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Pages in category "Atenism"
The following 11 pages are in this category, out of 11 total, this list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Atenism.|
The following 11 pages are in this category, out of 11 total, this list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Aten – Aten is the disk of the sun in ancient Egyptian mythology, and originally an aspect of the god Ra. The deified Aten is the focus of the religion of Atenism established by Amenhotep IV, in his poem Great Hymn to the Aten, Akhenaten praises Aten as the creator, giver of life, and nurturing spirit of the world. Aten does not have a Creation Myth or family, but is mentioned in the Book of the Dead, the worship of Aten was eradicated by Horemheb. By analogy, the term silver aten was sometimes used to refer to the moon, the solar Aten was extensively worshipped as a god in the reign of Amenhotep III, when it was depicted as a falcon-headed man much like Ra. The full title of Akhenatens god was Ra-Horakhty who rejoices in the horizon, the god is also considered to be both masculine and feminine simultaneously. All creation was thought to emanate from the god and to exist within the god, in particular, the god was not depicted in anthropomorphic form, but as rays of light extending from the suns disk. Furthermore, the name came to be written within a cartouche, along with the titles normally given to a Pharaoh. Ra-Horus, more usually referred to as Ra-Horakhty, is a synthesis of two gods, both of which are attested from very early on. During the Amarna period, this synthesis was seen as the source of energy of the sun god, of which the visible manifestation was the Aten. Thus Ra-Horus-Aten was a development of old ideas which came gradually, the real change, as some see it, was the apparent abandonment of all other gods, especially Amun-Ra, prohibition of idolatry, and the debatable introduction of quasi-monotheism by Akhenaten. The syncretism is readily apparent in the Great Hymn to the Aten in which Re-Herakhty, Shu, others see Akhenaten as a practitioner of an Aten monolatry, as he did not actively deny the existence of other gods, he simply refrained from worshipping any but the Aten. Other scholars call the religion henotheistic, principles of Atens religion were recorded on the rock tomb walls of Akhetaten. In the religion of Aten, night is a time to fear, work is done best when the sun, Aten, is present. Aten cares for every creature, and created a Nile river in the sky for the Syrians, Aten created all countries and people. The rays of the sun disk only holds out life to the family, everyone else receives life from Akhenaten. When a good person dies, he/she continues to live in the City of Light for the dead in Akhetaten, the conditions are the same after death. Akhenaten judged whether someone should be granted an afterlife, and operated the scale of justice, the explanation as to why Aten could not be fully represented was that the god has gone beyond creation. The cult centre of Aten was at the new city Akhetaten, some other cities include ThebesAten – Pharaoh Akhenaten and his family adoring the Aten, second from the left is Meritaten who was the daughter of Akhenaten.
2. Akhenaten – Akhenaten known before the fifth year of his reign as Amenhotep IV, was an Ancient Egyptian pharaoh of the 18th Dynasty who ruled for 17 years and died perhaps in 1336 BC or 1334 BC. An early inscription likens the Aten to the sun as compared to stars, Akhenaten tried to bring about a departure from traditional religion, yet in the end it would not be accepted. After his death, his monuments were dismantled and hidden, his statues were terminated and he was all but lost from history until the discovery during the 19th century of the site of Akhetaten, the city he built and designed for the worship of Aten, at Amarna. DNA analysis has determined that the man buried in KV55 is the father of King Tutankhamun, the future Akhenaten was a younger son of Amenhotep III and Chief Queen Tiye. The eldest son Crown Prince Thutmose was recognized as the heir of Amenhotep III but he died relatively young, there is much controversy around whether Amenhotep IV succeeded to the throne on the death of his father Amenhotep III or whether there was a coregency. Other literature by Donald Redford, William Murnane, Alan Gardiner, in February 2014, the Egyptian Ministry for Antiquities announced what it called conclusive evidence that Akhenaten shared power with his father for at least 8 years. The evidence came from the found in the Luxor tomb of Vizier Amenhotep-Huy. A team of Spanish archeologists have been working at this tomb, Amenhotep IV was crowned in Thebes and there he started a building program. He decorated the entrance to the precincts of the temple of Amun-Re with scenes of his worshiping Re-Harakhti. He soon decreed the construction of a dedicated to the Aten in Eastern Karnak. This Temple of Amenhotep IV was called the Gempaaten, the Gempaaten consisted of a series of buildings, including a palace and a structure called the Hwt Benben which was dedicated to Queen Nefertiti. Other Aten temples constructed at Karnak during this time include the Rud-menu, during this time he did not repress the worship of Amun, and the High Priest of Amun was still active in the fourth year of his reign. The king appears as Amenhotep IV in the tombs of some of the nobles in Thebes, Kheruef, Ramose, in the tomb of Ramose, Amenhotep IV appears on the west wall in the traditional style, seated on a throne with Ramose appearing before the king. On the other side of the doorway, Amenhotep IV and Nefertiti are shown in the window of appearance with the Aten depicted as the sun disc. In the Theban tomb of Parennefer, Amenhotep IV and Nefertiti are seated on a throne with the sun disk depicted over the king, among the latter-known documents referring to Amenhotep IV are two copies of a letter from the Steward Of Memphis Apy to the pharaoh. The documents were found in Gurob and are dated to regnal year 5, third month of the Growing Season, on day 13, Month 8, in the fifth year of his reign, the king arrived at the site of the new city Akhetaten. A month before that Amenhotep IV had officially changed his name to Akhenaten, Amenhotep IV changed most of his 5 fold titulary in year 5 of his reign. The only name he kept was his prenomen or throne name of Neferkheperure, some recent debate has focused on the extent to which Akhenaten forced his religious reforms on his peopleAkhenaten – Statue of Akhenaten in the early Amarna style.
3. Atenism – Atenism, or the Amarna heresy, refers to the religious changes associated with the eighteenth dynasty Pharaoh Amenhotep IV, better known under his adopted name, Akhenaten. Aten, the god of Atenism, first appears in texts dating to the 12th dynasty, during the Middle Kingdom, Aten as the sun disk. was merely one aspect of the sun god Re. It was a relatively obscure sun god, without the Atenist period, during the reign of Thutmosis IV, it was identified as a distinct solar god, and his son Amenhotep III established and promoted a separate cult for the Aten. There is no evidence that Amenhotep III neglected the other gods or attempted to promote the Aten as an exclusive deity. Amenhotep initially introduced Atenism in the year of his reign, raising Aten to the status of supreme god. To emphasise the change, Atens name was written in the form normally reserved for Pharaohs. The religious reformation appears to coincide with the proclamation of a Sed festival, traditionally held in the thirtieth year of the Pharaohs reign, it possibly was a festival in honour of Amenhotep III. Some Egyptologists think that he had a coregency with Amenhotep IV of 2-12 years, the fifth year is believed to mark the beginning of Amenhotep IVs construction of a new capital, Akhetaten, at the site known today as Amarna. Evidence appears on three of the boundary stelae used to mark the boundaries of new capital. Then, Amenhotep IV officially changed his name to Akhenaten as evidence of his new worship, the date given for the event has been estimated to fall around January 2 of that year. In the seventh year of his reign, the capital was moved from Thebes to Akhetaten, in shifting his court from the traditional ceremonial centres, he was signalling a dramatic transformation in the focus of religious and political power. The move separated the Pharaoh and his court from the influence of the priesthood and from the centres of worship. Taken in conjunction with his change, it is possible that the move to Amarna was also meant as a signal of Akhenatens symbolic death and rebirth. It may also have coincided with the death of his father, key features of Atenism included a ban on idols and other images of the Aten, with the exception of a rayed solar disc in which the rays appear to represent the unseen spirit of Aten. Aten was addressed by Akhenaten in prayers, such as the Great Hymn to the Aten, Atens name is also written differently after the ninth year of the Pharaohs rule to emphasise the radicalism of the new regime. Aten, instead of being written with the symbol of a solar disc. The details of Atenist theology are still unclear and he simply refrained from worshiping any but Aten. It is known that Atenism did not attribute divinity only to Aten, Akhenaten continued the cult of the Pharaoh, proclaiming himself the son of Aten and encouraging the Egyptian people to worship himAtenism – Pharaoh Akhenaten and his family adoring the Aten
4. Great Hymn to the Aten – The Great Hymn to the Aten is the longest form of one of a number of hymn-poems written to the creator god Aten. It is attributed to King Akhenaten, who radically changed traditional forms of Egyptian religion replacing them with Atenism, egyptologist Toby Wilkinson said that It has been called one of the most significant and splendid pieces of poetry to survive from the pre-Homeric world. Egyptologist John Darnell asserts that the hymn was sung, various courtiers rock tombs at Amarna have similar prayers or hymns to the deity Aten or to the Aten and Akhenaten jointly. One of these, found in almost identical form in five tombs, is known as The Short Hymn to the Aten, the long version discussed in this article was found in the tomb of the courtier Ay. The 18th dynasty Pharaoh Akhenaten forbade the worship of other gods, finally, Akhenaten issued a royal decree that the name Aten was no longer to be depicted by the hieroglyph of a solar disc emanating rays but instead had to be spelled out phonetically. Akhenatons religious reforms have been described by scholars as quasi-monotheistic. From the middle of the text, How manifold it is and they are hidden from the face. O sole god, like there is no other. Thou didst create the world according to thy desire, Whilst thou wert alone, All men, cattle, and wild beasts, Whatever is on earth, going upon feet, And what is on high, flying with its wings. The countries of Syria and Nubia, the land of Egypt, Thou settest every man in his place, Thou suppliest their necessities, Everyone has his food, and his time of life is reckoned. Their tongues are separate in speech, And their natures as well, Their skins are distinguished, earth come from your hand as you made them. When you have dawned they live, when you set they die, You yourself are lifetime, one lives by you. All eyes are on beauty until you set, All labor ceases when you rest in the west, When you rise you stir for the King, Every leg is on the move since you founded the earth. You rouse them for your son who came from your body, analyses of the poem are divided between those considering it as a work of literature, and those considering its political and socio-religious intentions. James Henry Breasted considered Akhenaten to be the first monotheist and scientist in history, how much Akhenaten understood, we cannot say, but he certainly bounded forward in his views and symbolism to a position which we cannot logically improve upon at the present day. Not a rag of superstition or of falsity can be found clinging to this new worship evolved out of the old Aton of Heliopolis, miriam Lichtheim describes the hymn as a beautiful statement of the doctrine of the One God. In 1913 Henry Hall contended that the pharaoh was the first example of the scientific mind, in his book Reflections on the Psalms, C. S. Lewis compared the Hymn to the Psalms of the Judaeo-Christian canon, as did Breasted. A specific literary interdependence is not probable, egyptologist Dominic Montserrat discusses the terminology used to describe these texts, describing them as formal poems or royal eulogiesGreat Hymn to the Aten – Pharaoh Akhenaten and his family adoring the Aten.
5. Great Temple of the Aten – The Great Temple of the Aten was located in the city of el-Amarna, Egypt. It served as the temple for the worship of the deity Aten during the reign of the 18th dynasty Pharaoh Akhenaten. Akhenaten ushered in a period of ancient Egyptian history by establishing the new religious cult dedicated to the sun-disk Aten. Although he began construction at Karnak during his rule, the association the city had other gods drove Akhenaten to establish a new city. Akhenaten built the city along the east bank of the Nile River, setting up workshops, palaces, suburbs, the city of Akhetaten was built rather hastily and was constructed mostly of mud-brick. Mud-bricks were made by drying in the sun and they measured 33–37 cm x 15–16 cm x 9–10 cm, although bricks for temple walls were slightly larger. During construction, bricks were laid down with an amount of mortar between the rows and no mortar between adjacent bricks. There was no rain to deteriorate the bricks but they would wear down from wind-swept sand, while this helped walls keep their form, it also acted to weaken the walls so particularly high constructions meant to hold a lot of weight had to be made differently. Stone columns conformed to the style found elsewhere in Egypt. To lay out structural elements like offering tables and pits on a plaster floor, the string was first dipped in black paint and stretched tightly and was allowed to touch the ground, leaving a mark. In some instances the string was even pushed into the plaster floor, a similar technique was used to divide up wall surfaces before they were decorated with relief. The actual construction of the temple was accomplished in a series of steps, before anything was built, there was already some kind of dedication ceremony at the site. A ceremonial gateway with receptacles for liquid offerings stood at the beginning of a paved avenue, the avenue extended eastward and was lined with sphinxes, but they were later replaced by trees. The avenue led up to a small shrine which was later built into the main design scheme of the Temple. The first main construction undertaken by Akhenaten was the building of the temenos wall, as the wall was being completed, the stone Sanctuary at the east end of the enclosure was built. This Sanctuary seemed to function on its own for some time until a few years later when Akhenaten added the Gem-Aten on the west side of the enclosure, with this addition, the original ceremonial gate had to be taken down and a raised causeway was built over it. The Gem-Aten was originally constructed in stone, but it seems that as went on Akhenaten ran low on materials. The Great Temple of the Aten lay to the north of the Central City part of Akhetaten and was separated from the Palace by many storehousesGreat Temple of the Aten – Surviving stela from the Great Temple of Aten at Akhetaten.
6. Neferneferuaten – For other individuals named Neferneferuaten, see Neferneferuaten. Ankhkheperure-mery-Neferkheperure/ -mery-Waenre/ -mery-Aten Neferneferuaten was a used to refer to either Queen Meritaten or more likely Queen Nefertiti. The archaeological evidence relates to a woman who reigned as pharaoh toward the end of the Amarna Period during the Eighteenth Dynasty and her gender is confirmed by feminine traces occasionally found in the name and by the epithet Akhet-en-hyes, incorporated into one version of her second cartouche. She is to be distinguished from the king who used the name Ankhkheperure Smenkhkare-Djeser Kheperu, with little dated evidence to fix their reigns with any certainty, the order depends on how the evidence is interpreted. Many encyclopedic sources and atlases will show Smenkhkare succeeding Akhenaten on the basis of dating back to 1845. The period from the 13th year of Akhenatens reign to the ascension of Tutankhaten is very murky, the reigns of Smenkhkare and Neferneferuaten were very brief and left little monumental or inscriptional evidence to draw a clear picture of political events. Adding to this, Neferneferuaten shares her prenomen, or throne name, with Smenkhkare, the Egyptians themselves tried to hide the evidence of the Amarna kings reigns from us. The result is that 3300 years later, scholars would have to piece together events, with the evidence so murky and equivocal, at one time or another, the name, gender, identity and even the existence of Neferneferuaten has been a matter of debate among Egyptologists. Manetho was a priest in the time of the Ptolemies in the Third Century B. C. E and his Egyptian History divided the rulers into dynasties which forms the basis of the modern system of dating Ancient Egypt. His work has been lost and is only in fragmentary form from later writers quoting his work. As a result of the suppression of the Amarna kings, Manetho is the ancient record available. Manethos Epitome, a summary of his work, describes the late 18th Dynasty succession as Amenophis for 30 years 10 months, who seems likely to be Amenhotep III. Then his son Orus for 36 years 5 months, this is seen as a corruption of the name Horemheb with the entire Amarna period attributed to him. Next comes his daughter Acencheres for 12 years 1 month then her brother Rathotis for 9 years, Acencheres is Ankhkheperure according to Gabolde, with a transcription error assumed which converted 2 years,1 month into the 12 years,1 month reported by the addition of 10 years. Most agree that Rathotis refers to Tutankhamun, therefore, the order also supports Acencheres as Ankhkheperure. Rathotis is followed by his son Acencheres for 12 years 5 months, his son Acencheres II for 12 years 3 months which are inexplicable, there are several items central to the slow unveiling regarding the existence, gender and identity of Neferneferuaten. These continue to be key elements to various theories today, the name of King Ankheprure Smenkhkare-Djeserkheperu was known as far back as 1845 from the tomb of Meryre II. There, he and Meritaten, bearing the title Great Royal Wife, are shown rewarding the tombs owner, the names of the king have since been cut out but had been recorded by Lepsius ca 1850Neferneferuaten – Inscription from Carter 001k, a box from Tutankhamun's tomb.
7. Small Aten Temple – The Small Aten Temple is located in the abandoned city of Akhetaten. It is one of the two ancient temples in the city, the other being the Great Temple of the Aten. The edifice is situated close to the Kings House and the Royal Palace, original known as the Hwt Aten or Mansion of the Aten, it was probably constructed before the larger Great Temple. Like the other structures in the city, it was constructed quickly, and hence was easy to dismantle and reuse the material for later constructionSmall Aten Temple – Reconstruction of the Small Aten Temple at Amarna
8. Temple of Amenhotep IV – Constructed outside the boundaries of the Precinct of Amon-Re, to the east, the main temple in the complex was named Gm–p3–itn, which means The Sun Disc is Found in the Estate of the God Aten. The others were named Hwt–bnbn, Rwd–mnw–n–itn–r–nḥḥ, and Tni–mnw–n–itn–r–nḥḥ, very little of these buildings remains, they were built quickly, using Talatat blocks, and could therefore easily be demolished and reused as core for later structures. The Gempaaten appears to have no roof and its offering tables were exposed to direct sunlight, in this building were red granite and sandstone statues of Akhenaten, red granite offering tables and other statues, including a sphinx inscribed with the name of the Aten. It was of a size, but it was so completely destroyed that its foundations have been nearly obliterated. Erected in east Karnak, the Hwt benben or Mansion of the Benben was devoted to a solar cult, the Teni–menu seemed to contain domestic and storage rooms, and may have been a royal residence, although not enough of the structure remains to clarify the use. The walls of the Teni-menu were reused in the Ninth Pylon of the main Karnak temple and they have since been identified and reassembled like a giant puzzle and are partly exhibited in the Luxor museum. Donald Redford, Akhenaten, The Heretic King, Princeton,1984Temple of Amenhotep IV – Reconstructed Talatats from the Gempaaten
9. Tutankhamun – Tutankhamun was an Egyptian pharaoh of the 18th dynasty, during the period of Egyptian history known as the New Kingdom or sometimes the New Empire Period. He has, since his discovery, been referred to as King Tut. His original name, Tutankhaten, means Living Image of Aten, in hieroglyphs, the name Tutankhamun was typically written Amen-tut-ankh, because of a scribal custom that placed a divine name at the beginning of a phrase to show appropriate reverence. The 1922 discovery by Howard Carter and Lord Carnarvon of Tutankhamuns nearly intact tomb received worldwide press coverage and it sparked a renewed public interest in ancient Egypt, for which Tutankhamuns mask, now in the Egyptian Museum, remains the popular symbol. Exhibits of artifacts from his tomb have toured the world, in February 2010, the results of DNA tests confirmed that he was the son of Akhenaten. His mother was Akhenatens sister and wife, whose name is unknown, the mysterious deaths of a few of those who excavated Tutankhamuns tomb has been popularly attributed to the curse of the pharaohs. Tutankhamun was the son of Akhenaten and one of Akhenatens sisters, as a prince, he was known as Tutankhaten. He ascended to the throne in 1333 BC, at the age of nine or ten and his wet nurse was a woman called Maia, known from her tomb at Saqqara. His teacher was most likely Sennedjem, when he became king, he married his half-sister, Ankhesenpaaten, who later changed her name to Ankhesenamun. They had two daughters, both stillborn, computed tomography studies released in 2011 revealed that one daughter died at 5–6 months of pregnancy and the other at 9 months of pregnancy. No evidence was found in either mummy of congenital anomalies or an apparent cause of death, given his age, the king probably had very powerful advisers, presumably including General Horemheb and Grand Vizier Ay. Horemheb records that the king appointed him lord of the land as hereditary prince to maintain law and he also noted his ability to calm the young king when his temper flared. In his third year, under the influence of his advisors. He ended the worship of the god Aten and restored the god Amun to supremacy, the ban on the cult of Amun was lifted and traditional privileges were restored to its priesthood. The capital was moved back to Thebes and the city of Akhetaten abandoned and this is when he changed his name to Tutankhamun, Living image of Amun, reinforcing the restoration of Amun. As part of his restoration, the king initiated building projects, in particular at Karnak in Thebes, many monuments were erected, and an inscription on his tomb door declares the king had spent his life in fashioning the images of the gods. The traditional festivals were now celebrated again, including those related to the Apis Bull, Horemakhet and his restoration stela says, The temples of the gods and goddesses. Their shrines were deserted and overgrown and their sanctuaries were as non-existent and their courts were used as roadsTutankhamun – Mask of Tutankhamun's mummy, the popular icon for ancient Egypt at The Egyptian Museum.