stature. The examination of her mummy shows that she suffered a head wound prior to her death which has the characteristics of wound sustained when falling backwards. The body was badly damaged by tomb robbers. She is not to be confused with her niece Ahmose-Meritamon, who became the wife of Amenhotep I.Ahmose-Meritamon (17th dynasty) – Ahmose-Meritamon's mummy
9. Ahmose-Sitamun – Ahmose-Sitamun or Sitamun was a princess of the early Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt. Name of this princess means "Child of the Moon, Daughter of Amun". Sitamun was sister of Amenhotep I. A colossal statue of hers stood at Karnak. Her mummy is today in the Egyptian Museum, Cairo. Her titles were: God's Wife; King's Daughter; King's Sister. Aidan Dodson & Dyan Hilton: The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt, Thames & Hudson, 2004, ISBN 0-500-05128-3, p. 129Ahmose-Sitamun – Sitamun (far left) on a stele from Karnak
10. Ahmose-Sitkamose – Ahmose-Sitkamose or Sitkamose was a princess and queen during the late 17th-early 18th dynasties of Egypt. Based on her name, she is likely to have been the daughter of Pharaoh Kamose. Her name means "daughter of Kamose". She probably married Ahmose I, her cousin, since her titles include King's Wife well as King's Daughter and King's Sister. It is likely that she was given only posthumously. Her mummy was unwraped by Gaston Maspero on June 19, 1886. Sitkamose was about thirty years old when she died, Grafton Eliot Smith described her as a strong-built, almost masculine woman. The mummy was damaged by tomb robbers. MummyAhmose-Sitkamose – Mummy of Ahmose-Sitkamose, found in DB320
11. Amenemope (pharaoh) – Usermaatre Amenemope was an ancient Egyptian pharaoh of the 21st Dynasty. A probable son of Psusennes I and his queen Mutnedjmet, Amenemope succeeded his purported father's long reign after a period of coregency. During his reign as Pharaoh, Amenemope claimed the title of "High Priest of Amun in Tanis" as Psusennes also did before him. Apart from his Tanite tomb and the aforementioned Theban burials, Amemenope is a poorly attested ruler. All versions of Manetho's Epitome reports that Amenophthis enjoyed 9 years of reign, a duration more or less confirmed by archaeological sources. Neither children nor wives are known for him, he was succeeded by the seemingly unrelated Osorkon the Elder. According to the analysis of his skeleton performed by Dr. Douglas Derry, Amenemope was a strongly-built man who reached a fairly advanced age. It seems that the king suffered a skull infection which likely developed into meningitis and led to his death. His undisturbed tomb was rediscovered by French Egyptologists Pierre Montet and Georges Goyon in April 1940, just a month before the Nazi invasion of France. Montet had to stop his excavation until the end of World War II, then resumed it in 1946 and later published his findings in 1958. When the excavators entered the small burial chamber, they argued that it was originally made for queen Mutnedjmet. On the mummy were found two gilt funerary masks, two pectorals, necklaces, bracelets, rings and a cloisonné collar. Four of these items bore the name of Psusennes I. The mummy and funerary goods are now in Cairo Museum. Goyon, Georges.Amenemope (pharaoh) – Grave mask of pharaoh Amenemope in the Cairo Museum
12. Amenhotep I – His reign is generally dated from 1526 to 1506 BC. However, Amenhotep became crown prince. He then ruled for about 21 years. Although his reign is poorly documented, it is possible to piece together a basic history from available evidence. After his death, he was deified as a god of Deir el-Medina. Amenhotep I was the son of Ahmose I and Ahmose-Nefertari. The crown prince Ahmose Sapair and Ahmose-ankh, died before him, thus clearing the way for his ascension to the throne. Amenhotep took his Ahmose-Meritamon as his Great Royal Wife. Sitkamose, is attested on a nineteenth dynasty stele. Beyond this, the relationships between other possible family members are unclear. Ahhotep II is usually called his sister, despite an alternate theory that she was his grandmother. He is thought to have had one son by Amenemhat, who died while still very young. This remains the consensus, although there are arguments against that relationship well. With no living heirs, Amenhotep was succeeded by Thutmose I, whom he married to Aahmes. Since Aahmes is never given the title "King's Daughter" in any inscription, some scholars doubt whether she was a sibling of Amenhotep I.Amenhotep I – Relief of Amenhotep I from Karnak.
13. Amenhotep II – Amenhotep II was the seventh Pharaoh of the 18th dynasty of Egypt. His reign is usually dated from 1427 to 1401 BC. Amenhotep II was born to Thutmose III and: Merytre-Hatshepsut. However, between Years 35 of Thutmose III, both queen Satiah and prince Amenemhat died, which prompted the pharaoh to marry the non-royal Merytre-Hatshepsut. She would bear a number of children including the future Amenhotep II. Amenhotep II was raised in Memphis in the north, instead of in Thebes, the traditional capital. Amenhotep has left several inscriptions touting his athletic skills while he was a leader of the army before his crowning. Amenhotep was no less athletic than his powerful father. Accordingly, some skepticism concerning the truth of his claims has been expressed among Egyptologists. A coregency with Amenhotep II is believed to have lasted for two years and four months. After becoming pharaoh, Amenhotep married a woman of uncertain parentage named Tiaa. One daughter have been attributed to him. Amenhotep's most important son was Thutmose IV, who succeeded him; however, there is significant evidence for him having many more children. Princes Amenhotep, Amenemhat, Khaemwaset, Aakheperure as well as a daughter, Iaret, are also possible children. Papyrus B.M.Amenhotep II – Sphinx head of a young Amenhotep II, Musée du Louvre.
14. Amenhotep III – Amenhotep III also known as Amenhotep the Magnificent was the ninth pharaoh of the Eighteenth dynasty. Amenhotep III was the son of Thutmose by a minor Mutemwiya. His reign was a period of artistic splendour, when Egypt reached the peak of its artistic and international power. A minor wife Mutemwiya, Amenhotep was born around 1388 BC. He was a member of the Thutmosid family that had ruled Egypt for almost 150 years since the reign of Thutmose I. Amenhotep III was the father of two sons with his Great Royal Wife Tiye. Their first son, Crown Prince Thutmose, predeceased his father and their second son, Amenhotep IV, later known as Akhenaten, ultimately succeeded Amenhotep III to the throne. Amenhotep III also may have been the father of a third child -- briefly ruled Egypt as pharaoh. Amenhotep III and Tiye may also have had four daughters: Nebetah. They appear frequently during the reign of their father and also are represented by smaller objects -- with the exception of Nebetah. Nebetah is attested once in the known historical records on a colossal limestone group of statues from Medinet Habu. Amenhotep III elevated two of his four daughters -- Sitamun and Isis -- during the last decade of his reign. Hence, Amenhotep III's marriage to his two daughters should not be considered unlikely based on contemporary views of marriage. Amenhotep III is known to have married several foreign women: the daughter of Shuttarna II of Mitanni, in the tenth year of his reign. Tadukhepa, the daughter of his ally Tushratta of Mitanni, Around Year 36 of his reign.Amenhotep III – Colossal statue of Amenhotep III
15. Djedmaatesankh – Djedmaatesankh was an Egyptian woman from the city then known as Waset who died in the middle of the 9th century B.C. She was musician. Her cartonnage coffin is thought to have been buried on the west bank of the Nile about 2,850 years ago. The mummy of the lady Djedmaatesankh are part of the permanent collection of the Royal Ontario Museum in the Galleries of Africa: Egypt. The coffin was collected and brought to the ROM in the early 20th century. Notably, the cartonnage of Djedmaatesankh is one of the best preserved of its period. Her cartonnage lists her husband's name as Pa-ankh-entef, which translates to "Life belongs to him". Gibson cited that Pa-ankh-entef would be an acceptable short form of Pa-ankh-en-amun. Holowka noted that scans that she performed showed that there were "peculiarities in the process that the mummies also shared." The scan performed by Holowka also revealed that it is unlikely that Djedmaatesankh had any children as her pubic bone was perfectly intact. He suggests that as a married woman of her age it was customary for most Egyptian women to have already had several children. Additionally, high-resolution scans show tracks on the jawbone that are believed to be a result of unsuccessful attempts to drain the abscess. Royal Ontario MuseumDjedmaatesankh – The Mummy of Djedmaatesankh at the Royal Ontario Museum in Galleries of Africa: Egypt
16. Djedptahiufankh – Consequently, he was one of the most important state officials at Thebes after this king's own son, the High Priest of Amun, Iuput A. He died around the middle of Shoshenq I's reign according to inscriptions found written on the bandages of his coffin. He was buried in 320 or DB320, which actually served as the family tomb of the 21st Dynasty High Priest Pinedjem. Three separate mummy bandages dating to Years 5, 11 of Shoshenq I were found on Djedptahiufankh's body. His mummy was unwrapped by Gaston Maspero in 1886. A link below gives a clear photo of his mummy and a discussion of his career. It also mentions some of the jewelry, among other items, which were found on his body. Profile of DjedptahiufankhDjedptahiufankh – Mummy of Djedptahiufankh, from DB320.
17. Duathathor-Henuttawy – Duathathor-Henuttawy, Henuttawy or Henttawy was an ancient Egyptian princess and later queen. Henuttawy is likely to have been the daughter of last king of the 20th dynasty by Tentamun. The placement of Henuttawy in the royal families of the early 21st dynasty is not entirely clear and open to interpretation. Kitchen had conjectured there were two women called Henuttawy during the period to explain some of the titles associated with the Henuttawy. It is likely she was also the mother of Henuttawy, depicted along in Karnak. Niwiński conjectured that Henuttawy was the daughter of Ramesses XI and Tentamun. Dodson recognizes two queens named Tentamun. One is the mother of Henuttawy. This Queen is mentioned in the funerary papyrus of Queen Hennutawy. She was married to Smendes. The latter Tentamun is mentioned in the Story of Wenamun. Here she is mentioned as a queen, with her name written in a cartouche. Later she is also mentioned in Mut's temple in Karnak and on several objects found in her son's tomb in Tanis. She is depicted in Karnak. Her mummy and coffins were found along with those of several members of her immediate family.Duathathor-Henuttawy – Duathathor-Henuttawy
18. Gebelein predynastic mummies – The Gebelein predynastic mummies are six naturally mummified bodies, dating to approximately 3400 BC from the Late Predynastic period of Ancient Egypt. They were the predynastic bodies to be discovered. Budge excavated all the bodies from the same grave site. Two were identified with the others being of undetermined gender. The bodies were given to the British Museum in 1900. Three of the bodies were found with coverings of different types, which still remain with the bodies. The bodies were found in foetal positions lying on their left sides. From 1901 the first body excavated has remained on display in the British Museum. This body was originally nicknamed'Ginger' due to his red hair; this nickname is no longer officially used as part of recent ethical policies for human remains. In 1895 and 1896 the ruins at Abydos, Tukh, Hierakonpolis and Gebelein were excavated. As each excavation was completed, local Egyptian residents would continue to search the sites for remains. Budge started purchasing predynastic finds from the locals including partial human remains. In 1896, Budge was approached by a resident of Gebelein who claimed to have found more mummies. He immediately recognized them from the predynastic period and the first complete pre-dynastic bodies identified. The grave goods were a pot found with the other bodies.Gebelein predynastic mummies – The mummified man formerly dubbed "Ginger" in a reconstructed Egyptian grave-pit (photo taken in 2008)
19. Hatshepsut – Hatshepsut was the fifth pharaoh of the Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt. She was the second historically confirmed female pharaoh, the first being Sobekneferu. Hatshepsut came to the throne of Egypt in 1478 BC. Officially, she ruled jointly with Thutmose III, who had ascended to the throne the previous year as a child of about two years old. Hatshepsut was the chief wife of Thutmose II, Thutmose III’s father. She is generally regarded by Egyptologists as one of the most successful pharaohs, reigning longer than any other woman of an indigenous Egyptian dynasty. According to Egyptologist James Henry Breasted she is also known as "the first great woman in history of whom we are informed." Hatshepsut was the daughter and only child of Thutmose I and his primary wife Ahmose. Hatshepsut and Thutmose II had a daughter named Neferure. Thutmose II fathered Thutmose III with Iset, a secondary wife. Today Egyptologists generally agree that Hatshepsut assumed the position of pharaoh. Hatshepsut was described as having a reign of about 22 years by ancient authors. Josephus and Julius Africanus both quote Manetho's king list, mentioning a woman called Amessis or Amensis, identified as Hatshepsut. In Josephus' work, her reign is described as lasting 21 years and nine months, while Africanus stated it was twenty-two years. Dating the beginning of her reign is more difficult, however.Hatshepsut – Statue of Hatshepsut on display at the Metropolitan Museum of Art
20. Henuttawy C – Henuttawy or Henettawy, was an ancient Egyptian princess and priestess during the 21st Dynasty. Of Isetemkheb C, herself daughter of pharaoh Psusennes I. She likely married her brother Smendes II who became High Priest of Amun after his father's death. The couple had Isetemkheb E. She helds many titles such as Chantress of Amun, Mistress of the House, Chief of the Harim of Amun, God's Mother of Khonsu. Henuttawy was buried in the Deir el-Bahari necropolis near the Mortuary Temple of Hatshepsut. Her tomb was rediscovered in 1923-24 by an expedition led by Herbert E. Winlock. Later, some of Henuttawy's coffin were given to the Boston Museum of Fine Arts.Henuttawy C – Coffins of Henuttawy C. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.
21. HornedjitefHornedjitef – The upper part of the inner coffin of Hornedjitef.
22. Isetemkheb D – For other Egyptian ladies called Isetemkheb, see Isetemkheb. Isetemkheb D was the sister-wife of the Theban High Priest of Amun Pinudjem II during the Twenty-first dynasty of Egypt. Isetemkheb D was the daughter of the King's Son, Theban High Priest of Amun and General, Menkheperre, his wife, Isetemkheb C. Isetemkheb D married her brother Pinudjem II. Isetemkheb's coffins were found in the royal cache found in TT320 in Deir el-Bahari in Thebes. Istemkheb's mummy was never unwrapped.Isetemkheb D – Mummy of Isetemkheb D found in DB320
23. Maatkare Mutemhat – Maatkare was an ancient Egyptian high priestess, a God's Wife of Amun during the 21st dynasty. Her mother was Duathathor-Henuttawy, a daughter of Ramesses XI, last ruler of the 20th dynasty. She was followed as God's Wife by her niece Henuttawy D, daughter of her brother, High Priest Menkheperre. Her original place is unknown; her mummy was found from her immediate family. A small mummy, originally thought to be a child of hers was later revealed to be that of a pet monkey.Maatkare Mutemhat – Maatkare Mutemhat at the bottom of Pinedjem's colossal statue in Karnak.
24. Maiherpri – Maiherperi was an Ancient Egyptian noble of Nubian origin buried in the Valley of the Kings, in tomb KV36. He received the honour of a burial in the Valley of the Kings, the royal necropolis. His name can be translated as Lion of the Battlefield. Amongst his titles were Child of the Nursery and Fan-bearer on the Right Side of the King. This same title was also used to denote the Viceroys of Kush later in the New Kingdom. In Maiherperi's tomb, a papyrus was found depicting him with literally "blackish" skin, leading scholars to believe he was of Nubian descent. He also had tightly curled, woolly hair, which turned out to be a wig, glued to his scalp. Michael Rice, Who's Who in Ancient Egypt By Michael Rice, Routledge ISBN 0-415-15448-0, p. 104 David B.Maiherpri – Papyrus of Maiherpri
25. Masaharta – Masaharta or Masaherta was the High Priest of Amun at Thebes between 1054 and 1045 BC. His mother was probably the daughter of Ramesses XI, last ruler of the 20th dynasty. Another daughter of Ramesses married Pharaoh Smendes I, who ruled Lower Egypt. One of Masaharta's brothers was Psusennes I, who followed the short-lived Amenemnisu as pharaoh. His wife is likely to have been the Singer of Amun Tayuheret, whose mummy was found in the Deir cachette. The God's Wife of Amun during Masaharta's reign seems to have been his Maatkare. Several of his inscriptions are known from ram-headed sphinxes also in Karnak, a large falcon statue. Masaharta was responsible for the restoration of the mummy of Amenhotep I in the regnal year of Smendes. He is also mentioned in Theban Graffito no. 1572, from a year 16, together with the King's Scribe in the Place of Truth Ankhefenamun, the son of King's Scribe Butehamun. His highest attested year is 18. In fact, it has been pointed out that such a scenario ill fits the content of the letters. His mummy was found in the Deir cache along with several family members; it is now in Luxor. However, the position of Djedkhonsuefankh is not beyond dispute. All we actually know of his existence is the bare mention of his name on the coffin of his son.Masaharta – Mummy of Masaharta, found in DB320
26. Meresamun – Meresamun was an ancient Egyptian singer-priestess in the inner sanctum at the temple in Karnak. A special exhibition, “The Life of Meresamun: A Temple Singer in Ancient Egypt,” opened in February 2009 and provides a personal look into Meresamun’s life. The mummy has remained unopened. All of the examinations were performed at the University of Chicago Medical Center in the Department of Radiology. The Oriental Institute commissioned two reconstructions of the face of Meresamun. They did not compare their results while they worked. Harker superimposed layers of fat, flesh upon the skull to build up Meresamun's appearance. Rather than using a physical reproduction of a skull milled from CT scans, he worked digitally in three-dimensions. The second reconstruction is by Michael Brassell, trained by the Federal Bureau of Investigation. University of Chicago website Bonn-Muller, Eti. "A Mummy's Life, Priestess of Amun". Archaeology. Teeter, Emily; Janet H. Johnson. The Life of Meresamun: A Temple Singer in Ancient Egypt. University of Chicago Oriental Institute Museum Publications.Meresamun – Left lateral view of Meresamun's coffin generated on a Philips Brilliance v4 workstation by M. Vannier.
27. Merneptah – Merneptah or Merenptah was the fourth ruler of the Nineteenth Dynasty of Ancient Egypt. He ruled Egypt for almost ten years between August 1213 and May 1203 BC, according to contemporary historical records. By the time he ascended to the throne he was almost sixty years old. His throne name was Ba-en-re Mery-netjeru, which means "The Soul of Ra, Beloved of the Gods". It is presumed that one of their sons would become Seti II. Merneptah had to carry out several military campaigns during his reign. In year 5 he fought against the Libyans, who—with the assistance of the Sea Peoples—were threatening Egypt from the West. He has brought his wife and his children--leaders of the camp, he has reached the western boundary in the fields of Perire.' Later he dreamed he saw Ptah saying "banish thou the fearful heart from thee." When the bowmen went forth, says the inscription, "Amun was with them as a shield." After six hours the surviving Nine Bows ran for their lives. Merneptah states that he defeated the invasion, killing 6,000 soldiers and taking 9,000 prisoners. This is the first recognised Egyptian record of the existence of Israel -- people. Merneptah was already an elderly man in his late 60s, if not early 70s, when he assumed the throne. This palace was excavated in 1915 by the University of Pennsylvania Museum, led by Clarence Stanley Fisher.Merneptah – Merneptah makes an offering to Ptah on a column
28. Mummy brown – The ground-up remains of Egyptian mummies, both human and feline. As it had good transparency, it could be used for glazes, flesh tones and shading. It fell during the 19th century when its composition became more generally known to artists. The Pre-Raphaelite artist Edward Burne-Jones was reported to have ceremonially buried his tube of Mummy Brown in his garden when he discovered its true origins. By 1915, one London colourman claimed that he could satisfy the demands of his customers for twenty years from one Egyptian mummy. Mummy Brown eventually ceased being produced in its traditional form later in the 20th century when the supply of available mummies was exhausted. The color of Mummy brown can vary to red to dark violet, the latter usually called "Mummy Violet". Caput mortuum Mummia Eastaugh, Nicholas. Pigment Compendium: A Dictionary of Historical Pigments. Butterworth-Heinemann. P. 81. ISBN 0-7506-5749-9. Church, A. H.. The Chemistry of Paints and Painting. London: Seeley and Co.Mummy brown – Martin Drolling 's Interior of a kitchen made extensive use of mummy brown
29. Mutnedjmet – For other Egyptian ladies called Mutnedjmet see Mutnedjmet Mutnedjmet an Ancient Egyptian queen, the Great Royal Wife of Horemheb, the last ruler of the Eighteenth Dynasty. Mutnedjmet, translates as: The sweet Mut. This identification was partially based on the fact that Mutbenret's name used to be read as Mutnedjmet. Other Egyptologist such as Geoffrey Martin note that there is no definite evidence to prove this assertion. In any case whatever her antecedents Mutnodjmet could have been married to a little before he became Pharaoh. On Mutnedjmet's side of the throne she is depicted as a winged sphinx who adores her own cartouche. As Sphinx she is depicted wearing a topped crown topped with plant elements associated with the goddess Tefnut. The back of the statue records Horemheb's rise to power. Horemheb and Mutnodjemet are depicted in Dra Abu el-Naga. The Royal couple are shown in an scene. One of the colossal statues in Karnak was made for Horemheb and depicted Mutnedjmet. The statue was later reinscribed for Ramesses II and Nefertari. Mutnedjmet usurped several inscriptions of Ankhesenamun in Luxor. Other items including alabaster fragments naming Mutnodjemet were found in Horemheb's Saqqara tomb. Some items bear funerary texts.Mutnedjmet – Mutnedjmet
30. Neskhons – Neskhons, once more commonly known as “Nsikhonsou”, was a noble lady of the 21st dynasty of Egypt. This suggests family problems around the time of her death. She was buried in coffins that were originally made for Pinedjem's sister and first wife Isetemkheb. One of them was reused for the reburial of Ramesses IX. It is unknown that she donated it to the reburial of Ramesses. The corpse was partially unwrapped by Gaston Maspero on 27 June 1886; twenty years later, G. Elliot Smith removed the remainder of the wrappings. Her titles were: First Chantress of Amun; King's Son of Kush. Battiscombe Gunn, The Decree of Amonrasonther for Neskhons, JEA 41, 83-95 Andrzej Niwiński, The Wives of Pinudjem II -a topic for discussion, JEA 74, 226-230Neskhons – Funerary tablet depicting Neskhons with Osiris.
31. Nesyamun – Nesyamun otherwise known as The Leeds Mummy, his coffins are amongst the best researched of their kind. Nesyamun died over 3,000 years ago, around 1100 BC. His body was entombed ready for the after-life. Ever since he arrived in 1823, he has been recognized as one of the most remarkable mummies in Britain. In 1990 the Director of Leeds City Museum invited Dr. Rosalie David, to undertake a scientific study of the mummy of Nesyamun. The coffin itself. This has led to a greater understanding of the nature of the roles that Nesyamun, as a priest at the temple of Karnak, would have adopted. On 4 the mummy was moved to a new home at Leeds City Museum. Wassell, Belinda The Coffin of Nesyamun: the "Leeds Mummy" The Leeds Philosophical and Literary Society, 2008. Illustrations by Thomas Small. ISBN 1-870737-21-0Nesyamun – This is a reconstruction drawing of how the coffin of Nesyamun might originally have appeared. The cracks have been smoothed over and the beard and amulets restored to their rightful positions. The effect is intended to recall the illustrations made by Napoleon's surveyors in the 'Description of Egypt'. Illustration by Thomas Small. Pencil crayon on A1 paper.
32. Nodjmet – Early in her life, she held titles such as Lady of the House and Chief of the Harem of Amun. Nodjmet became every time he had to fulfill his business in Nubia, the management of Thebes was left to her. When around 1070 BCE Piankh died, Herihor was proposed as his successor; Nodjmet, however, managed to keep her prerogatives marrying this man. Nodjmet finally died in the first years of pharaoh Smendes. Her mummy was discovered in the Deir cache. The body is that of an old woman. She had been embalmed with a new technique which involved the use of fake eyes and the packing of the limbs. The heart was still in place inside her body. With her mummy two Books of the Dead were found. Papyrus BM 10490, now in the British museum, belonged to "the King's Mother Nodjmet, the daughter of the King's Mother Hrere". Whereas the name of Nodjmet was written in a cartouche, the name of Hrere was not. He did so on the basis of Papyrus BM 10541, the other Book of the Dead found with her mummy. All the stress is on her position as “King’s Mother”. In this position Hrere could well have been the wife of the High Priest Amenhotep. It has been proposed to refer to the Nodjmet found as "Nodjmet B".Nodjmet – Nodjmet depicted as a queen, from her Book of the Dead papyrus.
33. Pinedjem I – He was the son of the High Priest Piankh. However, many Egyptologists today believe that the succession in the Amun priesthood actually ran from Piankh to Herihor to Pinedjem I. Herihor instead intervened to assume to this office. After Herihor's death, Pinedjem I finally claimed this office which had once been held by his Piankh. He inherited a religious base of power at Thebes. Pinedjem asserted his kingdom's virtual independence from the Twenty-first Dynasty based at Tanis. He married a daughter of Ramesses XI, to cement his relations with the other powerful families of the period. Psusennes I, went on to become Pharaoh at Tanis, thereby removing at a stroke the gap between the two families. In practice, however, the Theban high priests were probably never very far apart politically since they respected each other's political autonomy. Maatkare, held the position of Divine Adoratrice of Amun. Pinedjem's mummy was found in the cache at Deir el-Bahri. His parents Piankh and Nodjmet had one sister of Pinedjem I are known. Three of his wives are known. Another wife was Isetemkheb, Singer of Amun. She is mentioned along with Pinedjem I on bricks found at el-Hiban.Pinedjem I – Representation of Pinedjem I in the Temple of Khonsu, Karnak.
34. Pinedjem IIPinedjem II – Pinedjem II as Theban High Priest of Amun. From his Book of the Dead.
35. Psusennes I – Psusennes I was the third pharaoh of the 21st Dynasty who ruled from Tanis between 1047 – 1001 BC. He was the son of Ramesses XI's daughter by Tentamun. He married his Mutnedjmet. Professor Pierre Montet discovered pharaoh Psusennes I's intact tomb in Tanis in 1940. It has a maximum height of 38 cm and 48 cm respectively. He was buried with gold sandals on his feet. The finger stalls are the most elaborate ever found, with sculpted fingernails. Each finger wore an elaborate ring of some other semiprecious stone." A cartouche on the outer sarcophagus shows that it had originally been made for Pharaoh Merenptah, the 19th Dynasty successor of Ramesses II. Himself, was interred in an "inner silver coffin", inlaid with gold. Since "silver was considerably rarer in Egypt than gold," Psusennes I's silver "coffin represents a sumptuous burial of great wealth during Egypt's declining years." Psusennes I's precise length is unknown because different copies of Manetho's records credit him with a reign of either 41 or 46 years. Jansen-Winkeln notes that "in the first half of Dyn. Psusennes I's reign has been estimated at 46 years to Ancient Egyptian Chronology. Egyptian Mummies: Unraveling the Secrets of an Ancient Art, William Morrow & Co, pp. 146 -- 147.Psusennes I – Gold burial mask of King Psusennes I, discovered in 1940 by Pierre Montet
36. Lady RaiLady Rai – Side view of Lady Rai's mummy, now in Cairo Museum.
37. Ramesses I – Menpehtyre Ramesses I was the founding pharaoh of ancient Egypt's 19th dynasty. The dates for his short reign are completely known but the time-line of late 1292 -- 1290 BC is frequently cited as well as 1295 -- 1294 BC. He was a son of a commander called Seti. This shows the high status of Ramesses' family. Ramesses I found favor with the last pharaoh of the tumultuous Eighteenth dynasty, who appointed the former as his Vizier. Upon his accession, Ramesses assumed a royal name, written in Egyptian hieroglyphs to the right. When transliterated, the name is mn-pḥty-r‘, usually interpreted as Menpehtyre, meaning "Established by the strength of Ra". However, he is better known by personal name. This is usually realised as Ramessu or Ramesses, meaning ` Ra bore him'. Already an old man when he was crowned, Ramesses appointed his son, the later pharaoh Seti I, to serve as chosen successor. Seti was charged with undertaking several military operations during this time -- in Syria. Ramesses appears to have taken charge of domestic matters: most memorably, he completed the second pylon at Karnak Temple, begun under Horemheb. The aged Ramesses was buried in the Valley of the Kings. His tomb, discovered by designated KV16, is small in size and gives the impression of having been completed with haste. The red granite sarcophagus too was painted rather than carved with inscriptions which, due to their hasty preparation, included a number of unfortunate errors."Ramesses I – Pharaoh Ramses I making an offering before Osiris, Allard Pierson Museum.
38. Ramesses II – Ramesses II, also known as Ramesses the Great, was the third pharaoh of the Nineteenth Dynasty of Egypt. Ramesses is often regarded as the greatest, most powerful pharaoh of the Egyptian Empire. Later Egyptians called him the "Great Ancestor". Ramesses II led military expeditions into the Levant, reasserting Egyptian control over Canaan. Ramesses also led expeditions into Nubia, commemorated in inscriptions at Beit el-Wali and Gerf Hussein. At age fourteen, he was appointed Prince Regent by his father Seti I. Ramesses is known to have ruled Egypt from 1279 BC to 1213 BC. Estimates of his age at death vary; 91 is considered most likely. Ramesses II celebrated an unprecedented 14 sed festivals during his reign—more than any other pharaoh. The early part of his reign was focused on building cities, monuments. Ramesses established the city of Pi-Ramesses in Syria. Early in his life, Ramesses II embarked on numerous campaigns to secure Egypt's borders. Ramesses was also responsible for carrying out a campaign in Libya. During Ramesses II's reign, the Egyptian army is estimated to have totaled about 100,000 men; a formidable force that he used to strengthen Egyptian influence. The Sherden people probably came from south-west Anatolia or also from the island of Sardinia.Ramesses II – One of the four external seated statues of Ramesses II at Abu Simbel.
39. Ramesses III – His long reign saw the decline of Egyptian economic power, linked to a series of invasions and internal economic problems. Ramesses III was the son of Setnakhte and Queen Tiy-Merenese. He was probably murdered by an assassin in a conspiracy led by one of his secondary wives, her son Pentaweret. Ramesses' two main names transliterate as wsr-mꜢʿt-rʿ–mry-ỉmn rʿ-ms-s–ḥḳꜢ-ỉwnw. They are normally realised as Usermaatre-meryamun Ramesse-hekaiunu, meaning "Beloved of Amun, Born of Ra, Ruler of Heliopolis". Ramses III had haplogroup E1b1a. Ramesses III is believed to have reigned to April 1155 BC. Alternate dates for his reign are 1187 to 1156 BC. In Year 8 of his reign, the Sea Peoples, including Tjekker, invaded Egypt by land and sea. Ramesses III defeated them in two great sea battles. Although the Egyptians had a reputation as poor seamen, they fought tenaciously. Then, the Egyptian navy attacked using grappling hooks to haul in the enemy ships. In the hand-to-hand fighting which ensued, the Sea People were utterly defeated. The Harris Papyrus states: As for those who reached my frontier, their seed is not, their soul are finished forever and ever. Ramesses III was also compelled to fight invading Libyan tribesmen in two major campaigns in Egypt's Western Delta in his Year Year 11 respectively.Ramesses III – Relief from the sanctuary of the Temple of Khonsu at Karnak depicting Ramesses III
40. Ramesses IV – Heqamaatre Ramesses IV was the third pharaoh of the Twentieth Dynasty of the New Kingdom of Ancient Egypt. His name prior to assuming the crown was Amonhirkhopshef. Amenemope's Theban tomb also accords all three of his aforementioned sets of royal titles. His rule has been dated to 1155 to 1149 BC. This leaves Ramesses IV as the only primary ` subject' of the mwt-nsw title in the tomb. Ramesses IV was succeeded by his son Ramesses V. Ramesses came to the throne in difficult circumstances. The king died soon after. Ramesses IV, however, had the conspirators arrested and executed. The scribes who composed the text also noted that this figure included 900 men "who are dead and omitted from this list." Some of the stones which were dragged 60 miles to the Nile from Wadi Hammamat weighed 40 tons or more. Egyptian quarries including Aswan were located much closer to the Nile which enabled them to use barges to transport stones long distances. Ramesses IV also sent several expeditions to the Sinai; a total of four expeditions are known prior to his fourth year. The Serabit stela of the Royal Butler Sobekhotep states: "Year 3, third month of Shomu. The stela reads: second month of Shomu. Surviving a march in this inhospitable land would have presented logistical obstacles, perhaps forcing an alternative route to be adopted.Ramesses IV – Limestone ostracon depicting Ramesses IV smiting his enemies.
41. Ramesses V – Usermaatre Sekheperenre Ramesses V was the fourth pharaoh of the Twentieth dynasty of Egypt and was the son of Ramesses IV and Queen Duatentopet. The Turin 1887 papyrus records a financial scandal during his reign that involved the priests of Elephantine. A period of domestic instability also afflicted his reign since Turin Papyrus Cat. Another incursion by these raiders into Thebes is recorded a few days later. It reveals most of Egypt's land was controlled by the Amun temples which also directed the country's finances. The document highlights the increasing power of the High Priest of Amun Ramessesnakht whose son, a certain Usimare ` nakhte, held the office of chief master. It is believed he had a reign of almost 4 full years. It is possible because Ramesses VI usurped his predecessor's KV9 tomb. He is thought to be one of the earliest known victims of variola. A.J. Peden, Where did Ramesses VI bury his nephew?, GM 181, 83-88 Ramesses V at Find a GraveRamesses V – Obelisk of Ramesses V
42. Ramesses VI – His royal tomb, KV9, is located near Tutankhamun's tomb in the Valley of the Kings. The first to establish beyond doubt that Ramesses VI lived into his 8th Regnal Year was the Dutch Egyptologist Jac. J. Janssen. His 8th Regnal Year also seems to be attested in Theban graffito 1860a, which names the then serving High Priest of Amun, Ramessesnakht. Raphael Ventura's interesting reconstruction of a damaged sum in 1907 +1908, also seems to suggest that Ramesses VI enjoyed a reign of 8 full years. The latest scholarly publication on Egyptian chronology in 2006 also assigned 8 years of rule, based on the aforementioned sources. Ramesses VI probably lived into his brief 9th regnal year before he died and was succeeded by his son, Ramesses VII. This pharaoh would be succeeded by his son Ramesses VII. J. Janssen, Year 8 of Ramesses VI Attested, Göttinger Miszellen 29, 45-46 A.J. Peden, Where did Ramesses VI bury his nephew?, GM 181, 83-88 Ramesses VI at Find a GraveRamesses VI – Fragment of a sarcophagus showing Ramesses VI, on display at the British Museum.
43. Ramesses IX – Ramesses IX was the eighth king of the Twentieth dynasty of Egypt. He was the third longest serving king of this Dynasty after Ramesses XI. Neferkare Setepenre, means "Beautiful Is The Soul of Re, Chosen of Re." Ramesses IX was, probably a grandson of Ramesses III. Paser disappeared from sight soon after the report was filed. In the sixth year of his reign, he inscribed his titulature in the Lower Nubian town of Amara West. However, he also decorated the wall at Karnak. He is also known for having honoured Ramesses II, Ramesses III and Ramesses VII. He also built a substantial monument at Heliopolis. The throne was instead assumed by Ramesses X whose precise relationship to Ramesses IX is unclear. This assumption remains unproven. The tomb of KV6, has been open since antiquity, as is evidenced by the presence of Roman and Greek graffiti on the tomb walls. While Ramesses IX's chief queen is not precisely identified in surviving Egyptian inscriptions, she was most likely Baketwernel. This pharaoh's mummy was not apparently examined by Grafton Elliot Smith and not included in his 1912 catalogue of the Royal Mummies. The Ancient Evenings by Norman Mailer is told from the perspective of characters living during the reign of Ramesses IX, including Ramesses IX himself.Ramesses IX – Portrait of Ramesses IX from his tomb KV6.
44. Ramose and Hatnofer – When Ramose died he was a man aged 50–60. Hatnofer was an elderly lady, with grey or even white hair. Ramose is known from a few contemporary sources. He appears on the false door and likely, also on the chapel of Senenmut's TT71 tomb chapel. Ramose and Hatnofer's own tomb was not located far from the chapel of his son Senemut. The tomb of Ramose contained his mummy as well as that of Hatnofer, the wife of Ramose and mother of Senenmut. Ramose and Hatnofer were buried in the tomb along with six other anonymous poorly wrapped mummies who are assumed to be family members of the couple. Some Egyptologists believe that all burials in their tomb took place at the same time. However, during the New Kingdom, it was often customary to use a tomb's burial chambers for several family members, who died at different times. The re-burial of private individuals, while not common, was certainly not unknown at this time, Senenmut's filial devotion would have met with general approval." Hatnofer's tomb was initially considered, as evidence for the humble personal origins of Ramose in particular. Ramose and Hatnofer's tomb is notable for featuring the earliest known date from Hatshepsut's reign. A collection of grave goods found in the tomb's chamber contained a single pottery jar or amphorae—, stamped with the date'Year 7'. Ramose only held the title and non-specific epithet of zab in his tomb. This title, therefore, states almost nothing about the social origins of Ramose.Ramose and Hatnofer – Ramose (left), Senenmut (middle) and Hatnofer on the false door of Senenmut
45. Seqenenre Tao – He probably was the son and successor to Senakhtenre Ahmose and Queen Tetisheri. He may have risen in the decade ending in 1558 BC. Seqenenre Tao is credited with starting the opening moves in the war of liberation against the Hyksos, ended by his son Ahmose. New Kingdom literary tradition states that Seqenenre Tao came with his Hyksos contemporary in Apophis. Seqenenre Tao participated in active diplomatic posturing, which went beyond simply exchanging insults with the Asiatic ruler in the North. On an adjacent hillside overlooking the river, the foundations of a building were found that almost certainly was a military observation post. It is thought that they were there as allies of the pharaoh in his wars against the Hyksos. Seqenenre's mummy was discovered in the Deir el-Bahri cache, revealed in 1881. The mummy was unwrapped by Gaston Maspero on June 9, 1886. There are no wounds on his arms or hands, which suggests he was not able to defend himself. Until 2009 the main hypotheses have been that he died either in a battle against the Hyksos or was killed while sleeping. His mummy appears to have been hastily embalmed. He is the earliest royal mummy on display in the recently revamped Royal Mummies Hall at the Egyptian Museum, Cairo. Gardiner, Sir Alan. Egypt of the Pharaohs.Seqenenre Tao – Fragment of the death shroud of Ahmose bearing Seqenenre Tao's titulary, Museo Egizio
46. Seti I – The name'Seti' means "of Set", which indicates that he was consecrated to the god Set. As with most pharaohs, Seti had several names. Upon his ascension, he took the prenomen "mn-m3‘t-r‘ ", usually vocalized as Menmaatre, in Egyptian, which means "Established is the Justice of Re." Birth name, is transliterated as "sty mry-n-ptḥ" or Sety Merenptah, meaning "Man of Set, beloved of Ptah". Seti, with determination, confronted the Hittites several times in battle. The memory of Seti I's military successes was recorded in some large scenes placed on the front of the temple of Amun, situated in Karnak. His capital was at Memphis. His fame has been overshadowed since ancient times by that of his son, Ramesses II. Seti I's length was either 11 or 15 full years. There are no dates recorded for Seti I after his Year 11 Gebel Barkal stela. Peter J. Brand noted that the king personally opened new rock quarries at Aswan to colossal statues in his Year 9. This event is commemorated on two rock stelas in Aswan. Ships crews to match them for ferrying them from the quarry." However, despite this promise, Brand stresses that The German Egyptologist Jürgen von Beckerath also accepts that Seti I's reign lasted only 11 Years. In 2011, Jacobus van Dijk questioned the "Year 11" stated on the Gebel Barkal stela.Seti I – Image of Seti I from his temple in Abydos
47. Shoshenq II – Heqakheperre Shoshenq II or Shoshenq IIa was a pharaoh of the 22nd dynasty of Egypt. He was the only ruler of this Dynasty whose tomb was not plundered by tomb robbers. His resting place was discovered within an antechamber of Psusennes I's tomb at Tanis by Pierre Montet in 1939. Montet removed himself. It proved to contain a large number of jewel-encrusted pectorals, along with a beautiful hawkheaded silver coffin and a gold funerary mask. The gold facemask had been placed upon the head of the king. Montet later discovered the intact tombs of two Dynasty 21 kings -- Psusennes I and Amenemope a year respectively. Heqakheperre Setepenre, means "The manifestation of Ra rules, the chosen one of Ra." There is a small possibility that Shoshenq II was the son of Shoshenq I. These items may be interpreted as either evidence of a filial link between the two men or just mere heirlooms. Hence, Shoshenq II could have ruled Egypt for a few years before Takelot I came to power. Moreover, Sextus Julius Africanus's generally more accurate copy of Manetho's Epitome explicitly states that “3 Kings” intervened between Osorkon I and Takelot I. Harsiese A was an early contemporary of Osorkon II and likely Takelot I too since the latter did not firmly control Upper Egypt in his reign. The view that Shoshenq II was an elder brother of Takelot I is also endorsed by Norbert Dautzenberg in a GM 144 paper. Von Beckerath, however, places Shoshenq II between the reigns of Osorkon II at Tanis.Shoshenq II – Gold funerary mask of Shoshenq II in the Cairo Museum
48. Siptah – Akhenre Setepenre Siptah or Merenptah Siptah was the penultimate ruler of the Nineteenth Dynasty of Egypt. His father's identity is currently unknown. Amenmesse have been suggested. Succeeded to the throne as a child after the death of Seti II. His date occurred on I Peret day 2 around the month of December. Historically, it was believed that a wife of Seti II, was the mother of Siptah. Sutailja was a Canaanite rather than a Egyptian name which means that she was almost certainly a king's concubine from Canaan. However, Dodson/Hilton assert that the lady was, instead, the mother of Ramesses-Siptah and a wife of Ramesses II. A headless statue of Siptah now in Munich shows him seated on the lap of another Pharaoh, presumably his father. Due to his youth and perhaps his problematic parentage, he was placed under the guidance of his stepmother -- the queen Twosret. Siptah ruled Egypt for almost 6 years as a young man. Likely suffered from polio with a severely deformed and crippled left foot. He was executed on orders of the king himself. News of his execution was passed to the Workmen of Deir el-Medina in Ostraca IFAO 1254. This ostraca was published in 2000 by Pierre Grandet in a French Egyptological journal.Siptah – Siptah
49. Sitdjehuti – Sitdjehuti called Satibu was a princess and queen of the late Seventeenth dynasty of Egypt. She was wife to her brother Seqenenre Tao. She was the mother of Princess Ahmose. Sitdjehuti was a daughter of Pharaoh Senakhtenre Ahmose and the queens Ahhotep and Ahmose Inhapy. She was married to her brother Seqenenre-Tao and bore him a daughter, Ahmose. On her sarcophagus, she is stated to be the daughter of Tetisheri. Her other name is given as Satibu. Sitdjehuti's titles include King's Sister and King's Daughter. She is mentioned on the mummy shroud of her Ahmose, found in the Valley of the Queens. Ahmose is called Queen's Sister. This states that Ahmose was the daughter of Sitdjehuti. Sitdjehuti's mummy was discovered around 1820, along with its coffin, golden mask, linens donated by her niece Queen Ahmose-Nefertari. Mummy Mask of Satdjehuty from the British Museum.Sitdjehuti – Mask of Sitdjehuty
50. Takabuti – Takabuti was a married woman who reached an age of between twenty and thirty years. She lived at the end of the Twenty-fifth dynasty of Egypt. Mummy case are in the Ulster Museum, Belfast. The mummy unrolled on 27 January 1835 in Belfast Natural History Society's museum at College Square North. A leading Egyptologist from Ireland was present and deciphered the Egyptian hieroglyphs which revealed that she was mistress of a great house. Her father was a priest of Amun. She was buried in a west of Thebes. After the Napoleonic Wars there was a brisk trade in Egyptian mummies. Takabuti was purchased by Thomas Greg of Ballymenoch House, Holywood, Co.. Down. Hundred and seventy years later Takabuti remains a popular attraction for visitors, young and old. Photo of Takabuti and her coffin at the Ulster Museum The Ulster Archaeological Society The UAS Newsletter June 2005 Transactions Entomological Society of London:1835Takabuti – Takabuti
51. Thutmose I – Thutmose I was the third pharaoh of the 18th dynasty of Egypt. Thutmose received the throne after the death of the previous king, Amenhotep I. During his reign, Thutmose campaigned deep into the Levant and Nubia, pushing the borders of Egypt farther than before. Thutmose was succeeded by his son Thutmose II, who in turn was succeeded by Hatshepsut. It has been speculated Thutmose's father was Amenhotep I. His mother, Senseneb, was of non-royal parentage and may have been a lesser wife or concubine. Assuming she was related to Amenhotep, it could be thought that she was married to Thutmose in order to guarantee succession. However, this is known not to be the case for two reasons. Firstly, Amenhotep's bark built at Karnak associates Amenhotep's name with Thutmose's name well before Amenhotep's death. Secondly, Thutmose's first-born son with Ahmose, Amenmose, was apparently born long before Thutmose's coronation. He had another son, two daughters, Hatshepsut and Nefrubity, by Ahmose. Nefrubity died as an infant. He had one son by Mutnofret. This son succeeded him as Thutmose II, whom Thutmose I married to Hatshepsut. It was later recorded by Hatshepsut that Thutmose willed the kingship to Hatshepsut.Thutmose I – A stone head, most likely depicting Thutmose I, at the British Museum
52. Thutmose II – Thutmose II was the fourth Pharaoh of the Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt. His reign is generally dated from 1493 to 1479 BC. Thutmose II was a minor wife, Mutnofret. He was, therefore, chose to marry his fully royal half-sister, Hatshepsut, in order to secure his kingship. This is often interpreted as evidence that Thutmose II was still a minor at his accession. She is depicted in several raised relief scenes from a Karnak gateway dating to Thutmose II's reign both together with her husband and alone. This figure is highly disputed among scholars. Nonetheless, scholars generally assign a reign from 1493 or 1492 to 1479. Ineni, already aged by the start of Thutmose II's reign, lived into that of Hatshepsut. In addition, Thutmose II is poorly attested in the contemporary tomb autobiographies of New Kingdom officials. Its building blocks incorporated into the foundation of the Third Pylon by Amenhotep III. In 1987, Luc Gabolde published an important study that statistically compared the number of surviving scarabs found under Hatshepsut. Hatshepsut's reign is believed to have lasted for 9 months. Hence, unless there was an abnormally low number of scarabs produced under Thutmose II, this would indicate that the king's reign was rather short-lived. On this basis, Gabolde estimated Thutmose I and II's reigns to be approximately 3 full years, respectively.Thutmose II – Relief of Thutmose II in Karnak Temple complex.
53. Thutmose III – Thutmose III was the sixth Pharaoh of the Eighteenth Dynasty. During the first twenty-two years of Thutmose's reign he was co-regent with his stepmother and aunt, Hatshepsut, named the pharaoh. He served as the head of her armies. During the final two years of his reign, he appointed his son and successor, Amenhotep II, as his junior co-regent. His firstborn son and heir to the throne, Amenemhat, predeceased Thutmose III. When Thutmose III died, he was buried in the Valley of the Kings as were the rest of the kings from this period in Egypt. Thutmose III was the son of Thutmose II by a secondary wife, Iset. His father's great royal wife was Queen Hatshepsut. Her daughter Neferure was Thutmose's half-sister. Thutmosis III had little power over the empire while Hatshepsut exercised the formal titulary of kingship. Her rule was quite prosperous and marked by great advancements. When he reached a suitable age and demonstrated the capability, she appointed him to head her armies. Thutmosis III had several wives: Satiah: She may have been the mother of his firstborn son, Amenemhat. An alternative theory is that the boy was the son of Neferure. Amenemhat predeceased his father.Thutmose III – Thutmosis III statue in Luxor Museum
54. Thutmose IV – Thutmose IV was the 8th Pharaoh Orion of the 18th dynasty of Egypt, who ruled in approximately the 14th century BC. His prenomen or royal name, Menkheperure, means "Established in forms is Re." Was not actually the prince and Amenhotep II's chosen successor to the throne. Thutmose's most celebrated accomplishment was the restoration of subsequent commission of the Stele. Little is known about his brief ten-year rule. Thutmose IV's rule is significant because he established peaceful relations with Mitanni and married a Mitannian princess to seal this new alliance. The length of his reign is not as clear as one would wish. He is usually given about nine or ten years of reign. Manetho credits a reign of 8 months. The reading of the king in these dates are today accepted as referring to the prenomen of Thutmose III—Menkheperre—and not Menkhepere Thutmose IV himself. Due to the absence of higher dates for Thutmose IV after his Year 8 Konosso stela, Manetho's figures here are usually accepted. There were once chronological reconstructions which gave as long as 34 -- 35 years. Today, however, most scholars ascribe him a 10-year reign from 1401 to 1391 BC, within a small margin of error. Like most of the Thutmoside kings, he built on a grand scale. Thutmose IV called ` unique obelisk.'Thutmose IV – Granite bust of Thutmose IV
55. Tiye – Tiye was the daughter of Yuya and Tjuyu. She became the Great Royal Wife of the Egyptian pharaoh Amenhotep III. She was grandmother of Tutankhamun. Her mummy was identified as "The Elder Lady" found in 2010. Thuya, was involved in many religious cults, as her different titles attested, which suggests that she was a member of the royal family. Some suggest that the queen's strong unconventional religious views might have been due not just to a strong character, but to foreign descent. Tiye also had Anen, Second Prophet of Amun. Other Egyptologists speculated that a successor of Tutankhamun as pharaoh after the latter's death, also might have been descended from Tiye. Tiye was married by the second year of his reign. He had been needed a stronger tie to the royal lineage. He appears to have been crowned while still a child, perhaps between the ages of six to twelve. 2) Isis- Also elevated to the position of Great Royal Wife. 3) Henuttaneb- Not known to have been elevated to Queenship, though her name does appear in a Cartouche at least once. 4) Nebetah- Sometimes thought to have been renamed Baketaten during her brother's reign. 5) Crown Prince Thutmose- Crown Prince and High Priest of Ptah, pre-deceasing his father.Tiye – The Great Royal Wife Tiye, matriarch of the Amarna Dynasty - now in the Neues Museum/Ägyptisches Museum in Berlin, Germany
56. Tjuyu – Tjuyu was an Egyptian noblewoman, the mother of queen Tiye, wife of Yuya. She is great grandmother of Tutankhamun. She held many official roles in the interwoven religion and government of Ancient Egypt. She was involved in religious cults; her titles included ` Singer of Hathor' and ` Chief of the Entertainers' of both Amun and Min. She also held the influential offices of Superintendent of Amun of Thebes. She married a powerful Ancient Egyptian courtier of the eighteenth dynasty. She is believed to have died to mid 50s. Yuya and Tjuyu had a daughter named Tiye, who became Great Royal Wife of Pharaoh Amenhotep III. The great wife was the highest Egyptian religious position, serving alongside of the pharaoh in official ceremonies and rituals. Together with her husband, Tjuyu was buried in KV46, where their largely unpillaged remains were found in 1905. It was the best-preserved tomb discovered before that of Tjuyu's great-grandson. The tomb was discovered by a team of workmen that were led by archaeologist Arthur Weigall. KV 46 - Theban Mapping Project The Theban Royal Mummy Project - View 18th Dynasty Mummies from the Theban Royal NecropolisTjuyu – Gilded cartonnage mask of Thuya in the Cairo Museum
57. Tutankhamun – Tutankhamun was an Egyptian pharaoh of the 18th dynasty, during the period of Egyptian history known as the New Kingdom or sometimes the New Empire Period. He has since his discovery been colloquially referred to as King Tut. His original name, Tutankhaten, means "Living Image of Aten", while Tutankhamun means "Living Image of Amun". The 1922 discovery by Howard Carter and Lord Carnarvon of Tutankhamun's nearly intact tomb received worldwide press coverage. It sparked a renewed public interest in ancient Egypt, for which Tutankhamun's mask, now in the Egyptian Museum, remains the popular symbol. Exhibits of artifacts from his tomb have toured the world. In February 2010, the results of DNA tests confirmed that he was the son of Akhenaten. His mother was Akhenaten's sister and wife, whose name is unknown but whose remains are positively identified as "The Younger Lady" mummy found in KV35. The "mysterious" deaths of a few of those who excavated Tutankhamun's tomb has been popularly attributed to the curse of the pharaohs. Tutankhamun was the son of Akhenaten and one of Akhenaten's sisters, or possibly one of his cousins. As a prince, he was known as Tutankhaten. He ascended at the age of ten, taking the Nebkheperure. His wet nurse was a woman called Maia, known from her tomb at Saqqara. His teacher was most likely Sennedjem. When he became king, he married his half-sister, Ankhesenpaaten, who later changed her name to Ankhesenamun.Tutankhamun – Mask of Tutankhamun's mummy, the popular icon for ancient Egypt at The Egyptian Museum.
58. Tutankhamun's mummy – His chamber was found in the Valley of the Kings in the Theban Necropolis in 1922, but was not opened until a year later. It would be another two years before its famous death mask were discovered inside the tomb. Tutankhamun was the 11th pharaoh of the 18th Dynasty of the New Kingdom of Egypt, making his mummy over 3,300 years old. The discovery of the tomb as a whole was one of the most famous archeological discoveries in modern times. Tutankhamun was the 11th pharaoh during the 18th Dynasty of the New Kingdom; however, the exact dates of his reign are not clear. An educated estimate is that he ruled from about 1355-1346 BCE. After an initial examination of the 3,300-year-old mummy, it was estimated that Tutankhamun was a teenager of approximately 17–19 years of age when he died. Since it was believed that Tutankhamun became king as child no more than ten years old, many refer as the "Boy-King" or "Child-King." Following the discovery of Tutankhamun's mummy, much debate has arisen as to his exact cause of death. This has led to medical studies and procedures performed on his remains, right up to the 2010s. He was possibly in a chariot accident or suffered a blow to the head. An archeologist contemporary with Carter, discovered pottery with Tutankhamun's name a short distance from where Carter would on November 4, 1922 discover KV62. Most of the tombs were broken into and either robbed or damaged. Once they could finally begin to examine the actual corpse, they began to make anatomical notes on the body. He was determined to have been approximately 5 feet, 6 inches and to have had a slight build with a slightly curved spine.Tutankhamun's mummy – Tutankhamun's mummy
59. Usermontu (mummy) – "Usermontu" is an ancient Egyptian mummy exhibited at the Rosicrucian Egyptian Museum of San Jose, California. The Usermontu -- which means, "Powerful is Montu" -- almost certainly does not match the still-unknown name originally belonged to the mummified man. The mummy is also known for having an ancient but sophisticated prosthetic pin in its left knee. In 1971 the Rosicrucian Museum acquired two sealed Egyptian coffins from Neiman-Marcus. Unbeknownst to one of the coffin still contained the mummy, discovered soon after the purchase. The body underwent another wrapping with linen bandages which are still visible today. There is no clue of where the mummy originally came from. His mummy is about 5 ft tall. In August 1995 BYU professor C. Wilfred Griggs performed some X-ray scans on the Rosicrucian mummies and discovered the presence of a 9 in iron-made orthopedic screw inside “Usermontu”'s left knee. The pin was held by an organic resin analogous to modern bone cement. By doing so, those who performed the operation ensured the integrity of the body, required for the Egyptian afterlife.Usermontu (mummy) – Side view of the mummy
60. Wendjebauendjed – Wendjebauendjed was an ancient Egyptian general, high dignitary and high priest during the reign of pharaohs Psusennes I of the 21st Dynasty. He is mainly known for his intact tomb found by Pierre Montet inside the royal necropolis of Tanis. According to one of his titles, it is possible that he was a native of Mendes. His mummified remains shows that he died around his fifties. Montet discovered the burial chamber of Psusennes I where he found a golden hilt belonged to Wendjebauendjed, placed on the king's sarcophagus. After World War II, on 13 February 1946 they discovered a new, undisturbed burial chamber inside the same necropolis. A reused granite anthropoid sarcophagus, originally belonged to a Third priest of Amun called datable to the 19th Dynasty, was found inside. The new owner was the same Wendjebauendjed named on the objects recovered before the war. Outside the sarcophagus were also found Wendjebauendjed's four canopic jars. All the funerary equipment is now in Cairo Museum. Georges Goyon, La Découverte des trésors de Tanis, Éditions Perséa, ISBN 978-2-906427-01-3, pp. 166 -- 170. Henri Stierlin, Christiane Ziegler: Tanis: Vergessene Schätze der Pharaonen. Hirmer, München 1987, ISBN 3-7774-4460-X, p. 80.Wendjebauendjed – Mummy mask of Wendjebauendjed, Cairo Museum
61. The Younger Lady – Through recent DNA tests this mummy has been identified as a daughter of Pharaoh Amenhotep III and Queen Tiye. The mummy also currently resides in the Egyptian Museum in Cairo. All were found together, unidentified in a small antechamber of the tomb. All three mummies had been extensively damaged by ancient tomb robbers. There has been much speculation as to the identity of the Younger Lady mummy. Upon finding the mummy, Victor Loret initially had believed it be that of a young man as the mummy's head had been shaved. Recently, mitochondrial DNA testing have shown conclusively that the mummy is that of a female and, that she was the mother of Tutankhamun. The theory goes that Meritaten married Smenkhare, believed to be her uncle, thereby making a maternal grandson of Akhenaten. There is one problem with this theory. Meritaten must be her mother Thuya, as the younger lady's mitochondrial DNA fits with her being Tiye's daughter. If Meritaten is the younger lady, Nefertiti must be a mitochondrial relation of Thuya. It has been suggested that, indeed, the Younger Lady is Nefertiti, as incest was not uncommon. This would mean that he and Nefertiti are the parents of Tutankhamun. All this should be mentioned as a further plausible scenario. Grafton Elliot Smith provided an extensive description of the mummy in his survey of the royal mummies at the beginning of the twentieth century.The Younger Lady – Discovery
62. Yuya – Yuya was a powerful Egyptian courtier during the Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt. He was married to an Egyptian noblewoman associated with the royal family, who held high offices in the governmental and religious hierarchies. Tiye, became the Great Royal Wife of Amenhotep III. They also may have been the parents of Ay, an Egyptian courtier active during the reign of pharaoh Akhenaten, who eventually became pharaoh, as Kheperkheprure Ay. There is no conclusive evidence, however, regarding the kinship of Yuya and Ay, although certainly, both men came from the town of Akhmim. Although the site was robbed in antiquity, many objects not considered worth plundering by the robbers remained. Both the mummies were in an amazing state of preservation. Their faces in particular provide an extraordinary insight into the actual appearance of the deceased while alive. Yuya came from the Upper Egyptian town of Akhmim, where he was a wealthy member of the town's local nobility. His origins remain unclear. Taking into account features, some Egyptologists believe that Yuya was of foreign origin, although this is far from certain. The name Yuya may be spelled in a number of different ways as Gaston Maspero noted in Theodore Davis's 1907 book—The Tomb of Iouiya and Touiyou. These include "iAy", ywiA", ywiw" and, in orthography -- normally a sign of something foreign -- "yiA". The Biographical Dictionary of Ancient Egypt suggests that foreign origin. However, this hypothesis can not be substantiated, since nothing is known of Mutemwiya's background.Yuya – Gilded mummy mask of Yuya, father of Great Royal Wife, Tiye, now in the collection of Cairo Museum