Category:Dauphines of Viennois
Pages in category "Dauphines of Viennois"
The following 26 pages are in this category, out of 26 total, this list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 26 pages are in this category, out of 26 total, this list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Anne of Brittany – Anne of Brittany was Duchess of Brittany from 1488 until her death, and queen consort of France from 1491 to 1498 and from 1499 to her death. She is the woman to have been queen consort of France twice. During the Italian Wars, Anne also became queen consort of Naples, from 1501 to 1504, Anne was raised in Nantes during a series of conflicts in which the king of France sought to assert his suzerainty over Brittany. Her father, Francis II, Duke of Brittany, was the last male of the House of Montfort, upon his death in 1488, Anne became duchess regnant of Brittany, countess of Nantes, Montfort, and Richmond, and viscountess of Limoges. She was only 12 at that time, but she was already a coveted heiress because of Brittanys strategic position. The next year, she married Maximilian I of Austria by proxy and he started a military campaign which eventually forced the duchess to renounce her marriage. Anne eventually married Charles VIII in 1491, none of their children survived early childhood, and when the king died in 1498, the throne went to his cousin, Louis XII. Following an agreement made to secure the annexation of Brittany, Anne had to marry the new king, Louis XII was deeply in love with his wife and Anne had many opportunities to reassert the independence of her duchy. They had two daughters together and, although neither could succeed to the French throne due to the Salic Law, the eldest was proclaimed the heiress of Brittany. Anne managed to have her eldest daughter engaged to the future Charles V of Austria, grandchild of Maximilian I and this marriage later led to the formal union between France and Brittany. Anne is highly regarded in Brittany as a ruler who defended the duchy against France. In the Romantic period, she became a figure of Breton patriotism and she was honoured with many memorials and her artistic legacy is important in the Loire Valley, where she spent most of her life. She was notably responsible, with her husbands, for projects in the châteaux of Blois. Four years later, her parents had a daughter, Isabelle. Her mother died when she was little, while her father died when Anne was eleven years old and it is likely that she learned to read and write in French, and perhaps a little Latin. Contrary to what is claimed, it was unlikely that she learned Greek or Hebrew. She was raised by a governess, Françoise de Dinan, Lady of Chateaubriant, in addition, she had several tutors, including her butler and court poet, Jean Meschinot, who is thought to have taught her dancing, singing and music. The Treaty of Guérande in 1365, however, stated that in the absence of an heir from the House of MontfortAnne of Brittany – Anne
2. Representations of Anne of Brittany – Anne of Brittany was the object of representations very early on. The royal propaganda of Charles VIII and, later on, of Louis XII idealized her as a symbol of the perfect queen, maximilians Austria having been evicted from the marriage, had a different perspective on the events. At the time, physical beauty was not as praised and was to be only the reflection of moral beauty, the portraits and sculptures present a woman with a regular and pleasant face, meeting the universal canons and 15th and 16th century Europe. Anne of Brittany was, however, generally represented as a blonde, the contemporary descriptions feature clothing appropriate to her rank, brocade dresses enhanced with fur, necklaces, jewellery, and hennin. She is of dark complexion and is fairly pretty and her wit is remarkable for her age and once she has set her mind on doing something, she makes sure she succeeds, by all means necessary and at any price. The image that Anne spreads of herself, through commissions, is one of a queen personifying the union between France and Brittany, until the incorporation of Brittany into France was assured, she is called Reine de Sure Alliance. She is devoted, like all queens of France, to her kingdom and she appears as a symbol of peace and union between France and Brittany, mostly after her marriage to Louis XII, which is why she is nicknamed Dame Union after her third wedding. In the arts, France was then represented as an enchanted garden and these public displays of attachment reinforce the alliance between the Breton people and the French. At the Battle of St. Mathieu a united Franco-Breton fleet fought the English marine, with the warship Marie de la Cordelière, flying the Breton pavilion, each edition includes additions, the third is commissioned in 1512 to Jean Lemaire de Belges, but is never edited. He concludes that the story of Anne of Brittany has been enriched by hagiographical or depreciatory elements, not recounted in the contemporary to the duchess. The following paragraphs synthesize most of the found in his book. Georges Minois Anne de Bretagne draws, on the contrary, a non lenient portrait of Anne by a reading of the sources. The government of Brittany by Louis XII is not related by Bouchard, who states, on the contrary, that Anne of Brittany governed the duchy by herself, and these additions where deleted in 1531 and reintroduced in 1532 and 1541. This story is there to defend the privileges of the Breton nobility and, as an incitation, in 1577, the States of Brittany opposed the levying of new taxes. This position is based upon Annes second wedding contract and use as a justification the Annales de Bretagne to Bertrand dArgenté, Breton law scholar and grand-nephew of Le Beaud. These Annales, edited in Rennes in 1582 and Paris in 1588,1605,1611,1618 and 1668, create an outcry, are partially censored, henri III commissions a refutation to Nicolas Vignier. This image is used and amplified afterwards, françois de Mézeray, royal historian, adds, in 1646, that she leads the campaign by herself, refuses to see others govern in her place and rejects an imposed wedding. He uses the thesis of her will to govern Brittany by herself and he does so in order to justify the capacity of a woman, Anne of Austria, then the regent of Louis XIV, to govern France, a little before the FrondeRepresentations of Anne of Brittany – Anne of Brittany receiving from Antoine Dufour a book praising famous women. Miniature attributed to Jean Perréal, circa 1508.
3. Joan of France, Duchess of Berry – Joan of France, was briefly Queen of France as wife of King Louis XII, in between the death of her brother, King Charles VIII, and the annulment of her marriage. After that, she retired to her domain, where she founded the monastic Order of the Sisters of the Annunciation of Mary. From this Order later sprang the religious congregation of the Apostolic Sisters of the Annunciation and she was canonized on 28 May 1950 and is known in the Roman Catholic Church as Saint Joan of Valois, O. Ann. M. Joan was born on 23 April 1464 in the castle of Pierre II de Brézé and she was the second daughter of King Louis XI of France and of his second wife Charlotte of Savoy, her surviving siblings were King Charles VIII of France and Anne of France. Shortly after her birth, the signed an agreement to marry her to his second cousin Louis, the Duke of Orléans, later King Louis XII of France. Jeanne was born sickly and deformed, in Women Saints – Lives of Faith and Courage, Kathleen Jones says that Jeanne had a hump on her back and walked with a limp, suggesting that she had curvature of the spine. Often away on duties, King Louis entrusted his daughters, Joan and Anne, to the Baron François de Linières and his wife. The couple, who were childless, lavished affection on Joan, taking charge of her education, they had her taught both poetry and mathematics, painting, embroidery and how to play the lute. The couple were also faithful Catholics and instilled in the members of their household a solid grounding in the faith, at a young age, her father asked her to name the confessor she wanted. She gave him the name she knew, that of Friar Jean de La Fontaine. The king approved her choice and appointed the friar to this post, despite the distance between them, he would travel regularly to hear the princesss confession. Joan began to develop a strong pleasure in prayer, and would pass long periods in the castle chapel, the baron supported her in this and had a path paved between the castle and the chapel built for easier walking in poor weather. Under the friars guidance she was admitted into the Third Order of St. Francis, in 1471 King Louis XI ordered the practice of praying the Hail Mary throughout the kingdom for peace. Joan had an attachment to this particular prayer. She would later write that it was in same year that she had received a prophecy from the Virgin Mary that some day she would found a religious community in honor of Our Lady. In 1473 King Louis had signed contracts for his daughters. On 8 September 1476, at the age of 12, Joan was married to the young Louis, Louis of Orléans was compelled to be married to his handicapped and supposedly sterile cousin Joan. By doing so, Louis XI hoped to extinguish the Orléans cadet branch of the House of Valois, Louis was displeased at the forced marriage, and his treatment of his new wife reflected thisJoan of France, Duchess of Berry – Saint Joan of Valois, O.Ann.M.
4. Catherine de' Medici – Catherine de Medici, daughter of Lorenzo II de Medici and of Madeleine de La Tour dAuvergne, was an Italian noblewoman who was Queen of France from 1547 until 1559, as the wife of King Henry II. As the mother of three sons who became kings of France during her lifetime, she had extensive, if at times varying, for a time, she ruled France as its regent. In 1533, at the age of fourteen, Caterina married Henry, second son of King Francis I, under the gallicised version of her name, Catherine de Médicis, she was Queen consort of France as the wife of King Henry II of France from 1547 to 1559. Throughout his reign, Henry excluded Catherine from participating in state affairs and instead showered favours on his mistress, Diane de Poitiers. Henrys death thrust Catherine into the arena as mother of the frail fifteen-year-old King Francis II. When he died in 1560, she became regent on behalf of her ten-year-old son King Charles IX and was granted sweeping powers, after Charles died in 1574, Catherine played a key role in the reign of her third son, Henry III. He dispensed with her only in the last months of her life. Catherines three sons reigned in an age of almost constant civil and religious war in France, the problems facing the monarchy were complex and daunting but Catherine was able to keep the monarchy and the state institutions functioning even at a minimum level. At first, Catherine compromised and made concessions to the rebelling Protestants, or Huguenots and she failed, however, to grasp the theological issues that drove their movement. Later she resorted, in frustration and anger, to hard-line policies against them, some historians have excused Catherine from blame for the worst decisions of the crown, though evidence for her ruthlessness can be found in her letters. In practice, her authority was limited by the effects of the civil wars. Without Catherine, it is unlikely that her sons would have remained in power, the years in which they reigned have been called the age of Catherine de Medici. According to Mark Strage, one of her biographers, Catherine was the most powerful woman in sixteenth-century Europe. Catherine was born on 13 April 1519 in Florence, Republic of Florence, the child of Lorenzo de Medici, Duke of Urbino, and his wife, Madeleine de la Tour dAuvergne. The young couple had married the year before at Amboise as part of the alliance between King Francis I of France and Lorenzos uncle Pope Leo X against the Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I. According to a chronicler, when Catherine was born, her parents were as pleased as if it had been a boy. King Francis wanted Catherine to be raised at the French court, Catherine was first cared for by her paternal grandmother, Alfonsina Orsini. After Alfonsinas death in 1520, Catherine joined her cousins and was raised by her aunt, the death of Pope Leo in 1521 interrupted Medici power briefly, until Cardinal Giulio de Medici was elected Pope Clement VII in 1523Catherine de' Medici – Painting attributed to François Clouet, c. 1555
5. Charlotte of Savoy – Charlotte of Savoy was queen of France as the second spouse of Louis XI. She served as regent during the absence in 1465, and was a member of the royal regency council during her sons minority in 1483. She was a daughter of Louis, Duke of Savoy and Anne of Cyprus and her maternal grandparents were Janus of Cyprus and Charlotte de Bourbon-La Marche. Her maternal grandmother, for whom she was named, was a daughter of John I, Count of La Marche. She was one of 19 children,14 of whom survived infancy, on 11 March 1443, when Charlotte was just over a year old, she was betrothed to Frederick of Saxony, eldest son of Frederick II, Elector of Saxony. For reasons unknown, the betrothal was annulled, less than eight years later on 14 February 1451, Charlotte married Louis, Dauphin of France, eldest son of Charles VII of France and Marie of Anjou. The bride was nine years old and the groom twenty-seven, the marriage, which had taken place without the consent of the French king, was Louis second, his first spouse, Margaret of Scotland, had died childless in 1445. Upon her marriage, Charlotte became Dauphine of France, on 22 July 1461, Charlotte became Queen of France. The following year, she became ill and was close to death by August 1462. Although she recovered, her health was weakened, Louis XI did not keep much of a representational court life. Charlotte was interested in literature and praised for the taste and excellence of her personal library and she left a collection of about one hundred manuscripts, which would become the genesis of the Bibliothèque nationale of France. Charlotte served as regent in September 1465, Charlotte was widowed in 1483, when Louis XI was succeeded by their son Charles VIII, who was still a minor. In practice, her daughter Anne took control over France as regent during the minority of Charles, Charlotte died on 1 December 1483 in Amboise, just a few months after her spouses death. She is buried with him in the Notre-Dame de Cléry Basilica in Cléry-Saint-André in the arrondissement of Orléans, Charlotte became the mother of eight children, but only three survived infancy. Joan, who was briefly Queen of France as the first spouse of Louis XII Francis Charles VIII, Francis Upon the death of her daughter, Anne, Charlottes line became extinct, her granddaughter, Suzanne having died in 1521 without surviving issueCharlotte of Savoy – Portrait of Charlotte of Savoy, a 19th-century engraving based on a sculpture c. 1472
6. Claude of France – Claude of France, was Sovereign Duchess of the Duchy of Brittany after her mother, Anne, and Queen of France by marriage to Francis I. Claude was born on 13 October 1499 in Romorantin-Lanthenay as the eldest daughter of Louis XII of France, because her mother had no surviving sons, Claude became heiress to the Duchy of Brittany. The crown of France, however, could only to and through male heirs. Eager to keep Brittany separated from the French crown, Queen Anne, with help of Cardinal Georges dAmboise, promoted a solution for this problem. A part of the contract promised the inheritance of Brittany to the prince, already the next in line to thrones of Castile and Aragon, Austria. Thus, all the causes of the rivalry between Charles V and Francis I were decided even before the succession of the two princes. Indeed, previously Louise of Savoy obtained from the king a secret promise that Claude could be married to her son, Anne of Brittany, furious to see the triumph of Marshal of Gié, exerted all her influence to obtain his conviction for treason before the Parliament of Paris. On 9 January 1514, when her died, Claude became Duchess of Brittany. With this union, it was secured that Brittany would remain united to the French crown, however, the union was short-lived and childless, Louis XII died less than three months later, on 1 January 1515, reputedly worn out by his exertions in the bedchamber. Francis and Claude became king and queen, the time in history that the Duchess of Brittany became Queen of France. As Queen, Claude was eclipsed at court by her mother-in-law, Louise of Savoy, and her sister-in-law and she never ruled over Brittany, in 1515 she gave the government of her domains to her husband in perpetuity. Gabriel Miron repeated his functions under Anne of Brittany and remained as Chancellor of Queen Claude and first doctor, after Francis became king in 1515, Anne Boleyn stayed as a member of Claudes household. Its assumed that Anne served as Claudes translator whenever there were English visitors, such as in 1520, Anne Boleyn returned to England in late 1521, where she eventually became Queen of England as the second wife of Henry VIII. Diane de Poitiers, another of Claudes ladies, was an inspiration of the School of Fontainebleau of the French Renaissance. Claude was crowned Queen of France at St. Denis Basilica on 10 May 1517 by Cardinal Philippe de Luxembourg and she spent almost all her marriage in an endless round of annual pregnancies. Her husband had mistresses, but was usually relatively discreet. Claude imposed a moral code on her own household, which only a few chose to flout. Both Duchies joined in all good deed to our beautiful kingdom, the pawn of so much dynastic maneuvering, Claude was short in stature and afflicted with scoliosis, which gave her a hunched back, while her husband was bigger and athleticClaude of France – Claude
7. Elisabeth of Austria, Queen of France – Elisabeth of Austria was Queen of France from 1570 to 1574 as the wife of King Charles IX. A member of the House of Habsburg, she was the daughter of Maximilian II, Holy Roman Emperor, Elisabeth was the fifth child and second daughter of her parents sixteen children, of whom eight survived infancy. During her childhood, she lived with her older sister Anna and younger brother Matthias in a pavilion in the gardens of the newly built Stallburg and they enjoyed a privileged and secluded childhood, and were raised in the Roman Catholic religion. Her father Maximilian visited her often and Elisabeth seems to have been his favorite child and she resembled him, not only in appearance but also in character, Elisabeth was just as intelligent and charming as her father. With her flawless skin, long blond hair and perfect physique. She was also regarded as demure, pious, and warmhearted but naive, Elisabeths brothers were educated by the Flemish writer and diplomat Ogier Ghiselin de Busbecq. The curious princess soon joined and even overshadowed them in their studies, very early, around 1559, a match between Elisabeth and the Duke of Orléans, the future King Charles IX of France was suggested. In 1562, the Maréchal de Vieilleville, a member of the French delegation sent to Vienna, after seeing the princess, exclaimed, Your Majesty. Only in 1569, after the failure of plans with Frederick II of Denmark and Sebastian of Portugal. Elisabeth was first married by proxy on 22 October 1570 in the cathedral of Speyer, her uncle, Archduke Ferdinand of Further Austria-Tyrol, after long celebrations, on 4 November she left Austria accompanied by high-ranking German dignitaries, including the Archbishop-Elector of Trier. Before reaching her destination, Elisabeth stayed in Sedan, where her husbands two younger brothers Henry, Duke of Anjou and François, Duke of Alençon, greeted her, Charles was reportedly delighted with the sight of her. King Charles IX of France and Archduchess Elisabeth of Austria were formally married on 26 November 1570 in Mézières, Charles, Cardinal de Bourbon, the occasion was celebrated with immense pomp and extravagance, despite the dire state of French finances. The new queens wedding gown was of cloth of silver sprinkled with pearls, because of the difficult journey and the cold weather, at the beginning of 1571 Elisabeth fell ill. Since the wedding took place far away from Paris, it was only in the spring that the German-French alliance was celebrated again with magnificent feasts in the capital. On 25 March 1571, Elisabeth was consecrated as Queen of France by the Archbishop of Reims at the Basilica of St Denis, the new queen officially entered Paris four days later, on 29 March. Then, she disappeared from public life, Elisabeth was so delighted about her husband that she, to general amusement, did not hesitate to kiss him in front of others. However, the couple had a warm and supportive relationship. Charles realised that the ways of the French Court might shock Elisabeth and, along with his motherElisabeth of Austria, Queen of France – Painting by François Clouet, ca. 1571.
8. Isabeau of Bavaria – Isabeau of Bavaria was born into the House of Wittelsbach as the eldest daughter of Duke Stephen III of Bavaria-Ingolstadt and Taddea Visconti of Milan. She became Queen of France when she married King Charles VI in 1385, at age 15 or 16, Isabeau was sent to France on approval to the young French king, the couple wed three days after their first meeting. Isabeau was honored in 1389 with a coronation ceremony and entry into Paris. In 1392 Charles suffered the first attack of what was to become a lifelong and progressive mental illness, the episodes occurred with increasing frequency, leaving a court both divided by political factions and steeped in social extravagances. A1393 masque for one of Isabeaus ladies-in-waiting—an event later known as Bal des Ardents—ended in disaster with the King almost burning to death, although the King demanded Isabeaus removal from his presence during his illness, he consistently allowed her to act on his behalf. In this way she became regent to the Dauphin of France, Charles illness created a power vacuum that eventually led to the Armagnac–Burgundian Civil War between supporters of his brother, Louis of Orléans and the royal dukes of Burgundy. Isabeau shifted allegiances as she chose the most favorable paths for the heir to the throne, when she followed the Armagnacs, the Burgundians accused her of adultery with Louis of Orléans, when she sided with the Burgundians the Armagnacs removed her from Paris and she was imprisoned. In 1407 John the Fearless assassinated Orléans, sparking hostilities between the factions, the war ended soon after Isabeaus eldest son, Charles, had John the Fearless assassinated in 1419—an act that saw him disinherited. Isabeau attended the 1420 signing of the Treaty of Troyes, which decided that the English king should inherit the French crown after the death of her husband and she lived in English-occupied Paris until her death in 1435. Isabeau was popularly seen as a spendthrift and irresponsible philanderess, Isabeaus parents were Duke Stephen III of Bavaria-Ingolstadt and Taddea Visconti, whom he married for a 100,000 ducat dowry. She was most likely born in Munich where she was baptized as Elisabeth at the Church of Our Lady and she was great-granddaughter to the Wittelsbach Holy Roman Emperor Louis IV. At that period Bavaria counted amongst the most powerful German states, Isabeaus uncle, Duke Frederick of Bavaria-Landshut, suggested in 1383 that she be considered as a bride to King Charles VI of France. Charles, then 17, rode in the tourneys at the wedding and he was an attractive, physically fit young man, who enjoyed jousting and hunting and was excited to be married. Charles VIs uncle, Philip the Bold, Duke of Burgundy, thought the proposed marriage ideal to build an alliance with the Holy Roman Empire and against the English. Isabeaus father agreed reluctantly and sent her to France with his brother, her uncle, on the pretext of taking a pilgrimage to Amiens. According to the contemporary chronicler Jean Froissart, Isabeau was 13 or 14 when the match was proposed and about 16 at the time of the marriage in 1385, suggesting a birth date of around 1370. Before her presentation to Charles, Isabeau visited Hainaut for about a month, staying with her granduncle Duke Albert I, ruler of some of Bavaria-Straubing and Count of Holland. Alberts wife, Margaret of Brieg, replaced Isabeaus Bavarian style of dress, deemed unsuitable as French courtly attire and she learned quickly, suggestive of an intelligent and quick-witted characterIsabeau of Bavaria – Queen Isabeau receiving Christine de Pisan 's Le Livre de la Cité des Dames, c 1410-14. Illumination on parchment, British Library
9. Jacqueline, Countess of Hainaut – Jacqueline, was a Duchess of Bavaria-Straubing, Countess of Holland and Zeeland and Countess of Hainaut from 1417 to 1433. She was also Dauphine of France for a time between 1415 and 1417 and Duchess of Gloucester in the 1420s, if her marriage to Humphrey. Born in The Hague, Jacqueline, from her birth, was referred to as of Holland, Jacqueline was the last Wittelsbach ruler of Hainaut and Holland. Following her death, her estates passed into the inheritance of Philip the Good and she was the only daughter of William II, Duke of Bavaria from his marriage with Margaret, a daughter of Philip the Bold, Duke of Burgundy and Margaret III, Countess of Flanders. At the age of only 22 months and again at the age of 4, Jacqueline was betrothed to John, Duke of Touraine, fourth son of King Charles VI of France, both children were brought up in the Castle of Le Quesnoy in Hainaut. The boy had been given into tutelage of his future father-in-law, since he was expected to succeed as ruler in Hainaut and not in any way in France itself. On 22 April 1411 the Pope gave his dispensation for the union and on 6 August 1415, when Jacqueline was fourteen, she and John married in The Hague. In March 1416, Count William raised the matter with Sigismund while the latter was the guest of the English king, Henry V in England, dauphin John died on 4 April 1417, leaving Jacqueline as a widow aged 16. Two months later on 31 May, she unexpectedly lost her father, Duke William II was bitten by a dog, which caused a blood infection that quickly killed him. The politically inexperienced Jacqueline now had to fight for her inheritance, in Hainaut, where female succession was long customary, Jacqueline was recognized as sovereign Countess on 13 June, but in Holland and Zeeland her rights were controversial from the beginning. Even before William IIs death, he had expected to become his successor, on the advice of her mother, Jacqueline initially gave her uncle the title of Guardian and Defender of the County of Hainaut in order to forestall his ambitions. Jacqueline also remarried, but her selection of husband was unfortunate, on 31 July 1417, two months after William IIs death, the betrothal between Jacqueline and John IV took place, and the wedding was celebrated in The Hague on 10 March 1418. However, the proved to be a failure. In addition to this, the financial problems of the young Duke John IV. John III, with the support of King Sigismund and the Cods, took the arms against Jacqueline, who was supported by the Hooks, this civil war was known as the Hook and Cod wars. The troops of uncle and niece met in the Battle of Gorkum in 1417, Jacqueline was victorious, but was forced to leave the major trading city of Dordrecht. Finally, John IV also pledged Hainaut to improve his situation, for Jacqueline. In the meanwhile, the situation had changed radicallyJacqueline, Countess of Hainaut – Jacqueline
10. Joanna of Bourbon – Joanna of Bourbon was Queen of France by marriage to King Charles V. She acted as his adviser and was appointed potential regent in case of a minor regency. Born in the Château de Vincennes, Joanna was a daughter of Peter I, Duke of Bourbon, and Isabella of Valois, from October 1340 through at least 1343, negotiations and treaties were made for her to marry Amadeus VI, Count of Savoy. The goal was to bring Savoy more closely into French influence, on 8 April 1350, she married her cousin, the future Charles V of France, at Tain-lHermitage. Born thirteen days apart, they both were 12 years old, when Charles ascended the throne in 1364, Joanna became queen of France. According to tradition, Joanna was rumored to have taken the poet Hippolyte de Saint-Alphon for a lover, who was the father of her child Jean. Queen Joanna was described as mentally fragile, and after the birth of her son Louis in 1372 and this deeply worried Charles V, who made a pilgrimage and offered many prayers for her recovery. When she did recover and regained her normal state of mind in 1373, Charles V appointed her guardian and regent of France should he die when his son. Joanna died at the royal residence Hôtel Saint-Pol in Paris, on 6 February 1378, froissart recorded that Joanna took a bath against her physicians advice. Soon after, she went into labour and died two days after giving birth and her heart was buried in the Cordeliers Convent and her entrails in the Couvent des Célestins. The Couvent des Célestins in Paris was the most important royal necropolis after the Basilica of St Denis, the rest of her remains were then placed at Saint-Denis. Joanna and Charles had nine children, two of them reached adulthood, Joanna, interred at Saint-Antoine-des-Champs Abbey. Bonne, interred beside her older sister, Joanna, interred at Saint Denis Basilica. John of Berry, Count of Montpensier, Princeton, New Jersey, Princeton University PressJoanna of Bourbon – Joanna of Bourbon
11. Louise of Lorraine – Louise of Lorraine was a member of the House of Lorraine who became Queen consort of France from 1575 until 1589. Born in Nomeny in the Duchy of Bar, she was the daughter of Nicholas, Duke of Mercœur and her mother died whilst she was a baby and she was brought up by her father and step-mother. Her childhood was unhappy, unloved by her father and stepmother, Catherine de Lorraine-Aumale and this upbringing would result in her being quiet and dutiful as an adult. She first caught the eye of her husband, Henry, Duke of Anjou. Recently elected King of Poland, he was paying a visit to her cousin, the Duke of Lorraine on his way to his new kingdom, and caught sight of Louise whilst he was there. Henry was attracted to Louise, who was not only attractive, and sweet-natured and he remembered Louise long after he left France. Louise herself was on a pilgrimage to Saint-Nicolas-de-Port at the time, the match was a general surprise, as Louise was not considered to have high enough status to be queen. The wedding took place on 15 February 1575, two days after Henrys coronation, the couple were finally married at the Cathedral of Reims by Charles, Cardinal de Bourbon that evening. Louise did, however, suffer because of the hostility between the family of her father and her spouse, although Louise worshipped her husband, the marriage failed to produce children. She is believed to have suffered a miscarriage in the Spring of 1576, if so, as a result, the heir presumptive being by the end of the reign the controversial Henry III of Navarre – the relationship between the couple became more unhappy because of this pressure. The Queen as a result became thin, suffered fits of depression, between 1579 and 1586, they made numerous such pilgrimages, especially to Chartres. In 1584, there were rumours that Henry would divorce her, Queen Louise was not neglected but often in the company of Henry, and participated in ceremonies, parties and receptions at his side. In 1589 Queen Louise inherited Château de Chenonceau and was staying there at the time her husband was assassinated on 2 August and she fell into a state of depression and spent the remainder of her days in mourning clothes amidst somber tapestries at the Chenonceau palace. The traditional mourning colour of French queens was white, and she was thereby called The White Queen, as a widow, she was given the title Duchess of Berry. Queen Dowager Louise wanted to restore the name of Henry, who had been excommunicated after the murder of Cardinal de Guise. The 6 September 1589, she asked Henry IV to clear her husbands name. Queen Louise died in Moulins, Allier in 1601 and was buried at the Convent of the Capuchins, in 1817 her remains were reinterred next to her husband in the Saint Denis BasilicaLouise of Lorraine – Louise in 1580
12. Margaret of Burgundy, Dauphine of France – Margaret of Burgundy, also known as Margaret of Nevers, was Dauphine of France and Duchess of Guyenne as the daughter-in-law of King Charles VI of France. A pawn in the struggles between her family and in-laws during the Hundred Years War, Margaret was twice envisaged to become Queen of France. Born in late 1393, Margaret was the eldest child and the first of six daughters of John the Fearless and her father was, at the time, Count of Nevers and heir apparent to the Duchy of Burgundy ruled by his father, Philip the Bold. On 9 July 1394, Duke Philip and his mentally unstable nephew, King Charles VI of France, agreed that the formers first grandchild would marry the son and heir apparent. Following their formal betrothal in January 1396, Margaret was known as madame la dauphine, the death of her eight-year-old fiancé in early 1401 forced Margarets grandfather and Charles mother, Isabeau of Bavaria, to arrange a new union in the wake of Armagnac–Burgundian Civil War. In Paris in May 1403, it was agreed that Margaret would marry the new Dauphin of France, Margaret married Dauphin Louis, while her only brother, Philip the Good, married Louis sister Michelle. Philip the Bold did not live enough to see his grandchildrens marriages consummated. He died in 1404, and was succeeded by Margarets father and it was not until June 1409 that the marriages were consummated, according to Jean Juvénal des Ursins, after which Margaret moved to the decadent court of her mother-in-law. Margaret soon became a pawn in the struggle between two belligerent fractions, the Armagnacs and the Burgundians, who aspired to control her husband and their childless marriage ended with Louis death in 1415. The young widow was rescued with difficulty from Armagnac-controlled Paris. She then returned to Burgundy, living there for a few years with her unmarried sisters alongside their mother, upon their fathers assassination in 1419, Philip the Good became Duke of Burgundy. Margarets father-in-law died in 1422, and the English occupied a part of France in the name of his infant grandson, King Henry VI of England, at the same time, Margarets brother-in-law Charles VII claimed the crown for himself. In early 1423, Philip the Good entered into an alliance with Duke John V of Brittany and Henrys regent, John of Lancaster, 1st Duke of Bedford. As the former Dauphine of France who still used the title of Duchess of Guyenne, Philip had to send his trusted servant, Renier Pot, as a special ambassador to Margaret. Pot explained to her the necessity of an alliance with Brittany, per Philips instructions, Pot told Margaret that, still being a fairly young widow, she ought to marry and have children soon, more so because Philip himself was now a childless widower. She eventually yielded, and the marriage was celebrated on 10 October 1423, Arthur soon became a very influential person at the royal court in Paris, and staunchly worked in the interests of Burgundy, especially during his marriage to Margaret. Burgundy and Brittany eventually changed sides, joining Charles VII in his fight against the English, Margaret proved to be a devoted wife, protecting her husband when he fell out with Charles VII and managing his estates while he was at the battlefield. She returned with him to Paris when the French regained control of the city in 1436, little is known about her life after 1436Margaret of Burgundy, Dauphine of France – Christine de Pizan presents her book to Margaret
13. Margaret of Valois – Margaret of Valois was a French princess of the Valois dynasty who became queen consort of Navarre and later also of France. Charles IX arranged for her to marry a distant cousin, King Henry III of Navarre, and she thus became Queen of Navarre in 1572. In 1589, after all her brothers had died leaving no sons, Margarets husband, the senior-most agnatic heir to France, succeeded to the French throne as Henry IV, the first Bourbon King of France. A queen of two kingdoms, Margaret was subjected to political manipulations, including being held prisoner by her own brother, Henry III of France. However, her life was anything but passive and she was famous for her beauty and sense of style, notorious for a licentious lifestyle, and also proved a competent memoirist. She was indeed one of the most fashionable women of her time, while imprisoned, she took advantage of the time to write her memoirs, which included a succession of stories relating to the disputes of her brothers Charles IX and Henry III with her husband. The memoirs were published posthumously in 1628, Margaret was born Marguerite de Valois on May 14,1553, at the royal Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye, the seventh child and third daughter of Henry II and Catherine de Medici. Three of her brothers would become kings of France, Francis II, Charles IX and her sister, Elisabeth of Valois, would become the third wife of King Philip II of Spain. In 1565, her mother Catherine met with Philip IIs chief minister Duke of Alba at Bayonne in hopes of arranging a marriage between Margaret and Philips son Don Carlos, however, Alba refused any consideration of a dynastic marriage. Margaret was secretly involved with Henry of Guise, the son of the late Duke of Guise, when Catherine found this out, she had her daughter brought from her bed. Catherine and the king then beat her and sent Henry of Guise from court. The marriage of the 19-year-old Margaret to Henry, who had become King of Navarre upon the death of his mother, Jeanne dAlbret, the groom, a Huguenot, had to remain outside the cathedral during the religious ceremony. It was hoped this union would reunite family ties and create harmony between Catholics and the Protestant Huguenots, traditionally believed to have been instigated by Catherine de Medici, the marriage was an occasion on which many of the most wealthy and prominent Huguenots had gathered in largely Catholic Paris. Margaret has been credited with saving the lives of several prominent Protestants, including her husband, during the massacre, by keeping them in her rooms, Henry of Navarre had to feign conversion to Catholicism. After more than three years of confinement at court, Henry escaped Paris in 1576, leaving his wife behind, finally granted permission to return to her husband in Navarre, for the next three and a half years Margaret and her husband lived in Pau. Both openly kept other lovers, and they quarrelled frequently, after an illness in 1582, Queen Margaret returned to the court of her brother, Henry III, in Paris. Her brother was soon scandalized by her reputation and behavior, and forced her to leave the court, after long negotiations, she was allowed to return to her husbands court in Navarre, but she received an icy reception. Determined to overcome her difficulties, Queen Margaret masterminded a coup détat and seized power over Agen and she spent several months of fortifying the city, but the citizens of Agen revolted against her, and Queen Margaret fled to the castle of CarlatMargaret of Valois – Detail of painting by Pieter Paul Rubens
14. Margaret Stewart, Dauphine of France – Margaret of Scotland was a Princess of Scotland and the Dauphine of France. She was the child of King James I of Scotland. She married the eldest son of the king of France, Louis, Dauphin of France and their marriage was unhappy, and she died childless at age 20, apparently of a fever. She was born in Perth, Scotland to James I of Scotland and Joan Beaufort, Margaret was the first of six daughters and twin sons born to her parents. Margaret was Charles VII of Frances diplomatic choice for daughter-in-law, the marriage was forced upon Charless thirteen-year-old son, Louis, which did not help their relationship. However, royal marriages in the 15th century were always political, there are no direct accounts from Louis or Margaret of their first impressions of each other, and it is mere speculation to say whether or not they actually had negative feelings for each other. Several historians think that Louis had an attitude to hate his wife. Margaret and Louis marriage shows both the nature of medieval royal diplomacy and the position of the French monarchy. The marriage took place 25 June 1436 in the afternoon in the chapel of the castle of Tours and was presided by the Archbishop of Reims, by the standards of the time, it was a very plain wedding. Louis, thirteen, looked more mature than his bride. Margaret looked like a beautiful “doll, ” perhaps because she was treated as such by her in-laws, Charles wore “grey riding pants” and “did not even bother to remove his spurs. ”The Scottish guests were quickly hustled out after the wedding reception. This was seen as something of a scandal by the Scots, King Charles’ attire and the speed with which the guests were hustled out was considered an insult to Scotland, which was an important ally in Frances war with the English. However, this spoke to the nature of the French court at this time. They simply could not afford an extravagant ceremony or to host their Scottish guests for any longer than they did, following the ceremony, “doctors advised against consummation” because of the relative immaturity of the bride and bridegroom. Margaret continued her studies and Louis went on tour with Charles to loyal areas of the kingdom, even at this time, Charles was taken aback by the intelligence and temper of his son. During this tour, Louis was named Dauphin by Charles, as is traditional for the eldest son of the king and she was also very interested in the French courts social and gallant life. She was a favourite of her father-in-law Charles VII of France, however, she felt herself alien amongst the French court and became depressed. She had a relationship with her husband, the future king of FranceMargaret Stewart, Dauphine of France – Margaret of Scotland
15. Maria Anna Victoria of Bavaria – Maria Anna Victoria of Bavaria, Dauphine of France was Dauphine of France as spouse of Louis, Grand Dauphin, son and heir of Louis XIV. She was known as the Dauphine Marie Anne Victoire or la Grande Dauphine, the dauphine was a pathetic figure at the court of France, isolated and unappreciated due to the perception that she was dull, unattractive and sickly. Maria Anna was the eldest daughter of Ferdinand Maria, Elector of Bavaria, born in Munich, capital of the Electorate of Bavaria, Maria Anna was betrothed to the dauphin of France in 1668, at the age of eight, and was carefully educated to fulfill that role. Besides her native language of German, she was taught to speak French, Italian and she was said to have looked forward to the fate of becoming dauphine of France. Maria Anna was very close to her mother, who died in 1676 and her siblings included Violante of Bavaria, future wife of Ferdinando de Medici as well as the future Elector of Bavaria, Maximilian II Emanuel. Prior to her marriage to the dauphin, there was a ceremony in Munich on 28 January 1680. She was the first dauphine of France since Mary, Queen of Scots married Francis II of France in 1558. Upon her marriage, Maria Anna took on the rank of her husband as a Fille de France, this meant that she was entitled to the style Royal Highness, when she first arrived in France, Maria Anna made a good impression with her good French. When she entered Strasbourg, she was addressed in German, but interrupted the greeting by saying, Gentlemen, the impression of her appearance, however, was not as good, and she was called terribly ugly. Others said, that although she may not have been beautiful, as soon as she married the dauphin, Maria Anna was the second most important woman at court after her mother-in-law, Queen Maria Theresa of Spain. When the queen died in July 1683, Maria Anna ranked as the most prominent female at court and was given the apartments of the late queen. The king expected her to perform the functions of the first lady at court, the king was completely unsympathetic to her situation and accused her falsely of hypochondria. Her husband took mistresses, and she lived a life in her apartments, where she spoke with her friends in German. She was very close to a fellow German at court, Elizabeth Charlotte of the Palatinate and she was said to be depressed having to live at a court where beauty was so much prized, not being beautiful herself. An autopsy revealed a multitude of disorders that completely vindicated her complaints of chronic. Maria Anna was buried at the Royal Basilica of Saint Denis and she is an ancestor of Prince Henri the Count of Paris, Orléanist pretender to the French throne. Also Juan Carlos I of Spain, Albert II, King of the Belgians, Henri, Grand Duke of Luxembourg and of Vittorio Emanuele, Prince of Naples, a pretender to the Italian throneMaria Anna Victoria of Bavaria – Posthumous portrait of Maria Anna Victoria holding the coronet of a Dauphine, François de Troy
16. Maria Josepha of Saxony, Dauphine of France – Maria Josepha of Saxony was a Duchess of Saxony and the Dauphine of France. She became Dauphine at the age of fifteen through her marriage to Louis de France, Marie Josèphe was the mother of three kings of France, including Louis XVI, who died under the guillotine during the French Revolution. Her youngest daughter, Madame Élisabeth, also was beheaded during the Revolution, Maria Josepha was born on 4 November 1731 in Dresden Castle to Augustus III, Prince-Elector of Saxony and King of Poland, and Maria Josepha of Austria. Maria Josepha was the eighth of fifteen children and the fourth daughter. Dauphin Louis, eldest son of King Louis XV of France, was widowed on 22 July 1746 when his wife, Maria Teresa Rafaela, died giving birth to their only child, a daughter named after herself. King Ferdinand VI of Spain, Maria Teresa Rafaelas half-brother, had offered the Dauphin another Spanish princess, instead, the King of France and his all-powerful mistress Madame de Pompadour wanted to open up diplomatic channels. The marriage between Maria Josepha and the Dauphin had first been suggested by her uncle Maurice de Saxe, Louis XV and his mistress were convinced that the marriage would be advantageous to French foreign affairs. There was one problem with the bride, Maria Josephas grandfather Augustus II of Poland had deposed Stanisław I Leszczyński from the Polish throne. Leszczyński was the father of Maria Leszczyńska, Louis XVs wife, the marriage was said to have humiliated the simple-living Queen, even though she and Maria Josepha would later get on well. Other proposals came from Savoy in the form of Eleanor or her sister Maria Luisa of Savoy, despite the disapproval of the Queen, Maria Josepha married the Dauphin on 9 February 1747. Prior to the marriage, tradition demanded that the wear a bracelet which had a picture of her father on it. The witty Maria Josepha then revealing the bracelet to the Queen showed a portrait of the Queens father, the Dauphine said that the portrait represented the fact that the Duke of Lorraine was Maria Josephas grandfather by marriage. The Queen and the court were impressed by the tact of this girl of 15 years. The Dauphine was also close to her father-in-law Louis XV. At the time of the marriage, the Dauphin was still grieving for his Spanish wife and this grief was very public on the part of the Dauphin but Maria Josepha was praised greatly for her conquering the heart of the Dauphin bit by bit. Despite Maria Josepha being the patient wife, the Dauphins grief worsened in April 1748 when his child with the Infanta died at the age of two. The Dauphin was deeply affected by the childs death, Maria Josepha later commissioned a painting of her stepdaughter to be left over her cradle. The new Dauphine was very grateful to Madame de Pompadour for helping arrange her marriage, like her husband, Maria Josepha was very devoutMaria Josepha of Saxony, Dauphine of France – Marie Josèphe by Nattier
17. Marie Antoinette – Marie Antoinette (/ˈmæriˌæntwəˈnɛt/, /ˌɑ̃ːntwə-/, /ˌɑ̃ːtwə-/, US /məˈriː-/, French, born Maria Antonia Josepha Johanna, was the last Queen of France and Navarre before the French Revolution. She was born an Archduchess of Austria, and was the fifteenth and second youngest child of Empress Maria Theresa and Francis I, in April 1770, upon her marriage to Louis-Auguste, heir apparent to the French throne, she became Dauphine of France. After eight years of marriage, Marie Antoinette gave birth to a daughter, Marie-Thérèse Charlotte, the Diamond Necklace affair damaged her reputation further. On 10 August 1792, the attack on the Tuileries forced the family to take refuge at the Assembly. On 21 September 1792, the monarchy was abolished, after a two-day trial begun on 14 October 1793, Marie Antoinette was convicted by the Revolutionary Tribunal of high treason, and executed by guillotine on Place de la Révolution on 16 October 1793. Maria Antonia was born on 2 November 1755, at the Hofburg Palace and she was the youngest daughter of Empress Maria Theresa, ruler of the Habsburg Empire, and her husband Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor. Her godparents were Joseph I and Mariana Victoria, King and Queen of Portugal, Archduke Joseph, shortly after her birth, she was placed under the care of the Governess of the Imperial children, Countess von Brandeis. Maria Antonia was raised with her older sister Maria Carolina. As to her relationship with her mother, it was difficult, despite the private tutoring she received, results of her schooling were less than satisfactory. At the age of ten she could not write correctly in German or in any language used at court, such as French. Under the teaching of Christoph Willibald Gluck, Maria Antonia developed into a good musician and she learned to play the harp, the harpsichord and the flute. During the familys gatherings in the evenings, she would sing and she also excelled at dancing, had an exquisite poise, and loved dolls. Following the Seven Years War and the Diplomatic Revolution of 1756, Empress Maria Theresa decided to end hostilities with her longtime enemy, on 14 May she met her husband at the edge of the forest of Compiègne. Upon her arrival in France, she adopted the French version of her name, a further ceremonial wedding took place on 16 May 1770 in the Palace of Versailles and, after the festivities, the day ended with the ritual bedding. The lack of consummation of the marriage plagued the reputation of both Louis-Auguste and Marie Antoinette for the seven years. The initial reaction to the marriage between Marie Antoinette and Louis-Auguste was mixed, on the one hand, the Dauphine was beautiful, personable and well-liked by the common people. Her first official appearance in Paris on 8 June 1773 was a resounding success, on the other hand, those opposed to the alliance with Austria, and others, for personal reasons, had a difficult relationship with Marie Antoinette. Madame du Barry, for example, was Louis XVs mistress and had political influence over himMarie Antoinette – Marie Antoinette with the Rose Portrait by Louise Élisabeth Vigée Le Brun, 1783.
18. Marie of Anjou – Marie of Anjou was Queen of France as the spouse of King Charles VII from 1422 to 1461. She served as regent and presided over the council of several times during the absence of the king. Marie was the eldest daughter of Louis II of Anjou, titular King of Naples, titular King of Sicily, Marie was betrothed to her second cousin Charles, fifth son of Charles VI of France and Isabeau of Bavaria, in 1413. The wedding took place in April 1422 at Bourges, the wedding made her Queen of France, but as far as it is known, she was never crowned. Her spouses victory in the Hundred Years War owed a great deal to the support he received from Maries family, notably from her mother Yolande of Aragon. Queen Marie presided over the Council of state several times in the absence of the king, during which she had power of attorney as regent and she made several pilgrimages, such as Puy with the king in 1424, and Mount St Michel by herself in 1447. Robert Blondel composed the allegorical Treatise of the Twelve Perils of Hell for queen Marie in 1455, in 1461, Charles VII died and was succeeded by their son Louis XI, making Marie queen dowager. She was granted the Chateau of Amboise and the income from Brabant by her son, during the winter of 1462-63, Marie of Anjou made a pilgrimage to St Jacques de Compostela. She died at the age of 59 on 29 November 1463 at the Cistercian Abbaye de Chateliers-en-Poitou on her return and she is buried in the basilica of Saint-Denis alongside her spouse. Marie was the mother of fourteen childrenMarie of Anjou – Marie of Anjou
19. Mary Tudor, Queen of France – Mary Tudor, the third daughter of Henry VII of England and Elizabeth of York, was an English princess. Mary became the wife of Louis XII of France, more than 30 years her senior. Following his death, she married Charles Brandon, 1st Duke of Suffolk, the marriage, which was performed secretly in France, took place during her brothers reign and without his consent. This necessitated the intervention of Thomas Wolsey and although the couple were eventually pardoned by Henry VIII, Mary was the fourth child of Henry VII of England and Elizabeth of York, and the youngest to survive infancy. She was born at Sheen Palace, most probably in March 1496, a privy seal bill dated from midsummer 1496 authorizes a payment of fifty shillings to her nurse, Anne Skeron. Also, Erasmus stated that she was four years old when he visited the Royal nursery in 1499–1500, at age six, she was given her own household, complete with a staff of gentlewomen assigned to wait upon her, a schoolmaster, and a physician. She was given instruction in French, Latin, music, dancing, as children, Mary and her brother, the future King Henry VIII, shared a close friendship. He would name his first surviving child, the future Queen Mary I and they lost their mother when Mary was just seven, and given the number of bills paid to her apothecary between 1504 and 1509, it would appear that Marys own health was fragile. Known in her youth as one of the most beautiful princesses in Europe, in 1506, during a visit from Philip I of Castile, Mary was called upon to entertain the guests, dancing, and playing the lute and clavicord. The following year, King Philip died, and on 21 December 1507, Mary was betrothed to his son Charles, the betrothal was called off in 1513. Instead, Cardinal Wolsey negotiated a treaty with France, and on 9 October 1514, at the age of 18. One of the Maids of Honour who attended her in France was Anne Boleyn, following Louis death, the new King Francis I made attempts to arrange a second marriage for the beautiful widow. Mary had been unhappy with her marriage of state to Louis, as at this time she was almost certainly already in love with Charles Brandon, 1st Duke of Suffolk. Henry was aware of his sisters feelings, letters from 1515 indicate that Mary agreed to wed Louis only on condition that if she survived him, however, Henry wanted any future marriage to be to his advantage. The Kings council, not wishing to see Brandon gain further power at Court, were opposed to the match. Meanwhile, rumours swirled in France that she would wed either the Duke of Lorraine or the Duke of Savoy, a pair of French friars actually went so far as to warn Mary that she must not wed Brandon, because he had traffickings with the devil. When Henry sent Brandon to bring Mary back to England in late January 1515, once in France, Mary persuaded Brandon to abandon this pledge. The couple wed in secret at the Hotel de Clugny on 3 March 1515, in the presence of just ten people, technically this was treason, as Brandon had married a Royal Princess without Henrys consentMary Tudor, Queen of France – Portrait of Mary Tudor by an unknown artist in the French school
20. Mary, Queen of Scots – Mary, Queen of Scots, also known as Mary Stuart or Mary I of Scotland, reigned over Scotland from 14 December 1542 to 24 July 1567. Mary, the surviving legitimate child of James V of Scotland, was six days old when her father died. She spent most of her childhood in France while Scotland was ruled by regents and he ascended the French throne as King Francis II in 1559, and Mary briefly became queen consort of France, until his death in December 1560. Widowed, Mary returned to Scotland, arriving in Leith on 19 August 1561, four years later, she married her first cousin, Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley, but their union was unhappy. In February 1567, his residence was destroyed by an explosion, James Hepburn, 4th Earl of Bothwell, was generally believed to have orchestrated Darnleys death, but he was acquitted of the charge in April 1567, and the following month he married Mary. Following an uprising against the couple, Mary was imprisoned in Loch Leven Castle, on 24 July 1567, she was forced to abdicate in favour of James VI, her one-year-old son by Darnley. After an unsuccessful attempt to regain the throne, she fled southwards seeking the protection of her first cousin once removed, perceiving her as a threat, Elizabeth had her confined in various castles and manor houses in the interior of England. After eighteen and a half years in custody, Mary was found guilty of plotting to assassinate Elizabeth in 1586 and was beheaded the following year. Mary was born on 7 or 8 December 1542 at Linlithgow Palace, Scotland, to King James V and his French second wife and she was said to have been born prematurely and was the only legitimate child of James to survive him. She was the great-niece of King Henry VIII of England, as her paternal grandmother, Margaret Tudor, was Henry VIIIs sister. A popular legend, first recorded by John Knox, states that James, hearing on his deathbed that his wife had given birth to a daughter, ruefully exclaimed, It cam wi a lass and it will gang wi a lass. His House of Stewart had gained the throne of Scotland by the marriage of Marjorie Bruce, daughter of Robert the Bruce, to Walter Stewart, the crown had come to his family through a woman, and would be lost from his family through a woman. This legendary statement came true much later—not through Mary, but through her descendant Queen Anne, Mary was baptised at the nearby Church of St Michael shortly after she was born. As Mary was an infant when she inherited the throne, Scotland was ruled by regents until she became an adult. From the outset, there were two claims to the Regency, one from Catholic Cardinal Beaton, and the other from the Protestant Earl of Arran, Beatons claim was based on a version of the late kings will that his opponents dismissed as a forgery. Arran, with the support of his friends and relations, became the regent until 1554 when Marys mother managed to remove and succeed him. King Henry VIII of England took the opportunity of the regency to propose marriage between Mary and his own son, Prince Edward, hoping for a union of Scotland and England. The treaty provided that the two countries would remain separate and that if the couple should fail to have children the temporary union would dissolveMary, Queen of Scots – Portrait of Mary after François Clouet, c. 1559