Category:Deaths by stabbing in France
Pages in category "Deaths by stabbing in France"
The following 15 pages are in this category, out of 15 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 15 pages are in this category, out of 15 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Shapour Bakhtiar – Shapour Bakhtiar was an Iranian politician who served as the last Prime Minister of Iran under Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi. He and his secretary were murdered in his home in Suresnes, Bakhtiar was born on 26 June 1914 in southwestern Iran into a family of Iranian tribal nobility, the family of the paramount chieftains of the then powerful Bakthiari tribe. His father was Mohammad Reza Khan, his mother Naz-Baygom, both Lori and Bakhtiaris, Bakhtiars maternal grandfather, Najaf-Gholi Khan Samsam ol-Saltaneh, had been appointed prime minister twice, in 1912 and 1918. Bakhtiars mother died when he was seven years old and his father was executed by Reza Shah in 1934 while Shapour was studying in Paris. He attended elementary school in Shahr-e Kord and then school, first in Isfahan and later in Beirut. He attended Beirut University for two years and he and his cousin, Teymour Bakhtiar, then went to Paris for additional university education. There, he attended the College of Political Science, being a firm opponent of totalitarian rule, he was active in the Spanish Civil War for the Second Spanish Republic against General Francisco Francos fascism. In 1940, he volunteered for the French army –rather than the French Foreign Legion–, according to MEED, Bakhtiar did 18 months military service. While living in Saint-Nicolas-du-Pélem, he fought with the French Resistance against the German occupation, in 1945, he received his PhD in political science as well as degrees in law and philosophy from the Sorbonne. Bakhtiar returned to Iran in 1946 and joined the social democratic Iran Party in 1949, in 1951 he was appointed director of the labor department in the Province of Isfahan by the ministry of labor. He later held the position in Khuzestan, center of the oil industry. In 1951 Mohammad Mosaddeq had come to power in Iran, under his premiership Bakhtiar was appointed deputy minister of labor in 1953. After the Shah was reinstated by a British-American sponsored coup détat, in the mid-1950s he was involved in underground activity against the Shahs regime, calling for the 1954 Majlis elections to be free and fair and attempting to revive the nationalist movement. In 1960, the Second National Front was formed and Bakhtiar played a role in the new organizations activities as the head of the student activist body of the Front. The Shah refused to co-operate and outlawed the Front and imprisoned the most prominent liberals, from 1964 to 1977, the imperial regime refused to permit any form of opposition activity, even from moderate liberals like Bakhtiar. In the following years Bakhtiar was imprisoned repeatedly, a total of six years, at the end of 1978, Bakhtiar was chosen to help in the creation of a civilian government to replace the existing military one. He was appointed to the position of Prime Minister by the Shah, as a concession to his opponents, Bakhtiar was accused by some of making mistakes during his premiership such as allowing Khomeini to re-enter Iran. In the end, he failed to even his own former colleagues of the National FrontShapour Bakhtiar – Shapour Bakhtiar
2. Charles Ferdinand, Duke of Berry – Charles Ferdinand dArtois, Duke of Berry was the third child and youngest son of the future King of France, Charles X, and his wife, Princess Maria Theresa of Savoy. He was assassinated at the Paris Opera in 1820 by Louis Pierre Louvel, Charles Ferdinand dArtois, Duke of Berry, was born at Versailles. As a son of a fils de France not being apparent, he was himself only a petit-fils de France. However, during the Restoration, as his father was heir presumptive to the crown and his maternal grandparents were Victor Amadeus III of Sardinia and Maria Antonietta of Spain. She was the youngest daughter of Philip V of Spain and Elisabeth Farnese, since he was already dead when his father became king, he and his surviving daughter always had Artois as surname. At the French Revolution he left France with his father, then Count of Artois, as a member of the Condes emigre army, he fought in the Rhine Campaign of 1796, and achieved particular distinction at the Battle of Emmendingen and the Battle of Schliengen. He afterwards joined the Russian army, and in 1801 took up his residence in England, during that time he had a relationship with an Englishwoman, Amy Brown Freeman, whom the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica described as his wife, but that is highly unlikely. In 1814, the set out for France. His frank, open manners gained him favour with his countrymen. He was, however, unable to retain the loyalty of his troops, on 17 June 1816, following negotiations by the French ambassador, the Duke of Blacas, he married Princess Maria-Carolina of Naples, oldest daughter of then hereditary Prince Francis of Naples. Three children were born before the death, with one surviving infancy. His daughter, Louise dArtois, born in 1819, married Charles III of Parma, on 13 February 1820, the Duke of Berry was stabbed and mortally wounded when leaving the opera house in Paris with his wife, and died the next day. The assassin was a maker named Louis Pierre Louvel, a Bonapartist opposed to the monarchy. With his wife, the Duke of Berry had four children, HRH Louise Marie Thérèse dArtois, married Charles III, Duke of Parma. HRH Henri dArtois, Duke of Bordeaux and Count of Chambord, in addition to them, the Duke had several illegitimate offspring, With Mary Bullhorn, a Scottish actress, Marie de la Boulaye, married Henri-Louis Bérard. With Amy Brown Freeman, Charlotte Marie Augustine de Bourbon, comtesse dIssoudun, married in 1823 to Ferdinand de Faucigny-Lucinge, Louise Marie Charlotte de Bourbon, comtesse de Vierzon, married in 1827 to Charles de Charette, Baron de la Contrie. With Eugénie Virginie Oreille, Charles Louis Auguste Oreille de Carrière, married in 1846 to Elisabeth Jugan, with whom he had a son Charles, a lyric artist, married but without surviving issue. Ferdinand Oreille de Carrière, married in 1860 to Louise Eugénie Ancelle, with whom he had a daughter, Léonie, with Marie Sophie de La Roche, Ferdinand de La Roche, married in 1849 to Claudine Gabrielle Claire de Bachet de MéziriacCharles Ferdinand, Duke of Berry – Charles Ferdinand d'Artois, miniature of Jean-Baptiste Jacques Augustin
3. Gaspard II de Coligny – Coligny came of a noble family of Burgundy. His family traced their descent from the 11th century, and in the reign of Louis XI, were in the service of the King of France. His father, Gaspard I de Coligny, known as the Marshal of Châtillon, served in the Italian Wars from 1494 to 1516, married in 1514, and was created Marshal of France in 1516. By his wife, Louise de Montmorency, sister of the constable, he had three sons, all of whom played an important part in the first period of the Wars of Religion, Odet, Gaspard. Born at Châtillon-sur-Loing in 1519, Gaspard came to court at the age of 22, in the campaign of 1543 Coligny distinguished himself, and was wounded at the sieges of Montmédy and Bains. In 1544 he served in the Italian campaigns under the Count of Enghien, King Charles VIII, King Louis XII, King Francis I and was knighted on the Field of Ceresole. Returning to France, he took part in different military operations and that year he married Charlotte de Laval. He was made admiral on the death of Claude dAnnebaut, in 1557 he was entrusted with the defence of Saint-Quentin. In the siege he displayed courage, resolution, and strength of character, but the place was taken. On payment of a ransom of 50,000 crowns he recovered his liberty, the Coligny brothers were the most zealous and consistent aristocratic supporters of Protestantism in sixteenth-century France. By this time he had become a Huguenot, through the influence of his brother, the first known letter which John Calvin addressed to him is dated 4 September 1558. Gaspard de Coligny secretly focused on protecting his co-religionists, by attempting to establish colonies abroad in which Huguenots could find a refuge and they were afterwards expelled by the Portuguese, in 1567. Coligny also was the patron for the failed French colony of Fort Caroline in Spanish Florida led by Jean Ribault in 1562. In 1566 and 1570, Francisque and André dAlbaigne submitted to Coligny projects for establishing relations with the Austral lands, although he gave favourable consideration to these initiatives, they came to naught when Coligny was killed in 1572 during the St. Bartholomews Day massacres. Following the death of Henry II he placed himself with Louis, Prince of Condé, at the forefront of the Huguenot party, in 1560, at the Assembly of Notables at Fontainebleau, the hostility between Coligny and François of Guise broke forth violently. When the civil wars began in 1562, Coligny decided to take arms only after long hesitation and he was blamed by the Guise faction for the assassination of Francis, Duke of Guise at Orléans in 1563. In the third war of 1569 the defeat and death of the Prince of Condé at the Battle of Jarnac left Coligny the sole leader of the Protestant armies. Victorious at the Battle of La Roche-lAbeille, but defeated in the Battle of Moncontour on 3 October, he entered into the negotiations for what became the Peace of Saint-GermainGaspard II de Coligny – Gaspard II de Coligny
4. Henry III of France – Henry III was a monarch of the House of Valois who was elected the monarch of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth from 1573 to 1575 and ruled as King of France from 1574 until his death. He was the last French monarch of the Valois dynasty, as the fourth son of King Henry II of France and Catherine de Medici, Henry was not expected to assume the throne of France. He was thus a candidate for the vacant Commonwealth throne. Henrys rule over Commonwealth was brief, but notable, the Henrician Articles he signed into law accepting the Commonwealth throne established Poland as an elective monarchy subject to free election by the Polish nobility. Of his three brothers, two would live long enough to ascend the French throne, but both died young and without a legitimate male heir. He abandoned Commonwealth upon receiving word that he had inherited the throne of France at the age of 22, Henry III was himself a politique, arguing that a strong and religiously tolerant monarchy would save France from collapse. Henry IIIs legitimate heir was his distant cousin Henry, King of Navarre, the Catholic League, led by Henry I, Duke of Guise, sought to exclude Protestants from the succession and championed the Catholic Charles, Cardinal of Bourbon, as Henry IIIs heir. Henry was born at the royal Château de Fontainebleau, the son of King Henry II and Catherine de Medici and grandson of Francis I of France. His older brothers were Francis II of France, Charles IX of France and he was made Duke of Angoulême and Duke of Orléans in 1560, then Duke of Anjou in 1566. He was his mothers favourite, she called him chers yeux and lavished fondness and his elder brother, Charles, grew to detest him, partially because he resented his better health. In his youth, Henry was considered the best of the sons of Catherine de Medici, unlike his father and elder brothers, he had little interest in the traditional Valois pastimes of hunting and physical exercise. Although he was fond of fencing and skilled in it, he preferred to indulge his tastes for the arts. These predilections were attributed to his Italian mother, at one point in his youth he showed a tendency towards Protestantism as a means of rebelling. At the age of nine, calling himself a little Huguenot, he refused to attend Mass, sang Protestant psalms to his sister Margaret and his mother firmly cautioned her children against such behaviour, and he would never again show any Protestant tendencies. Instead, he became nominally Roman Catholic, reports that Henry engaged in same sex relations with his court favourites, known as the mignons, date back to his own time. Certainly he enjoyed relationships with them. The scholar Louis Crompton provides substantial contemporary evidence of Henry IIIs homosexuality, and it is difficult, he writes, to reconcile the king whose use of favourites is so logically strategic with the man who goes to pieces when one of them dies. In 1570, discussions commenced to arrange for Henry to court Queen Elizabeth I of England, Elizabeth, almost 37, was expected by many parties in her country to marry and produce an heirHenry III of France – Henry III when Duke of Anjou by François Clouet
5. Henry IV of France – Henry IV, also known by the epithet Good King Henry, was King of Navarre from 1572 to 1610 and King of France from 1589 to 1610. He was the first French monarch of the House of Bourbon, baptised as a Catholic but raised in the Protestant faith by his mother Jeanne dAlbret, Queen of Navarre, he inherited the throne of Navarre in 1572 on the death of his mother. As a Huguenot, Henry was involved in the French Wars of Religion, barely escaping assassination in the St. Bartholomews Day massacre, and later led Protestant forces against the royal army. Henry, as Head of the House of Bourbon, was a direct descendant of Louis IX of France. Upon the death of his brother-in-law and distant cousin Henry III of France in 1589 and he initially kept the Protestant faith and had to fight against the Catholic League, which denied that he could wear Frances crown as a Protestant. To obtain mastery over his kingdom, after four years of stalemate, as a pragmatic politician, he displayed an unusual religious tolerance for the era. Notably, he promulgated the Edict of Nantes, which guaranteed religious liberties to Protestants and he was assassinated in 1610 by François Ravaillac, a fanatical Catholic, and was succeeded by his son Louis XIII. Considered a usurper by some Catholics and a traitor by some Protestants, an unpopular king immediately after his accession, Henrys popularity greatly improved after his death, in light of repeated victories over his enemies and his conversion to Catholicism. The Good King Henry was remembered for his geniality and his concern about the welfare of his subjects. He was celebrated in the popular song Vive le roi Henri, Henry was born in Pau, the capital of the joint Kingdom of Navarre with the sovereign principality of Béarn. His parents were Queen Joan III of Navarre and her consort, Antoine de Bourbon, Duke of Vendôme, although baptised as a Roman Catholic, Henry was raised as a Protestant by his mother, who had declared Calvinism the religion of Navarre. As a teenager, Henry joined the Huguenot forces in the French Wars of Religion, on 9 June 1572, upon his mothers death, he became King of Navarre. At Queen Joans death, it was arranged for Henry to marry Margaret of Valois, daughter of Henry II, the wedding took place in Paris on 18 August 1572 on the parvis of Notre Dame Cathedral. On 24 August, the Saint Bartholomews Day Massacre began in Paris, several thousand Protestants who had come to Paris for Henrys wedding were killed, as well as thousands more throughout the country in the days that followed. Henry narrowly escaped death thanks to the help of his wife and he was made to live at the court of France, but he escaped in early 1576. On 5 February of that year, he formally abjured Catholicism at Tours and he named his 16-year-old sister, Catherine de Bourbon, regent of Béarn. Catherine held the regency for nearly thirty years, Henry became heir presumptive to the French throne in 1584 upon the death of Francis, Duke of Anjou, brother and heir to the Catholic Henry III, who had succeeded Charles IX in 1574. Because Henry of Navarre was the senior agnatic descendant of King Louis IX, King Henry III had no choiceHenry IV of France – Henry IV
6. Jean-Marie Leclair – Jean-Marie Leclair laîné, also known as Jean-Marie Leclair the Elder, was a Baroque violinist and composer. He is considered to have founded the French violin school and his brothers Jean-Marie Leclair the younger, Pierre Leclair and Jean-Benoît Leclair were also musicians. Leclair was born in Lyon, but left to study dance, in 1716, he married Marie-Rose Casthanie, a dancer, who died about 1728. Leclair had returned to Paris in 1723, where he played at the Concert Spirituel and his works included several sonatas for flute and basso continuo. In 1730, Leclair married for the second time and his new wife was the engraver Louise Roussel, who prepared for printing all his works from Opus 2 onward. Named ordinaire de la musique by Louis XV in 1733, Leclair resigned in 1737 after a clash with Guidon over control of the musique du Roy and he returned to Paris in 1743. His only opera Scylla et Glaucus was first performed in 1746 and has revived in modern times. From 1740 until his death in Paris, he served the Duke of Gramont, Leclair was renowned as a violinist and as a composer. He successfully drew all of Europes national styles. Many suites, sonatas, and concertos survive along with his opera, while some vocal works, ballets, and other stage music is lost. In 1758, after the break-up of his marriage, Leclair purchased a small house in a dangerous Parisian neighborhoodJean-Marie Leclair – Jean-Marie Leclair
7. Jean-Paul Marat – Jean-Paul Marat was a French political theorist, physician, and scientist who became best known for his role as a radical journalist and politician during the French Revolution. He was one of the most radical voices of the French Revolution, Marat was assassinated by Charlotte Corday, a Girondist sympathizer, while taking a medicinal bath for his debilitating skin condition. In his death, Marat became an icon to the Jacobins as a martyr, as portrayed in Jacques-Louis Davids famous painting. For this assassination, Corday was executed four days later, on 17 July 1793, Jean-Paul Marat was born in Boudry in the Prussian Principality of Neuchâtel, now part of Switzerland, on 24 May 1743. He was the second of nine born to Jean Mara, a native of Cagliari, Sardinia, and Louise Cabrol. His father was a Mercedarian commendator and religious refugee who converted to Calvinism in Geneva, at the age of sixteen, Marat left home in search of new opportunities, aware of the limited opportunities for outsiders. His highly educated father had turned down for several college teaching posts. His first stop was with the wealthy Nairac family in Bordeaux, after two years there he moved on to Paris where he studied medicine without gaining any formal qualifications. Highly ambitious, but without patronage or qualifications, he set about inserting himself into the scene with works on philosophy. Around 1770, Marat moved to Newcastle upon Tyne and he gave it the subtitle, A work in which the clandestine and villainous attempts of Princes to ruin Liberty are pointed out, and the dreadful scenes of Despotism disclosed. It earned him membership of the patriotic societies of Berwick-upon-Tweed. The Newcastle Literary and Philosophical Society Library possesses a copy, and Tyne, a published essay on curing a friend of gleets probably helped to secure his medical referees for an MD from the University of St Andrews in June 1775. On his return to London, he published Enquiry into the Nature, Cause, in 1776, Marat moved to Paris following a brief stopover in Geneva to visit his family. The position paid 2,000 livres a year plus allowances, Marat was soon in great demand as a court doctor among the aristocracy and he used his new-found wealth to set up a laboratory in the marquise de lAubespines house. Soon he was publishing works on fire and heat, electricity and he published, first, a summary of his scientific views and discoveries in Découvertes de M. Marat sur le feu, lélectricité et la lumière in 1779. He then went on to publish three much more detailed and extensive works, expanding on each of his areas of research. His method was to describe in detail the meticulous series of experiments he had undertaken on a problem, seeking to explore and then all possible conclusions. This describes 166 experiments conducted to demonstrate that fire was not, as was widely held and he asked the Academy of Sciences to appraise his work, and it appointed a commission to do so, which reported in April 1779Jean-Paul Marat – Jean-Paul Marat
8. Petrus Ramus – Petrus Ramus was an influential French humanist, logician, and educational reformer. A Protestant convert, he was killed during the St. Bartholomews Day Massacre and he was born at the village of Cuts in Picardy, his father was a farmer. He gained admission at age twelve to the Collège de Navarre, a reaction against scholasticism was in full tide, at a transitional time for Aristotelianism. According to Ong this kind of spectacular thesis was in fact routine at the time, even so, Ong raises questions as to whether Ramus actually ever delivered this thesis. Ramus, as graduate of the university, started courses of lectures, at this period he was engaged in numerous separate controversies. One opponent in 1543 was the Benedictine Joachim Périon and he was accused, by Jacques Charpentier, professor of medicine, of undermining the foundations of philosophy and religion. Arnaud dOssat, a pupil and friend of Ramus, defended him against Charpentier, Ramus was made to debate Goveanus, over two days. The matter was brought before the parlement of Paris, and finally before Francis I, by him it was referred to a commission of five, who found Ramus guilty of having acted rashly, arrogantly and impudently, and interdicted his lectures. He withdrew from Paris, but soon returned, the decree against him being canceled by Henry II. He obtained a position at the Collège de Navarre, pierre Galland, another professor there, published Contra novam academiam Petri Rami oratio, and called him a parricide for his attitude to Aristotle. The more serious charge was that he was a nouveau academicien, audomarus Talaeus, a close ally of Ramus, had indeed published a work in 1548 derived from Ciceros description of Academic scepticism, the school of Arcesilaus and Carneades. In 1561 he faced significant enmity following his adoption of Protestantism and he had to flee from Paris, and, though he found an asylum in the palace of Fontainebleau, his house was pillaged and his library burned in his absence. He resumed his chair after this for a time, but in 1568 the position of affairs was again so threatening that he found it advisable to ask permission to travel and he spent around two years, in Germany and Switzerland. The Second Helvetic Confession earned his disapproval, in 1571, rupturing his relationship with Theodore Beza, returning to France, he fell a victim in the St. Bartholomews Day Massacre. Hiding for a while in a bookshop off the Rue St Jacques, he returned to his lodgings, on 26 August, there he was stabbed while at prayer. Suspicions against Charpentier have been voiced ever since, a central issue is that Ramuss anti-Aristotelianism arose out of a concern for pedagogy. Aristotelian philosophy, in its Early Modern form as scholasticism showing its age, was in a confused and disordered state and he published in 1543 the Aristotelicae Animadversiones and Dialecticae Partitiones, the former a criticism on the old logic and the latter a new textbook of the science. In the Dialecticae partitiones Ramus recommends the use of summaries, headings, citations, Ong calls Ramuss use of outlines, a reorganization of the whole of knowledge and indeed of the whole human lifeworldPetrus Ramus – Petrus Ramus.
9. Brother Roger – Roger Schütz, popularly known as Brother Roger, was a Swiss Christian leader and a monk. In 1940 Schütz founded the Taizé Community, a monastic community in Burgundy. He served as the communitys first prior until his murder in 2005, towards the end of his life the Taizé Community was attracting international attention, welcoming thousands of young pilgrims every week, which it has continued to do after his death. Falling ill with tuberculosis, during his convalescence he began to feel drawn to a way of life. In 1940, at the start of World War II, Schütz-Marsauche felt called to serve those suffering from the conflict and he rode a bicycle from Geneva to Taizé, a small town near Mâcon, about 390 kilometres southeast of Paris. The town was located within unoccupied France, just beyond the line of demarcation from the zone occupied by German troops. In 1944, he returned to Taizé to found the Community, initially a small community of men living together in poverty and obedience. Since the late 1950s, many thousands of adults from many countries have found their way to Taizé to take part in weekly meetings of prayer. In addition, Taizé brothers make visits and lead meetings, large and small, in Africa, North and South America, Asia, the spiritual leader always kept a low profile, rarely giving interviews and refusing to permit any cult to grow up around himself. Prior to his death, Brother Roger was due to give up his community functions because of his age and ill-health which had seen him suffer from fatigue. He also wrote books about Christian spirituality and prayer, some together with Mother Teresa with whom he shared a cordial friendship, all his life, Roger devoted himself to reconciling the different Christian churches. Part of his appeal may have been his dislike of formal preaching, during a Taizé gathering in Paris in 1995, he spoke to more than 100,000 young people who were sitting on the floor of an exhibition hall. We have come here to search, he said, or to go on searching through silence and prayer, Christ always said, Do not worry, give yourself. Brother Roger was stabbed to death during the prayer service in Taizé on August 16,2005. He was stabbed several times and, though one of the brothers carried him from the church, the assailant was immediately apprehended by members of the congregation and was placed in police custody. The funeral took place on August 23,2005, horst Köhler, the President of Germany, and Nicolas Sarkozy, at that time Minister of the Interior of France, were in attendance. Brother Rogers community and friends attended the liturgy in the vast monastery church at Taizé, Brother Rogers simple wooden coffin, a wooden icon lying upon it, was carried into the church by members of the community. In his homily he said, Yes, the springtime of ecumenism has flowered on the hill of Taizé, in reference to Brother Rogers concern for social justice, Cardinal Kasper said Every form of injustice or neglect made him very sadBrother Roger – Brother Roger
10. Carlo Rosselli – Carlo Rosselli was an Italian political leader, journalist, historian and anti-fascist activist, first in Italy then abroad. He developed a theory of reformist, non-Marxist Socialism inspired by the British Labour movement, Rosselli founded the anti-fascist militant movement Giustizia e Libertà. Rosselli personally took part in combat in the Spanish Civil War where he served on the Republican side, Rosselli was born in Rome to a wealthy Tuscan Jewish family. His mother, Amelia Pincherle Rosselli, had been active in republican politics, in 1903 he was taken to Florence with his mother and siblings. During the First World War he joined the Italian armed forces and fought in the alpine campaign, after the war, thanks to his brother Nello, he studied in Florence with Gaetano Salvemini, who was to be from then a constant companion of both the Rosselli brothers. It was in period that he became a socialist, sympathetic to the reformist ideas of Filippo Turati. In 1921 he graduated with a degree in sciences from the University of Florence with a thesis titled. Later he undertook a law degree that he would pursue in Turin and Milan and he graduated in 1923 from the university of Siena. For some weeks he visited London where he studied the workings of the British Labour Party, an active supporter of the Unitary Socialist Party of Turati, Matteotti and Treves, he began writing for Critica Sociale, a review edited by Turati. After the murder of Matteotti, Rosselli pushed for an active opposition to Fascism. With the help of Ernesto Rossi and Gaetano Salvemini he founded the clandestine publication Non mollare, during the following months, fascist violence towards the left became increasingly severe. Ernesto Rossi left the country for France, followed by Salvemini, in February 1926 fellow activist Piero Gobetti was assassinated in Paris by a Fascist hit squad. Still in Italy, Rosselli and Pietro Nenni founded the review Quarto Stato, later in 1926, he organized with Sandro Pertini and Ferruccio Parri the escape of Turati to France. While Pertini followed Turati to France, Parri and Rosselli were captured and convicted for their roles in Turatis escape and it is then that Rosselli began to write his most famous work, Liberal Socialism. In July 1929 he escaped to Tunisia, from where he travelled to France, Nitti later portrayed Rossellis adventurous escape in the book Le nostre prigioni e la nostra evasione in an Italian edition in 1946. In 1929, with Lussu, Nitti, and a Parisian circle of refugees which had formed around Salvemini, GL various numbers of the review and the notebooks omonimi and was active in the organization of various spectacular actions, notable among which was the flight over Milan di Bassanesi. In 1930 he published, in French, Socialisme Libéral, the book was at once a passionate critique of Marxism, a creative synthesis of the democratic socialist revisionism and of classical Italian Liberalism. They also first published the Giustizia e Libertà Journals, spain, they wrote, seems the destiny of all fascist statesCarlo Rosselli – Carlo Rosselli
11. Pierre-Charles Villeneuve – Pierre-Charles-Jean-Baptiste-Silvestre de Villeneuve was a French naval officer during the Napoleonic Wars. He was in command of the French and the Spanish fleets that were defeated by Nelson at the Battle of Trafalgar, Villeneuve was born in 1763 at Valensole, Basses Alpes, and joined the French Navy in 1778. He took part in Naval operations in the American Revolutionary War, serving as an ensign on Marseillais and he served during several battles, and was promoted to Rear Admiral in 1796 as a result of this. At the Battle of the Nile in 1798 he was in command of the rear division and his ship, Guillaume Tell, was one of only two French ships of the line to escape the defeat. He was captured soon afterwards when the British took the island of Malta and he was criticised for not engaging the British at the Nile, but Napoleon considered him a lucky man and his career was not affected. After an abortive expedition in January, Villeneuve finally left Toulon on 29 March 1805 with eleven ships of the line. He evaded Nelsons blockade, passed the Strait of Gibraltar on 8 April and crossed the Atlantic with Nelsons fleet in pursuit, in the West Indies Villeneuve waited for a month at Martinique, but Admiral Ganteaumes Brest fleet did not appear. Eventually Villeneuve was pressured by French army officers into beginning the attack on the British. On 7 June he learned that Nelson had reached Antigua, on 8 June he and his fleet were able to intercept a homeward-bound convoy of 15 British merchant vessels escorted by the frigate HMS Barbadoes and the sloop or schooner HMS Netley. The two British warships managed to escape, but Villeneuves fleet captured the convoy, valued at some five million pounds. Villeneuve then sent the prizes into Guadeloupe under the escort of the frigate Sirène, on 11 June Villeneuve set out for Europe with Nelson again in pursuit. On 22 July Villeneuve, now with twenty ships of the line and seven frigates, passed Cape Finisterre on the northwest coast of Spain, here he met a British fleet of fifteen ships of the line commanded by Vice Admiral Sir Robert Calder. In the ensuing Battle of Cape Finisterre, an action in bad visibility. For two days Villeneuve shadowed the retreating British, but did not seek a battle, instead he sailed to A Coruña, arriving on 1 August. Here he received orders from Napoleon to sail to Brest and Boulogne as planned, at Cádiz the combined French and Spanish fleets were kept under blockade by Nelson. However, in mid-October he learned that Napoleon was about to him as commanding officer with François Étienne de Rosily-Mesros. Before his replacement could arrive, Villeneuve gave the order to sail on 18 October, inexperienced crews and the difficulties of getting out of Cádiz meant that it took two days to get all 34 ships out of port and in some kind of order. On 21 October 1805 Villeneuve learned of the size of the British fleet, and turned back to Cádiz, Nelson, though outnumbered, won the Battle of Trafalgar, and Villeneuves flagship Bucentaure was captured along with many other French and Spanish shipsPierre-Charles Villeneuve – Admiral Villeneuve