1. Ankhesenamun – Ankhesenamun was a queen of the Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt. Born as Ankhesenpaaten, she was the third of six daughters of the Egyptian Pharaoh Akhenaten and his Great Royal Wife Nefertiti. The change in her name reflects the changes in Ancient Egyptian religion during her lifetime after her fathers death and her youth is well documented in the ancient reliefs and paintings of the reign of her parents. Tutankhamun and Ankhesenamun shared the same father but Tutankhamuns mother has recently established by genetic evidence as one of Akhenatens sisters. She was most likely born in year 4 of Akhenatens reign and he possibly made his wife his co-regent and had his family portrayed in a realistic style in all official artwork. Ankhesenamun was definitely married to one king, she was the Great Royal Wife of Pharaoh Tutankhamun and it is also possible that she was briefly married to Tutankhamuns successor, Ay, believed by some to be her maternal grandfather. It has also been posited that she may have been the Great Royal Wife of her father, Akhenaten, after the death of her mother. Recent DNA tests released in February 2010 have also speculated that one of two late 18th dynasty queens buried in KV21 could be her mummy, both mummies are thought, because of DNA, to be members of the ruling house. Ankhesenpaaten was born in a time when Egypt was in the midst of a religious revolution. Her father had abandoned the old deities of Egypt in favor of the Aten, hitherto a minor aspect of the sun-god and she is believed to have been born in Waset, but probably grew up in her fathers new capital city of Akhetaten. The three eldest daughters – Meritaten, Meketaten, and Ankhesenpaaten – became the Senior Princesses and participated in many functions of the government and she is believed to have been married first to her own father. This was not unusual for Egyptian royal families and she is thought to have been the mother of the princess Ankhesenpaaten Tasherit when she was twelve, although the parentage is unclear. After her fathers death and the reigns of Smenkhkare and Neferneferuaten. Following their marriage, the couple honored the deities of the religion by changing their names to Tutankhamun and Ankhesenamun. The couple appear to have had two stillborn daughters, as Tutankhamuns only known wife was Ankhesenamun, it is highly likely the fetuses found in Tutankhamuns tomb are her daughters. Some time in the year of his reign, at about the age of eighteen, Tutankhamun died suddenly. A ring discovered is thought to show that Ankhesenamun married Ay shortly before she disappeared from history, on the walls of Ays tomb it is Tey, not Ankhesenamun, who appears as queen. She probably died during or shortly after his reign and no burial has been found for her yet, a document was found in the ancient Hittite capital of Hattusa which dates to the Amarna period, the so-called Deeds of Suppiluliuma IAnkhesenamun – Discovery
2. Horemheb – Horemheb was the last pharaoh of the 18th Dynasty of Egypt. He ruled from either 1319 BC to late 1292 BC, or 1306 to late 1292 BC although he was not related to the royal family and is believed to have been of common birth. Before he became pharaoh, Horemheb was the commander in chief of the army under the reigns of Tutankhamun, after his accession to the throne, he reformed the Egyptian state and it was under his reign that official action against the preceding Amarna rulers began. Due to this, he is considered the man who restabilized his country after the troublesome, Horemheb demolished monuments of Akhenaten, reusing their remains in his own building projects, and usurped monuments of Tutankhamun and Ay. Horemheb presumably remained childless since he appointed his vizier Paramesse as his successor and his parentage is unknown but he is believed to have been a commoner. According to the French Egyptologist Nicolas Grimal, Horemheb does not appear to be the person as Paatenemheb who was the commander-in-chief of Akhenatens army. Grimal notes that Horemhebs political career first began under Tutankhamun where he is depicted at this side in his own tomb chapel at Memphis. In the earliest known stage of his life, Horemheb served as the spokesman for foreign affairs. This resulted in a visit by the Prince of Miam to Tutankhamuns court. Horemheb quickly rose to prominence under Tutankhamun, becoming commander-in-chief of the army, when used alone, the Egyptologist Alan Gardiner has shown that the iry-pat title contains features of ancient descent and lawful inheritance which is identical to the designation for a Crown Prince. This means that Horemheb was the openly recognised heir to Tutankhamuns throne and not Ay, no objects belonging to Horemheb were found in Tutankhamuns tomb, whereas items donated by other high-ranking officials such as Maya and Nakhtmin were found in tomb KV62 by Egyptologists. Further, Tutankhamuns queen, Ankhesenamun, refused to marry Horemheb, a commoner, having pushed Horemhebs claims aside, Ay proceeded to nominate the aforementioned Nakhtmin, who was possibly Ays son or adopted son, to succeed him rather than Horemheb. However, he spared Tutankhamuns tomb from vandalism presumably because it was Tutankhamun who had promoted his rise to power and chosen him to be his heir. Horemheb also usurped and enlarged Ays mortuary temple at Medinet Habu for his own use, Horemheb appointed judges and regional tribunes. Reintroduced local religious authorities and divided legal power between Upper Egypt and Lower Egypt between the Viziers of Thebes and Memphis respectively and these deeds are recorded in a stela which the king erected at the foot of his Tenth Pylon at Karnak. Occasionally called The Great Edict of Horemheb, it is a copy of the text of the kings decree to re-establish order to the Two Lands. The stelas creation and prominent location emphasizes the importance which Horemheb placed upon domestic reform. Horemheb was a builder who erected numerous temples and buildings throughout Egypt during his reignHoremheb – Detail of a statue of Horemheb, at the Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna
3. Mutnedjmet – For other Egyptian ladies called Mutnedjmet see Mutnedjmet Mutnedjmet an Ancient Egyptian queen, the Great Royal Wife of Horemheb, the last ruler of the Eighteenth Dynasty. The name, Mutnedjmet, translates as, The sweet Mut and this identification was partially based on the fact that Mutbenrets name used to be read as Mutnedjmet. Other Egyptologist such as Geoffrey Martin note that there is no evidence to prove this assertion. In any case whatever her antecedents Mutnodjmet could have married to Horemheb a little before he became Pharaoh. Mutnedjmet is known from several object and inscriptions, A double statue of Horemheb and Mutnedjmet was found in Karnak, on Mutnedjmets side of the throne she is depicted as a winged sphinx who adores her own cartouche. As Sphinx she is depicted wearing a flat topped crown topped with plant elements associated with the goddess Tefnut, the back of the statue records Horemhebs rise to power. Horemheb and Mutnodjemet are depicted in the tomb of Roy in Dra Abu el-Naga, the Royal couple are shown in an offering scene. One of the statues in Karnak was made for Horemheb. The statue was later usurped and reinscribed for Ramesses II and Nefertari, Mutnedjmet usurped several inscriptions of Ankhesenamun in Luxor. Statues and other items including alabaster fragments naming Mutnodjemet were found in Horemhebs Saqqara tomb, the mummy was found in King Horemhebs unused Memphite tomb along with the mummy of a still-born, premature infant. She appears to have buried in the Memphite tomb of Horemheb. Mutnedjmets mummy shows she had given several times, but the last King of the 18th dynasty did not have a living heir at the time of his demise. It has been suggested that she had a daughter who was not mentioned on any monuments. The presence of the infant along with Mutnedjmet in the tomb suggests that this queen died in childbirth, a canopic jar of the Queen is now located in the British Museum. It is possible that the tomb QV33 in the Valley of the Queens was originally built for her. The tomb is known as the tomb of an otherwise unknown Tanedjmet, the South African artist Winifred Brunton painted a portrait of this queen during the 1920s. In Michelle Morans novel, Nefertiti, A Novel, Mutnedjmet is the character as the younger sister of Queen Nefertiti. She is also referenced in Morans second novel, The Heretic Queen, as the mother of the character, PrincessMutnedjmet – Mutnedjmet
4. Nefertiti – Neferneferuaten Nefertiti was an Egyptian queen and the Great Royal Wife of Akhenaten, an Egyptian Pharaoh. Nefertiti and her husband were known for a revolution, in which they worshiped one god only, Aten. Together Akhenaten and Nefertiti were responsible for the creation of a new monotheistic religion which changed the ways of religion within Egypt. With her husband, she reigned at what was arguably the wealthiest period of Ancient Egyptian history, some scholars believe that Nefertiti ruled briefly as Neferneferuaten after her husbands death and before the accession of Tutankhamun, although this identification is a matter of ongoing debate. She was made famous by her bust, now in Berlins Neues Museum, the bust is one of the most copied works of ancient Egypt. It was attributed to the sculptor Thutmose, and it was found in his workshop, the bust is notable for exemplifying the understanding Ancient Egyptians had regarding realistic facial proportions. Nefertiti, Egyptian Nfr. t-jy. tj, original pronunciation approximately Nafteta, Nefertitis parentage is not known with certainty, but one often cited theory is that she was the daughter of Ay, later to be pharaoh. Nefertitis Scenes in the tombs of the nobles in Amarna mention the queens sister who is named Mutbenret, another theory that gained some support identified Nefertiti with the Mitanni princess Tadukhipa. The exact dates when Nefertiti married Akhenaten and became the great royal wife of Egypt are uncertain. Their six known daughters were, Meritaten, No later than year 1, ankhesenpaaten, also known as Ankhesenamen, later queen of Tutankhamun Neferneferuaten Tasherit, Year 8, possibly later became Pharaoh Neferneferuaten. Nefertiti first appears in scenes in Thebes, in the damaged tomb of the royal butler Parennefer, the new king Amenhotep IV is accompanied by a royal woman, and this lady is thought to be an early depiction of Nefertiti. The king and queen are shown worshiping the Aten, in the tomb of the vizier Ramose, Nefertiti is shown standing behind Amenhotep IV in the Window of Appearance during the reward ceremony for the vizier. During the early years in Thebes, Akhenaten had several temples erected at Karnak, one of the structures, the Mansion of the Benben, was dedicated to Nefertiti. She is depicted with her daughter Meritaten and in some scenes the princess Meketaten participates as well, in scenes found on the talatat, Nefertiti appears almost twice as often as her husband. She is shown smiting the enemy, and captive enemies decorate her throne, in the fourth year of his reign, Amenhotep IV decided to move the capital to Akhetaten. In his fifth year, Amenhotep IV officially changed his name to Akhenaten, the name change was a sign of the ever-increasing importance of the cult of the Aten. It changed Egypts religion from a religion to a religion which may have been better described as a monolatry or henotheism. The boundary stelae of years 4 and 5 mark the boundaries of the new city, the new city contained several large open-air temples dedicated to the AtenNefertiti – The bust of Nefertiti from the Ägyptisches Museum Berlin collection, presently in the Neues Museum.
5. Tey – Tey was the wife of Kheperkheprure Ay, who was the penultimate pharaoh of Ancient Egypts 18th dynasty. She was also the wet nurse of Queen Nefertiti and he is believed to be connected to the royal family, he was probably a brother of Queen Tiye. On inscriptions from the Amarna period, Tey is called “nurse of the Great Royal Wife” and this indicates that even if Ay was Nefertitis father, Tey was not her mother, according to this theory, she was possibly the second wife of Ay after Nefertitis mother died. It has been proposed that Mutbenret was Ay and Teys daughter who later married Horemheb, however the name Mutbenret and Mutnedjmet, Horemhebs queen are not identical which implies that these 2 different women. It is also possible that Ays intended successor, Nakhtmin, was his son, Tey may have had a sister called Mutemnub. A dignitary named Ay is called second priest of Amun, high priest of Mut and this mans parents are recorded on the statue as Mutemnub and Nakhtmin. Mutemnub is said to be a sister of Queen Tey, Tey is depicted in her husbands unused Amarna tomb. On the North Wall, East Side a reward scene is depicted, Aye and Tey are shown before the window of appearances. Akhenaten is shown in a Khepresh crown and Nefertiti in her blue crown. Meritaten, Meketaten and Ankhesenpaaten are shown in the window of appearances as well, the eldest two seem to be throwing rewards to Aye and Tey, while Ankhesenpaaten stands on the pillow before Nefertiti and is caressing her chin. Tey is also mentioned on a wooden box, the box is inscribed for The true scribe of the king whom he loves, troop commander, overseer of cavalry, and Father of the God, Ay. And the text mentions, The much-valued one, the one of Re, appreciated by the Great Royal Wife. When Ay took the throne after the death of Tutankhamen, Tey became his Great Royal Wife, Queen Tey also held the titles Hereditary Princess, Great of Praises, Lady of The Two Lands, Great King’s Wife, his beloved, and Mistress of Upper and Lower Egypt. Queen Tey is depicted in the tomb of Ay in the Valley of the Kings and she appears behind Ay in a scene where Ay appears to be pulling lotus flowers from a marsh. The images are rather severely damaged, Tey may have been buried with her husband in WV23, and fragments of female human bones found in the tomb may be Teys. Tey is also depicted in a chapel dedicated to fertility god Min in AkhmimTey – Queen Tey as depicted at the chapel at Akhmim (From Lepsius Denkmahler)
6. WV23 – Tomb WV23, located at the end of the Western Valley of the Kings near modern-day Luxor, was the final resting place of Pharaoh Ay of the 18th Dynasty. This leads to the chamber, which currently contains the reconstructed sarcophagus. It had originally been found smashed into numerous fragments, the tomb had also been desecrated in history with many depictions of Ays image or name erased from the tomb wall paintings. Its decoration is similar in content and colour to that of Tutankhamun, on the eastern wall there is a depiction of a fishing and fowling scene, which is not shown elsewhere in other Royal tombs, being normally shown in burials of nobility. The tomb is well known for its scenes of a hippopotamus hunt. The Complete Valley of the Kings,1996, Thames and Hudson, London, guide to the Valley of the Kings and to the Theban Necropolises and Temples,1996, A. A. Theban Mapping Project, KV23 - Includes detailed information about tombWV23 – The wall decorations of WV23