Category:Assassinated Roman politicians
Pages in category "Assassinated Roman politicians"
The following 11 pages are in this category, out of 11 total, this list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 11 pages are in this category, out of 11 total, this list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Gaius Fabius Hadrianus – Gaius Fabius Hadrianus was praetor in 84 BC and propraetor 83–82 in the Roman province of Africa. Next to nothing is known of the career of Hadrianus. He has been identified with the C, Fabius Hadrianus who was a moneyer in 102 BC, several examples of his coins are known. Following his praetorship in 84, Hadrianus forced out Metellus Pius, his predecessor as governor of Africa, an alternative view is that Metellus did not hold a legitimate governorship, but was attempting to seize power in Africa in 84 when Hadrianus held a duly appointed office. Since Hadrianus began his term during the last consulship of Cornelius Cinna and his governorship would have redirected tribute from Africa to the cause of Cinna and the Marians. Metellus fled to Numidia and the protection of Hiempsal II, Hadrianus allied with Hiarbas, a rival for the Numidian kingship, and succeeded in temporarily ousting Hiempsal, who hid out with Metellus and his men in Mauretania under the protection of Bocchus I. The actions of Hadrianus incurred the enmity of the upper classes in Africa. During an uprising in Utica, he was killed when the residence was set on fire. The sources uniformly emphasize that he was burned alive, hadrianuss tenure was remembered for greed and harshness. A chronological examination of the sources indicates that Cicero’s characterization of Hadrianus likely colored the view of historians who came later. ”Although Hadrianus is sometimes said to have been “fluctuating between the parties of Cinna and Sulla, ” it is unclear what facts indicate support of Sulla. As both Cicero and Valerius Maximus note, the Sullan regime established that year took no action in the matter. Both sources state that the violence in Utica was instigated not by Africans rebelling against Rome, even if Hadrianus was not among those proscribed, his death as a Cinnan holdover was timely. Pompey remained in Africa till 79, when he claimed his controversial first triumph for his victories thereGaius Fabius Hadrianus – Coin issued by C. Fabius Hadrianus in 102 BC, depicting the god Janus and the prow of a galley (Classical Numismatics Group)
2. Tiberius Gracchus – Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus was a Roman Popularis politician of the 2nd century BC, together with Gaius Gracchus, one of the Gracchi brothers. As a plebeian tribune, he caused turmoil in the Republic with his reforms of agrarian legislation that sought to transfer wealth from the wealthy, patricians and otherwise. These reforms threatened the holdings of rich landowners in Italy and he was murdered, along with many of his supporters, by members of the Roman Senate and supporters of the conservative Optimate faction. Tiberius was born between 168 and 163 BC, he was the son of Tiberius Gracchus the Elder and Cornelia Africana and his family, the Gracchi branch of the gens Sempronia, was one of the most politically connected in Rome. Tiberius was raised by his mother, with his sister and his brother Gaius Gracchus, later he married Claudia Pulchra, daughter of Appius Claudius Pulcher. Tiberius military career started in the Third Punic War, as military tribune appointed to the staff of his brother in law, during his tenure as military tribune under Aemilianus, Tiberius became known for his bravery and discipline, recorded as the first to scale the enemy walls. In 137 BC he was appointed quaestor to consul Gaius Hostilius Mancinus, Tiberius, as quaestor, saved the army from destruction by signing a peace treaty with the Numantines, an action generally reserved for a Legate. In the negotiations, Tiberius recalled the exploits of his father Tiberius, Tiberius, however, refused to take anything else save some incense used for sacrificial rituals. The people voted to have Mancinus sent back to the Numantines in chains, romes internal political situation was not peaceful. In the last hundred years, there had been several wars, since legionaries were required to serve in a complete campaign, no matter how long it was, soldiers often left their farms in the hands of wives and children. Small farms in this often went bankrupt and were bought up by the wealthy upper class. Furthermore, some ended up being taken by the state in war. After the war was over, much of this land would then be sold to or rented to various members of the populace. Much of this land was given to only a few farmers who then had large amounts of land that were more profitable than the smaller farms, the farmers with large farms had their land worked by slaves and did not do the work themselves, unlike landowners with smaller farms. When the soldiers returned from the legions, they had nowhere to go, as only men who owned property were allowed to enroll in the army, the number of men eligible for army duty was therefore shrinking, and hence the military power of Rome. In 133 BC Tiberius was elected tribune of the people, soon he started to legislate on the matter of the homeless legionaries. Speaking before a crowd at the Rostra, Tiberius said, The wild beasts that roam over Italy have their dens, each has a place of repose and refuge. But the men who fight and die for Italy enjoy nothing but the air and light, without house or home they wander about with their wives, seeking to improve the lot of the poor, Tiberius Gracchus proposed a law known as Lex Sempronia AgrariaTiberius Gracchus – Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus
3. Julius Caesar – Gaius Julius Caesar, known as Julius Caesar, was a Roman politician, general, and notable author of Latin prose. He played a role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic. In 60 BC, Caesar, Crassus, and Pompey formed an alliance that dominated Roman politics for several years. Their attempts to power as Populares were opposed by the Optimates within the Roman Senate. Caesars victories in the Gallic Wars, completed by 51 BC, extended Romes territory to the English Channel, Caesar became the first Roman general to cross both the Channel and the Rhine, when he built a bridge across the Rhine and crossed the Channel to invade Britain. These achievements granted him unmatched military power and threatened to eclipse the standing of Pompey, with the Gallic Wars concluded, the Senate ordered Caesar to step down from his military command and return to Rome. Caesar refused the order, and instead marked his defiance in 49 BC by crossing the Rubicon with the 13th Legion, leaving his province, Civil war resulted, and Caesars victory in the war put him in an unrivalled position of power and influence. After assuming control of government, Caesar began a programme of social and governmental reforms and he centralised the bureaucracy of the Republic and was eventually proclaimed dictator in perpetuity, giving him additional authority. But the underlying political conflicts had not been resolved, and on the Ides of March 44 BC, a new series of civil wars broke out, and the constitutional government of the Republic was never fully restored. Caesars adopted heir Octavian, later known as Augustus, rose to power after defeating his opponents in the civil war. Octavian set about solidifying his power, and the era of the Roman Empire began, much of Caesars life is known from his own accounts of his military campaigns, and from other contemporary sources, mainly the letters and speeches of Cicero and the historical writings of Sallust. The later biographies of Caesar by Suetonius and Plutarch are also major sources, Caesar is considered by many historians to be one of the greatest military commanders in history. Caesar was born into a family, the gens Julia. The cognomen Caesar originated, according to Pliny the Elder, with an ancestor who was born by Caesarean section. The Historia Augusta suggests three alternative explanations, that the first Caesar had a head of hair, that he had bright grey eyes. Caesar issued coins featuring images of elephants, suggesting that he favored this interpretation of his name, despite their ancient pedigree, the Julii Caesares were not especially politically influential, although they had enjoyed some revival of their political fortunes in the early 1st century BC. Caesars father, also called Gaius Julius Caesar, governed the province of Asia and his mother, Aurelia Cotta, came from an influential family. Little is recorded of Caesars childhood, in 85 BC, Caesars father died suddenly, so Caesar was the head of the family at 16Julius Caesar – The Tusculum portrait, perhaps the only surviving statue created during Caesar's lifetime.
4. Pompey – Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus, usually known in English as Pompey /ˈpɒmpiː/ or Pompey the Great, was a military and political leader of the late Roman Republic. He came from a wealthy Italian provincial background, and his father had been the first to establish the family among the Roman nobility, Pompeys immense success as a general while still very young enabled him to advance directly to his first consulship without meeting the normal requirements for office. His success as a commander in Sullas Second Civil War resulted in Sulla bestowing the nickname Magnus. He was consul three times and celebrated three triumphs, after the deaths of Julia and Crassus, Pompey sided with the optimates, the conservative faction of the Roman Senate. Pompey and Caesar then contended for the leadership of the Roman state, when Pompey was defeated at the Battle of Pharsalus in 48 BC, he sought refuge in Egypt, where he was assassinated. His career and defeat are significant in Romes subsequent transformation from Republic to Empire, Pompeys family first gained the position of Consul in 141 BC. Pompeys father, Gnaeus Pompeius Strabo, was an equestrian from Picenum. He fought the Social War against Romes Italian allies and he supported Sulla, who belonged to the optimates, the pro-aristocracy faction, against Marius, who belonged to the populares, in Sullas first civil war. He died during the siege of Rome by the Marians in 87 BC, either as a casualty of an epidemic and his twenty-year-old son Pompey inherited his estates, and the loyalty of his legions. Pompey had served two years under his fathers command, and had participated in the part of the Social War. When his father died, Pompey was put on due to accusations that his father stole public property. As his father’s heir Pompey could be held to account and he discovered that this was committed by one of his fathers freedmen. Following his preliminary bouts with his accuser, the took a liking to Pompey and offered his daughter. Another civil war broke out between the Marians and Sulla, Cassius Dio added that Pompey had sent a detachment to pursue him, but he outstripped them by crossing the River Phasis. He reached the Maeotis and stayed in the Cimmerian Bosporus and he had his son Machares, who ruled it and gone over to the Romans, killed and recovered that country. Meanwhile, Pompey set up a colony for his soldiers at Nicopolitans in Cappadocia, in Plutarchs account Pompey was invited to invade Armenia by Tigranes’ son, who rebelled against his father. The two men received the submission of several towns, when they got close Artaxata Tigranes, knowing Pompey’s leniency, surrendered and allowed a Roman garrison in his palace. Pompey offered the restitution of the Armenian territories in Syria, Phoenicia, Cilicia, Galatia and he demanded an indemnity and ruled that the son should be king of SophenePompey – Pompey the Great in middle age, marble bust in the Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek, Copenhagen, Denmark.