Category:Ancient Egyptian mummies
Pages in category "Ancient Egyptian mummies"
The following 81 pages are in this category, out of 81 total, this list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 81 pages are in this category, out of 81 total, this list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Animal mummy – Animal mummification originated in ancient Egypt. It was a part of Egyptian culture, not only in their role as food and pets. Bast, the cat goddess is an example of one such deity, in 1888, an Egyptian farmer digging in the sand near Istabl Antar discovered a mass grave of felines, ancient cats that were mummified and buried in pits at great numbers. Throughout the history of ancient Egypt, animals were highly respected, in no other culture have animals been as influential in so many aspects of life, nor has any culture depicted animals as often in their artwork or writing. It is estimated that 2 in every 4 or 5 Egyptian hieroglyphs relates to animals, the Egyptian religion taught of life after death. In order to determine a person’s admittance or denial to the afterlife, one of these crucial questions would be whether they had mistreated any animals during their life on earth. Because of this belief, the killing of an animal was considered a serious crime punishable by death. Diodorus Siculus, a Greek historian from the 1st century B. C. witnessed the lynching of a Roman who had killed a cat during a visit to Egypt. Understandably, this punishment frightened many Egyptians to the point that if one would happen upon a dead animal, the most common Egyptian pets included cats, dogs, mongooses, monkeys, gazelles, and birds. Many Egyptians loved their pets, and the process of mourning the loss of a loved pet included crying and shaving one’s eyebrows. Ancient Egyptian pets were given names like we name our pets today, pets were often depicted on the tombs of Egyptians, indicating their masters’ affection toward the animals. Specific archaeological findings have confirmed that pets were mummified, the most famous example of this is the Theban Queen Makare’s adult Green Monkey. When her tomb was discovered, there was a small, mummified bundle present at her feet and this puzzled archaeologists because Queen Makare was a High Priestess who had taken a serious vow of celibacy. If this had been her child, it would have meant that she had, at point, broken the oath she had taken as High Priestess. Finally, in 1968, an x-ray was done on the small mummy, similarly, Makare’s half sister, Esemkhet, was discovered buried with a mummified pet—she had a mummified gazelle in her tomb. Prince Tuthmosis of the Dynasty XVIII was also buried with a beloved pet cat was mummified and placed in a stone coffin in his tomb. Another Egyptian, named Hapymen, had his pet dog mummified, wrapped in cloth, at the tomb KV50 in the Valley of Kings, a mummified dog and baboon were discovered buried together, though the owner is unknown. Egyptians believed that the afterlife would be a continuation of this one, in order to bring food to the afterlife, Egyptians would surround human mummies by what are known as victual mummiesAnimal mummy – Egyptian mummies of animals in the British Museum.
2. Ahmose I – Ahmose I was a pharaoh of ancient Egypt and the founder of the Eighteenth dynasty. He was a member of the Theban royal house, the son of pharaoh Seqenenre Tao and brother of the last pharaoh of the Seventeenth dynasty, during the reign of his father or grandfather, Thebes rebelled against the Hyksos, the rulers of Lower Egypt. When he was seven years old his father was killed, and he was ten when his brother died of unknown causes. Ahmose I assumed the throne after the death of his brother, the name Ahmose is a combination of the divine name Ah and the combining form -mose. This building program culminated in the construction of the last pyramid built by native Egyptian rulers, Ahmoses reign laid the foundations for the New Kingdom, under which Egyptian power reached its peak. His reign is dated to the mid-16th century BC. Ahmose descended from the Theban Seventeenth Dynasty and his grandfather and grandmother, Senakhtenre Ahmose and Tetisheri, had at least twelve children, including Seqenenre Tao and Ahhotep. The brother and sister, according to the tradition of Egyptian queens, married, their children were Kamose, Ahmose I, Ahmose I followed in the tradition of his father and married several of his sisters, making Ahmose-Nefertari his chief wife. They had several children including daughters Meritamun B, Sitamun A and sons Siamun A, Ahmose-ankh, Amenhotep I and they may also have been the parents of Mutnofret, who would become the wife of later successor Thutmose I. Ahmose-ankh was Ahmoses heir apparent, but he preceded his father in death sometime between Ahmoses 17th and 22nd regnal year, Ahmose was succeeded instead by his eldest surviving son, Amenhotep I, with whom he might have shared a short coregency. There was no break in the line of the royal family between the 17th and 18th dynasties. Manetho supposedly gives Ahmose a reign of 25 years and 4 months and this figure is seemingly supported by a Year 22 inscription from his reign at the stone quarries of Tura. A medical examination of his mummy indicates that he died when he was about thirty-five, the radiocarbon date range for the start of his reign is 1570–1544 BC, the mean point of which is 1557 BC. Alternative dates for his reign were suggested by David Rohl, Kamose evidently had a short reign, as his highest attested regnal year is year 3, and was succeeded by Ahmose I. Apepi may have died near the same time, Ahmose ascended the throne when he was still a child, so his mother, Ahhotep, reigned as regent until he was of age. Ahmose began the conquest of Lower Egypt held by the Hyksos starting around the 11th year of Khamudis reign, analyzing the events of the conquest prior to the siege of the Hyksos capital of Avaris is extremely difficult. First month of akhet, day 23, this southern prince broke into Tjaru, for if the date refers to Ahmose, then the scribe must have been an adherent of that ruler. To me, the very indirect reference to Ahmose—it must be Ahmose—ought to indicate a supporter of the Hyksos dynasty, hence, the Rhind Papyrus illustrates some of Ahmoses military strategy when attacking the DeltaAhmose I – Copper axe blade inscribed with the titulary of pharaoh Ahmose I, Ashmolean Museum.
3. Ahmose Inhapy – Ahmose-Inhapy or Ahmose-Inhapi was a princess and queen of the late 17th dynasty and early 18th dynasty. She was probably a daughter of Pharaoh Senakhtenre and was sister to Pharaoh Seqenenre Tao, and she probably married Seqenenre Tao, but it is possible she dates to the later time of Ahmose I. She had a daughter named Ahmose-Henuttamehu, Ahmose Inhapy was mentioned in a copy of the Book of the Dead owned by her daughter Ahmose-Henuttamehu, and in the tomb of Amenemhat. Her titles were, Kings Wife and Kings Daughter, a tomb was made for Inhapy in Thebes, her mummy was later reburied in DB320 where it was discovered in 1881 and is now in the Egyptian Museum in Cairo. The mummy was found in the coffin of Lady Rai. It was unwrapped by Gaston Maspero on June 26,1886 and was examined by Grafton Elliot Smith who described Inhapi as a big. Smith dates her burial to the years of the reign of Ahmose I. The mummy had a garland of flowers around its neck, the body was laid out with her arms by her side, and the skin of the mummy was of a dark-brown color. The outer layer of the skin was present and no evidence of salt was found. This may mean that the body was not immersed in natron as described by Herodotus, Diodorus, an incision was made in the left side to allow for the removal of the organs and the cavity may have been treated with natron. The body was sprinkled with aromatic powdered wood and wrapped in resin soaked linenAhmose Inhapy – Ahmose Henuttamehu and another royal lady, Possibly Ahmose Inhapi
4. Ahmose Sapair – Ahmose-Sapair was an prince of the late Seventeenth Dynasty of Egypt. He was probably a son of Pharaoh Seqenenre Tao and a brother of Ahmose I or the child of Ahmose I, during the Eighteenth Dynasty, he appears on several monuments. However, the mummy identified as his is that of a 5- to 6-year-old boy, the mummy was found in the Deir el-Bahari cache in 1881 and was unwrapped by Grafton Elliot Smith and A. R. Ferguson on September 9,1905. The location of his tomb is unknown, however it was known during the inspection of tombs from the Twentieth Dynasty mentioned on the Abbott PapyrusAhmose Sapair – Ahmose-Sapair at the Louvre (E 15682)
5. Ahmose-Henutemipet – Ahmose-Henutemipet was a princess of the late seventeenth dynasty of Egypt. She was a daughter of Pharaoh Seqenenre Tao and probably Queen Ahhotep I and she was the sister of Ahmose I. She bore the titles Kings Daughter and Kings Sister and her mummy was found in the tomb DB320 in 1881 and now is in the Egyptian Museum in Cairo. It was examined by Grafton Elliot Smith in June 1909, henutemipet died as an old woman, she had grey hair and worn teeth. Her mummy was damaged, probably by tomb robbers and it is likely that the mummy was moved to DB320 after Year 11 of Pharaoh Shoshenq IAhmose-Henutemipet – Mummy of Ahmose-Henutemipet, found in DB320
6. Ahmose-Henuttamehu – Ahmose-Henuttamehu was a princess and queen of the late 17th-early 18th dynasties of Egypt. Ahmose-Henuttamehu was a daughter of Pharaoh Seqenenre Tao by his sister-wife Ahmose Inhapy and she was probably married to her half-brother Pharaoh Ahmose I, since her titles include King’s Wife, Great King’s Wife, King’s Daughter and King’s Sister. Ahmose-Henuttamehu was a half-sister to the Great Royal Wife and Gods Wife of Amun Ahmose-Nefertari, not much is known about the life of Ahmose-Henuttamehu. The Queen is mentioned on a stela as depicted in Lepsius Denkmahler, ahmose-Henuttamehus mummy was discovered in 1881 in her own coffin in the tomb DB320 and is now in the Egyptian Museum in Cairo. It was examined by Gaston Maspero in December 1882, henuttamehu was an old woman when she died, with worn teeth. Quotes from the Book of the Dead were written on her mummy bandages and she was probably buried together with her mother, her mummy was taken to DB320 along with other mummies after Year 11 of Pharaoh Shoshenq I. Ahmose-Henuttamehu is included in the list of royal ancestors worshipped in the Nineteenth Dynasty and she appears in the tomb of Khabekhnet in ThebesAhmose-Henuttamehu – Mummy of Ahmose-Henuttamehu, found in DB320
7. Ahmose-Meritamun – Ahmose-Meritamun was a Queen of Egypt during the early Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt. She was both the sister and the wife of Pharaoh Amenhotep I and she died fairly young and was buried in tomb TT358 in Deir el-Bahari. Ahmose-Meritamun was the daughter of Ahmose I and Ahmose Nefertari. Meritamun took over the role of Gods Wife of Amun from her mother Ahmose Nefertari. Other titles recorded for Meritamun include, lady of the two lands, King’s Wife, mistress of the two lands, god’s wife, united with the white crown, king’s daughter, and king’s sister. The title king’s mother is also recorded in sources, even though she was never the mother of a king. A limestone statue of this queen was discovered by Giovanni Belzoni while he was working in Karnak in 1817, ahmose-Meritamun is depicted in the tomb of Inherkau which dates to the 20th dynasty as one of the Lords of the West. She is shown in the top row behind Queen Ahhotep I and her remains were discovered at Deir el-Bahri in TT358 in 1930 by Herbert Eustis Winlock. Her mummy was found in two coffins and a cartonage outer case. Her mummy had been rewrapped and reburied by priests who had found her tomb that had been vandalized by robbers and it appears that she died when she was relatively young, with evidence of being afflicted with arthritis and scoliosis. The outer coffin is over 10 ft in size and is made from planks which are joined and carved to a uniform thickness throughout the coffin. The eyes and eyebrows are inlaid with glass, the body is carefully carved with chevrons painted in blue to create the illusion of feathers. The coffin was covered in gold which had been stripped in antiquity, the inner coffin was smaller, but still over 6 ft tall. The inner coffin had also covered in gold but stripped of this precious metal. The mummy had been carefully rewrapped during the reign of Pinedjem I, inscriptions record that the linen used in the reburial was made in year 18 of Pinedjem by the High Priest of Amun Masaharta, son of Pinedjem I. The reburial took place in year 19, month 3 of the winter, Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt Family TreeAhmose-Meritamun – Fragmentary colossal bust of Ahmose-Meritamon, wearing a wig fashioned after a style associated with Hathor - British Museum
8. Ahmose-Meritamon (17th dynasty) – Ahmose-Meritamon was a princess of the 17th Dynasty of Egypt, probably a daughter of pharaoh Seqenenre Tao. She is also called Ahmose-Meritamun, Ahmose-Meryetamun or just Meryetamun and her mummy was found in the Deir el-Bahri cache and is now in the Egyptian Museum in Cairo. The shroud covering her body gives her name and titles as the royal daughter, the remains are those of an old woman who was relatively short in stature. The examination of her shows that she suffered a head wound prior to her death which has the characteristics of wound sustained when falling backwards. The body was damaged by tomb robbers. She is not to be confused with her niece Ahmose-Meritamon, who became the wife of Amenhotep IAhmose-Meritamon (17th dynasty) – Ahmose-Meritamon's mummy
9. Ahmose-Sitamun – Ahmose-Sitamun or Sitamun was a princess of the early Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt. Name of this princess means Child of the Moon, Daughter of Amun, Sitamun was the daughter of Pharaoh Ahmose I and sister of Amenhotep I. A colossal statue of hers stood before the pylon at Karnak. Her mummy was found in the Deir el-Bahari cache and is today in the Egyptian Museum and her titles were, Gods Wife, Kings Daughter, Kings Sister. Aidan Dodson & Dyan Hilton, The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt, Thames & Hudson,2004, ISBN 0-500-05128-3, p.129Ahmose-Sitamun – Sitamun (far left) on a stele from Karnak
10. Ahmose-Sitkamose – Ahmose-Sitkamose or Sitkamose was a princess and queen during the late 17th-early 18th dynasties of Egypt. Based on her name, she is likely to have been the daughter of Pharaoh Kamose and her name means daughter of Kamose. She probably married Ahmose I who was her uncle or cousin, since her titles include Kings Wife as well as Kings Daughter and she was also the Gods Wife of Amun, but it is likely that she was given this title only posthumously. Sitkamoses mummy was discovered in 1881 in the Deir el-Bahari cache and her mummy was unwraped by Gaston Maspero on June 19,1886. Sitkamose was about thirty years old when she died, Grafton Eliot Smith described her as a strong-built, the mummy was damaged by tomb robbersAhmose-Sitkamose – Mummy of Ahmose-Sitkamose, found in DB320
11. Amenemope (pharaoh) – Usermaatre Amenemope was an ancient Egyptian pharaoh of the 21st Dynasty. A probable son of Psusennes I and his queen Mutnedjmet, Amenemope succeeded his fathers long reign after a period of coregency. This coregency has been deduced thanks to a linen bandage mentioning a. king Amenemope, which has been reconstructed as king Amenemope, Year 49. Kitchen refers to the existence of Papyrus Brooklyn 16, during his reign as Pharaoh, Amenemope claimed the title of High Priest of Amun in Tanis as Psusennes also did before him. Apart from his Tanite tomb and the aforementioned Theban burials, Amemenope is a poorly attested ruler and he continued with the decoration of the chapel of Isis Mistress of the Pyramids at Giza and made an addition to one of the temples in Memphis. All versions of Manethos Epitome reports that Amenophthis enjoyed 9 years of reign, neither children nor wives are known for him, and he was succeeded by the seemingly unrelated Osorkon the Elder. According to the analysis of his skeleton performed by Dr. Douglas Derry and it seems that the king suffered a skull infection which likely developed into meningitis and led to his death. His undisturbed tomb was rediscovered by French Egyptologists Pierre Montet and Georges Goyon in April 1940, Montet had to stop his excavation until the end of World War II, then resumed it in 1946 and later published his findings in 1958. When the excavators entered the burial chamber, they argued that it was originally made for queen Mutnedjmet. On the mummy were found two gilt funerary masks, two pectorals, necklaces, bracelets, rings and a cloisonné collar, four of these items bore the name of Psusennes I. The funerary masks depict the king as young, although Goyon stated that at the moment of discovery the masks had an expression of suffering and pleading, the mummy and funerary goods are now in Cairo Museum. La Découverte des trésors de Tanis, hornung, Erik, Krauss, Rolf, Warburton, David A. eds. The Third Intermediate Period in EgyptAmenemope (pharaoh) – Grave mask of pharaoh Amenemope in the Cairo Museum
12. Amenhotep I – His reign is generally dated from 1526 to 1506 BC. He was a son of Ahmose I and Ahmose-Nefertari, but had at least two brothers, Ahmose-ankh and Ahmose Sapair, and was not expected to inherit the throne. However, sometime in the eight years between Ahmose Is 17th regnal year and his death, his heir apparent died and Amenhotep became crown prince and he then acceded to the throne and ruled for about 21 years. Although his reign is documented, it is possible to piece together a basic history from available evidence. He inherited the kingdom formed by his fathers military conquests and maintained dominance over Nubia, after his death, he was deified as a patron god of Deir el-Medina. Amenhotep I was the son of Ahmose I and Ahmose-Nefertari and his elder brothers, the crown prince Ahmose Sapair and Ahmose-ankh, died before him, thus clearing the way for his ascension to the throne. Amenhotep probably came to power while he was still young himself, the evidence for this regency is that both he and his mother are credited with founding a settlement for workers in the Theban Necropolis at Deir el-Medina. Amenhotep took his sister Ahmose-Meritamon as his Great Royal Wife, another wifes name, Sitkamose, is attested on a nineteenth dynasty stele. Beyond this, the relationships between Amenhotep I and other family members are unclear. Ahhotep II is usually called his wife and sister, despite an alternate theory that she was his grandmother and he is thought to have had one son by Ahhotep II, Amenemhat, who died while still very young. This remains the consensus, although there are arguments against that relationship as well, with no living heirs, Amenhotep was succeeded by Thutmose I, whom he married to his sister, Aahmes. Since Aahmes is never given the title Kings Daughter in any inscription, in Amenhotep Is ninth regnal year, a heliacal rise of Sothis was observed on the ninth day of the third month of summer. Modern astronomers have calculated that, if the observation was made from Memphis or Heliopolis, if the observation was made in Thebes, however, it could only have taken place in 1517. Manethos Epitome states that Amenhotep I ruled Egypt for twenty years and seven months or twenty-one years, while Amenhotep Is highest attested regnal year is only his Year 10, Manethos statement is confirmed by a passage in the tomb autobiography of a magician named Amenemhet. This explicitly states that he served under Amenhotep I for 21 Years, Amenhotep Is Horus and Two Ladies names, Bull who conquers the lands and He who inspires great terror, are generally interpreted to mean that Amenhotep I intended to dominate the surrounding nations. Two tomb texts indicate that he led campaigns into Nubia, according to the tomb texts of Ahmose, son of Ebana, Amenhotep later sought to expand Egypts border southward into Nubia and he led an invasion force which defeated the Nubian army. The tomb biography of Ahmose Pen-Nekhebet says he fought in a campaign in Kush, however it is quite possible that it refers to the same campaign as Ahmose. Amenhotep built a temple at Saï, showing that he had established Egyptian settlements almost as far as the third cataract, a single reference in the tomb of Ahmose Pen-Nekhebet indicates another campaign in Iamu in the land of KehekAmenhotep I – Relief of Amenhotep I from Karnak.
13. Amenhotep II – Amenhotep II was the seventh Pharaoh of the 18th dynasty of Egypt. His reign is dated from 1427 to 1401 BC. Amenhotep II was born to Thutmose III and a wife of the king. However, between Years 24 and 35 of Thutmose III, both queen Satiah and prince Amenemhat died, which prompted the pharaoh to marry the non-royal Merytre-Hatshepsut and she would bear Thutmose III a number of children including the future Amenhotep II. Amenhotep II was born and raised in Memphis in the north, instead of in Thebes, while a prince, he oversaw deliveries of wood sent to the dockyard of Peru-nūfe in Memphis, and was made the Setem, the high priest over Lower Egypt. Amenhotep has left several inscriptions touting his athletic skills while he was a leader of the army before his crowning, Amenhotep was no less athletic than his powerful father. He claims to have been able to shoot an arrow through a target one palm thick. Accordingly, some skepticism concerning the truth of his claims has been expressed among Egyptologists, Amenhotep acceded to the throne on the first day of the fourth month of Akhet, but his father died on the thirtieth day of the third month of Peret. If an Egyptian crown prince was proclaimed king but did not take the throne on the day after his fathers death, a coregency with Thutmose III and Amenhotep II is believed to have lasted for two years and four months. After becoming pharaoh, Amenhotep married a woman of uncertain parentage named Tiaa, as many as ten sons and one daughter have been attributed to him. Amenhoteps most important son was Thutmose IV, who succeeded him, however, Princes Amenhotep, Webensenu, Amenemopet, and Nedjem are all clearly attested, and Amenemhat, Khaemwaset, and Aakheperure as well as a daughter, Iaret, are also possible children. 10056, which dates to sometime after Amenhotep IIs tenth year, refers to a kings son and this Amenhotep might also be attested in a stele from Amenhotep IIs temple at Giza, however the steles name has been defaced so that positive identification is impossible. Stele B may belong to another son, Webensenu, webensenus name is otherwise attested on a statue of Amenhoteps chief architect, Minmose, and his canopic jars and a funerary statue have been found in Amenhotep IIs tomb. Another Giza stele, stele C, records the name of a Prince Amenemopet, the same statue with the name Webensenu on it is also inscribed with the name of prince Nedjem, who is otherwise unattested. There are other references to kings sons from this period who may or may not be sons of Amenhotep II, two graffiti from Sahel mention a kings son and stable master named Khaemwaset, but specifically which king is his father is unknown. A figure with the name Amenemhet is recorded behind a prince Amenhotep in Theban tomb 64,10056, Amenemhat would also be Amenhotep IIs son. Additionally, a prince Aakheperure is mentioned in a Konosso graffito alongside a prince Amenhotep,10056, Aakheperure would also have been Amenhotep IIs son. In addition to sons, Amenhotep II may have had a daughter named Iaret, two more sons had been attributed to Amenhotep II in the past, however, they have since been proven to be of other parentageAmenhotep II – Sphinx head of a young Amenhotep II, Musée du Louvre.
14. Amenhotep III – Amenhotep III, also known as Amenhotep the Magnificent, was the ninth pharaoh of the Eighteenth Dynasty. According to different authors, he ruled Egypt from June 1386 to 1349 BC, or from June 1388 BC to December 1351 BC/1350 BC, Amenhotep III was Thutmoses son by a minor wife, Mutemwiya. His reign was a period of unprecedented prosperity and artistic splendour, when he died in the 38th or 39th year of his reign, his son initially ruled as Amenhotep IV, but then changed his own royal name to Akhenaten. The son of the future Thutmose IV and a minor wife Mutemwiya and he was a member of the Thutmosid family that had ruled Egypt for almost 150 years since the reign of Thutmose I. Amenhotep III was the father of two sons with his Great Royal Wife Tiye and their first son, Crown Prince Thutmose, predeceased his father and their second son, Amenhotep IV, later known as Akhenaten, ultimately succeeded Amenhotep III to the throne. Amenhotep III also may have been the father of a third child—called Smenkhkare, Amenhotep III and Tiye may also have had four daughters, Sitamun, Henuttaneb, Isis or Iset, and Nebetah. They appear frequently on statues and reliefs during the reign of their father, Nebetah is attested only once in the known historical records on a colossal limestone group of statues from Medinet Habu. Amenhotep III elevated two of his four daughters—Sitamun and Isis—to the office of royal wife during the last decade of his reign. Evidence that Sitamun already was promoted to office by Year 30 of his reign, is known from jar-label inscriptions uncovered from the royal palace at Malkata. The goddess Hathor herself was related to Ra as first the mother and later wife, hence, Amenhotep IIIs marriage to his two daughters should not be considered unlikely based on contemporary views of marriage. Amenhotep III is known to have married several women, Gilukhepa. Tadukhepa, the daughter of his ally Tushratta of Mitanni, Around Year 36 of his reign, a daughter of Kurigalzu, king of Babylon. A daughter of Kadashman-Enlil, king of Babylon, a daughter of Tarhundaradu, ruler of Arzawa. A daughter of the ruler of Ammia, Amenhotep III has the distinction of having the most surviving statues of any Egyptian pharaoh, with over 250 of his statues having been discovered and identified. Since these statues span his life, they provide a series of portraits covering the entire length of his reign. Their lengthy inscribed texts extol the accomplishments of the pharaoh, for instance,123 of these commemorative scarabs record the large number of lions that Amenhotep III killed with his own arrows from his first regnal year up to his tenth year. Similarly, five other state that the foreign princess who would become a wife to him, Gilukhepa. She was the first of many such princesses who would enter the pharaohs household, another eleven scarabs record the excavation of an artificial lake he had built for his Great Royal Wife, Queen Tiye, in his eleventh regnal year, Regnal Year 11 under the Majesty ofAmenhotep III – Colossal statue of Amenhotep III
15. Djedmaatesankh – Djedmaatesankh was an Egyptian woman from the city then known as Waset who died in the middle of the 9th century B. C. She was an ordinary woman and musician. Her cartonnage coffin is thought to have buried on the west bank of the Nile about 2,850 years ago. The coffin and mummy of the lady Djedmaatesankh are part of the permanent collection of the Royal Ontario Museum in the Galleries of Africa, the coffin was collected and brought to the ROM by Dr. Charles Trick Currelly, the Museums first director, in the early 20th century. Notably, the cartonnage of Djedmaatesankh is one of the best preserved of its period and her cartonnage lists her husbands name as Pa-ankh-entef, which translates to Life belongs to him. Gibson cited that the iconography on the two coffins are very similar and that Pa-ankh-entef would be a short form of Pa-ankh-en-amun. Holowka noted that scans that she performed showed that there were peculiarities in the process that the mummies also shared. The scan performed by Holowka also revealed that it is unlikely that Djedmaatesankh had any children as her pubic bone was perfectly intact and he suggests that as a married woman of her age it was customary for most Egyptian women to have already had several children. CT-scans performed on the body of Djedmaatesankh have shown that she died of a dental abscess. Additionally, high-resolution scans show tracks on the jawbone that are believed to be a result of attempts to drain the abscessDjedmaatesankh – The Mummy of Djedmaatesankh at the Royal Ontario Museum in Galleries of Africa: Egypt
16. Djedptahiufankh – Djedptahiufankh served as Second Prophet of Amun and Third Prophet of Amun during the reign of Shoshenq I of the 22nd Dynasty. Djedptahiufankh is only known from his burial and mummy and he held the title of District Governor as well as Kings Son of Ramesses and Kings Son of the Lord of the Two Lands. The latter may suggest that he was related to the family of possibly the 21st Dynasty or 22nd Dynasty. It has been conjectured that Djedptahiufankh was the husband of Nesitanebetashru and this theory is based purely on the fact that Djedptahiufankh was buried next to Nesitanebetashru in DB320. He died around the middle of Shoshenq Is reign according to inscriptions found written on the bandages of his mummy and he was buried in Deir El-Bahari Tomb 320 or DB320, which actually served as the family tomb of the 21st Dynasty High Priest of Amun Pinedjem I. Three separate mummy bandages dating to Years 5,10 and 11 of Shoshenq I were found on Djedptahiufankhs body, Djedptahiufankhs burial was found intact and undisturbed, and his mummy was unwrapped by Gaston Maspero in 1886. A web link below gives a clear photo of his mummy and it also mentions some of the jewelry, in the form of gold rings, amulets and a uraeus, among other items, which were found on his bodyDjedptahiufankh – Mummy of Djedptahiufankh, from DB320.
17. Duathathor-Henuttawy – Duathathor-Henuttawy, Henuttawy or Henttawy was an ancient Egyptian princess and later queen. Henuttawy is likely to have been the daughter of Ramesses XI, the placement of Henuttawy in the royal families of the late 20th dynasty and the early 21st dynasty is not entirely clear and open to interpretation. Kitchen had conjectured there were two women called Henuttawy during the period to explain some of the associated with the name Henuttawy. Wente had shown that Henuttawy was the wife of Pinedjem I and it is likely she was also the mother of Henuttawy who is depicted along with Maatkare and Mutnedjmet in Karnak. Niwiński conjectured that Henuttawy was the daughter of Ramesses XI and Tentamun, dodson recognizes two queens named Tentamun. One is the wife of Ramesses Xi and the mother of Henuttawy and this Queen is mentioned in the funerary papyrus of Queen Hennutawy. Another Queen named Tentamun was presumably a daughter of Ramesses XI and possibly a sister of Henuttawy. The latter Tentamun is mentioned in the Story of Wenamun and she is mentioned before her husbands ascendence to the throne on a chalice found in Tanis, on a door lintel and on a relief in the Khonsu temple in the Karnak temple complex. Even here she is mentioned as a queen, with her name written in a cartouche, later she is also mentioned on a stela in Coptos, in Muts temple in Karnak and on several objects found in her sons tomb in Tanis. She is depicted on the facade of the Khonsu temple in Karnak and her mummy and coffins were found in the DB320 cache along with those of several members of her immediate family. She was buried elsewhere before being moved to the cache, henuttawys mummy was found in a set of two wooden coffins. The coffins must have covered in gold, but all of the gold had been adzed off. They are now in the Egyptian Museum of Cairo, the mummy was damaged by tomb robbers. In the search for the heart scarab the main part of the chest area had been penetrated, packing linen under a subjects skin had become common practice in 20th Dynasty mummification, but had caused the flesh on the face of Lady Henuttawy to burst open. The face was restored after discovery, auguste Mariette purchased two large funerary papyrus rolls that are thought to have belonged to Queen HenuttawyDuathathor-Henuttawy – Duathathor-Henuttawy
18. Gebelein predynastic mummies – The Gebelein predynastic mummies are six naturally mummified bodies, dating to approximately 3400 BC from the Late Predynastic period of Ancient Egypt. They were the first complete predynastic bodies to be discovered, the well-preserved bodies were excavated at the end of the nineteenth century by Wallis Budge, the British Museum Keeper for Egyptology, from shallow sand graves near Gebelein in the Egyptian desert. Budge excavated all the bodies from the grave site. Two were identified as male and one as female, with the others being of undetermined gender, the bodies were given to the British Museum in 1900. Some grave-goods were documented at the time of excavation as pots and flints, however they were not passed on to the British Museum, three of the bodies were found with coverings of different types, which still remain with the bodies. The bodies were found in foetal positions lying on their left sides, from 1901 the first body excavated has remained on display in the British Museum. This body was originally nicknamed Ginger due to his red hair, in 1895 and 1896 the ruins at Abydos, Tukh, Hierakonpolis and Gebelein were excavated. In 1892 Jacques de Morgan, Director of Antiquities in Egypt, proved that pottery found at Abydos and Nakadah pre-dated the dynastic period, as each excavation was completed, local Egyptian residents would continue to search the sites for remains. Budge started purchasing predynastic finds from the locals including bowls, spear and arrow heads, carved flint and bone figures, in 1896, Budge was approached by a resident of Gebelein who claimed to have found more mummies. Budge was taken to the bodies, and he recognized them as from the predynastic period. He began excavations and a total of six mummified bodies were removed from shallow graves at Baḥr Bila Mâ located at the eastern slopes of the north-most hill at Gebelein. The only grave goods were a pot found with the adult body and partial remains of wicker, fur. In the predynastic period bodies were buried naked and sometimes loosely wrapped. This method was used in the pre-dynastic Egyptian period, before artificial mummification was developed. All bodies were in similar flexed positions lying on their sides with knees raised up towards their chin. In comparison, most bodies excavated from Egypt dating to the period are in a similar position, however at Merimda Beni Salama. From the time these bodies were buried up until the Middle Kingdom period, after this period they were buried on their backs, and from the Fifth Dynasty the bodies were always fully extended. Archaeological interest in Gebelien started in the early 18th century and was included in Benoît de Maillets Description de lEgypteGebelein predynastic mummies – The mummified man formerly dubbed "Ginger" in a reconstructed Egyptian grave-pit (photo taken in 2008)
19. Hatshepsut – Hatshepsut was the fifth pharaoh of the Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt. She was the second historically confirmed female pharaoh, the first being Sobekneferu, Hatshepsut came to the throne of Egypt in 1478 BC. Officially, she ruled jointly with Thutmose III, who had ascended to the throne the year as a child of about two years old. Hatshepsut was the wife of Thutmose II, Thutmose III’s father. She is generally regarded by Egyptologists as one of the most successful pharaohs, according to Egyptologist James Henry Breasted she is also known as the first great woman in history of whom we are informed. Hatshepsut was the daughter and only child of Thutmose I and his primary wife Ahmose and her husband Thutmose II was the son of Thutmose I and a secondary wife named Mutnofret, who carried the title Kings daughter and was probably a child of Ahmose I. Hatshepsut and Thutmose II had a daughter named Neferure, Thutmose II fathered Thutmose III with Iset, a secondary wife. Today Egyptologists generally agree that Hatshepsut assumed the position of pharaoh, Hatshepsut was described as having a reign of about 22 years by ancient authors. Josephus and Julius Africanus both quote Manethos king list, mentioning a woman called Amessis or Amensis who has identified as Hatshepsut. In Josephus work, her reign is described as lasting 21 years and nine months, dating the beginning of her reign is more difficult, however. Her fathers reign began in either 1526 or 1506 BC according to the high and low estimates of her reign, the length of the reigns of Tuthmosis I and Tuthmosis II, however, cannot be determined with absolute certainty. With short reigns, Hatshepsut would have ascended the throne 14 years after the coronation of Tuthmosis I, longer reigns would put her ascension 25 years after Tuthmosis Is coronation. Thus, Hatshepsut could have assumed power as early as 1512 BC, or, Hatshepsut established the trade networks that had been disrupted during the Hyksos occupation of Egypt during the Second Intermediate Period, thereby building the wealth of the eighteenth dynasty. She oversaw the preparations and funding for a mission to the Land of Punt and this trading expedition to Punt was roughly during Hatshepsuts ninth year of reign. It set out in her name with five ships, each measuring 70 feet long bearing several sails, many trade goods were bought in Punt, notably frankincense and myrrh. Hatshepsuts delegation returned from Punt bearing 31 live myrrh trees, the roots of which were kept in baskets for the duration of the voyage. This was the first recorded attempt to transplant foreign trees and it is reported that Hatshepsut had these trees planted in the courts of her mortuary temple complex. Egyptians also returned with a number of gifts from PuntHatshepsut – Statue of Hatshepsut on display at the Metropolitan Museum of Art
20. Henuttawy C – Henuttawy or Henettawy, was an ancient Egyptian princess and priestess during the 21st Dynasty. Henuttawy was probably a daughter of the Theban High Priest of Amun Menkheperre and of Isetemkheb C and she likely married her brother Smendes II who became High Priest of Amun after his fathers death. The couple had at least a daughter, Isetemkheb E and she helds many titles such as Chantress of Amun, Mistress of the House, Chief of the Harim of Amun, Flautist of Mut, Gods Mother of Khonsu. Henuttawy died as a woman around her 70s, and was buried in the Deir el-Bahari necropolis near the Mortuary Temple of Hatshepsut. Her tomb was plundered in antiquity, and was rediscovered in 1923-24 by a led by Herbert E. Winlock. The jewelry was long gone but the mummy, coffins and part of the equipment were taken to the Metropolitan Museum of Art where these are exhibited today. Later, some of Henuttawys coffin were given to the Boston Museum of Fine Arts, the inscriptions did not mentions any title but from these is clear that Henuttawy and her daughter Isetemkheb inherited the property of a man named Smendes, likely the formers defunct husbandHenuttawy C – Coffins of Henuttawy C. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.
21. Isetemkheb D – For other Egyptian ladies called Isetemkheb, see Isetemkheb. Isetemkheb D was the sister-wife of the Theban High Priest of Amun Pinudjem II during the Twenty-first dynasty of Egypt, Isetemkheb D was the daughter of the Kings Son, Theban High Priest of Amun and General, Menkheperre, and his wife, Isetemkheb C. Isetemkheb D married her brother Pinudjem II, isetemkhebs mummy and coffins were found in the royal cache found in TT320 in Deir el-Bahari in ThebesIsetemkheb D – Mummy of Isetemkheb D found in DB320
22. Maatkare Mutemhat – Maatkare was an ancient Egyptian high priestess, a Gods Wife of Amun during the 21st dynasty. She was the daughter of High Priest of Amun Pinedjem I and her mother was Duathathor-Henuttawy, a daughter of Ramesses XI, last ruler of the 20th dynasty. Maatkare received the title of Divine Adoratrice, Gods Wife of Amun during her fathers reign and her siblings held important positions too, a brother of hers became pharaoh, a sister became queen, and three brothers held the title High Priest of Amun in succession. She was followed as Gods Wife by her niece Henuttawy D, daughter of her brother and her original burial place is unknown, her mummy was found in the DB320 cache along with her coffins, shawabtis and other mummies from her immediate family. A small mummy, originally thought to be a child of hers was later revealed to be that of a pet monkeyMaatkare Mutemhat – Maatkare Mutemhat at the bottom of Pinedjem's colossal statue in Karnak.
23. Maiherpri – Maiherperi was an Ancient Egyptian noble of Nubian origin buried in the Valley of the Kings, in tomb KV36. He probably lived during the rule of Thutmose IV, and received the honour of a burial in the Valley of the Kings and his name can be translated as Lion of the Battlefield. Amongst his titles were Child of the Nursery and Fan-bearer on the Right Side of the King. There is speculation that the first title signified that he grew up in the nursery as a prince of a vassal territory. He was among the first during the New Kingdom to hold the second title and this same title was also used to denote the Viceroys of Kush later in the New Kingdom. In Maiherperis tomb, a papyrus was found depicting him with literally blackish skin, the papyrus in question was the Book of the Dead, in the eyes of OConnor and Cline ertainly the most famous and arguably the most beautiful Book of the Dead. He also had tightly curled, woolly hair, which turned out to be a wig that had been glued to his scalp, Michael Rice, Whos Who in Ancient Egypt By Michael Rice, Routledge 2001, ISBN 0-415-15448-0, p.104 David BMaiherpri – Papyrus of Maiherpri
24. Masaharta – Masaharta or Masaherta was the High Priest of Amun at Thebes between 1054 and 1045 BC. His father was Pinedjem I, who was the Theban High Priest of Amun and de facto ruler of Upper Egypt from 1070 BC, then declared himself pharaoh in 1054 BC and his mother was probably Duathathor-Henuttawy, the daughter of Ramesses XI, last ruler of the 20th dynasty. His aunt Tentamun, another daughter of Ramesses married Pharaoh Smendes I, one of Masahartas brothers was Psusennes I, who followed Smendess successor, the short-lived Amenemnisu as pharaoh. His wife is likely to have been the Singer of Amun Tayuheret, the Gods Wife of Amun during Masahartas reign seems to have been his sister Maatkare. Several of his inscriptions are known from the Karnak temple of Amenhotep II, from ram-headed sphinxes also in Karnak, Masaharta was responsible for the restoration of the mummy of Amenhotep I in the 16th regnal year of Smendes. He is also mentioned in Theban Graffito no,1572, from a year 16, together with the Kings Scribe in the Place of Truth Ankhefenamun, the son of Kings Scribe Butehamun. His highest attested year is a year 18, in fact, it has been pointed out that such a scenario ill fits the content of the letters. His mummy was found in the Deir el-Bahri cache along with family members. It is often assumed that he was succeeded as high priest by his brother Djedkhonsuefankh, however, the position of Djedkhonsuefankh is not beyond dispute. All we actually know of his existence is the mention of his name on the coffin of his son. He postulates that Psusennes II, who succeeded his father Pinedjem II as High Priest. The title of High Priest on his coffin would then be given posthumously by his son re Niwiński also points out that theophoric names as Djed-Khons-ef-ankh mainly appear very late in the 21st Dynasty. If we disregard the ephemeral Djedkhonsuefankh, it seems that Masaharta was succeeded by his brother MenkheperreMasaharta – Mummy of Masaharta, found in DB320
25. Meresamun – Meresamun was an ancient Egyptian singer-priestess in the inner sanctum at the temple in Karnak. Her mummy, ca.800 BC, was on exhibit at the Oriental Institute of Chicago Museum of the University of Chicago from February 10 to December 6,2009. A special exhibition, “The Life of Meresamun, A Temple Singer in Ancient Egypt, ” opened in February 2009, the mummy was purchased in 1920 by James Henry Breasted during a visit to Egypt and has remained unopened. All of the examinations were performed at the University of Chicago Medical Center in the Department of Radiology, the Oriental Institute commissioned two reconstructions of the face of Meresamun. Both artists worked from an image of the skull created from multiple CT scans. Chicago artist Joshua Harker used the traditional method in which layers of fat. Harker superimposed layers of fat, muscle, and flesh upon the skull to build up Meresamun’s appearance, rather than using a physical reproduction of a skull milled from CT scans, he worked digitally in three-dimensions. The second reconstruction is by Michael Brassell, who was trained in forensic facial imaging by the Federal Bureau of Investigation, Oriental Institute, University of Chicago website Bonn-Muller, Eti. A Mummys Life, Priestess of Amun, the Life of Meresamun, A Temple Singer in Ancient Egypt. University of Chicago Oriental Institute Museum Publications, pp.135,120 color and 20 B&W illustrationsMeresamun – Left lateral view of Meresamun's coffin generated on a Philips Brilliance v4 workstation by M. Vannier.
26. Merneptah – Merneptah or Merenptah was the fourth ruler of the Nineteenth Dynasty of Ancient Egypt. He may have born in 1273 BC, ruling Egypt for almost ten years from late July or early August 1213 BC until his death on May 2,1203 BC. He was the son of Ramesses II and only came to power because all his older brothers. By the time he ascended to the throne he was almost sixty years old and his throne name was Ba-en-re Mery-netjeru, which means The Soul of Ra, Beloved of the Gods. It is presumed that Merneptah also was married to Queen Takhat and one of their sons would become the later Nineteenth Dynasty pharaoh, Seti II. They also were the parents of prince Merenptah and possibly the usurper, Amenmesse, Merneptah had to carry out several military campaigns during his reign. In year 5 he fought against the Libyans, who—with the assistance of the Sea Peoples—were threatening Egypt from the West, Merneptah led a victorious six-hour battle against a combined Libyan and Sea People force at the city of Perire, probably located on the western edge of the Delta. Later in the inscription Merneptah receives news of the attack and he has brought his wife and his children--leaders of the camp, and he has reached the western boundary in the fields of Perire. In the Athribis Stele, in the garden of Cairo Museum, it states His majesty was enraged at their report, like a lion, assembled his court and gave a rousing speech. Later he dreamed he saw Ptah handing him a sword and saying Take thou, when the bowmen went forth, says the inscription, Amun was with them as a shield. After six hours the surviving Nine Bows threw down their weapons, abandoned their baggage and dependents, Merneptah states that he defeated the invasion, killing 6,000 soldiers and taking 9,000 prisoners. its seed is no more. This is the first recognised ancient Egyptian record of the existence of Israel--not as a country or city, Merneptah was already an elderly man in his late 60s, if not early 70s, when he assumed the throne. Merneptah moved the center of Egypt from Piramesse, his fathers capital, back to Memphis. This palace was excavated in 1915 by the University of Pennsylvania Museum, merneptahs successor, Seti II, was a son of Queen Isetnofret. Seti was able to reassert his authority over Thebes in his fifth year and it is possible that before seizing Upper Egypt, Amenmesse had been known as Messuwy and had been viceroy of Kush. Merneptah suffered from arthritis and atherosclerosis and died an old man after a reign which lasted for nearly a decade, Merneptah was originally buried within tomb KV8 in the Valley of the Kings, but his mummy was not found there. In 1898 it was located along with eighteen other mummies in the mummy found in the tomb of Amenhotep II by Victor Loret. Merneptahs mummy was taken to Cairo and eventually unwrapped by Dr. G. Elliott Smith on July 8,1907, Dr Smith notes that, The body is that of an old man and is 1 meter 714 millimeters in heightMerneptah – Merneptah makes an offering to Ptah on a column
27. Mummy brown – Mummy brown was a rich brown bituminous pigment, intermediate in tint between burnt umber and raw umber, which was one of the favorite colors of the Pre-Raphaelites. Mummy brown was originally made in the 16th and 17th centuries from white pitch, myrrh, as it had good transparency, it could be used for glazes, shadows, flesh tones and shading. It fell from popularity during the 19th century when its composition became more known to artists. The Pre-Raphaelite artist Edward Burne-Jones was reported to have buried his tube of Mummy Brown in his garden when he discovered its true origins. By 1915, one London colourman claimed that he could satisfy the demands of his customers for twenty years from one Egyptian mummy, Mummy Brown eventually ceased being produced in its traditional form later in the 20th century when the supply of available mummies was exhausted. The color of Mummy brown can vary from yellow to red to dark violet, pigment Compendium, A Dictionary of Historical Pigments. The Chemistry of Paints and Painting, a Dictionary of Art Terms and Techniques. New York, Harper and Row PublishersMummy brown – Martin Drolling 's Interior of a kitchen made extensive use of mummy brown
28. Mutnedjmet – For other Egyptian ladies called Mutnedjmet see Mutnedjmet Mutnedjmet an Ancient Egyptian queen, the Great Royal Wife of Horemheb, the last ruler of the Eighteenth Dynasty. The name, Mutnedjmet, translates as, The sweet Mut and this identification was partially based on the fact that Mutbenrets name used to be read as Mutnedjmet. Other Egyptologist such as Geoffrey Martin note that there is no evidence to prove this assertion. In any case whatever her antecedents Mutnodjmet could have married to Horemheb a little before he became Pharaoh. Mutnedjmet is known from several object and inscriptions, A double statue of Horemheb and Mutnedjmet was found in Karnak, on Mutnedjmets side of the throne she is depicted as a winged sphinx who adores her own cartouche. As Sphinx she is depicted wearing a flat topped crown topped with plant elements associated with the goddess Tefnut, the back of the statue records Horemhebs rise to power. Horemheb and Mutnodjemet are depicted in the tomb of Roy in Dra Abu el-Naga, the Royal couple are shown in an offering scene. One of the statues in Karnak was made for Horemheb. The statue was later usurped and reinscribed for Ramesses II and Nefertari, Mutnedjmet usurped several inscriptions of Ankhesenamun in Luxor. Statues and other items including alabaster fragments naming Mutnodjemet were found in Horemhebs Saqqara tomb, the mummy was found in King Horemhebs unused Memphite tomb along with the mummy of a still-born, premature infant. She appears to have buried in the Memphite tomb of Horemheb. Mutnedjmets mummy shows she had given several times, but the last King of the 18th dynasty did not have a living heir at the time of his demise. It has been suggested that she had a daughter who was not mentioned on any monuments. The presence of the infant along with Mutnedjmet in the tomb suggests that this queen died in childbirth, a canopic jar of the Queen is now located in the British Museum. It is possible that the tomb QV33 in the Valley of the Queens was originally built for her. The tomb is known as the tomb of an otherwise unknown Tanedjmet, the South African artist Winifred Brunton painted a portrait of this queen during the 1920s. In Michelle Morans novel, Nefertiti, A Novel, Mutnedjmet is the character as the younger sister of Queen Nefertiti. She is also referenced in Morans second novel, The Heretic Queen, as the mother of the character, PrincessMutnedjmet – Mutnedjmet
29. Neskhons – Neskhons, once more commonly known as “Nsikhonsou”, was a noble lady of the 21st dynasty of Egypt. These are named on a decree written on a wooden tablet and this suggests family problems around the time of her death. She predeceased her husband and her corpse was placed with that of Pinedjem II in Tomb DB320 in the Theban Necropolis. She was buried in the 5th regnal year of Siamun in coffins that were made for Pinedjems sister. Both the inner and outer coffins were found, but one of them was reused for the reburial of Ramesses IX and it is unknown whether her coffin was reused after her death or that she donated it to the reburial of Ramesses. The corpse was partially unwrapped by Gaston Maspero on 27 June 1886, twenty years later, Neskhons did not have any gray hairs, so it is likely that she died young, according to Smith, she was either pregnant or giving birth at her death. The gold decoration of her coffin has been stolen in antiquity, her heart scarab was stolen by the Abd-el-Rassul family of grave robbers and her titles were, First Chantress of Amun, Kings Son of Kush. Battiscombe Gunn, The Decree of Amonrasonther for Neskhons, JEA41, 83-95 Andrzej Niwiński, The Wives of Pinudjem II -a topic for discussion, JEA74, 226-230Neskhons – Funerary tablet depicting Neskhons with Osiris.
30. Nesyamun – Nesyamun otherwise known as The Leeds Mummy, and his coffins are amongst the best researched of their kind. Nesyamun was a priest, incense-bearer and scribe at the ancient Egyptian temple complex at Karnak and died over 3,000 years ago and his body was then preserved and entombed ready for the after-life. Ever since he arrived at the Leeds City Museum in 1823, in 1990 the Director of Leeds City Museum invited Dr. Rosalie David, to undertake a new scientific study of the mummy of Nesyamun. The International Mummy Database founded at the Manchester Museum in 1979 is now recognized as the center for the collection. Since 2002, Leeds Museum have been documenting and researching both the decoration upon the coffin, and the coffin itself and this has led to a greater understanding of the nature of the roles that Nesyamun, as a priest at the temple of Karnak, would have adopted. On 4 September 2008, the mummy was moved to a new home at Leeds City Museum, wassell, Belinda The Coffin of Nesyamun, the Leeds Mummy The Leeds Philosophical and Literary Society,2008Nesyamun – This is a reconstruction drawing of how the coffin of Nesyamun might originally have appeared. The cracks have been smoothed over and the beard and amulets restored to their rightful positions. The effect is intended to recall the illustrations made by Napoleon's surveyors in the 'Description of Egypt'. Illustration by Thomas Small. Pencil crayon on A1 paper.
31. Nodjmet – Nodjmet was an ancient Egyptian noble lady of the late 20th-early 21st dynasties of Egypt, mainly known for being the wife of High Priest of Amun at Thebes, Herihor. Nodjmet may have been a daughter of the last ramesside pharaoh, Ramesses XI, early in her life, she held titles such as Lady of the House and Chief of the Harem of Amun. Nodjmet became Piankhs most trusted confidant, and every time he had to fulfill his business in Nubia, when around 1070 BCE Piankh died, Herihor was proposed as his successor, Nodjmet, however, managed to keep her prerogatives marrying this man. Nodjmet outlived even her husband, and finally died in the first years of pharaoh Smendes. Her mummy was discovered in the Deir el-Bahari cache, the body is that of an old woman. She had been embalmed with a new technique which involved the use of fake eyes. The heart was still in place inside her body, with her mummy two Books of the Dead were found. One of them, Papyrus BM10490, now in the British museum, belonged to “the King’s Mother Nodjmet, whereas the name of Nodjmet was written in a cartouche, the name of Hrere was not. Although it is beyond dispute that Herihor had a queen called Nodjmet and he did so on the basis of Papyrus BM10541, the other Book of the Dead found with her mummy. As A. Thijs has recently pointed out, it is indeed remarkable that, although Herihor figures in P. BM10541, all the stress is on her position as “King’s Mother”. If the Nodjmet from the Royal Cache was indeed the mother of Herihor, in this position Hrere could well have been the wife of the High Priest Amenhotep. Aidan Dodson & Dyan Hilton, The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt, Thames & Hudson,2004, ISBN 0-500-05128-3, Karl Jansen-Winkeln, “Das Ende des Neuen Reiches”, ZAS119, 22-37. Kenneth Kitchen, The Third Intermediate Period in Egypt,1996, Aris & Phillips Limited, Warminster, ursula Rößler-Köhler, Piankh - Nedjemet - Anchefenmut - eine Kleinigkeit, GM167, 7-8. John Taylor, Nodjmet, Payankh and Herihor, The end of the New Kingdom reconsidered, in Christopher J. Eyre, Proceedings of the Seventh International Congress of Egyptologists, Leuven 1998, 1143-1155. Ad Thijs, Two Books for One Lady, The mother of Herihor rediscovered, GM163, ad Thijs, Nodjmet A, Daughter of Amenhotep, Wife of Piankh and Mother of Herihor, Zeitschrift für Ägyptische Sprache und Altertumskunde 140, 54-69. Ad Thijs, The Burial of Psusennes I and “The Bad Times” of P, brooklyn 16.205, Zeitschrift für Ägyptische Sprache und Altertumskunde 141, 209-223Nodjmet – Nodjmet depicted as a queen, from her Book of the Dead papyrus.
32. Pinedjem I – Pinedjem I was the High Priest of Amun at Thebes in Ancient Egypt from 1070 to 1032 BC and the de facto ruler of the south of the country from 1054 BC. He was the son of the High Priest Piankh, however, many Egyptologists today believe that the succession in the Amun priesthood actually ran from Piankh to Herihor to Pinedjem I. According to the new hypothesis regarding the succession of the Amun priesthood, Herihor instead intervened to assume to this office. After Herihors death, Pinedjem I finally claimed this office which had once held by his father Piankh. He inherited a political and religious base of power at Thebes, Pinedjem strengthened his control over both Middle and Upper Egypt and asserted his kingdoms virtual independence from the Twenty-first Dynasty based at Tanis. He married Duathathor-Henuttawy, a daughter of Ramesses XI, to cement his relations with the powerful families of the period. Their son, Psusennes I, went on to become Pharaoh at Tanis, in practice, however, the 21st dynasty kings and the Theban high priests were probably never very far apart politically since they respected each others political autonomy. Around Year 15 or 16 of Smendes, Pinedjem I proclaimed himself pharaoh over Upper Egypt and his daughter, Maatkare, held the position of Divine Adoratrice of Amun. Pinedjems mummy was found in the cache at Deir el-Bahri and his parents Piankh and Nodjmet had several children, three brothers and one sister of Pinedjem I are known. Three of his wives are known, another wife was Isetemkheb, Singer of Amun. She is mentioned along with Pinedjem I on bricks found at el-Hiban, a possible third wife is Tentnabekhenu, who is mentioned on the funerary papyrus of her daughter Nauny. Nauny was buried at Thebes and is called a Kings Daughter, thus it is likely that Pinedjem was her fatherPinedjem I – Representation of Pinedjem I in the Temple of Khonsu, Karnak.
33. Psusennes I – Psusennes I was the third pharaoh of the 21st Dynasty who ruled from Tanis between 1047 –1001 BC. He was the son of Pinedjem I and Henuttawy, Ramesses XIs daughter by Tentamun, professor Pierre Montet discovered pharaoh Psusennes Is intact tomb in Tanis in 1940. However, the kings magnificent funerary mask was recovered intact, it proved to be made of gold and lapis lazuli and held inlays of black and white glass for the eyes and eyebrows of the object. Psusennes Is mask is considered to be one of the masterpieces of the treasure of Tanis and is housed in Room 2 of the Cairo Museum. It has a width and height of 38 cm and 48 cm respectively. The pharaohs fingers and toes had been encased in gold stalls, the finger stalls are the most elaborate ever found, with sculpted fingernails. Each finger wore a ring of gold and lapis lazuli or some other semiprecious stone. A cartouche on the red outer sarcophagus shows that it had originally made for Pharaoh Merenptah. Psusennes I, himself, was interred in a silver coffin which was inlaid with gold. Since silver was considerably rarer in Egypt than gold, Psusennes Is silver coffin represents a sumptuous burial of great wealth during Egypts declining years. Dr. Douglass Derry, who worked as the head of Cairo Universitys Anatomy Department, examined the remains in 1940. Psusennes Is precise reign length is unknown because different copies of Manethos records credit him with a reign of either 41 or 46 years. Some Egyptologists have proposed raising the 41 year figure by a decade to 51 years to closely match certain anonymous Year 48. Jansen-Winkeln notes that in the first half of Dyn, hence, two separate Year 49 dates from Thebes and Kom Ombo could be attributed to the ruling High Priest Menkheperre in Thebes instead of Psusennes I but this remains uncertain. Psusennes Is reign has been estimated at 46 years by the editors of the Handbook to Ancient Egyptian Chronology. During his long reign, Psusennes built the walls and the central part of the Great Temple at Tanis which was dedicated to the triad of Amun, Mut. Bob Brier, Egyptian Mummies, Unraveling the Secrets of an Ancient Art, William Morrow & Co, ad Thijs, The Burial of Psusennes I and “The Bad Times” of P. Brooklyn 16.205, ZÄS96, 209–223 Jean Yoyotte, Secrets of the Dead episode, The Silver PharaohPsusennes I – Gold burial mask of King Psusennes I, discovered in 1940 by Pierre Montet
34. Ramesses I – Menpehtyre Ramesses I was the founding pharaoh of ancient Egypts 19th dynasty. The dates for his reign are not completely known but the time-line of late 1292–1290 BC is frequently cited as well as 1295–1294 BC. Originally called Pa-ra-mes-su, Ramesses I was of non-royal birth, being born into a military family from the Nile delta region. He was a son of a commander called Seti. His uncle Khaemwaset, an officer, married Tamwadjesy, the matron of the Harem of Amun, who was a relative of Huy, the viceroy of Kush. This shows the status of Ramesses family. Ramesses I found favor with Horemheb, the last pharaoh of the tumultuous Eighteenth dynasty, upon his accession, Ramesses assumed a prenomen, or royal name, which is written in Egyptian hieroglyphs to the right. When transliterated, the name is mn-pḥty-r‘, which is interpreted as Menpehtyre. However, he is known by his nomen, or personal name. This is transliterated as r‘-ms-sw, and is realised as Ramessu or Ramesses. Already an old man when he was crowned, Ramesses appointed his son, Seti was charged with undertaking several military operations during this time– in particular, an attempt to recoup some of Egypts lost possessions in Syria. Ramesses appears to have charge of domestic matters, most memorably, he completed the second pylon at Karnak Temple. Jürgen von Beckerath observes that Ramesses I died just 5 months later—in June 1290 BC—since his son Seti I succeeded to power on III Shemu day 24. Ramesses Is only known action was to order the provision of endowments for the aforementioned Nubian temple at Buhen and the construction of a chapel, the aged Ramesses was buried in the Valley of the Kings. His tomb, discovered by Giovanni Belzoni in 1817 and designated KV16, is small in size, the red granite sarcophagus too was painted rather than carved with inscriptions which, due to their hasty preparation, included a number of unfortunate errors. Seti I, his son and successor, later built a chapel with fine reliefs in memory of his deceased father Ramesses I at Abydos. In 1911, John Pierpont Morgan donated several exquisite reliefs from this chapel to the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York, a mummy currently believed to be that of Ramesses I was stolen from Egypt and displayed in a Canadian museum for many years before being repatriated. Moreover, the arms were found crossed high across his chest which was a position reserved solely for Egyptian royalty until 600 BCRamesses I – Pharaoh Ramses I making an offering before Osiris, Allard Pierson Museum.
35. Ramesses II – Ramesses II, also known as Ramesses the Great and Ozymandias, was the third pharaoh of the Nineteenth Dynasty of Egypt. He often is regarded as the greatest, most celebrated, and his successors and later Egyptians called him the Great Ancestor. Ramesses II led several expeditions into the Levant, reasserting Egyptian control over Canaan. He also led expeditions to the south, into Nubia, commemorated in inscriptions at Beit el-Wali, at age fourteen, Ramesses was appointed Prince Regent by his father Seti I. He is believed to have taken the throne in his teens and is known to have ruled Egypt from 1279 BC to 1213 BC. Manetho attributes Ramesses II a reign of 66 years and 2 months, most Egyptologists today believe he assumed the throne on May 31,1279 BC, estimates of his age at death vary,90 or 91 is considered most likely. Ramesses II celebrated an unprecedented 14 sed festivals during his reign—more than any other pharaoh. On his death, he was buried in a tomb in the Valley of the Kings, his later was moved to a royal cache where it was discovered in 1881. The early part of his reign was focused on building cities, temples and he established the city of Pi-Ramesses in the Nile Delta as his new capital and used it as the main base for his campaigns in Syria. He is known as Ozymandias in the Greek sources, from a transliteration into Greek of a part of Ramesses throne name, Usermaatre Setepenre, The justice of Rê is powerful – chosen of Rê. Early in his life, Ramesses II embarked on campaigns to restore possession of previously held territories lost to the Nubians and Hittites. He also was responsible for suppressing some Nubian revolts and carrying out a campaign in Libya, during Ramesses IIs reign, the Egyptian army is estimated to have totaled about 100,000 men, a formidable force that he used to strengthen Egyptian influence. The Sherden people probably came from the coast of Ionia, from southwest Anatolia or perhaps, a stele from Tanis speaks of their having come in their war-ships from the midst of the sea, and none were able to stand before them. In that sea battle, together with the Sherden, the pharaoh also defeated the Lukka, the immediate antecedents to the Battle of Kadesh were the early campaigns of Ramesses II into Canaan. The inscription is almost totally illegible, due to weathering, additional records tell us that he was forced to fight a Canaanite prince who was mortally wounded by an Egyptian archer, and whose army subsequently, was routed. Ramesses carried off the princes of Canaan as live prisoners to Egypt, Ramesses then plundered the chiefs of the Asiatics in their own lands, returning every year to his headquarters at Riblah to exact tribute. In the fourth year of his reign, he captured the Hittite vassal state of Amurru during his campaign in Syria, the Battle of Kadesh in his fifth regnal year was the climactic engagement in a campaign that Ramesses fought in Syria, against the resurgent Hittite forces of Muwatallis. The pharaoh wanted a victory at Kadesh both to expand Egypts frontiers into Syria, and to emulate his father Seti Is triumphal entry into the city just a decade or so earlier and he also constructed his new capital, Pi-RamessesRamesses II – One of the four external seated statues of Ramesses II at Abu Simbel.
36. Ramesses III – Usimare Ramesses III was the second Pharaoh of the Twentieth Dynasty and is considered to be the last New Kingdom king to wield any substantial authority over Egypt. His long reign saw the decline of Egyptian political and economic power, linked to a series of invasions, Ramesses III was the son of Setnakhte and Queen Tiy-Merenese. He was probably murdered by an assassin in a conspiracy led by one of his wives, Tiye. Ramesses two main names transliterate as wsr-mꜢʿt-rʿ–mry-ỉmn rʿ-ms-s–ḥḳꜢ-ỉwnw and they are normally realised as Usermaatre-Meryamun Rameses-Heqaiunu, meaning The Maat of Ra is strong, Beloved of Amun, Born of Ra, Ruler of Heliopolis. Ramesses III is believed to have reigned from March 1186 to April 1155 BC and this is based on his known accession date of I Shemu day 26 and his death on Year 32 III Shemu day 15, for a reign of 31 years,1 month and 19 days. Alternate dates for his reign are 1187 to 1156 BC, in Year 8 of his reign, the Sea Peoples, including Peleset, Denyen, Shardana, Meshwesh of the sea, and Tjekker, invaded Egypt by land and sea. Ramesses III defeated them in two great land and sea battles, although the Egyptians had a reputation as poor seamen, they fought tenaciously. Rameses lined the shores with ranks of archers who kept up a continuous volley of arrows into the ships when they attempted to land on the banks of the Nile. Then, the Egyptian navy attacked using grappling hooks to haul in the enemy ships, in the brutal hand-to-hand fighting which ensued, the Sea People were utterly defeated. The Harris Papyrus states, As for those who reached my frontier, their seed is not, their heart and their presence in Canaan may have contributed to the formation of new states in this region such as Philistia after the collapse of the Egyptian Empire in Asia. Ramesses III was also compelled to fight invading Libyan tribesmen in two campaigns in Egypts Western Delta in his Year 5 and Year 11 respectively. The heavy cost of these battles slowly exhausted Egypts treasury and contributed to the decline of the Egyptian Empire in Asia. Something in the air prevented much sunlight from reaching the ground, the result in Egypt was a substantial increase in grain prices under the later reigns of Ramesses VI–VII, whereas the prices for fowl and slaves remained constant. Thus the cooldown affected Ramesses IIIs final years and impaired his ability to provide a constant supply of rations to the workmen of the Deir el-Medina community. No temple in the heart of Egypt prior to Ramesses reign had ever needed to be protected in such a manner. Thanks to the discovery of papyrus trial transcripts, it is now known there was a plot against his life as a result of a royal harem conspiracy during a celebration at Medinet Habu. The conspiracy was instigated by Tiye, one of his three wives, over whose son would inherit the throne. Tytis son, Ramesses Amonhirkhopshef, was the eldest and the chosen by Ramesses III in preference to Tiyes son PentaweretRamesses III – Relief from the sanctuary of the Temple of Khonsu at Karnak depicting Ramesses III
37. Ramesses IV – Heqamaatre Ramesses IV was the third pharaoh of the Twentieth Dynasty of the New Kingdom of Ancient Egypt. His name prior to assuming the crown was Amonhirkhopshef and he was the fifth son of Ramesses III and was appointed to the position of crown prince by the twenty-second year of his fathers reign when all four of his elder brothers predeceased him. His promotion to crown prince, is suggested by his appearance in a scene of the festival of Min at the Ramesses III temple at Karnak, amenemopes Theban tomb also accords prince Ramesses all three of his aforementioned sets of royal titles. Due to the three decade long rule of Ramesses III, Ramesses IV is believed to have been a man in his forties when he took the throne and his rule has been dated to either 1151 to 1145 BC or 1155 to 1149 BC. It is now believed that Ramesses IVs mother was most likely Queen Tyti from recently discovered notes published in the 2010 issue of the Journal of Egyptian Archaeology. They reveal that Tyti—who was both a daughter, a kings wife and a kings mother in her own right—was identified in Papyrus BM EA10052 to be a queen of Ramesses III. This leaves Ramesses IV as the only credible primary subject of the title in the tomb. Thus, the identity of Ramesses IVs mother has been resolved in favour of Queen Tyti who was erroneously thought to be the mother of another king in the mid-1980s. Ramesses IV was succeeded to the throne by his son Ramesses V. Ramesses came to the throne in difficult circumstances. A plot by one of his fathers wives, Tiye, to establish her own son, Pentawer. The king was wounded, and died soon after. Ramesses IV, however, was able to secure himself on the throne, the scribes who composed the text also noted that this figure included 900 men who are dead and omitted from this list. 7%. Some of the stones which were dragged 60 miles to the Nile from Wadi Hammamat weighed 40 tons or more, other Egyptian quarries including Aswan were located much closer to the Nile which enabled them to use barges to transport stones long distances. Part of the program included the extensive enlargement of his fathers Temple of Khonsu at Karnak. Ramesses IV also sent several expeditions to the mines the Sinai. The Serabit el-Khadim stela of the Royal Butler Sobekhotep states, Year 3, panufer states that this expeditions mission was both to procure turquoise and to establish a cult chapel of king Ramesses IV at the Hathor temple of Serabit el-Khadim. The stela reads, Year 5, second month of Shomu, surviving a march in this inhospitable land would have presented formidable logistical obstacles, perhaps forcing an alternative route to be adopted. This would involve a departure from the Delta to a site near the port of SuezRamesses IV – Limestone ostracon depicting Ramesses IV smiting his enemies.
38. Ramesses V – Usermaatre Sekheperenre Ramesses V was the fourth pharaoh of the Twentieth dynasty of Egypt and was the son of Ramesses IV and Queen Duatentopet. His reign was characterized by the growth of the power of the priesthood of Amun. The Turin 1887 papyrus records a financial scandal during his reign that involved the priests of Elephantine, a period of domestic instability also afflicted his reign since Turin Papyrus Cat. Another incursion by these raiders into Thebes is recorded a few days later and this shows that the Egyptian state was having difficulties ensuring the security of its own elite tomb workers, let alone the general populace, during this troubled time. It reveals most of Egypts land was controlled by the Amun temples which also directed the countrys finances, the document highlights the increasing power of the High Priest of Amun Ramessesnakht whose son, a certain Usimarenakhte, held the office of chief tax master. The circumstances of Ramesses Vs death are unknown but it is believed he had a reign of almost 4 full years and it is possible he was dethroned by his paternal uncle and successor, Ramesses VI because Ramesses VI usurped his predecessors KV9 tomb. Moreover, a Theban work journal dated to Year 2 of Ramesses VIs reign shows that a period of normality had returned to the Theban West Bank by this time. The mummy of Ramesses V was recovered in 1898 and seems to indicate that he suffered from smallpox due to lesions found on his face and he is thought to be one of the earliest known victims of variola. Peden, Where did Ramesses VI bury his nephew, GM181, 83-88 Ramesses V at Find a GraveRamesses V – Obelisk of Ramesses V
39. Ramesses VI – Ramesses VI Nebmaatre-Meryamun was the fifth ruler of the Twentieth dynasty of Egypt who reigned from 1145 to 1137 BC and a son of Ramesses III by Iset Ta-Hemdjert. His royal tomb, KV9, is located near Tutankhamuns tomb in the Valley of the Kings, the first to establish beyond doubt that Ramesses VI lived into his 8th Regnal Year was the Dutch Egyptologist Jac. He based this on Ostracon IFAO1425, which mentions the loan of an ox in year 8 of a king which can only have been Ramesses VI. His 8th Regnal Year also seems to be attested in Theban graffito 1860a, in the past, this graffito has been ascribed to Ramesses X, but this interpretation has been abandoned and its ascription to Ramesses VI seems by far the best solution. Raphael Venturas interesting reconstruction of a sum in Turin Papyrus 1907+1908. The latest scholarly publication on Egyptian chronology in 2006 also assigned Ramesses VI8 years of rule, Ramesses VI probably lived for two months into his brief 9th regnal year before he died and was succeeded by his son, Ramesses VII. Ramesses VIs chief queen was Nubkhesbed who is mentioned on a stela of Iset E from Koptos and this pharaoh would be succeeded on the throne by his son Ramesses VII. Egypts political and economic decline continued unabated during Ramesses VIs reign, shortly after his burial, his tomb was penetrated and ransacked by grave robbers who hacked away at his hands and feet in order to gain access to his jewelry. A medical examination of his mummy which was found in KV35 in 1898 revealed severe damage to his body, with the head and torso being broken into several pieces by an axe used by the tomb robbers. The creation of Ramesses VIs tomb, however, protected Tutankhamuns own intact tomb from grave robbers since debris from its formation was dumped over the entrance to the boy kings tomb. J. Janssen, Year 8 of Ramesses VI Attested, Göttinger Miszellen 29, peden, Where did Ramesses VI bury his nephew. GM181, 83-88 Ramesses VI at Find a GraveRamesses VI – Fragment of a sarcophagus showing Ramesses VI, on display at the British Museum.
40. Ramesses IX – Neferkare Ramesses IX was the eighth king of the Twentieth dynasty of Egypt. He was the third longest serving king of this Dynasty after Ramesses III and he is now believed to have assumed the throne on I Akhet day 21 based on evidence presented by Jürgen von Beckerath in a 1984 GM article. According to Papyrus Turin 1932+1939, Ramesses IX enjoyed a reign of 18 Years and 4 months and his throne name, Neferkare Setepenre, means Beautiful Is The Soul of Re, Chosen of Re. Ramesses IX was, therefore, probably a grandson of Ramesses III and it has been suggested that the undated Papyrus Mayer B, dealing with the plundering of the tomb of Ramesses VI may also stem from his reign but, so far, this remains conjecture. During these trials it became clear that several royal and noble tombs in the Western Theban necropolis had been robbed, including that of a 17th Dynasty king, paser disappeared from sight soon after the report was filed. In the sixth year of his reign, he inscribed his titulature in the Lower Nubian town of Amara West, most of his building works centre on the sun temple centre of Heliopolis in Lower Egypt where the most significant monumental works of his reign are located. However, he decorated the wall to the north of the Seventh Pylon in the Temple of Amun-Re at Karnak. He is also known for having honoured his predecessors Ramesses II, Ramesses III and he also paid close attention to Lower Egypt and built a substantial monument at Heliopolis. The throne was assumed by Ramesses X whose precise relationship to Ramesses IX is unclear. Ramesses X might have been Ramesses IXs son, but this remains unproven. The tomb of Ramesses IX, KV6, has been open since antiquity, as is evidenced by the presence of Roman, while Ramesses IXs chief queen is not precisely identified in surviving Egyptian inscriptions, she was most likely Baketwernel. In 1881, the mummy of Ramesses IX was found in the Deir el-Bahri cache within one of the two coffins of Neskhons—wife of the Theban High Priest Pinedjem II. This pharaohs mummy was not apparently examined by Grafton Elliot Smith, when the mummy was unwrapped by Maspero, a bandage was found from a year 5, mentioning the lady Neskhons, most probably from the reign of king Siamun. A further strip of linen from a year 7 identified the mummy as Ra Khaemwaset which can be taken as a reference to either Ramesses Khaemwaset Meryamun or Ramesses Khaemwaset Meryamun Neterheqainu. It is estimated that the king was about 50 years old when he died and his mummy was found to have broken limbs, a neck and damage to its nose. The novel Ancient Evenings by Norman Mailer is told from the perspective of living during the reign of Ramesses IX. Dynastie, Göttinger Miszellen 79, 7-9 Dylan Bickerstaffe, Refugees for eternity - The royal mummies of Thebes - part 4 - Identifying the Royal Mummies, Canopus Press,2009 JacRamesses IX – Portrait of Ramesses IX from his tomb KV6.
41. Ramose and Hatnofer – Ramose was the father and Hatnofer the mother of Senenmut, one of the most important state officials under the reign of the Egyptian queen Hatshepsut in the 18th dynasty of Egypts New Kingdom. The commoner origins of Ramose and the rise of his son Senenmut were long considered to be examples of high social mobility in New Kingdom Egypt. For instance, almost nothing is known of Ramoses origins, but he seems to have been a man of modest means—anything from a tenant peasant or farmer, when Ramose died he was a man aged 50–60. Hatnofer was a lady, with grey or even white hair. They are believed to have born at Armant, a town only ten miles south of Thebes within Upper Egypt presumably during the reign of Ahmose I. Ramose is known from a few contemporary sources and he appears on the false door and likely, also on the chapel of Senenmuts TT71 tomb chapel. Ramose and Hatnofers own tomb was not located far from the chapel of his son Senemut, the tomb of Ramose contained his mummy as well as that of Hatnofer, who was the wife of Ramose and mother of Senenmut. Ramose and Hatnofer were buried in the tomb along with six other anonymous poorly wrapped mummies who are assumed to be members of the couple. Initially, Lansing and Hayes interpreted the 6 bodies as grisly evidence that Senenmuts family had been struck by a sudden tragedy, some Egyptologists believe that all burials in their tomb took place at the same time. However, during the New Kingdom, it was customary to use a tombs burial chambers for several family members. The re-burial of private individuals, while not common, was not unknown at this time. By contrast, Ramose in his painted anthropoid coffin and the other six mummies interred in the two plain deal coffins had received no attention, and their remains were mere skeletons. These six other burials, all from the early 18th dynasty were found in the loose scree of the hillside as well as deposits of hunting weapons and the coffins of a horse and an ape. Ramose and Hatnofers tomb conveys a comparatively simple impression and was considered, by Egyptologists. Ramose and Hatnofers tomb is notable for featuring the earliest known date from Hatshepsuts reign, a collection of grave goods found in the tombs chamber contained a single pottery jar or amphorae—which was stamped with the date Year 7. Ramose only held the title and non-specific epithet of zab in his tomb, the excavators of the tomb assumed, therefore, that Ramose was once only a simple farmer since The Worthy was a polite but somewhat meaningless apellation invariably used for the respected dead. However, it is noted in the archaeological evidence, that many high state officials including some viziers carried the title zab even if it was only a post-mortem reference to them. This title, therefore, states almost nothing about the origins of RamoseRamose and Hatnofer – Ramose (left), Senenmut (middle) and Hatnofer on the false door of Senenmut
42. Seqenenre Tao – Seqenenre Tao, called The Brave, ruled over the last of the local kingdoms of the Theban region of Egypt in the Seventeenth Dynasty during the Second Intermediate Period. He probably was the son and successor to Senakhtenre Ahmose and Queen Tetisheri, the dates of his reign are uncertain, but he may have risen to power in the decade ending in 1560 BC or in 1558 BC. Seqenenre Tao is credited with starting the opening moves in the war of liberation against the Hyksos, new Kingdom literary tradition states that Seqenenre Tao came into contact with his Hyksos contemporary in the north, Apepi or Apophis. Seqenenre Tao participated in active diplomatic posturing, which went beyond simply exchanging insults with the Asiatic ruler in the North. He seems to have led military skirmishes against the Hyksos and, judging from the head wound on his mummy in the Cairo Museum. On an adjacent hillside overlooking the river, the foundations of a building were found that almost certainly was a observation post. Interestingly, a large amount of pottery known as Kerma-ware was found at the site. It is thought that they were there as allies of the pharaoh in his wars against the Hyksos, seqenenres mummy was discovered in the Deir el-Bahri cache, revealed in 1881. He was interred along with those of later, eighteenth and nineteenth dynasty leaders, Ahmose I, Amenhotep I, Thutmose I, Thutmose II, Thutmose III, Ramesses I, Seti I, Ramesses II, the mummy was unwrapped by Gaston Maspero on June 9,1886. There are no wounds on his arms or hands, which suggests he was not able to defend himself, until 2009 the main hypotheses have been that he died either in a battle against the Hyksos or was killed while sleeping. His mummy appears to have been hastily embalmed, x-rays that were taken of the mummy in the late-1960s show that no attempt had been made to remove the brain or to add linen inside the cranium or eyes, both normal embalming practice for the time. In the opinion of James E and he is the earliest royal mummy on display in the recently revamped Royal Mummies Hall at the Egyptian Museum, Cairo. Egypt, From the Death of Ammenemes III to Sequenenre II, in Volume 2, Chapter 2 of the Cambridge Ancient History, Ancient Near Eastern Texts Relating to the Old TestamentSeqenenre Tao – Fragment of the death shroud of Ahmose bearing Seqenenre Tao's titulary, Museo Egizio
43. Seti I – Menmaatre Seti I was a pharaoh of the New Kingdom Nineteenth Dynasty of Egypt, the son of Ramesses I and Sitre, and the father of Ramesses II. The name Seti means of Set, which indicates that he was consecrated to the god Set, as with most pharaohs, Seti had several names. Upon his ascension, he took the prenomen mn-m3‘t-r‘, usually vocalized as Menmaatre, in Egyptian and his better known nomen, or birth name, is transliterated as sty mry-n-ptḥ or Sety Merenptah, meaning Man of Set, beloved of Ptah. Manetho incorrectly considered him to be the founder of the 19th dynasty, Seti, with energy and determination, confronted the Hittites several times in battle. Without succeeding in destroying the Hittites as a danger to Egypt, he reconquered most of the disputed territories for Egypt. The memory of Seti Is military successes was recorded in large scenes placed on the front of the temple of Amun. He was considered a king by his peers, but his fame has been overshadowed since ancient times by that of his son. Seti Is reign length was either 11 or 15 full years, Egyptologist Kenneth Kitchen has estimated that it was 15 years, but there are no dates recorded for Seti I after his Year 11 Gebel Barkal stela. As he is quite well documented in historical records, other scholars suggest that a continuous break in the record for his last four years is unlikely. Peter J. Brand noted that the king personally opened new rock quarries at Aswan to build obelisks and this event is commemorated on two rock stelas in Aswan. Ramesses II used the prenomen Usermaatre to refer to himself in his first year and he made great barges for transporting them, and ships crews to match them for ferrying them from the quarry. However, despite this promise, Brand stresses that The German Egyptologist Jürgen von Beckerath also accepts that Seti Is reign lasted only 11 Years. Seti Is accession date has been determined by Wolfgang Helck to be III Shemu day 24, in 2011, Jacobus van Dijk questioned the Year 11 stated on the Gebel Barkal stela. This monument is badly preserved but still depicts Seti I in erect posture. Furthermore, the glyphs I ∩ representing the 11 are damaged in the upper part and may just as well be I I I instead. Subsequently, Van Dijk proposed that the Gebel Barkal stela is dated to Year 3 of Seti I, and that Setis highest date more likely is Year 9 as suggested by the wine jars found in his tomb. In a 2012 paper, David Aston analyzed the wine jars, Seti I fought a series of wars in western Asia, Libya and Nubia in the first decade of his reign. The Ways of Horus consisted of a series of forts, each with a wellSeti I – Image of Seti I from his temple in Abydos
44. Shoshenq II – Heqakheperre Shoshenq II or Shoshenq IIa was a pharaoh of the 22nd dynasty of Egypt. He was the ruler of this Dynasty whose tomb was not plundered by tomb robbers. His final resting place was discovered within an antechamber of Psusennes Is tomb at Tanis by Pierre Montet in 1939, Montet removed the coffin lid of Shoshenq II on March 20,1939, in the presence of king Farouk of Egypt himself. It proved to contain a number of jewel-encrusted bracelets and pectorals, along with a beautiful hawkheaded silver coffin. The gold facemask had been placed upon the head of the king, Montet later discovered the intact tombs of two Dynasty 21 kings—Psusennes I and Amenemope a year later in February and April 1940 respectively. Shoshenq IIs prenomen, Heqakheperre Setepenre, means The manifestation of Ra rules, there is a small possibility that Shoshenq II was the son of Shoshenq I. These items may be interpreted as evidence of a possible filial link between the two men or just mere heirlooms. A forensic examination of Shoshenq IIs body by Dr. Douglas Derry, hence, Shoshenq II could have easily survived Osorkon Is 35-year reign and ruled Egypt for a few years before Takelot I came to power. Moreover, Sextus Julius Africanuss generally more accurate copy of Manethos Epitome explicitly states that “3 Kings” intervened between Osorkon I and Takelot I, Harsiese A was an early contemporary of Osorkon II and likely Takelot I too since the latter did not firmly control Upper Egypt in his reign. This implies that Shoshenq II and Harsiese A were near contemporaries since Harsiese A was the son of the High Priest of Amun Shoshenq C at Thebes and, thus, the grandson of Osorkon I. Harsieses funerary evidence places Shoshenq II roughly one or two generations after Osorkon I and may date him to the interval between Takelot I and Osorkon I at Tanis. In this case, the objects naming Shoshenq I in this kings tomb would simply be heirlooms and this latter interpretation is endorsed by Jürgen von Beckerath, in his 1997 book, Chronologie des Pharaonischen Ägypten who believes Shoshenq II was actually an elder brother of Takelot I. The view that Shoshenq II was a brother of Takelot I is also endorsed by Norbert Dautzenberg in a GM144 paper. Von Beckerath, however, places Shoshenq II between the reigns of Takelot I and Osorkon II at Tanis, kitchen suggests such a coregency is reflected on the bandages of the Ramesseum mummy of Nakhtefmut, which contain the dates Year 3 and Year 33 Second Heb Sed respectively. The “Year 33” date mentioned here almost certainly refers to Osorkon I since Nakhtefmut wore a ring which bore this kings prenomen, kitchen infers from this evidence that Year 33 of Osorkon I is equivalent to Year 3 of Shoshenq II, and that the latter was Shoshenq C himself. These two dates were not written on a piece of mummy linen—which would denote a true coregency. Rather, the dates were written on two separate and unconnected mummy bandages which were woven and used over a period of several years. As these two near contemporary examples show, the temple priests simply reused whatever old or recycled linens which they could access to for their mummification ritualsShoshenq II – Gold funerary mask of Shoshenq II in the Cairo Museum
45. Siptah – Akhenre Setepenre Siptah or Merenptah Siptah was the penultimate ruler of the Nineteenth Dynasty of Egypt. His fathers identity is currently unknown, both Seti II and Amenmesse have been suggested although the fact that Siptah later changed his royal name or nomen to Merneptah Siptah after his Year 2 suggests rather that his father was Merneptah. If correct, this would make Siptah and Seti II half-brothers since both of them were sons of Merneptah and he was not the crown prince, but succeeded to the throne as a child after the death of Seti II. His accession date occurred on I Peret day 2 around the month of December, historically, it was believed that Tiaa, a wife of Seti II, was the mother of Siptah. This view persisted until it was realized that a relief in the Louvre Museum pairs Siptahs name together with the name of his mother a certain Sutailja or Shoteraja. Sutailja was a Canaanite rather than a native Egyptian name which means that she was almost certainly a kings concubine from Canaan, however, Dodson/Hilton assert that this is not correct and that the lady was, instead, the mother of Ramesses-Siptah and a wife of Ramesses II. This suggests that Amenmesse and Siptah were inter-related in such a way that they were regarded as illegitimate rulers, a headless statue of Siptah now in Munich shows him seated on the lap of another Pharaoh, presumably his father. The demolition of this figure is likely to have followed the fall of Bay or the death of Siptah himself. If Siptah was a son of Seti II, it is unlikely that he would have considered as an illegitimate king by later 20th Dynasty New Kingdom pharaohs. Due to his youth and perhaps his problematic parentage, he was placed under the guidance of his stepmother—the queen regent Twosret, Siptah ruled Egypt for almost 6 years as a young man. Siptah was only a child of ten or eleven years when he assumed power since a medical examination of his mummy reveals the king was about 16 years old at death. He was tall at 1.6 metres and had reddish brown hair. Bay, however, later out of favor at Court presumably for overreaching himself. He was executed in the year of Siptahs reign, on orders of the king himself. News of his execution was passed to the Workmen of Deir el-Medina in Ostraca IFAO1254 and this ostraca was translated and published in 2000 by Pierre Grandet in a French Egyptological journal. Callendar notes that the reason for the message to the workmen was to notify them to cease all work on decorating Bays tomb since Bay had now been deemed a traitor to the state. Siptah himself is last attested sometime in his 6th regnal Year on a graffito located at the South Temple of Buhen and he likely died in the middle of II Akhet—perhaps around II Akhet 12 of his 6th Year. This assumes a traditional 70-day mummification period if Siptah was buried on IV Akhet 22, evidence for his burial on the latter date is recorded in ostracon O. Cairo CG25792Siptah – Siptah
46. Sitdjehuti – Sitdjehuti called Satibu was a princess and queen of the late Seventeenth dynasty of Egypt. She was a daughter of Pharaoh Senakhtenre Ahmose and Queen Tetisheri and she was the mother of Princess Ahmose. Sitdjehuti was a daughter of Pharaoh Senakhtenre Ahmose and a sister to Pharaoh Seqenenre Tao, and she was married to her brother Seqenenre-Tao and bore him a daughter, Ahmose. On her sarcophagus, she is stated to be the daughter of Tetisheri and her other name is given as Satibu. Sitdjehutis titles include Kings Wife, Kings Sister and Kings Daughter and she is mentioned on the mummy shroud of her daughter Ahmose which was found in the Valley of the Queens. Ahmose is called the Kings Daughter and Queens Sister and this states that Ahmose was the daughter of King Seqenenre Tao and Sitdjehuti. Sitdjehutis mummy was discovered around 1820, along with its coffin, golden mask, mummy Mask of Satdjehuty from the British MuseumSitdjehuti – Mask of Sitdjehuty
47. Takabuti – Takabuti was a married woman who reached an age of between twenty and thirty years. She lived in the Egyptian city of Thebes at the end of the Twenty-fifth dynasty of Egypt and her mummified body and mummy case are in the Ulster Museum, Belfast. The coffin was opened and the mummy unrolled on 27 January 1835 in Belfast Natural History Society’s museum at College Square North, edward Hincks, a leading Egyptologist from Ireland was present and deciphered the Egyptian hieroglyphs which revealed that she was mistress of a great house. Her mother’s name was Taseniric and her father was a priest of Amun and she was buried in a cemetery west of Thebes. After the Napoleonic Wars there was a trade in Egyptian mummies. Takabuti was purchased in 1834 by Thomas Greg of Ballymenoch House, Holywood, the painted coffin was itself of considerable interest and the wrappings of fine linen were given much attention in the town that was the commercial centre of the Irish linen industry. One hundred and seventy years later Takabuti remains an attraction for visitors, young. Photo of Takabuti and her coffin at the Ulster Museum The Ulster Archaeological Society The UAS Newsletter June 2005 Transactions Entomological Society of London,1835Takabuti – Takabuti
48. Thutmose I – Thutmose I was the third pharaoh of the 18th dynasty of Egypt. He received the throne after the death of the previous king, during his reign, he campaigned deep into the Levant and Nubia, pushing the borders of Egypt farther than ever before. He also built temples in Egypt, and a tomb for himself in the Valley of the Kings. He was succeeded by his son Thutmose II, who in turn was succeeded by Thutmose IIs sister and it has been speculated Thutmoses father was Amenhotep I. His mother, Senseneb, was of non-royal parentage and may have been a wife or concubine. Assuming she was related to Amenhotep, it could be thought that she was married to Thutmose in order to guarantee succession, however, this is known not to be the case for two reasons. Firstly, Amenhoteps alabaster bark built at Karnak associates Amenhoteps name with Thutmoses name well before Amenhoteps death, secondly, Thutmoses first-born son with Ahmose, Amenmose, was apparently born long before Thutmoses coronation. Thutmose had another son, Wadjmose, and two daughters, Hatshepsut and Nefrubity, by Ahmose, Wadjmose died before his father, and Nefrubity died as an infant. Thutmose had one son by another wife, Mutnofret and this son succeeded him as Thutmose II, whom Thutmose I married to his daughter, Hatshepsut. It was later recorded by Hatshepsut that Thutmose willed the kingship to both Thutmose II and Hatshepsut, however, this is considered to be propaganda by Hatshepsuts supporters to legitimise her claim to the throne when she later assumed power. A heliacal rising of Sothis was recorded in the reign of Thutmoses predecessor, Amenhotep I, the year of Amenhoteps death and Thutmoses subsequent coronation can be accordingly derived, and is dated to 1506 BC by most modern scholars. However, if the observation were made at either Heliopolis or Memphis, as a minority of scholars promote, manetho records that Thutmose Is reign lasted 12 Years and 9 Months as a certain Mephres in his Epitome. This data is supported by two dated inscriptions from Years 8 and 9 of his reign bearing his cartouche found inscribed on a block in Karnak. According to the autobiography of Ahmose, son of Ebana, Thutmose traveled up the Nile and fought in the battle. Upon victory, he had the Nubian kings body hung from the prow of his ship and this helped integrate Nubia into the Egyptian empire. His Majesty commanded to dig this canal after he found it stopped up with no, Year 3, first month of the third season. His Majesty sailed this canal in victory and in the power of his return from overthrowing the wretched Kush and this indicates that he already fought a campaign in Syria, hence, his Syrian campaign may be placed at the beginning of his second regnal year. This second campaign was the farthest north any Egyptian ruler had ever campaigned, although it has not been found in modern times, he apparently set up a stele when he crossed the Euphrates RiverThutmose I – A stone head, most likely depicting Thutmose I, at the British Museum
49. Thutmose II – Thutmose II was the fourth Pharaoh of the Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt. He built some minor monuments and initiated at least two minor campaigns but did little else during his rule and was strongly influenced by his wife. His reign is dated from 1493 to 1479 BC. Thutmose IIs body was found in the Deir el-Bahri Cache above the Mortuary Temple of Hatshepsut, Thutmose II was the son of Thutmose I and a minor wife, Mutnofret. He was, therefore, a son of Thutmose I and chose to marry his fully royal half-sister, Hatshepsut. This is often interpreted as evidence that Thutmose II was still a minor at his accession, Thutmose II fathered Neferure with Hatshepsut, but also managed to father a male heir, the famous Thutmose III, by a lesser wife named Iset before his death. She is depicted in several raised relief scenes from a Karnak gateway dating to Thutmose IIs reign both together with her husband and alone, manethos Epitome refers to Thutmose II as Chebron and gives him a reign of 13 years, but this figure is highly disputed among scholars. Some Egyptologists prefer to shorten his reign by a decade to only 3 years because his highest Year Date is only a Year 1 II Akhet day 8 stela. Nonetheless, scholars generally assign him a reign from 1493 or 1492 to 1479, ineni, who was already aged by the start of Thutmose IIs reign, lived through this rulers entire reign into that of Hatshepsut. In addition, Thutmose II is poorly attested in the monumental record, even this monument was not completed in Thutmose IIs reign but in the reign of his son Thutmose III, which hints at the nearly ephemeral nature of Thutmose IIs reign. The gateway was later dismantled and its building blocks incorporated into the foundation of the Third Pylon by Amenhotep III, in 1987, Luc Gabolde published an important study that statistically compared the number of surviving scarabs found under Thutmose I, Thutmose II and Hatshepsut. Hatshepsuts reign is believed to have lasted for 21 years and 9 months, hence, unless there was an abnormally low number of scarabs produced under Thutmose II, this would indicate that the kings reign was rather short-lived. On this basis, Gabolde estimated Thutmose I and IIs reigns to be approximately 11 and 3 full years, consequently, the reign length of Thutmose II has been a much debated subject among Egyptologists with little consensus given the small number of surviving documents for his reign. Thutmoses reign is traditionally given as 13 or 14 years. Since he lived long enough to father two children—Neferure and Thutmose III—this suggests that he may have had a reign of 13 years in order to reach adulthood. The German Egyptologist, J. Von Beckerath, uses this line of argument to support the case of a 13-year reign for Thutmose II. Alan Gardiner noted that at one point, a monument had been identified by Georges Daressy in 1900 that was dated to Thutmoses 18th year and this inscription is now usually attributed to Hatshepsut, who certainly did have an 18th year. This would create a gap of 13 to 14 years where Thutmose IIs reign would fit in between Hatshepsut and Thutmose Is ruleThutmose II – Relief of Thutmose II in Karnak Temple complex.
50. Thutmose III – Thutmose III was the sixth Pharaoh of the Eighteenth Dynasty. During the first 22 years of Thutmoses reign he was co-regent with his stepmother and aunt, Hatshepsut, while he was shown first on surviving monuments, both were assigned the usual royal names and insignia and neither is given any obvious seniority over the other. He served as the head of her armies, during the final 2 years of his reign, he appointed his son and successor, Amenhotep II, as his junior co-regent. His firstborn son and heir to the throne, Amenemhat, predeceased Thutmose III, when Thutmose III died, he was buried in the Valley of the Kings as were the rest of the kings from this period in Egypt. Thutmose III was the son of Thutmose II by a secondary wife and his fathers great royal wife was Queen Hatshepsut. Her daughter Neferure was Thutmoses half-sister, Thutmosis III had little power over the empire while Hatshepsut exercised the formal titulary of kingship. Her rule was quite prosperous and marked by great advancements, when he reached a suitable age and demonstrated the capability, she appointed him to head her armies. Thutmosis III had several wives, Satiah, She may have been the mother of his firstborn son, an alternative theory is that the boy was the son of Neferure. Thutmoses successor, the prince and future king Amenhotep II, was the son of Merytre-Hatshepsut. Additional children include Menkheperre and daughters named Nebetiunet, Meryetamun, Meryetamun, Merytre-Hatshepsut was the daughter of the divine adoratrice Huy. Nebtu, she is depicted on a pillar in Thutmose IIIs tomb, menwi, Merti, Menhet three foreign wives. Neferure, Thutmose III may have married his half-sister, but there is no evidence for this marriage. It has been suggested that Neferure, instead of Satiah, may have been the mother of Amenemhat, Thutmose III reigned from 1479 BC to 1425 BC according to the Low Chronology of Ancient Egypt. This has been the conventional Egyptian chronology in academic circles since the 1960s and this document has no note of the place of observation, but it can safely be assumed that it was taken in either a Delta city such as Memphis or Heliopolis, or in Thebes. These two latitudes give dates 20 years apart, the High and Low chronologies, respectively, the length of Thutmose IIIs reign is known to the day thanks to information found in the tomb of the military commander Amenemheb-Mahu. Amenemheb-Mahu records Thutmose IIIs death to his masters 54th regnal year, widely considered a military genius by historians, Thutmose III made 16 raids in 20 years. He was an active expansionist ruler, sometimes called Egypts greatest conqueror or the Napoleon of Egypt and he is recorded to have captured 350 cities during his rule and conquered much of the Near East from the Euphrates to Nubia during seventeen known military campaigns. He was the first Pharaoh after Thutmose I to cross the Euphrates and his campaign records were transcribed onto the walls of the temple of Amun at Karnak, and are now transcribed into Urkunden IVThutmose III – Thutmosis III statue in Luxor Museum
51. Thutmose IV – Thutmose IV was the 8th Pharaoh of the 18th dynasty of Egypt, who ruled in approximately the 14th century BC. His prenomen or royal name, Menkheperure, means Established in forms is Re, Thutmose IV was born to Amenhotep II and Tiaa but was not actually the crown prince and Amenhotep IIs chosen successor to the throne. Some scholars speculate that Thutmose ousted his brother in order to usurp power. Thutmoses most celebrated accomplishment was the restoration of the Sphinx at Giza and subsequent commission of the Dream Stele. According to Thutmoses account on the Dream Stele, while the prince was out on a hunting trip, he stopped to rest under the head of the Sphinx. He soon fell asleep and had a dream in which the Sphinx told him if he cleared away the sand. Little is known about his brief ten-year rule and he suppressed a minor uprising in Nubia in his 8th year around 1393 BC and was referred to in a stela as the Conqueror of Syria, but little else has been pieced together about his military exploits. Thutmose IVs rule is significant because he established relations with Mitanni. Thutmoses grandfather Thutmose III almost certainly acceded the throne in either 1504 or 1479 and his successor Amenhotep II, Thutmose IVs father, took the throne and ruled for at least 26 years but has been assigned up to 35 years in some chronological reconstructions. The currently preferred reconstruction, after analyzing all this evidence, usually comes to a date around 1401 BC or 1400 BC for the beginning of Thutmose IVs reign. The length of his reign is not as clear as one would wish and he is usually given about nine or ten years of reign. Manetho credits him a reign of 9 years and 8 months, however, Manethos other figures for the 18th dynasty are frequently assigned to the wrong kings or simply incorrect, so monumental evidence is also used to determine his reign length. Of all of Thutmose IVs dated monuments, three date to his first regnal year, one to his fourth, possibly one to his fifth, one to his sixth, two to his seventh, and one to his eighth. Two possible other dated objects, one dated to a Year 19 and another year 20, have suggested as belonging to him. The reading of the king in these dates are accepted as referring to the prenomen of Thutmose III—Menkheperre—and not Menkhepere Thutmose IV himself. Due to the absence of higher dates for Thutmose IV after his Year 8 Konosso stela, there were once chronological reconstructions which gave him a reign as long as 34–35 years. Today, however, most scholars ascribe him a 10-year reign from 1401 to 1391 BC, like most of the Thutmoside kings, he built on a grand scale. Thutmose IV completed the eastern obelisk first started by Thutmose III, Thutmose IV called it the tekhen waty or unique obeliskThutmose IV – Granite bust of Thutmose IV
52. Tiye – Tiye was the daughter of Yuya and Tjuyu. She became the Great Royal Wife of the Egyptian pharaoh Amenhotep III and she was the mother of Akhenaten and grandmother of Tutankhamun. Her mummy was identified as The Elder Lady found in the tomb of Amenhotep II in 2010. Tiyes father, Yuya, was a non-royal, wealthy landowner from the Upper Egyptian town of Akhmin, Tiyes mother, Thuya, was involved in many religious cults, as her different titles attested, which suggests that she was a member of the royal family. Some suggest that the strong political and unconventional religious views might have been due not just to a strong character. Tiye also had a brother, Anen, who was Second Prophet of Amun, other Egyptologists speculated that Ay, a successor of Tutankhamun as pharaoh after the latters death, also might have been descended from Tiye. Tiye was married to Amenhotep III by the year of his reign. He had been born of a wife of his father. He appears to have been crowned while still a child, perhaps between the ages of six to twelve. They had at least seven, possibly children, 1) Sitamun- The eldest daughter. 2) Isis- Also elevated to the position of Great Royal Wife, 3) Henuttaneb- Not known to have been elevated to Queenship, though her name does appear in a Cartouche at least once. 4) Nebetah- Sometimes thought to have been renamed Baketaten during her brothers reign, 5) Crown Prince Thutmose- Crown Prince and High Priest of Ptah, pre-deceasing his father. 6) Amenhotep IV/Akhenaten- Succeeded his father as pharaoh, husband of Queen Nefertiti, father of Ankhesenamun, Sometimes identified with the mummy from KV55, and therefore Tutankhamuns father. 8) The Younger Lady from KV35- A daughter of Amenhotep III and Tiye, mother of Tutankhamun, presumably one of the already-known daughters of Amenhotep III and Tiye. 9) Baketaten- Sometimes thought to be Queen Tiyes daughter, usually based on a stelae with Baketaten seated next to Tiye at dinner with Akhenaten and Nefertiti. Her husband devoted a number of shrines to her and constructed a dedicated to her in Sedeinga in Nubia where she was worshipped as a form of the goddess Hathor-Tefnut. He also had a lake built for her in his Year 12. As the American Egyptologists David OConnor and Eric Cline note, Tiye wielded a great deal of power during both her husband’s and son’s reigns, Amenhotep III became a fine sportsman, a lover of outdoor life, and a great statesmanTiye – The Great Royal Wife Tiye, matriarch of the Amarna Dynasty - now in the Neues Museum/Ägyptisches Museum in Berlin, Germany
53. Tjuyu – Tjuyu was an Egyptian noblewoman, and the mother of queen Tiye, wife of Yuya. She is the grandmother of Akhenaten, and great grandmother of Tutankhamun, Tjuyu is believed to be a descendant of Queen Ahmose-Nefertari, and she held many official roles in the interwoven religion and government of Ancient Egypt. She was involved in religious cults, her titles included Singer of Hathor. She also held the offices of Superintendent of the Harem of the god Min of Akhmin. She married Yuya, a powerful Ancient Egyptian courtier of the eighteenth dynasty and she is believed to have died in around 1375BC in her early to mid 50s. Yuya and Tjuyu had a daughter named Tiye, who became the consort, the great royal wife was the highest Egyptian religious position, serving alongside of the pharaoh in official ceremonies and rituals. Yuya and Thuya also had a son named Anen, who carried the titles Chancellor of Lower Egypt, Second Prophet of Amun, sm-priest of Heliopolis and Divine Father. Together with her husband, Tjuyu was buried in the Valley of the Kings, in KV46 and it was the best-preserved tomb discovered before that of Tutankhamun, Tjuyus great-grandson. The tomb was discovered by a team of workmen that were led by American millionaire Theodore M. Davis, KV46 - Theban Mapping Project The Theban Royal Mummy Project - View 18th Dynasty Mummies from the Theban Royal NecropolisTjuyu – Gilded cartonnage mask of Thuya in the Cairo Museum
54. Tutankhamun – Tutankhamun was an Egyptian pharaoh of the 18th dynasty, during the period of Egyptian history known as the New Kingdom or sometimes the New Empire Period. He has, since his discovery, been referred to as King Tut. His original name, Tutankhaten, means Living Image of Aten, in hieroglyphs, the name Tutankhamun was typically written Amen-tut-ankh, because of a scribal custom that placed a divine name at the beginning of a phrase to show appropriate reverence. The 1922 discovery by Howard Carter and Lord Carnarvon of Tutankhamuns nearly intact tomb received worldwide press coverage and it sparked a renewed public interest in ancient Egypt, for which Tutankhamuns mask, now in the Egyptian Museum, remains the popular symbol. Exhibits of artifacts from his tomb have toured the world, in February 2010, the results of DNA tests confirmed that he was the son of Akhenaten. His mother was Akhenatens sister and wife, whose name is unknown, the mysterious deaths of a few of those who excavated Tutankhamuns tomb has been popularly attributed to the curse of the pharaohs. Tutankhamun was the son of Akhenaten and one of Akhenatens sisters, as a prince, he was known as Tutankhaten. He ascended to the throne in 1333 BC, at the age of nine or ten and his wet nurse was a woman called Maia, known from her tomb at Saqqara. His teacher was most likely Sennedjem, when he became king, he married his half-sister, Ankhesenpaaten, who later changed her name to Ankhesenamun. They had two daughters, both stillborn, computed tomography studies released in 2011 revealed that one daughter died at 5–6 months of pregnancy and the other at 9 months of pregnancy. No evidence was found in either mummy of congenital anomalies or an apparent cause of death, given his age, the king probably had very powerful advisers, presumably including General Horemheb and Grand Vizier Ay. Horemheb records that the king appointed him lord of the land as hereditary prince to maintain law and he also noted his ability to calm the young king when his temper flared. In his third year, under the influence of his advisors. He ended the worship of the god Aten and restored the god Amun to supremacy, the ban on the cult of Amun was lifted and traditional privileges were restored to its priesthood. The capital was moved back to Thebes and the city of Akhetaten abandoned and this is when he changed his name to Tutankhamun, Living image of Amun, reinforcing the restoration of Amun. As part of his restoration, the king initiated building projects, in particular at Karnak in Thebes, many monuments were erected, and an inscription on his tomb door declares the king had spent his life in fashioning the images of the gods. The traditional festivals were now celebrated again, including those related to the Apis Bull, Horemakhet and his restoration stela says, The temples of the gods and goddesses. Their shrines were deserted and overgrown and their sanctuaries were as non-existent and their courts were used as roadsTutankhamun – Mask of Tutankhamun's mummy, the popular icon for ancient Egypt at The Egyptian Museum.
55. Usermontu (mummy) – Usermontu is an ancient Egyptian mummy exhibited at the Rosicrucian Egyptian Museum of San Jose, California. The name Usermontu – which means, Powerful is Montu – almost certainly does not match the name originally belonged to the mummified man. The mistake arose because long after death the mummy was placed in a coffin originally belonged to another man, a priest named Usermontu, the mummy is very well preserved, and is also known for having an ancient but sophisticated prosthetic pin in its left knee. In 1971 the Rosicrucian Museum acquired two sealed ancient Egyptian coffins from Neiman-Marcus, unbeknownst to all, one of the coffin still contained the mummy which was discovered soon after the purchase. For a reason that remains unknown to us, several centuries after death his corpse was put inside the coffin of the “real” Usermontu who lived during the 26th Dynasty. Some times around 400 BCE, as suggested by radiocarbon dating, there is no clue of where the coffin and the mummy originally came from. In life the man should have been a natural redhead and his mummy is about 5 ft tall, in August 1995 BYU professor C. Wilfred Griggs performed some X-ray scans on the Rosicrucian mummies and discovered the presence of a 9 in iron-made orthopedic screw inside “Usermontu”s left knee, the pin was held in place by an organic resin, analogous to modern bone cement. By doing so, those who performed the operation ensured the integrity of the body, required for the ancient Egyptian afterlifeUsermontu (mummy) – Side view of the mummy
56. Wendjebauendjed – Wendjebauendjed was an ancient Egyptian general, high dignitary and high priest during the reign of pharaohs Psusennes I of the 21st Dynasty. He is mainly known for his intact tomb found by Pierre Montet inside the royal necropolis of Tanis, the fact that Wendjebauendjed held such important offices granted him the great honor to be buried in the royal necropolis even though he was not a royal personage. According to one of his titles, it is possible that he was a native of Mendes and his mummified remains shows that he was perhaps of Nubian descent and that he died around his fifties. The name Wendjebauendjed was initially found by Pierre Montet and Georges Goyon in 1939 carved on some statuettes, a year later, Montet discovered the burial chamber of Psusennes I where he found a golden hilt belonged to Wendjebauendjed, placed on the kings sarcophagus. After World War II, Montet and Goyon resumed the excavations and on 13 February 1946 they discovered a new, a reused granite anthropoid sarcophagus, originally belonged to a Third priest of Amun called Amenhotep and datable to the 19th Dynasty, was found inside. The new owner was the same Wendjebauendjed named on the objects recovered from the near tombs before the war, for him the sarcophagus was covered by gold leaf, and inside it was a painted and gilded wooden coffin which in turn contained a silver coffin, both poorly preserved. Outside the sarcophagus were found many ushabtis and Wendjebauendjeds four canopic jars. All the funerary equipment is now in Cairo Museum, Georges Goyon, La Découverte des trésors de Tanis, Éditions Perséa,1987, ISBN 978-2-906427-01-3, pp. 166–170. Henri Stierlin, Christiane Ziegler, Tanis, Vergessene Schätze der Pharaonen, hirmer, München 1987, ISBN 3-7774-4460-X, p.80Wendjebauendjed – Mummy mask of Wendjebauendjed, Cairo Museum
57. The Younger Lady – The Younger Lady is the informal name given to a mummy discovered in the Egyptian Valley of the Kings, in tomb KV35 by archeologist Victor Loret in 1898. Through recent DNA tests this mummy has been identified as the mother of the Pharaoh Tutankhamun, the mummy also has been given the designation KV35YL and 61072, and currently resides in the Egyptian Museum in Cairo. Early speculation was that this mummy was the remains of Queen Nefertiti, which remains plausible, all were found together, lying naked side-by-side and unidentified in a small antechamber of the tomb. All three mummies had been damaged by ancient tomb robbers. There has been speculation as to the identity of the Younger Lady mummy. Upon finding the mummy, Victor Loret initially had believed it be that of a man as the mummys head had been shaved. A closer inspection later made by Dr. Grafton Elliot Smith confirmed that the mummy was that of a female, recently, autosomal and mitochondrial DNA testing have shown conclusively that the mummy is that of a female and, that she was the mother of Tutankhamun. The results also show that she was a full-sister to her husband, the mummy from KV55, and that they were both the children of Amenhotep III and Queen Tiye. There is also a theory that the lady is Meritaten, daughter of Akhenaten and Nefertiti. The theory goes that Meritaten married Smenkhare, believed to be her uncle, the theory holds weight as inbreeding makes it harder to distinguish the generations, but there is one problem with this theory. Meritaten must be a descendant of Queen Tiye, or her mother Thuya. Nefertitis lineage is nowhere specified, and if Meritaten is the younger lady and it has been suggested that, indeed, the Younger Lady is Nefertiti, as incest was not uncommon. This would mean that Akhenaten did marry his own sister and that he, furthermore, Nefertiti, who may have survived her husband, may be identical with Smenkhare and may have adopted this name if she took over the reign after Akhenatens death. All this is not proven, but should be mentioned as a plausible scenario. Grafton Elliot Smith provided a description of the mummy in his survey of the ancient royal mummies at the beginning of the twentieth century. He found the mummy to be 1.58 m in height and he also noted the major damage done by ancient tomb robbers, who smashed the anterior wall of the mummys chest, and had torn the right arm off just below the shoulder. Smith presumed that she was a member of the royal familyThe Younger Lady – Discovery
58. Yuya – Yuya was a powerful Egyptian courtier during the Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt. He was married to Tjuyu, an Egyptian noblewoman associated with the royal family and their daughter, Tiye, became the Great Royal Wife of Amenhotep III. They also may have been the parents of Ay, an Egyptian courtier active during the reign of pharaoh Akhenaten, there is no conclusive evidence, however, regarding the kinship of Yuya and Ay, although certainly, both men came from the town of Akhmim. Yuya and Tjuyu also are known to have had a son named Anen, who carried the titles Chancellor of Lower Egypt, Second Prophet of Amun, sm-priest of Heliopolis, and Divine Father. The tomb of Yuya and Tjuyu was, until the discovery of Tutankhamuns, although the burial site was robbed in antiquity, many objects not considered worth plundering by the robbers remained. Both the mummies were largely intact and were in a state of preservation. Their faces in particular were relatively undistorted by the process of mummification, Yuya came from the Upper Egyptian town of Akhmim, where he probably owned an estate and was a wealthy member of the towns local nobility. The study of his mummy showed that Yuya had been a man of taller than average stature, taking into account his unusual name and features, some Egyptologists believe that Yuya was of foreign origin, although this is far from certain. The name Yuya may be spelled in a number of different ways as Gaston Maspero noted in Theodore Daviss 1907 book—The Tomb of Iouiya and these include iAy, ywiA, yw A, ywiw and, in orthography—normally a sign of something foreign—yiA. The Biographical Dictionary of Ancient Egypt suggests that foreign origin and it also discusses the possibility that Yuya was the brother of queen Mutemwiya, who was the mother of Pharaoh Amenhotep III and may have had Mitannian royal origins. However, this hypothesis can not be substantiated, since nothing is known of Mutemwiyas background, if he was not a foreigner, however, then Yuya would have been the native Egyptian whose daughter was married to Amenhotep III. Yuya is believed to have died around 1374 BC in his mid 50s, in his native town of Akhmin, Yuya was a prophet of Min, the chief god of the area, and served as this deitys Superintendent of Cattle. Yuya and his wife were buried in the Valley of the Kings at Thebes, where their private KV46 tomb was discovered in 1905 by James Quibell, who was working on behalf of Theodore M. Davis. Although the tomb had been penetrated by tomb-robbers, perhaps they were disturbed as Quibell found most of the funerary goods and the two mummies virtually intact. The goods buried with Yuya and Tjuyu constituted probably the finest ensemble of high-class New Kingdom furniture and this theory has not been accepted in mainstream Egyptology and as well contradicts the account regarding Josephs burial location in Joshua. Donald B. Redford wrote a review of Stranger in the Valley of the Kings for Biblical Archaeology Review. Similarly, Deborah Sweeney has expressed great doubt toward the proposed identification, Sweeney states that the title Gods father of the Lord of the Two Lands is an extension of the title Gods Father, which is not exclusive to Yuya. Discussion and images of the mummies of Yuya and Tjuyu, the Treasures of Yuya and Tuyu Who Was JosephYuya – Gilded mummy mask of Yuya, father of Great Royal Wife, Tiye, now in the collection of Cairo Museum