Category:Correspondents of Cicero
Pages in category "Correspondents of Cicero"
The following 26 pages are in this category, out of 26 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 26 pages are in this category, out of 26 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Marcus Aemilius Lepidus (triumvir) – Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, was a Roman patrician, triumvir with Octavian and Mark Antony, the last Pontifex Maximus of the Roman Republic. He had previously been a close ally of Julius Caesar. Though he proved a useful partisan of Caesar, he has always been portrayed as the weakest member of the triumvirate. Lepidus typically appears as a marginalised figure in depictions of the events of the era, most notably in Shakespeare's plays. Lepidus was the son of Marcus Aemilius Lepidus; his mother may have been a daughter of Lucius Appuleius Saturninus. His brother was Lucius Aemilius Lepidus Paullus. His father led an unsuccessful rebellion against the optimates. He married sister of Marcus Junius Brutus and Junia Tertia, Cassius Longinus's wife. Junia Secunda had at least one child, Marcus Aemilius Lepidus the Younger. He joined the College of Pontiffs as a child. He started his cursus honorum as triumvir monetalis, overseeing the minting of coins, from c. 62–58 BC. He soon became one of Julius Caesar's greatest supporters. Lepidus was appointed as a praetor in 49 BC, being placed in charge of Rome while Caesar defeated Pompey in Greece. Lepidus secured Caesar's appointment as a position Caesar used to get himself elected as Consul, resigning the dictatorship after eleven days.Marcus Aemilius Lepidus (triumvir) – Coin depicting Lepidus. The inscription is "III VIR R P C LEPIDUS PONT MAX", shorter for "tresviri rei publicae constituendae Lepidus Pontifex Maximus", meaning "One of Three Men for the Regulation of the Republic, Lepidus, Chief Pontiff".
2. Mark Antony – Antony served as one of his generals during the conquest of Gaul and the Civil War. Antony was appointed administrator of Italy while Caesar eliminated political opponents in Greece, Spain. The Triumvirs divided the government of the Republic between themselves. Relations among the Triumvirs were strained as the various members sought greater political power. Civil war between Antony and Octavian was averted in 40 BC, when Antony married Octavia. Despite this marriage, Antony carried with Cleopatra, who bore him three children, further straining Antony's relations with Octavian. Lepidus in 33 BC disagreements between Antony and Octavian caused a split between the remaining Triumvirs. Their ongoing hostility erupted in 31 BC as the Roman Senate, at Octavian's direction, declared war on Cleopatra and proclaimed Antony a traitor. Antony was defeated by Octavian's forces at the Battle of Actium. Defeated, Antony and Cleopatra fled to Egypt, where they committed suicide. With Antony dead, Octavian was the undisputed master of the Roman world. A member of the Antonia gens, Antony was born in Rome on January 14, 83 BC. His mother was a distant cousin of Julius Caesar. Antony was an infant at the time of Lucius Cornelius Sulla's march on Rome in 82 BC. Lentulus, despite exploiting his political success for financial gain, was constantly due to the extravagance of his lifestyle.Mark Antony – Antony's brother Lucius, on a coin issued at Ephesus during his consulship in 41 BC
3. Aulus Caecina Severus – He recanted in a work called Querelae, by the intercession of his friends, above all, of Cicero, obtained pardon from Caesar. Considerable fragments of his work are to be found in Seneca. Some of their correspondence is preserved in Cicero's letters. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, ed.. "name needed". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press.Aulus Caecina Severus – Treatises
4. Gaius Cassius Longinus – Gaius Cassius Longinus was a Roman senator, a leading instigator of the plot to kill Julius Caesar, the brother in-law of Marcus Junius Brutus. He became fluent in Greek. He was married to Junia Tertia, the daughter of Servilia and thus a half-sister of his co-conspirator Brutus. They had one son, born in about 60 BC. In 53 BC he took part in the Battle of Carrhae lost by Marcus Licinius Crassus against the Parthians. Cassius returned in 50 BC, when civil war was about to break out between Julius Caesar and Pompey. Cassius threw in his lot with the Optimates, although his brother Lucius Cassius supported Caesar. Cassius left Italy shortly after Caesar crossed the Rubicon. He was appointed to command part of his fleet. In 48 BC, Cassius sailed his ships to Sicily, where he burned a large part of Caesar's navy. He then proceeded to harass ships off the Italian coast. Cassius was forced to surrender unconditionally. However, Cassius refused choosing instead to retire to Rome. Cassius apparently tightened his friendship with Cicero. In 44 BC, he became praetor peregrinus for the ensuing year.Gaius Cassius Longinus – Denarius (42 BC) issued by Cassius Longinus and Lentulus Spinther, depicting the crowned head of Liberty and on the reverse a sacrificial jug and lituus. From the military mint in Smyrna
5. Cato the Younger – Cato was born in Livia Drusa. Drusus was murdered when Cato was 4 years old. Cato's stubbornness began in his early years. His teacher, reports a very questioning child, sometimes very difficult to retrain. In a playful mood, he asked the children's support for his cause. All of them nodded and smiled except Cato, who stared at the guest with most suspicious looks. Silo demanded an answer from him and, seeing no response, took Cato and hung him by the feet out of the window. Even then, Cato would not say anything. Plutarch recounts a few other stories as well. Cato became very angry at the other children and, saying nothing, grabbed the child away from the "guards" and carried him away from the others. When Sulla asked them whom they would have, they all cried "Cato," and Sextus himself gave way and yielded the honour to a confessed superior." Sulla's daughter Cornelia Sulla was married to the boys' uncle Mamercus Aemilius Lepidus Livianus. Sarpedon's answer was thus: "They fear him, my child, more than they hate him." Cato replied to this, "Give me a sword, that I might free my country from slavery." After this, Sarpedon was careful not to leave the boy unattended around the capital, seeing how firm he was in his republican beliefs.Cato the Younger – Statue of Cato the Younger in the Louvre Museum. He is about to kill himself while reading the Phaedo, a dialogue of Plato which details the death of Socrates. The statue was begun by Jean-Baptiste Roman (Paris, 1792–1835) using white Carrara marble. It was finished by François Rude (Dijon, 1784 – Paris, 1855).
6. Julius Caesar – Gaius Julius Caesar, known as Julius Caesar, was a Roman politician, general, notable author of Latin prose. Caesar played a critical role in the events that led to the rise of the Roman Empire. In 60 BC, Caesar, Crassus, Pompey formed a political alliance that dominated Roman politics for several years. Caesar's victories in the Gallic Wars, completed by 51 BC, extended Rome's territory to the Rhine. He became the first Roman general to cross both when he conducted the first invasion of Britain. With the Gallic Wars concluded, the Senate ordered Caesar to return to Rome. Caesar's victory in the war put him in an unrivalled position of power and influence. After assuming control of government, he began a programme of governmental reforms, including the creation of the Julian calendar. He centralised the bureaucracy of the Republic and was eventually proclaimed "dictator in perpetuity", giving him additional authority. The constitutional government of the Republic was never fully restored. Caesar's adopted Octavian, later known as Augustus, rose to sole power after defeating his opponents in the civil war. The era of the Roman Empire began. The later biographies of Caesar by Suetonius and Plutarch are also major sources. He is considered by many historians to be one of the greatest military commanders in history. The cognomen "Caesar" originated, according to Pliny the Elder, with an ancestor, born by Caesarean section.Julius Caesar – The Tusculum portrait, perhaps the only surviving statue created during Caesar's lifetime.
7. Lucius Munatius Plancus – Lucius Munatius Plancus was a Roman senator, consul in 42 BC, censor in 22 BC with Lucius Aemilius Lepidus Paullus. We know little about him, only that he was the namesake of his father, grandfather and great-grandfather. He was Julius Caesar's officer during the civil war against Pompey. When Caesar was assassinated on 15 March 44 BC, Plancus was the Proconsul of Gallia Comata. He claimed that he would be unable to assist as Marcus Aemilius Lepidus would block the movement of his troops to support Brutus. He held the consulship with Lepidus in 42 BC. He became proconsul of Asia in about 40 BC. During Mark Antony's expedition to avenge Crassus' death he was proconsul of Syria. But when Antony's campaign against the Parthians failed, he chose to join Octavian. According to Suetonius, Plancus was the one who suggested Octavian adopt the title "Augustus" rather than be called Romulus as a "second founder of Rome." On 16 Jan. 27 BC, he proposed the title Augustus "revered one" be granted to the young senatus. In 22 BC, Augustus appointed Aemilius Lepidus Paullus to fill the office of censor. Their censorship is famous not for any remarkable deeds, but because it was the last time that such magistrates were appointed. According to Velleius Paterculus' Roman history, it was a shame for both of the senators:. .Lucius Munatius Plancus – Bust of Plancus symbolising Roman philosophy. The bust has been said to show evidence of hemiplegia. Found in 1823 near the Jardin des Plantes and the amphitheatre of Lyon. On display at the Gallo-Roman Museum of Lyon.
8. Pompey – Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus, usually known in English as Pompey /ˈpɒmpiː/ or Pompey the Great, was a military and political leader of the late Roman Republic. His father had been the first to establish the family among the Roman nobility. Pompey's immense success as a general while very young enabled him to advance directly to his first consulship without meeting the normal requirements for office. His success as a military commander in Sulla's Second Civil War resulted in Sulla bestowing the Magnus, "the Great", upon him. Pompey celebrated three triumphs. After the deaths of Julia and Crassus, he sided with the conservative faction of the Roman Senate. Pompey and Caesar then contended for the leadership of the Roman state, leading to a civil war. When Pompey was defeated in 48 BC, Pompey sought refuge in Egypt, where he was assassinated. His defeat are significant in Rome's subsequent transformation from Republic to Empire. Pompey's family first gained the position of Consul in 141 BC. Gnaeus Pompeius Strabo, was a wealthy equestrian from Picenum. Pompey was a novus homo. Pompey fought Social War against Rome's Italian allies. Pompey supported Sulla, who belonged against Marius, who belonged to the populares, in Sulla's first civil war. Pompey struck by lightning.Pompey – Pompey the Great in middle age, marble bust in the Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek, Copenhagen, Denmark.
9. Servius Sulpicius Galba (praetor) – Servius Sulpicius Galba, praetor in 54 BC. As legate of Julius Caesar's 12th Legion during his Gallic Wars, he defeated the Nantuates in the Battle of Octodurus. He was the great grandfather of the Roman Emperor of the same name. In 45 B.C. Galba complained that the Senators were not given their proper respect. According to Suetonius, Caesar had an affair with Galba’s wife, which caused more anger. Sulpicia Assassination of Julius CaesarServius Sulpicius Galba (praetor) – Servius Sulpicius Galba from Promptuarii Iconum Insigniorum