Category:Dauphines of Viennois
Pages in category "Dauphines of Viennois"
The following 26 pages are in this category, out of 26 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 26 pages are in this category, out of 26 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
2. Anne of Brittany – Anne is the only woman to have been consort of France twice. She was raised during a series of conflicts in which the king of France sought to assert his suzerainty over Brittany. Her father, Duke of Brittany, was the last male of the House of Montfort. Upon his death in 1488, she became duchess regnant of Brittany, viscountess of Limoges. She was already a coveted heiress because of Brittany's strategic position. He started a military campaign which eventually forced the duchess to renounce her marriage. She eventually married Charles VIII in 1491. When the king died in 1498, the throne went to his cousin, Louis XII. Following an agreement made to secure the annexation of Brittany, she had to marry the new king. Louis XII was deeply in love with Anne had many opportunities to reassert the independence of her duchy. Although neither could succeed to the throne due to the Salic Law, the eldest was proclaimed the heiress of Brittany. This marriage later led to the formal union between France and Brittany. She is highly regarded in Brittany as a conscientious ruler who defended the duchy against France. In the Romantic period, she was honoured with many memorials and statues. Her artistic legacy is important in the Loire Valley, where she spent most of her life.Anne of Brittany – Anne
3. Representations of Anne of Brittany – Anne of Brittany was the object of representations very early on. Maximilian's Austria having been evicted from the marriage, had a different perspective on the events. At the time, physical beauty was not as praised and was to be only the reflection of moral beauty. The sculptures present a woman with a pleasant face, meeting the universal canons and 15th and 16th century Europe. Anne of Brittany was, however, generally represented as a blonde. The contemporary descriptions feature clothing appropriate to her rank: brocade dresses enhanced with fur, necklaces, jewellery, hennin. She is of dark complexion and is fairly pretty. The image that Anne spreads of herself, through commissions, is one of a queen personifying the union between France and Brittany. Until the incorporation of Brittany into France was assured, she is called Reine de Sure Alliance. She is devoted, like all queens of France, to her kingdom. In the arts, France was then represented as an enchanted garden, where porcupines and ermines run. These public displays of attachment reinforce the alliance between the Breton people and the French. Each edition includes additions; the third is commissioned in 1512 to Jean Lemaire de Belges, but is never edited. The following paragraphs synthesize most of the arguments found in his book. Georges Minois' Anne de Bretagne draws, on the contrary, a non lenient portrait of Anne by a critical reading of the sources.Representations of Anne of Brittany – Anne of Brittany receiving from Antoine Dufour a book praising famous women. Miniature attributed to Jean Perréal, circa 1508.
4. Joan of France, Duchess of Berry – After that, she retired to her domain, where she soon founded the monastic Order of the Sisters of the Annunciation of Mary. From this Order later sprang the religious congregation of the Apostolic Sisters of the Annunciation, founded in 1787 to teach the children of the poor. Joan is known in the Roman Catholic Church as Saint Joan of Valois, O.Ann.M.. Jeanne was born sickly and deformed. Often away on royal duties, King Louis entrusted Joan and Anne, to the Baron François de Linières and his wife, Anne de Culan. The couple, who were childless, lavished affection on Joan. Taking charge of her education, they had her taught both poetry and mathematics, embroidery and how to play the lute. The couple instilled in the members of their household a solid grounding in the faith. At a young age, her father asked her to name the confessor she wanted. Joan gave him that of Friar Jean de La Fontaine, Guardian of the Franciscan friary in Amboise. The king appointed the friar to this post. Despite the distance between them, he would travel regularly to hear the princess's confession. She would pass long periods in the castle chapel. The baron had a path paved between the castle and the chapel built for easier walking in poor weather. Under the friar's guidance Joan was admitted into the Third Order of St. Francis.Joan of France, Duchess of Berry – Saint Joan of Valois, O.Ann.M.
5. Catherine de' Medici – For a time, she ruled France as its regent. At the age of fourteen, Caterina married Queen Claude of France. Henry's death thrust Catherine into the political arena as mother of the frail fifteen-year-old King Francis II. When he died in 1560, she became regent on behalf of her ten-year-old son King Charles IX and was granted sweeping powers. After Charles died in 1574, Catherine played a key role in the reign of her third son, Henry III. He dispensed with her advice only in the last months of her life. Catherine's three sons reigned in an age of almost constant civil and religious war in France. At first, Catherine compromised and made concessions to the rebelling Protestants, or Huguenots, as they became known. She failed, however, to grasp the theological issues that drove their movement. Later she resorted, in frustration and anger, to hard-line policies against them. Some historians have excused Catherine from blame for the worst decisions of the crown, though evidence for her ruthlessness can be found in her letters. In practice, her authority was always limited by the effects of the civil wars. Without Catherine, it is unlikely that her sons would have remained in power. The years in which they reigned have been called "the age of Catherine de' Medici". According to Mark Strage, one of her biographers, Catherine was the most powerful woman in sixteenth-century Europe.Catherine de' Medici – Painting attributed to François Clouet, c. 1555
6. Charlotte of Savoy – Charlotte of Savoy was queen of France as the second spouse of Louis XI. She was a member of the royal regency council during her son's minority in 1483. She was a daughter of Cyprus. Her maternal grandparents were Janus of Charlotte de Bourbon-La Marche. Her maternal grandmother, for whom she was probably named, was a daughter of John I, Catherine de Vendôme. She was one of 19 children, 14 of whom survived infancy. For reasons unknown, the betrothal was annulled. Less than eight years later on 14 February 1451, Charlotte married Louis, Dauphin of France, Marie of Anjou. The bride was nine years old and the groom twenty-seven. Upon her marriage, Charlotte became Dauphine of France. Louis reportedly neglected her. On 22 Charlotte became Queen of France. She became seriously ill and was close to death by August 1462. Although she recovered, her health was weakened. Louis XI did not keep much of a representational life.Charlotte of Savoy – Portrait of Charlotte of Savoy, a 19th-century engraving based on a sculpture c. 1472
7. Claude of France – Claude was born on 13 October 1499 in Romorantin-Lanthenay as the eldest daughter of Louis XII of France and Anne of Brittany. Because her mother had no surviving sons, Claude became heiress to the Duchy of Brittany. The crown of France, however, could pass only to and through male heirs, according to Salic Law. Eager to keep Brittany separated from the French crown, Queen Anne, with help of Cardinal Georges d'Amboise, promoted a solution for this problem. Thus, all the causes of the future rivalry between Charles V and Francis I have been decided even before the succession of the two princes. Indeed, previously Louise of Savoy obtained from the king a secret promise that Claude could be married to her son. Francis and Claude became king and queen, the third time in history that the Duchess of Brittany became Queen of France. As Queen, she was eclipsed at her sister-in-law, the literary Navarrese queen Margaret of Angoulême. She never ruled over Brittany; in 1515 she gave the government of her domains to her husband in perpetuity. After Francis became king in 1515, Anne Boleyn stayed as a member of Claude's household. It's assumed that Anne served as Claude's translator whenever there were English visitors, such as in 1520, at the Field of Cloth of Gold. Anne Boleyn returned to England in late 1521, where she eventually became Queen of England as the second wife of Henry VIII. She spent almost all her marriage in an endless round of annual pregnancies. Her husband had many mistresses, but was usually relatively discreet. Claude imposed a strict moral code on her own household, which only a few chose to flout.Claude of France – Claude
8. Elisabeth of Austria, Queen of France – Elisabeth of Austria was Queen of France from 1570 to 1574 as the wife of King Charles IX. A member of the House of Habsburg, she was the daughter of Maximilian II, Maria of Spain. Elisabeth was the fifth child and second daughter of her parents' sixteen children, of whom eight survived infancy. They were raised in the Roman Catholic religion. Elisabeth seems to have been his favorite child. She resembled him, in character: Elisabeth was just as intelligent and charming as her father. With her flawless white skin, perfect physique, she was considered one of the great beauties of the era. She was also regarded as demure, warmhearted but naive and intensely innocent because of her sheltered upbringing. Still, she was intellectually talented. Elisabeth's brothers were educated by diplomat Ogier Ghiselin de Busbecq. The curious princess soon joined and even overshadowed them in their studies. Very early, around 1559, the Duke of Orléans, the future King Charles IX of France was suggested. Only in 1569, after the failure of marriage plans with Frederick II of Portugal, the French offer was seriously considered. On 4 November she left Austria accompanied by high-ranking German dignitaries, including the Archbishop-Elector of Trier. Before reaching her destination, Elisabeth stayed in Sedan, where her husband's two younger brothers Duke of Alençon, greeted her.Elisabeth of Austria, Queen of France – Painting by François Clouet, ca. 1571.
9. Isabeau of Bavaria – Isabeau of Bavaria was born into the House of Wittelsbach as the eldest daughter of Duke Stephen III of Bavaria-Ingolstadt and Taddea Visconti of Milan. She became Queen of France when she married King Charles VI in 1385. At 16, Isabeau was sent to France on approval to the young French king; the couple wed three days after their first meeting. Isabeau was honored in 1389 with entry into Paris. In 1392 Charles suffered the first attack of what was to become a progressive mental illness, resulting in periodic withdrawal from government. The episodes occurred with increasing frequency, leaving a court both steeped in social extravagances. A 1393 masque for one of Isabeau's ladies-in-waiting -- an event later known as Bal des Ardents -- ended with the King almost burning to death. Although the King demanded Isabeau's removal during his illness, he consistently allowed her to act on his behalf. Isabeau shifted allegiances as she chose the most favorable paths for the heir to the throne. In 1407 John the Fearless assassinated Orléans, sparking hostilities between the factions. The war ended soon after Charles, had John the Fearless assassinated in 1419 -- an act that saw him disinherited. She lived until her death in 1435. Isabeau was popularly seen as a irresponsible philanderess. Isabeau's parents were Duke Stephen III of Bavaria-Ingolstadt and Taddea Visconti, whom he married for a 100,000 dowry. She was most likely born in Munich where she was baptized at the Church of Our Lady.Isabeau of Bavaria – Queen Isabeau receiving Christine de Pisan 's Le Livre de la Cité des Dames, c 1410-14. Illumination on parchment, British Library
10. Jacqueline, Countess of Hainaut – Jacqueline, was a Duchess of Bavaria-Straubing, Countess of Holland and Zeeland and Countess of Hainaut from 1417 to 1433. Born in The Hague, Jacqueline, from her birth, was referred to as "of Holland", indicating that she was the heiress of her father's estates. Jacqueline was the last Wittelsbach ruler of Hainaut and Holland. Following her death, her estates passed into the inheritance of Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy. Both children were brought up in the Castle of Le Quesnoy in Hainaut. Dauphin John died on 4 April 1417, leaving Jacqueline as a widow aged 16. Two months later on 31 May, she unexpectedly lost her father. Duke William II was bitten by a dog, which caused a blood infection that quickly killed him. The politically inexperienced Jacqueline now had to fight for her inheritance. Even before William II's death, he had expected to become his successor, therefore he gave up his diocese. Jacqueline also remarried, but her selection of husband was unfortunate. However, the union proved to be a failure. In addition to this, the financial problems of his weak political leadership increased the conflicts inside the marriage. In the meanwhile, the political situation had changed radically. King Henry V of England then claimed to be the King of France.Jacqueline, Countess of Hainaut – Jacqueline
11. Joanna of Bourbon – Joanna of Bourbon was Queen of France by marriage to King Charles V. She was appointed potential regent in case of a minor regency. From October 1340 through at least 1343, treaties were made for her to marry Amadeus VI, Count of Savoy. The goal was to bring Savoy more closely into French influence. On 8 she married her cousin, the future Charles V of France, at Tain-l'Hermitage. Born thirteen days apart, they both were 12 years old. When Charles ascended the throne in 1364, Joanna became queen of France. After the birth of her son Louis in 1372, she suffered a complete mental breakdown. This deeply worried Charles V, who offered many prayers for her recovery. Froissart recorded that Joanna took a bath against her physicians' advice. Soon after, she died two days after giving birth. The king was devastated. Her heart was buried in the Couvent des Célestins. The Couvent des Célestins in Paris was the most important royal necropolis after the Basilica of St Denis. The rest of her remains were then placed at Saint-Denis.Joanna of Bourbon – Joanna of Bourbon
12. Louise of Lorraine – Louise of Lorraine was a member of the House of Lorraine who became Queen consort of France from 1575 until 1589. Born in the Duchy of Bar, she was the daughter of Nicholas, Duke of Mercœur, Margaret of Egmont. Her mother died whilst she was she was brought up by her father and step-mother. Her childhood was unhappy; unloved by Catherine de Lorraine-Aumale, she was expected to keep out of the way of her family. This upbringing would result in her being dutiful as an adult. She was also very pious. She first caught the eye of Henry, Duke of Anjou, in 1574. He remembered Louise long after he left France. Louise herself was much surprised when she received the news from her family at her return. The match was a general surprise, as Louise was not considered to have enough status to be queen. The wedding took place on 15 February 1575, two days after Henry's coronation. The couple were finally married by Charles, Cardinal de Bourbon that evening. Louise did, however, suffer because of the hostility between the family of her spouse. Although Louise worshipped her husband, the marriage failed to produce children. She is believed to have suffered a miscarriage in the Spring of 1576; if so, it would possibly have prevented the couple from producing further children.Louise of Lorraine – Louise in 1580
13. Margaret of Burgundy, Dauphine of France – Margaret of Burgundy, also known as Margaret of Nevers, was Dauphine of France and Duchess of Guyenne as the daughter-in-law of King Charles VI of France. A pawn in the dynastic struggles during the Hundred Years' War, she was twice envisaged to become Queen of France. Born in late 1393, she was Margaret of Bavaria. Her father was, at the time, heir apparent to the Duchy of Burgundy ruled by his father, Philip the Bold. Following their formal betrothal in January 1396, she was known as "madame la dauphine". In Paris in May 1403, it was agreed that Margaret would marry the new Dauphin of Duke Louis of Guyenne. She married Dauphin Louis, while Philip the Good, married Louis' sister Michelle. Philip the Bold did not live enough to see his grandchildren's marriages consummated. He was succeeded by Margaret's father. She soon became a pawn in the struggle between two belligerent fractions, the Burgundians, who aspired to control her husband. Their childless marriage ended in 1415. The young widow was rescued with some difficulty from Armagnac-controlled Paris. Margaret then returned to Burgundy, living there alongside their mother. Upon their father's assassination in 1419, Philip the Good became Duke of Burgundy. At the same time, Margaret's brother-in-law Charles VII claimed the crown for himself.Margaret of Burgundy, Dauphine of France – Christine de Pizan presents her book to Margaret
14. Margaret of Valois – Margaret of Valois was a French princess of the Valois dynasty who became queen consort of Navarre and later also of France. She thus became Queen of Navarre in 1572. However, her life was anything but passive. She also proved a competent memoirist. She influenced many of Europe's royal courts with her clothing. The memoirs were published posthumously in 1628. Three of her brothers would become kings of France: Francis II, Henry III. Elisabeth of Valois, would become the third wife of King Philip II of Spain. However, Alba refused any consideration of a dynastic marriage. Margaret was secretly involved with Henry of the son of the late Duke of Guise. When Catherine found this out, she had her daughter brought from her bed. The king then beat her and sent Henry of Guise from court. A Huguenot, had to remain outside the cathedral during the religious ceremony. It was hoped this union would create harmony between Catholics and the Protestant Huguenots. Henry of Navarre had to feign conversion to Catholicism.Margaret of Valois – Detail of painting by Pieter Paul Rubens
15. Margaret Stewart, Dauphine of France – See also Margaret Stewart. Margaret of Scotland was the Dauphine of France. Margaret was the child of King James I of Scotland and Queen Joan Beaufort. Margaret married the eldest son of the king of France, Louis, Dauphin Of France, at eleven years old. She died childless at age 20, apparently of a fever. Margaret was born to James I of Scotland and Joan Beaufort, a cousin of Henry VI of England. She was the first of twin sons born to her parents. She was Charles VII of France's diplomatic choice for daughter-in-law. The marriage was forced upon Louis, which did not help their relationship. However, royal marriages in the 15th century were always political. Several historians think that Louis had a predetermined attitude to hate his wife. Louis' marriage shows both the nature of medieval royal diplomacy and the precarious position of the French monarchy. The marriage was presided by the Archbishop of Reims. By the standards of the time, it was a very plain wedding. Thirteen, looked clearly more mature than his bride, eleven.Margaret Stewart, Dauphine of France – Margaret of Scotland
16. Maria Anna Victoria of Bavaria – Maria Anna Victoria of Bavaria, Dauphine of France was Dauphine of France as spouse of Louis, Grand Dauphin, son and heir of Louis XIV. She was known as la Grande Dauphine. The dauphine was a ` pathetic' figure at the court of France, unappreciated due to the perception that she was dull, unattractive and sickly. Maria Anna was the eldest daughter of Ferdinand Maria, his wife Princess Henriette Adelaide of Savoy. Besides her native language of German, she was taught to speak French, Latin. She was said to have looked forward to the fate of becoming dauphine of France. Maria Anna was very close to her mother, who died in 1676. Her siblings included Violante of future wife of Ferdinando de' Medici as well as the future Elector of Bavaria, Maximilian II Emanuel. She was the first dauphine of France since Mary, Queen of Scots married Francis II of France in 1558. When she first arrived in France, Maria Anna made a good impression with her French. When she entered Strasbourg, she was interrupted the greeting by saying, "Gentlemen, I speak French!" She was called "terribly ugly". Others said, that although she may not have been beautiful, she did have personal charm. Soon as she married the dauphin, Maria Anna was the second most important woman at court after her mother-in-law, Queen Maria Theresa of Spain. When the queen died in July 1683, Maria Anna was given the apartments of the late queen.Maria Anna Victoria of Bavaria – Posthumous portrait of Maria Anna Victoria holding the coronet of a Dauphine, François de Troy
17. Maria Josepha of Saxony, Dauphine of France – Maria Josepha of Saxony was a Duchess of Saxony and the Dauphine of France. She became Dauphine at the age of fifteen to Louis de France, the son and heir of Louis XV. Marie Josèphe was the mother of three kings of France, including Louis XVI, who died during the French Revolution. Madame Élisabeth, also was beheaded during the Revolution. Maria Josepha was born on 4 November 1731 in Dresden Castle to Augustus III, Maria Josepha of Austria. Maria Josepha was the eighth of the fourth daughter. Maria Teresa Rafaela's half-brother, had offered the Dauphin another Spanish princess, Maria Antonietta. Instead, the King of his all-powerful mistress Madame de Pompadour wanted to open up diplomatic channels. The marriage between the Dauphin had first been suggested by her uncle Maurice de Saxe. His mistress were convinced that the marriage would be advantageous to French foreign affairs. There was one problem with the suggested bride: Maria Josepha's grandfather Augustus II of Poland had deposed Stanisław I Leszczyński from the Polish throne. Leszczyński was the father of Louis XV's wife and mother of the Dauphin. The marriage was said to have humiliated the simple-living Queen, even though Maria Josepha would later get on well. Other proposals came in the form of Eleanor or her sister Maria Luisa of Savoy. Both were refused.Maria Josepha of Saxony, Dauphine of France – Marie Josèphe by Nattier
18. Marie Antoinette – Marie Antoinette (/ˈmæriˌæntwəˈnɛt/, /ˌɑ̃ːntwə-/, /ˌɑ̃ːtwə-/, US /məˈriː-/; French:; born Maria Antonia Josepha Johanna, was the last Queen of France prior to the French Revolution. She was the second youngest child of Empress Maria Theresa and Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor. To Louis-Auguste, heir apparent to the French throne, she became Dauphine of France. After eight years of marriage, Marie Antoinette gave birth to a daughter, Marie-Thérèse Charlotte, the first of her four children. The Diamond Necklace affair damaged her reputation further. On 21 September 1792, the monarchy was abolished. Maria Antonia was born in Vienna. She was her husband Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor. Her godparents were Mariana Victoria, King and Queen of Portugal; Archduchess Maria Anna acted as proxies for their newborn sister. Shortly after her birth, she was placed under the care of the Governess of the Imperial children, Countess von Brandeis. Maria Antonia was raised with her three-year older sister Maria Carolina, with whom she had a lifelong close relationship. As to her relationship with her mother, her daughter loved each other. Despite the private tutoring she received, results of her schooling were less than satisfactory. At the age of ten she could not write correctly in any language commonly used at court, such as Italian. Conversations with her were stilted.Marie Antoinette – Marie Antoinette with the Rose Portrait by Louise Élisabeth Vigée Le Brun, 1783.
19. Marie of Anjou – Marie of Anjou was Queen of France as the spouse of King Charles VII from 1422 to 1461. She presided over the council of state several times during the absence of the king. Marie was the eldest daughter of Louis II of Anjou, titular King of Naples, Yolande of Aragon, titular Queen of Aragon. Marie was betrothed to fifth son of Charles VI of France and Isabeau of Bavaria, in 1413. The wedding took place at Bourges. As far as it is known, she was never crowned. She made several pilgrimages, such as Puy with the king in 1424, Mount St Michel in 1447. Robert Blondel composed the allegorical Treatise of the "Twelve Perils of Hell" for queen Marie in 1455. In 1461, Charles VII was succeeded by their son Louis XI, making Marie queen dowager. She was granted the Chateau of Amboise and the income by her son. During the winter of 1462-63, Marie of Anjou made a pilgrimage to St Jacques de Compostela. She died at the age of 59 November 1463 at the Cistercian Abbaye de Chateliers-en-Poitou on her return. She is buried alongside her spouse. Marie was the mother of fourteen children:Marie of Anjou – Marie of Anjou
20. Mary Tudor, Queen of France – Mary Tudor, the third daughter of Henry VII of England and Elizabeth of York, was an English princess. Mary became the third wife of Louis XII of her senior. Following his death, she married Charles Brandon, 1st Duke of Suffolk. The marriage, performed secretly in France, took place without her brother's consent. This necessitated the intervention of Thomas Wolsey and although the couple were eventually pardoned by Henry VIII, they were forced to pay a large fine. Mary was the fourth child of Henry VII of England and Elizabeth of York, the youngest to survive infancy. She was born at Sheen Palace, "most probably" in March 1496. A privy bill dated from midsummer 1496 authorizes a payment of fifty shillings to Anne Skeron. Also, Erasmus stated that she was four years old when he visited the Royal nursery in 1499-1500. At age six, she was given her own household, complete with "a staff of gentlewomen assigned to wait upon her," a schoolmaster, a physician. She was given instruction in French, Latin, embroidery. As children, Mary and her brother, the future King Henry VIII, shared a close friendship. He would name his first surviving child, the future Queen Mary I, in her honour. Known in Europe, Erasmus said of her that "Nature never formed anything more beautiful." During a visit from Philip I of Castile, Mary was clavicord.Mary Tudor, Queen of France – Portrait of Mary Tudor by an unknown artist in the French school
21. Mary, Queen of Scots – Mary, Queen of Scots, also known as Mary Stuart or Mary I of Scotland, reigned over Scotland from 14 December 1542 to 24 July 1567. The only surviving legitimate child of James V of Scotland, was six days old when she acceded to the throne. She spent most of her childhood in France while Scotland was ruled by regents, in 1558, she married the Dauphin of France, Francis. Mary briefly became consort of France, until his death in December 1560. Widowed, Mary returned to Scotland, arriving in Leith on 19 August 1561. Four years later, she married her first cousin, Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley, but their union was unhappy. In February 1567, his residence was destroyed by an explosion, Darnley was found murdered in the garden. Following an uprising against the couple, Mary was imprisoned in Loch Leven Castle. On 24 she was forced to abdicate by Darnley. After an unsuccessful attempt to regain the throne, she fled southwards seeking the protection of her first cousin once removed, Queen Elizabeth I of England. Perceiving her as a threat, Elizabeth had her confined in various castles and manor houses in the interior of England. After a half years in custody, Mary was subsequently beheaded. Mary was born to King James V and his French second wife, Mary of Guise. She was said to have been born prematurely and was the only legitimate child of James to survive him. She was the great-niece of King Henry VIII of England, as her paternal grandmother, Margaret Tudor, was Henry VIII's sister.Mary, Queen of Scots – Portrait of Mary after François Clouet, c. 1559