Category:Dauphines of France
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Pages in category "Dauphines of France"
The following 15 pages are in this category, out of 15 total, this list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
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The following 15 pages are in this category, out of 15 total, this list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Catherine de' Medici – Catherine de Medici, daughter of Lorenzo II de Medici and of Madeleine de La Tour dAuvergne, was an Italian noblewoman who was Queen of France from 1547 until 1559, as the wife of King Henry II. As the mother of three sons who became kings of France during her lifetime, she had extensive, if at times varying, for a time, she ruled France as its regent. In 1533, at the age of fourteen, Caterina married Henry, second son of King Francis I, under the gallicised version of her name, Catherine de Médicis, she was Queen consort of France as the wife of King Henry II of France from 1547 to 1559. Throughout his reign, Henry excluded Catherine from participating in state affairs and instead showered favours on his mistress, Diane de Poitiers. Henrys death thrust Catherine into the arena as mother of the frail fifteen-year-old King Francis II. When he died in 1560, she became regent on behalf of her ten-year-old son King Charles IX and was granted sweeping powers, after Charles died in 1574, Catherine played a key role in the reign of her third son, Henry III. He dispensed with her only in the last months of her life. Catherines three sons reigned in an age of almost constant civil and religious war in France, the problems facing the monarchy were complex and daunting but Catherine was able to keep the monarchy and the state institutions functioning even at a minimum level. At first, Catherine compromised and made concessions to the rebelling Protestants, or Huguenots and she failed, however, to grasp the theological issues that drove their movement. Later she resorted, in frustration and anger, to hard-line policies against them, some historians have excused Catherine from blame for the worst decisions of the crown, though evidence for her ruthlessness can be found in her letters. In practice, her authority was limited by the effects of the civil wars. Without Catherine, it is unlikely that her sons would have remained in power, the years in which they reigned have been called the age of Catherine de Medici. According to Mark Strage, one of her biographers, Catherine was the most powerful woman in sixteenth-century Europe. Catherine was born on 13 April 1519 in Florence, Republic of Florence, the child of Lorenzo de Medici, Duke of Urbino, and his wife, Madeleine de la Tour dAuvergne. The young couple had married the year before at Amboise as part of the alliance between King Francis I of France and Lorenzos uncle Pope Leo X against the Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I. According to a chronicler, when Catherine was born, her parents were as pleased as if it had been a boy. King Francis wanted Catherine to be raised at the French court, Catherine was first cared for by her paternal grandmother, Alfonsina Orsini. After Alfonsinas death in 1520, Catherine joined her cousins and was raised by her aunt, the death of Pope Leo in 1521 interrupted Medici power briefly, until Cardinal Giulio de Medici was elected Pope Clement VII in 1523Catherine de' Medici – Painting attributed to François Clouet, c. 1555
2. Charlotte of Savoy – Charlotte of Savoy was queen of France as the second spouse of Louis XI. She served as regent during the absence in 1465, and was a member of the royal regency council during her sons minority in 1483. She was a daughter of Louis, Duke of Savoy and Anne of Cyprus and her maternal grandparents were Janus of Cyprus and Charlotte de Bourbon-La Marche. Her maternal grandmother, for whom she was named, was a daughter of John I, Count of La Marche. She was one of 19 children,14 of whom survived infancy, on 11 March 1443, when Charlotte was just over a year old, she was betrothed to Frederick of Saxony, eldest son of Frederick II, Elector of Saxony. For reasons unknown, the betrothal was annulled, less than eight years later on 14 February 1451, Charlotte married Louis, Dauphin of France, eldest son of Charles VII of France and Marie of Anjou. The bride was nine years old and the groom twenty-seven, the marriage, which had taken place without the consent of the French king, was Louis second, his first spouse, Margaret of Scotland, had died childless in 1445. Upon her marriage, Charlotte became Dauphine of France, on 22 July 1461, Charlotte became Queen of France. The following year, she became ill and was close to death by August 1462. Although she recovered, her health was weakened, Louis XI did not keep much of a representational court life. Charlotte was interested in literature and praised for the taste and excellence of her personal library and she left a collection of about one hundred manuscripts, which would become the genesis of the Bibliothèque nationale of France. Charlotte served as regent in September 1465, Charlotte was widowed in 1483, when Louis XI was succeeded by their son Charles VIII, who was still a minor. In practice, her daughter Anne took control over France as regent during the minority of Charles, Charlotte died on 1 December 1483 in Amboise, just a few months after her spouses death. She is buried with him in the Notre-Dame de Cléry Basilica in Cléry-Saint-André in the arrondissement of Orléans, Charlotte became the mother of eight children, but only three survived infancy. Joan, who was briefly Queen of France as the first spouse of Louis XII Francis Charles VIII, Francis Upon the death of her daughter, Anne, Charlottes line became extinct, her granddaughter, Suzanne having died in 1521 without surviving issueCharlotte of Savoy – Portrait of Charlotte of Savoy, a 19th-century engraving based on a sculpture c. 1472
3. Jacqueline, Countess of Hainaut – Jacqueline, was a Duchess of Bavaria-Straubing, Countess of Holland and Zeeland and Countess of Hainaut from 1417 to 1433. She was also Dauphine of France for a time between 1415 and 1417 and Duchess of Gloucester in the 1420s, if her marriage to Humphrey. Born in The Hague, Jacqueline, from her birth, was referred to as of Holland, Jacqueline was the last Wittelsbach ruler of Hainaut and Holland. Following her death, her estates passed into the inheritance of Philip the Good and she was the only daughter of William II, Duke of Bavaria from his marriage with Margaret, a daughter of Philip the Bold, Duke of Burgundy and Margaret III, Countess of Flanders. At the age of only 22 months and again at the age of 4, Jacqueline was betrothed to John, Duke of Touraine, fourth son of King Charles VI of France, both children were brought up in the Castle of Le Quesnoy in Hainaut. The boy had been given into tutelage of his future father-in-law, since he was expected to succeed as ruler in Hainaut and not in any way in France itself. On 22 April 1411 the Pope gave his dispensation for the union and on 6 August 1415, when Jacqueline was fourteen, she and John married in The Hague. In March 1416, Count William raised the matter with Sigismund while the latter was the guest of the English king, Henry V in England, dauphin John died on 4 April 1417, leaving Jacqueline as a widow aged 16. Two months later on 31 May, she unexpectedly lost her father, Duke William II was bitten by a dog, which caused a blood infection that quickly killed him. The politically inexperienced Jacqueline now had to fight for her inheritance, in Hainaut, where female succession was long customary, Jacqueline was recognized as sovereign Countess on 13 June, but in Holland and Zeeland her rights were controversial from the beginning. Even before William IIs death, he had expected to become his successor, on the advice of her mother, Jacqueline initially gave her uncle the title of Guardian and Defender of the County of Hainaut in order to forestall his ambitions. Jacqueline also remarried, but her selection of husband was unfortunate, on 31 July 1417, two months after William IIs death, the betrothal between Jacqueline and John IV took place, and the wedding was celebrated in The Hague on 10 March 1418. However, the proved to be a failure. In addition to this, the financial problems of the young Duke John IV. John III, with the support of King Sigismund and the Cods, took the arms against Jacqueline, who was supported by the Hooks, this civil war was known as the Hook and Cod wars. The troops of uncle and niece met in the Battle of Gorkum in 1417, Jacqueline was victorious, but was forced to leave the major trading city of Dordrecht. Finally, John IV also pledged Hainaut to improve his situation, for Jacqueline. In the meanwhile, the situation had changed radicallyJacqueline, Countess of Hainaut – Jacqueline
4. Joanna of Bourbon – Joanna of Bourbon was Queen of France by marriage to King Charles V. She acted as his adviser and was appointed potential regent in case of a minor regency. Born in the Château de Vincennes, Joanna was a daughter of Peter I, Duke of Bourbon, and Isabella of Valois, from October 1340 through at least 1343, negotiations and treaties were made for her to marry Amadeus VI, Count of Savoy. The goal was to bring Savoy more closely into French influence, on 8 April 1350, she married her cousin, the future Charles V of France, at Tain-lHermitage. Born thirteen days apart, they both were 12 years old, when Charles ascended the throne in 1364, Joanna became queen of France. According to tradition, Joanna was rumored to have taken the poet Hippolyte de Saint-Alphon for a lover, who was the father of her child Jean. Queen Joanna was described as mentally fragile, and after the birth of her son Louis in 1372 and this deeply worried Charles V, who made a pilgrimage and offered many prayers for her recovery. When she did recover and regained her normal state of mind in 1373, Charles V appointed her guardian and regent of France should he die when his son. Joanna died at the royal residence Hôtel Saint-Pol in Paris, on 6 February 1378, froissart recorded that Joanna took a bath against her physicians advice. Soon after, she went into labour and died two days after giving birth and her heart was buried in the Cordeliers Convent and her entrails in the Couvent des Célestins. The Couvent des Célestins in Paris was the most important royal necropolis after the Basilica of St Denis, the rest of her remains were then placed at Saint-Denis. Joanna and Charles had nine children, two of them reached adulthood, Joanna, interred at Saint-Antoine-des-Champs Abbey. Bonne, interred beside her older sister, Joanna, interred at Saint Denis Basilica. John of Berry, Count of Montpensier, Princeton, New Jersey, Princeton University PressJoanna of Bourbon – Joanna of Bourbon
5. Margaret of Burgundy, Dauphine of France – Margaret of Burgundy, also known as Margaret of Nevers, was Dauphine of France and Duchess of Guyenne as the daughter-in-law of King Charles VI of France. A pawn in the struggles between her family and in-laws during the Hundred Years War, Margaret was twice envisaged to become Queen of France. Born in late 1393, Margaret was the eldest child and the first of six daughters of John the Fearless and her father was, at the time, Count of Nevers and heir apparent to the Duchy of Burgundy ruled by his father, Philip the Bold. On 9 July 1394, Duke Philip and his mentally unstable nephew, King Charles VI of France, agreed that the formers first grandchild would marry the son and heir apparent. Following their formal betrothal in January 1396, Margaret was known as madame la dauphine, the death of her eight-year-old fiancé in early 1401 forced Margarets grandfather and Charles mother, Isabeau of Bavaria, to arrange a new union in the wake of Armagnac–Burgundian Civil War. In Paris in May 1403, it was agreed that Margaret would marry the new Dauphin of France, Margaret married Dauphin Louis, while her only brother, Philip the Good, married Louis sister Michelle. Philip the Bold did not live enough to see his grandchildrens marriages consummated. He died in 1404, and was succeeded by Margarets father and it was not until June 1409 that the marriages were consummated, according to Jean Juvénal des Ursins, after which Margaret moved to the decadent court of her mother-in-law. Margaret soon became a pawn in the struggle between two belligerent fractions, the Armagnacs and the Burgundians, who aspired to control her husband and their childless marriage ended with Louis death in 1415. The young widow was rescued with difficulty from Armagnac-controlled Paris. She then returned to Burgundy, living there for a few years with her unmarried sisters alongside their mother, upon their fathers assassination in 1419, Philip the Good became Duke of Burgundy. Margarets father-in-law died in 1422, and the English occupied a part of France in the name of his infant grandson, King Henry VI of England, at the same time, Margarets brother-in-law Charles VII claimed the crown for himself. In early 1423, Philip the Good entered into an alliance with Duke John V of Brittany and Henrys regent, John of Lancaster, 1st Duke of Bedford. As the former Dauphine of France who still used the title of Duchess of Guyenne, Philip had to send his trusted servant, Renier Pot, as a special ambassador to Margaret. Pot explained to her the necessity of an alliance with Brittany, per Philips instructions, Pot told Margaret that, still being a fairly young widow, she ought to marry and have children soon, more so because Philip himself was now a childless widower. She eventually yielded, and the marriage was celebrated on 10 October 1423, Arthur soon became a very influential person at the royal court in Paris, and staunchly worked in the interests of Burgundy, especially during his marriage to Margaret. Burgundy and Brittany eventually changed sides, joining Charles VII in his fight against the English, Margaret proved to be a devoted wife, protecting her husband when he fell out with Charles VII and managing his estates while he was at the battlefield. She returned with him to Paris when the French regained control of the city in 1436, little is known about her life after 1436Margaret of Burgundy, Dauphine of France – Christine de Pizan presents her book to Margaret
6. Margaret Stewart, Dauphine of France – Margaret of Scotland was a Princess of Scotland and the Dauphine of France. She was the child of King James I of Scotland. She married the eldest son of the king of France, Louis, Dauphin of France and their marriage was unhappy, and she died childless at age 20, apparently of a fever. She was born in Perth, Scotland to James I of Scotland and Joan Beaufort, Margaret was the first of six daughters and twin sons born to her parents. Margaret was Charles VII of Frances diplomatic choice for daughter-in-law, the marriage was forced upon Charless thirteen-year-old son, Louis, which did not help their relationship. However, royal marriages in the 15th century were always political, there are no direct accounts from Louis or Margaret of their first impressions of each other, and it is mere speculation to say whether or not they actually had negative feelings for each other. Several historians think that Louis had an attitude to hate his wife. Margaret and Louis marriage shows both the nature of medieval royal diplomacy and the position of the French monarchy. The marriage took place 25 June 1436 in the afternoon in the chapel of the castle of Tours and was presided by the Archbishop of Reims, by the standards of the time, it was a very plain wedding. Louis, thirteen, looked more mature than his bride. Margaret looked like a beautiful “doll, ” perhaps because she was treated as such by her in-laws, Charles wore “grey riding pants” and “did not even bother to remove his spurs. ”The Scottish guests were quickly hustled out after the wedding reception. This was seen as something of a scandal by the Scots, King Charles’ attire and the speed with which the guests were hustled out was considered an insult to Scotland, which was an important ally in Frances war with the English. However, this spoke to the nature of the French court at this time. They simply could not afford an extravagant ceremony or to host their Scottish guests for any longer than they did, following the ceremony, “doctors advised against consummation” because of the relative immaturity of the bride and bridegroom. Margaret continued her studies and Louis went on tour with Charles to loyal areas of the kingdom, even at this time, Charles was taken aback by the intelligence and temper of his son. During this tour, Louis was named Dauphin by Charles, as is traditional for the eldest son of the king and she was also very interested in the French courts social and gallant life. She was a favourite of her father-in-law Charles VII of France, however, she felt herself alien amongst the French court and became depressed. She had a relationship with her husband, the future king of FranceMargaret Stewart, Dauphine of France – Margaret of Scotland
7. Maria Anna Victoria of Bavaria – Maria Anna Victoria of Bavaria, Dauphine of France was Dauphine of France as spouse of Louis, Grand Dauphin, son and heir of Louis XIV. She was known as the Dauphine Marie Anne Victoire or la Grande Dauphine, the dauphine was a pathetic figure at the court of France, isolated and unappreciated due to the perception that she was dull, unattractive and sickly. Maria Anna was the eldest daughter of Ferdinand Maria, Elector of Bavaria, born in Munich, capital of the Electorate of Bavaria, Maria Anna was betrothed to the dauphin of France in 1668, at the age of eight, and was carefully educated to fulfill that role. Besides her native language of German, she was taught to speak French, Italian and she was said to have looked forward to the fate of becoming dauphine of France. Maria Anna was very close to her mother, who died in 1676 and her siblings included Violante of Bavaria, future wife of Ferdinando de Medici as well as the future Elector of Bavaria, Maximilian II Emanuel. Prior to her marriage to the dauphin, there was a ceremony in Munich on 28 January 1680. She was the first dauphine of France since Mary, Queen of Scots married Francis II of France in 1558. Upon her marriage, Maria Anna took on the rank of her husband as a Fille de France, this meant that she was entitled to the style Royal Highness, when she first arrived in France, Maria Anna made a good impression with her good French. When she entered Strasbourg, she was addressed in German, but interrupted the greeting by saying, Gentlemen, the impression of her appearance, however, was not as good, and she was called terribly ugly. Others said, that although she may not have been beautiful, as soon as she married the dauphin, Maria Anna was the second most important woman at court after her mother-in-law, Queen Maria Theresa of Spain. When the queen died in July 1683, Maria Anna ranked as the most prominent female at court and was given the apartments of the late queen. The king expected her to perform the functions of the first lady at court, the king was completely unsympathetic to her situation and accused her falsely of hypochondria. Her husband took mistresses, and she lived a life in her apartments, where she spoke with her friends in German. She was very close to a fellow German at court, Elizabeth Charlotte of the Palatinate and she was said to be depressed having to live at a court where beauty was so much prized, not being beautiful herself. An autopsy revealed a multitude of disorders that completely vindicated her complaints of chronic. Maria Anna was buried at the Royal Basilica of Saint Denis and she is an ancestor of Prince Henri the Count of Paris, Orléanist pretender to the French throne. Also Juan Carlos I of Spain, Albert II, King of the Belgians, Henri, Grand Duke of Luxembourg and of Vittorio Emanuele, Prince of Naples, a pretender to the Italian throneMaria Anna Victoria of Bavaria – Posthumous portrait of Maria Anna Victoria holding the coronet of a Dauphine, François de Troy
8. Maria Josepha of Saxony, Dauphine of France – Maria Josepha of Saxony was a Duchess of Saxony and the Dauphine of France. She became Dauphine at the age of fifteen through her marriage to Louis de France, Marie Josèphe was the mother of three kings of France, including Louis XVI, who died under the guillotine during the French Revolution. Her youngest daughter, Madame Élisabeth, also was beheaded during the Revolution, Maria Josepha was born on 4 November 1731 in Dresden Castle to Augustus III, Prince-Elector of Saxony and King of Poland, and Maria Josepha of Austria. Maria Josepha was the eighth of fifteen children and the fourth daughter. Dauphin Louis, eldest son of King Louis XV of France, was widowed on 22 July 1746 when his wife, Maria Teresa Rafaela, died giving birth to their only child, a daughter named after herself. King Ferdinand VI of Spain, Maria Teresa Rafaelas half-brother, had offered the Dauphin another Spanish princess, instead, the King of France and his all-powerful mistress Madame de Pompadour wanted to open up diplomatic channels. The marriage between Maria Josepha and the Dauphin had first been suggested by her uncle Maurice de Saxe, Louis XV and his mistress were convinced that the marriage would be advantageous to French foreign affairs. There was one problem with the bride, Maria Josephas grandfather Augustus II of Poland had deposed Stanisław I Leszczyński from the Polish throne. Leszczyński was the father of Maria Leszczyńska, Louis XVs wife, the marriage was said to have humiliated the simple-living Queen, even though she and Maria Josepha would later get on well. Other proposals came from Savoy in the form of Eleanor or her sister Maria Luisa of Savoy, despite the disapproval of the Queen, Maria Josepha married the Dauphin on 9 February 1747. Prior to the marriage, tradition demanded that the wear a bracelet which had a picture of her father on it. The witty Maria Josepha then revealing the bracelet to the Queen showed a portrait of the Queens father, the Dauphine said that the portrait represented the fact that the Duke of Lorraine was Maria Josephas grandfather by marriage. The Queen and the court were impressed by the tact of this girl of 15 years. The Dauphine was also close to her father-in-law Louis XV. At the time of the marriage, the Dauphin was still grieving for his Spanish wife and this grief was very public on the part of the Dauphin but Maria Josepha was praised greatly for her conquering the heart of the Dauphin bit by bit. Despite Maria Josepha being the patient wife, the Dauphins grief worsened in April 1748 when his child with the Infanta died at the age of two. The Dauphin was deeply affected by the childs death, Maria Josepha later commissioned a painting of her stepdaughter to be left over her cradle. The new Dauphine was very grateful to Madame de Pompadour for helping arrange her marriage, like her husband, Maria Josepha was very devoutMaria Josepha of Saxony, Dauphine of France – Marie Josèphe by Nattier
9. Maria Teresa Rafaela of Spain – Maria Teresa Rafaela of Spain was an Infanta of Spain by birth and was later the wife of Louis, Dauphin of France, son of Louis XV of France. She died aged 20, three days after giving birth to a daughter who died in 1748, born at the Royal Alcazar of Madrid in Spain, she was the second daughter of Philip V of Spain and Elisabeth Farnese. Baptised María Teresa Antonia Rafaela she was an Infanta of Spain by birth and was granted the style of address of Royal Highness and she was known as María Teresa Rafaela though sometimes just Maria Teresa. Louis XV had instead married Marie Leszczyńska and by her fathered the Dauphin, under the influence of her mother Elisabeth Farnese, María Teresa Rafaela was not to go to France until she reached a more mature age. The Infanta was married to the dauphin by proxy in Madrid on 18 December 1744 and she arrived at Versailles on 21 February 1745. The official marriage took place at the Palace of Versailles on 23 February 1745 and was performed by the Cardinal de Rohan, in France she was known as Marie Thérèse Raphaëlle dEspagne or de Bourbon. The betrothal had been broken off and relations between the two countries had been cold and this latest union was meant to improve links between them both. Addressed as Madame la Dauphine at Versailles, Maria Teresa Rafaela was the highest ranking female in the kingdom after Queen Marie and she was the first Dauphine since the 1712 death of Marie Adélaïde of Savoy. On 24 February the Ball of the Clipped Yew was held in honor of the newlyweds, the event also marked the arrival of Madame de Pompadour at Versailles. The marriage did not get off on a start as it was not consummated on the first night. This was an embarrassment to the young dauphine and as a result her position at court was undermined. Despite this, she had a relationship with the king and queen. Although the dauphine was described as beautiful, dignified, pious and her shy nature further isolated her from the court and she was openly hostile to the king for his affair with Madame de Pompadour. The Dauphin and Dauphine disliked the royal mistress for the way she drew away from Queen Marie Leszczyńska. Finally, the marriage was consummated in September 1745, ending court gossip, the couple became very close and devoted to each other spending most of their time together. On 19 July 1746 at Versailles, Marie Thérèse Raphaëlle gave birth to a daughter and her death on 22 July caused an intense sorrow to the Dauphin, which persisted into his second marriage. Louis XV had to drag his son away from the death bed of his wife. To make matters worse the Dauphine´s Father King Philip V of Spain died just 13 days before her on July 9, the child was baptised Marie Thérèse and was styled as Madame Royale but died at Versailles in 1748Maria Teresa Rafaela of Spain – The future Dauphine by Louis Michel van Loo
10. Marie Antoinette – Marie Antoinette (/ˈmæriˌæntwəˈnɛt/, /ˌɑ̃ːntwə-/, /ˌɑ̃ːtwə-/, US /məˈriː-/, French, born Maria Antonia Josepha Johanna, was the last Queen of France and Navarre before the French Revolution. She was born an Archduchess of Austria, and was the fifteenth and second youngest child of Empress Maria Theresa and Francis I, in April 1770, upon her marriage to Louis-Auguste, heir apparent to the French throne, she became Dauphine of France. After eight years of marriage, Marie Antoinette gave birth to a daughter, Marie-Thérèse Charlotte, the Diamond Necklace affair damaged her reputation further. On 10 August 1792, the attack on the Tuileries forced the family to take refuge at the Assembly. On 21 September 1792, the monarchy was abolished, after a two-day trial begun on 14 October 1793, Marie Antoinette was convicted by the Revolutionary Tribunal of high treason, and executed by guillotine on Place de la Révolution on 16 October 1793. Maria Antonia was born on 2 November 1755, at the Hofburg Palace and she was the youngest daughter of Empress Maria Theresa, ruler of the Habsburg Empire, and her husband Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor. Her godparents were Joseph I and Mariana Victoria, King and Queen of Portugal, Archduke Joseph, shortly after her birth, she was placed under the care of the Governess of the Imperial children, Countess von Brandeis. Maria Antonia was raised with her older sister Maria Carolina. As to her relationship with her mother, it was difficult, despite the private tutoring she received, results of her schooling were less than satisfactory. At the age of ten she could not write correctly in German or in any language used at court, such as French. Under the teaching of Christoph Willibald Gluck, Maria Antonia developed into a good musician and she learned to play the harp, the harpsichord and the flute. During the familys gatherings in the evenings, she would sing and she also excelled at dancing, had an exquisite poise, and loved dolls. Following the Seven Years War and the Diplomatic Revolution of 1756, Empress Maria Theresa decided to end hostilities with her longtime enemy, on 14 May she met her husband at the edge of the forest of Compiègne. Upon her arrival in France, she adopted the French version of her name, a further ceremonial wedding took place on 16 May 1770 in the Palace of Versailles and, after the festivities, the day ended with the ritual bedding. The lack of consummation of the marriage plagued the reputation of both Louis-Auguste and Marie Antoinette for the seven years. The initial reaction to the marriage between Marie Antoinette and Louis-Auguste was mixed, on the one hand, the Dauphine was beautiful, personable and well-liked by the common people. Her first official appearance in Paris on 8 June 1773 was a resounding success, on the other hand, those opposed to the alliance with Austria, and others, for personal reasons, had a difficult relationship with Marie Antoinette. Madame du Barry, for example, was Louis XVs mistress and had political influence over himMarie Antoinette – Marie Antoinette with the Rose Portrait by Louise Élisabeth Vigée Le Brun, 1783.
11. Mary, Queen of Scots – Mary, Queen of Scots, also known as Mary Stuart or Mary I of Scotland, reigned over Scotland from 14 December 1542 to 24 July 1567. Mary, the surviving legitimate child of James V of Scotland, was six days old when her father died. She spent most of her childhood in France while Scotland was ruled by regents and he ascended the French throne as King Francis II in 1559, and Mary briefly became queen consort of France, until his death in December 1560. Widowed, Mary returned to Scotland, arriving in Leith on 19 August 1561, four years later, she married her first cousin, Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley, but their union was unhappy. In February 1567, his residence was destroyed by an explosion, James Hepburn, 4th Earl of Bothwell, was generally believed to have orchestrated Darnleys death, but he was acquitted of the charge in April 1567, and the following month he married Mary. Following an uprising against the couple, Mary was imprisoned in Loch Leven Castle, on 24 July 1567, she was forced to abdicate in favour of James VI, her one-year-old son by Darnley. After an unsuccessful attempt to regain the throne, she fled southwards seeking the protection of her first cousin once removed, perceiving her as a threat, Elizabeth had her confined in various castles and manor houses in the interior of England. After eighteen and a half years in custody, Mary was found guilty of plotting to assassinate Elizabeth in 1586 and was beheaded the following year. Mary was born on 7 or 8 December 1542 at Linlithgow Palace, Scotland, to King James V and his French second wife and she was said to have been born prematurely and was the only legitimate child of James to survive him. She was the great-niece of King Henry VIII of England, as her paternal grandmother, Margaret Tudor, was Henry VIIIs sister. A popular legend, first recorded by John Knox, states that James, hearing on his deathbed that his wife had given birth to a daughter, ruefully exclaimed, It cam wi a lass and it will gang wi a lass. His House of Stewart had gained the throne of Scotland by the marriage of Marjorie Bruce, daughter of Robert the Bruce, to Walter Stewart, the crown had come to his family through a woman, and would be lost from his family through a woman. This legendary statement came true much later—not through Mary, but through her descendant Queen Anne, Mary was baptised at the nearby Church of St Michael shortly after she was born. As Mary was an infant when she inherited the throne, Scotland was ruled by regents until she became an adult. From the outset, there were two claims to the Regency, one from Catholic Cardinal Beaton, and the other from the Protestant Earl of Arran, Beatons claim was based on a version of the late kings will that his opponents dismissed as a forgery. Arran, with the support of his friends and relations, became the regent until 1554 when Marys mother managed to remove and succeed him. King Henry VIII of England took the opportunity of the regency to propose marriage between Mary and his own son, Prince Edward, hoping for a union of Scotland and England. The treaty provided that the two countries would remain separate and that if the couple should fail to have children the temporary union would dissolveMary, Queen of Scots – Portrait of Mary after François Clouet, c. 1559
12. Suzanne, Duchess of Bourbon – Suzanne de Bourbon was suo jure Duchess of Bourbon and Auvergne from 1503 to her death alongside her co-regent and spouse Charles de Bourbon. Suzanne was born the child and only daughter of Peter II, Duke of Bourbon by his wife and Anne of France. From 1483 to 1491, Suzannes parents served as co-regents of France during the minority of Annes younger brother, further, Annes younger sister, Joan, was queen of France as wife of Louis XII of France, who succeeded Charles VIII in 1498. Suzanne had a brother named Charles who was born in 1476. After this death, Suzannes father grew concerned about the succession to the Bourbon lands and he had no surviving sons or brothers. By the Salic law which prevailed in France, his heir presumptive was Louis de Bourbon-Montpensier, head of the Montpensier family, Montpensier was Suzannes second cousin as their grandfathers had been brothers. The year 1498 was also that in which Annes brother King Charles VIII died suddenly in an accident, the succession of France itself was in controversy, because the nearest agnatic dynast, Louis XII was a distant second cousin once removed to Charles VII. Indeed, it was due to the Salic law that Louis rather than Anne had acceded to the throne of France, in 1503, Peter died and Suzanne became duchess regnant. Her mother Anne became regent during Suzannes minority, Anne was not in favour of this arrangement because of the political complications it would certainly cause, since Bourbon-Montpensier would definitely pursue his dynastic claim. However, Peter prevailed and the contract of betrothal was signed on 21 March 1501 at Moulins, Alençon being eleven years old, two years later, and before the wedding could be solemnised, Peter died of a fever. Incidentally, Louis of Montpensier had also died before this, and had succeeded by his younger brother Charles III of Bourbon-Montpensier. With Peter and Louis both dead, the issues which had plagued their relationship could also be laid to rest, on 10 May 1505, at Château du Parc-les-Moulins, Suzanne was married to her second cousin Charles de Bourbon. Charles was immediately made co-ruler of the Bourbon lands, after the wedding, the duke and duchess of Bourbon made a tour through their domains along with Anne, something they would repeat many times during their reign. An heir was born to Charles and Suzanne on 17 July 1517 and was baptised François in October 1517, in honour of Charles good friend, the child was given the title Comte de Clermont. However, he died after living for only a few months, later, Suzanne also gave birth to stillborn twins. Suzanne died at Château de Châtellerault in 1521 and she was buried in Souvigny Priory, Souvigny. Her health had been throughout her last years. Her mother, who had always been fearful about her daughters health, Suzannes husband Charles kept his position as Duke of Bourbon after her deathSuzanne, Duchess of Bourbon – Suzanne