Category:Bell towers in Italy
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1. Torre della Ghirlandina – The Torre della Ghirlandina or simply Ghirlandina is the bell tower of the Cathedral of Modena, in Emilia-Romagna, Italy. Standing at 86.12 metres, the tower is the symbol of Modena. The structure was set up in 1179 on five floors, initially called Torre di San Geminiano, the top of the tower is decorated with two ghirlande, whence the name. In the interior, the Sala della Secchia room is home of a copy of the depiction of the Secchia rapita, also notable are the sculpted capitals in the Sala dei Torresani hall, in the fifth floor. The five bells are tuned in C major, cast during renaissance period, the tower underwent a restoration started in December 2007. At the beginning it was said it would be finished by the year 2010, during the work, the scaffolding was hidden behind an artistic screen painted by the Italian sculptor Mimmo Paladino. This choice has caused perplexity in the town, given the high cost of the operation and this article was originally a translation of this version of it, Ghirlandina from the Italian-language Wikipedia and the Emilian e Rumagnòl-language Wikipedia eml, GhirlandèinaTorre della Ghirlandina – UNESCO World Heritage Site
2. San Giorgio dei Greci – San Giorgio dei Greci is a church in the sestiere of Castello, Venice, northern Italy. It was the center of the Scuola dei Greci, the Confraternity of the Greeks in Venice, for centuries, despite the close ties of Venice to the Byzantine world, the Greek Orthodox rite was not permitted in Venice. In 1498, the Greek community gained the right to found the Scuola de San Nicolò dei Greci, in 1539, after protracted negotiations, the papacy allowed the construction of the church of San Giorgio, financed by a tax on all ships from the Orthodox world. Construction was started by Sante Lombardo, and from 1548, by Giannantonio Chiona, the belltower was built in 1592. The interior has a monument to Gabriele Seviros by Baldassarre Longhena, the dome of the church was frescoed with the Last Judgement by Giovanni Kyprios. The iconostasis employed Kyprios, Tommaso Bathas, Benedetto Emporios, emanuele Tzane-Buniales, a priest and hagiographer from Crete, frescoed the Saints Simeon and Alypios, ascetic hermits, atop the pilasters. Near the church lies the Flanginian School, a Greek teachers school, archdiocese of Italy Hellenic Institute of Byzantine and Post-Byzantine studies in VeniceSan Giorgio dei Greci – San Giorgio dei Greci with its campanile
3. Giotto's Campanile – Giotto’s Campanile is a free-standing campanile that is part of the complex of buildings that make up Florence Cathedral on the Piazza del Duomo in Florence, Italy. The slender structure is square in plan with 14.45 metre sides and it is 84.7 metres tall and has polygonal buttresses at each corner. The tower is divided into five stages, at that time he was 67 years old. Giotto concentrated his energy on the design and construction of a campanile for the cathedral and he had become an eminent architect, thanks to the growing autonomy of the architect-designer in relation to the craftsmen since the first half of the 13th century. The first stone was laid on 19 July 1334 and his design was in harmony with the polychromy of the cathedral, as applied by Arnolfo di Cambio, giving the tower a view as if it were “painted”. In his design he also applied chiaroscuro and some form of perspective instead of a strict linear drawing of the campanile, and instead of a filigree skeleton of a gothic building, he applied a surface of coloured marble in geometric patterns. When he died in 1337, he had finished the lower floor with its marble external revetment, geometric patterns of white marble from Carrara, green marble from Prato. This lower floor is decorated on three sides with bas-reliefs in hexagonal panels, seven on each side. When the entrance door was enlarged in 1348, two panels were moved to the empty northern side and only later, five more panels were commissioned from Luca della Robbia in 1437. The number “seven” has a meaning in Biblical sense, it symbolizes human perfectibility. It is difficult to attribute artistic paternity to these panels, some may be by Giotto himself, through this work, Giotto has become, together with Brunelleschi and Alberti, one of the founding fathers of Italian Renaissance architecture. Giotto was succeeded as Master of the Works in 1343 by Andrea Pisano and he continued the construction of the bell tower, scrupulously following Giotto’s design. He added, above the level of Giotto, a second fascia. He built two levels, with four niches on each side and each level, but the second row of niches are empty. Construction came to a halt in 1348, year of the disastrous Black Death, Pisano was replaced in his turn by Francesco Talenti who built the top three levels, with the large windows, completing the bell tower in 1359. He did not build the spire designed by Giotto, thus lowering the height of 122 metres to 84.7 metres. The top, with its breathtaking panorama of Florence and the surrounding hills, all the present works of art in the campanile are copies. The originals were removed between 1965 and 1967 and are now on display in the Museo dellOpera del Duomo, behind the cathedral and this series continues on the south side and the east side of the campanileGiotto's Campanile – Giotto's bell tower seen from the top of the Duomo.
4. Leaning Tower of Pisa – The Leaning Tower of Pisa or simply the Tower of Pisa is the campanile, or freestanding bell tower, of the cathedral of the Italian city of Pisa, known worldwide for its unintended tilt. It is situated behind Pisas cathedral and is the third oldest structure in the citys Cathedral Square, after the cathedral, the towers tilt began during construction, caused by an inadequate foundation on ground too soft on one side to properly support the structures weight. The tilt increased in the decades before the structure was completed and gradually increased until the structure was stabilized by efforts in the late 20th and early 21st centuries. The height of the tower is 55.86 metres from the ground on the low side and 56.67 metres on the high side, the width of the walls at the base is 2.44 m. Its weight is estimated at 14,500 metric tons, the tower has 296 or 294 steps, the seventh floor has two fewer steps on the north-facing staircase. Prior to restoration work performed between 1990 and 2001, the tower leaned at an angle of 5.5 degrees and this means the top of the tower is displaced horizontally 3.9 metres from the centre. There has been controversy about the identity of the architect of the Leaning Tower of Pisa. For many years, the design was attributed to Guglielmo and Bonanno Pisano, Pisano left Pisa in 1185 for Monreale, Sicily, only to come back and die in his home town. A piece of cast bearing his name was discovered at the foot of the tower in 1820, construction of the tower occurred in three stages over 199 years. Work on the floor of the white marble campanile began on August 14,1173 during a period of military success. This ground floor is a blind arcade articulated by engaged columns with classical Corinthian capitals, the tower began to sink after construction had progressed to the second floor in 1178. This was due to a mere three-metre foundation, set in weak, unstable subsoil, construction was subsequently halted for almost a century, because the Republic of Pisa was almost continually engaged in battles with Genoa, Lucca, and Florence. This allowed time for the soil to settle. Otherwise, the tower would almost certainly have toppled, in 1198, clocks were temporarily installed on the third floor of the unfinished construction. In 1272, construction resumed under Giovanni di Simone, architect of the Camposanto, in an effort to compensate for the tilt, the engineers built upper floors with one side taller than the other. Because of this, the tower is actually curved, construction was halted again in 1284 when the Pisans were defeated by the Genoans in the Battle of Meloria. The seventh floor was completed in 1319, the bell-chamber was finally added in 1372. It was built by Tommaso di Andrea Pisano, who succeeded in harmonizing the Gothic elements of the bell-chamber with the Romanesque style of the tower, there are seven bells, one for each note of the musical major scaleLeaning Tower of Pisa – Leaning Tower of Pisa
5. St Mark's Campanile – St Marks Campanile is the bell tower of St Marks Basilica in Venice, Italy, located in the Piazza San Marco. It is one of the most recognizable symbols of the city, the tower is 98.6 metres tall, and stands alone in a corner of St Marks Square, near the front of the basilica. It has a form, the bulk of which is a fluted brick square shaft,12 metres wide on each side and 50 metres tall, above which is a loggia surrounding the belfry. The belfry is topped by a cube, alternate faces of which show the Lion of St. Mark, the tower is capped by a pyramidal spire, at the top of which sits a golden weathervane in the form of the archangel Gabriel. The campanile reached its present form in 1514, the current tower was reconstructed in its present form in 1912 after the collapse of 1902. Construction was finished in the century, during the reign of Domenico Morosini. Adjoining the base of the campanile is the built by Sansovino, completed in 1549. One of the models for the tower was the St. Mercuriales Campanile, the campanile suffered damage by lightning on many occasions. It was severely damaged in 1388, set on fire and destroyed in 1417, the campanile assumed its definitive shape in the sixteenth century thanks to the restorations made to repair further damage caused by the earthquake of March 1511. The work was completed on 6 July 1513, with the placement of the wooden statue of the Archangel Gabriel in the course of a ceremony recorded by Marin Sanudo. In the following centuries numerous other interventions were made to repair the damage from fires caused by lightning and it was damaged in 1548 and 1565. In 1653, Baldassarre Longhena took up the restorations, the campanile was damaged by lightning again in 1658. More work was done after a fire caused by a strike on April 13,1745, which caused some of the masonry to crack. The campanile was damaged by lightning again in 1761 and 1762, finally, in 1776, it was equipped with a lightning rod. In 1820, the statue of the angel was replaced with a new one by Luigi Zandomeneghi, in July 1902, the north wall of the tower began to show signs of a dangerous crack that in the following days continued to grow. Finally, on Monday, July 14, around 9,45 am, remarkably, no one was killed, except for the caretakers cat. Because of the position, the resulting damage was relatively limited. Apart from the logetta, only a corner of the Biblioteca Marciana was destroyed, the pietra del bando, a large porphyry column from which laws used to be read, protected the basilica itselfSt Mark's Campanile – The Campanile seen from St. Mark's Square
6. Torrazzo of Cremona – The Torrazzo is the bell tower of the Cathedral of Cremona, Lombardy, in northern Italy. However the Torrazzo is older than the Landshut tower and the Bruges tower, according to popular tradition, construction on the tower began in 754. The seven bells are tuned in the scale of A major, archaeological excavations made in the 1980s have discovered the presence of underlying structures which are supposed to be the remains of a more ancient churchyard, or even previous Roman buildings. In the Torrazzos fourth storey resides the largest astronomical clock in the world, the mechanism was built by Francesco and Giovan Battista Divizioli between 1583 and 1588. Galeati, G. Il Torrazzo di Cremona, Il Torrazzo ed il suo restauro. Loffi, F. Il Torrazzo di Cremona, ghidotti, P. Il Torrazzo di Cremona. Archeologia e storia di un monumento medievaleTorrazzo of Cremona – The Torrazzo.