Category:Bell towers in Italy
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1. Torre della Ghirlandina – The Torre della Ghirlandina or simply Ghirlandina is the bell tower of the Cathedral of Modena, in Emilia-Romagna, Italy. Standing at 86.12 metres, the tower is the symbol of Modena. The structure was set up in 1179 on five floors, initially called Torre di San Geminiano, the top of the tower is decorated with two ghirlande, whence the name. In the interior, the Sala della Secchia room is home of a copy of the depiction of the Secchia rapita, also notable are the sculpted capitals in the Sala dei Torresani hall, in the fifth floor. The five bells are tuned in C major, cast during renaissance period, the tower underwent a restoration started in December 2007. At the beginning it was said it would be finished by the year 2010, during the work, the scaffolding was hidden behind an artistic screen painted by the Italian sculptor Mimmo Paladino. This choice has caused perplexity in the town, given the high cost of the operation and this article was originally a translation of this version of it, Ghirlandina from the Italian-language Wikipedia and the Emilian e Rumagnòl-language Wikipedia eml, GhirlandèinaTorre della Ghirlandina – UNESCO World Heritage Site
2. San Giorgio dei Greci – San Giorgio dei Greci is a church in the sestiere of Castello, Venice, northern Italy. It was the center of the Scuola dei Greci, the Confraternity of the Greeks in Venice, for centuries, despite the close ties of Venice to the Byzantine world, the Greek Orthodox rite was not permitted in Venice. In 1498, the Greek community gained the right to found the Scuola de San Nicolò dei Greci, in 1539, after protracted negotiations, the papacy allowed the construction of the church of San Giorgio, financed by a tax on all ships from the Orthodox world. Construction was started by Sante Lombardo, and from 1548, by Giannantonio Chiona, the belltower was built in 1592. The interior has a monument to Gabriele Seviros by Baldassarre Longhena, the dome of the church was frescoed with the Last Judgement by Giovanni Kyprios. The iconostasis employed Kyprios, Tommaso Bathas, Benedetto Emporios, emanuele Tzane-Buniales, a priest and hagiographer from Crete, frescoed the Saints Simeon and Alypios, ascetic hermits, atop the pilasters. Near the church lies the Flanginian School, a Greek teachers school, archdiocese of Italy Hellenic Institute of Byzantine and Post-Byzantine studies in VeniceSan Giorgio dei Greci – San Giorgio dei Greci with its campanile
3. Leaning Tower of Pisa – The Leaning Tower of Pisa or simply the Tower of Pisa is the campanile, or freestanding bell tower, of the cathedral of the Italian city of Pisa, known worldwide for its unintended tilt. It is situated behind Pisas cathedral and is the third oldest structure in the citys Cathedral Square, after the cathedral, the towers tilt began during construction, caused by an inadequate foundation on ground too soft on one side to properly support the structures weight. The tilt increased in the decades before the structure was completed and gradually increased until the structure was stabilized by efforts in the late 20th and early 21st centuries. The height of the tower is 55.86 metres from the ground on the low side and 56.67 metres on the high side, the width of the walls at the base is 2.44 m. Its weight is estimated at 14,500 metric tons, the tower has 296 or 294 steps, the seventh floor has two fewer steps on the north-facing staircase. Prior to restoration work performed between 1990 and 2001, the tower leaned at an angle of 5.5 degrees and this means the top of the tower is displaced horizontally 3.9 metres from the centre. There has been controversy about the identity of the architect of the Leaning Tower of Pisa. For many years, the design was attributed to Guglielmo and Bonanno Pisano, Pisano left Pisa in 1185 for Monreale, Sicily, only to come back and die in his home town. A piece of cast bearing his name was discovered at the foot of the tower in 1820, construction of the tower occurred in three stages over 199 years. Work on the floor of the white marble campanile began on August 14,1173 during a period of military success. This ground floor is a blind arcade articulated by engaged columns with classical Corinthian capitals, the tower began to sink after construction had progressed to the second floor in 1178. This was due to a mere three-metre foundation, set in weak, unstable subsoil, construction was subsequently halted for almost a century, because the Republic of Pisa was almost continually engaged in battles with Genoa, Lucca, and Florence. This allowed time for the soil to settle. Otherwise, the tower would almost certainly have toppled, in 1198, clocks were temporarily installed on the third floor of the unfinished construction. In 1272, construction resumed under Giovanni di Simone, architect of the Camposanto, in an effort to compensate for the tilt, the engineers built upper floors with one side taller than the other. Because of this, the tower is actually curved, construction was halted again in 1284 when the Pisans were defeated by the Genoans in the Battle of Meloria. The seventh floor was completed in 1319, the bell-chamber was finally added in 1372. It was built by Tommaso di Andrea Pisano, who succeeded in harmonizing the Gothic elements of the bell-chamber with the Romanesque style of the tower, there are seven bells, one for each note of the musical major scaleLeaning Tower of Pisa – Leaning Tower of Pisa
4. Torrazzo of Cremona – The Torrazzo is the bell tower of the Cathedral of Cremona, Lombardy, in northern Italy. However the Torrazzo is older than the Landshut tower and the Bruges tower, according to popular tradition, construction on the tower began in 754. The seven bells are tuned in the scale of A major, archaeological excavations made in the 1980s have discovered the presence of underlying structures which are supposed to be the remains of a more ancient churchyard, or even previous Roman buildings. In the Torrazzos fourth storey resides the largest astronomical clock in the world, the mechanism was built by Francesco and Giovan Battista Divizioli between 1583 and 1588. Galeati, G. Il Torrazzo di Cremona, Il Torrazzo ed il suo restauro. Loffi, F. Il Torrazzo di Cremona, ghidotti, P. Il Torrazzo di Cremona. Archeologia e storia di un monumento medievaleTorrazzo of Cremona – The Torrazzo.