Category:Deaths from dysentery
Pages in category "Deaths from dysentery"
The following 102 pages are in this category, out of 102 total, this list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 102 pages are in this category, out of 102 total, this list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Akbar – Abul-Fath Jalal-ud-din Muhammad, popularly known as Akbar I and later Akbar the Great, was a Mughal Emperor from 1556 until his death. He was the ruler of the Mughal Dynasty in India. Akbar succeeded his father, Humayun, under a regent, Bairam Khan, a strong personality and a successful general, Akbar gradually enlarged the Mughal Empire to include nearly all of the Indian Subcontinent north of the Godavari river. His power and influence, however, extended over the country because of Mughal military, political, cultural. To unify the vast Mughal state, Akbar established a system of administration throughout his empire and adopted a policy of conciliating conquered rulers through marriage. To preserve peace and order in a religiously and culturally diverse empire, Mughal India developed a strong and stable economy, leading to commercial expansion and greater patronage of culture. Akbar himself was a patron of art and culture, holy men of many faiths, poets, architects and artisans adorned his court from all over the world for study and discussion. Akbars courts at Delhi, Agra, and Fatehpur Sikri became centres of the arts, letters, perso-Islamic culture began to merge and blend with indigenous Indian elements, and a distinct Indo-Persian culture emerged characterised by Mughal style arts, painting, and architecture. A simple, monotheistic cult, tolerant in outlook, it centred on Akbar as a prophet, for which he drew the ire of the ulema, many of his courtiers followed Din-i-Ilahi as their religion as well, as many believed that Akbar was a prophet. One famous courtier who followed this religion was Birbal. Akbars reign significantly influenced the course of Indian history, during his rule, the Mughal empire tripled in size and wealth. He created a military system and instituted effective political and social reforms. By abolishing the tax on non-Muslims and appointing them to high civil and military posts, he was the first Mughal ruler to win the trust. He had Sanskrit literature translated, participated in festivals, realising that a stable empire depended on the co-operation. Thus, the foundations for an empire under Mughal rule was laid during his reign. Akbar was succeeded as emperor by his son, Jahangir, defeated in battles at Chausa and Kannauj in 1539–40 by the forces of Sher Shah Suri Mughal emperor Humayun fled westward to Sindh. There he met and married the then 14-year-old Hamida Banu Begum, daughter of Shaikh Ali Akbar Jami, a teacher of Humauyuns younger brother Hindal Mirza. Jalal ud-din Muhammad Akbar was born the year on 15 October 1542 at the Rajput Fortress of Umerkot in SindhAkbar – Late 16th century portrait of Akbar by Manohar
2. Alfonso XII of Spain – Alfonso XII was King of Spain, reigning from 1874 to 1885, after a coup détat restored the monarchy and ended the ephemeral First Spanish Republic. Having been forced into exile after the Glorious Revolution deposed his mother Isabella II from the throne in 1868, Alfonso studied in Austria and his mother abdicated in his favour in 1870, and he returned to Spain as king in 1874 following a military coup. Alfonso died aged 27 in 1885, and was succeeded by his unborn son, Alfonso was born in Madrid as the eldest son of Queen Isabella II. Officially, his father was her husband, King Francis, alfonsos biological paternity is uncertain, there is speculation that his biological father may have been Enrique Puigmoltó y Mayans. These rumours were used as propaganda against Alfonso by the Carlists. His mothers accession created the second cause of instability, which was the Carlist Wars, the supporters of the Count of Molina as king of Spain rose to have him enthroned. This led to the cause of instability of note, the Independence of the American Kingdoms. When Queen Isabella and her husband were forced to leave Spain by the Revolution of 1868, from there, he was sent to the Theresianum at Vienna to continue his studies. On 25 June 1870, he was recalled to Paris, where his mother abdicated in his favour, after Amadeos abandonment in 1873, Parliament declared the Federal Republic, the first act of President Estanislao Figueras was to extend the Abolition Act to Puerto Rico. Cuban slaves would have to wait until 1889, but the republicans were not in agreement either, and they had to contend with the War in Cuba, and Muslim uprisings in Spanish Morocco. By 1872, the Third Carlist War erupted and this unrest led to the creation of a group in favor of the Bourbon restoration, made by some sectors of the conservatives led by Canovas del Castillo. The Prince of Asturias, Alfonso, was the chosen to develop the new road map proposed by Canovas. The new road map, which indeed ended the eternal crisis begun in 1810 was called Alfonsismo, as having Alfonso in Spain would be a problem, Cánovas became responsible for his education. He sent Alfonso to the Sandhurst Military Academy in England, where the training Alfonso received was severe but more cosmopolitan than in Spain, on 1 December 1874, Alfonso issued the Sandhurst Manifesto, where he set the ideological basis of the Bourbon Restoration. It was drafted in reply to a greeting from his followers. Thereupon the President resigned, and his power was transferred to the kings plenipotentiary and adviser, the 29 December 1874 military coup of Gen. Martinez Campos in Sagunto ended the failed republic and meant the rise of the young Prince Alfonso. In 1876, a campaign against the Carlists, in which the young king took part, resulted in the defeat of Don Carlos. Cánovas was the architect of the new regime of the RestorationAlfonso XII of Spain – 1884 photograph
3. Amalric of Jerusalem – Amalric was King of Jerusalem from 1163, and Count of Jaffa and Ascalon before his accession. He was the son of Melisende and Fulk of Jerusalem. During his reign, Jerusalem became more closely allied with the Byzantine Empire, meanwhile, the Muslim territories surrounding Jerusalem began to be united under Nur ad-Din and later Saladin. He was the father of three rulers of Jerusalem, Sibylla, Baldwin IV, and Isabella I. Now scholars recognize that the two names were not the same and no longer add the number for either king, confusion between the two names was common even among contemporaries. Amalric was born in 1136 to King Fulk, the count of Anjou who had married the heiress of the kingdom, Melisende. After the death of Fulk in a accident in 1143, the throne passed jointly to Melisende and Amalrics older brother Baldwin III. Melisende did not step down when Baldwin came of age two years later, and by 1150 the two were becoming increasingly hostile towards each other. In 1152 Baldwin had himself crowned king, and civil war broke out. Melisende was defeated in this struggle and Baldwin ruled alone thereafter, in 1153 Baldwin captured the Egyptian fortress of Ascalon, which was then added to Amalrics fief of Jaffa. Amalric married Agnes of Courtenay in 1157, Agnes, daughter of Joscelin II of Edessa, had lived in Jerusalem since the western regions of the former crusader County of Edessa were lost in 1150. Patriarch Fulcher objected to the marriage on grounds of consanguinity, as the two shared a great-great-grandfather, Guy I of Montlhéry, and it seems that they waited until Fulchers death to marry. Agnes bore Amalric three children, Sibylla, the future Baldwin IV, and Alix, who died in childhood, nevertheless, consanguinity was enough for the opposition. Amalric agreed and ascended the throne without a wife, although Agnes continued to hold the title Countess of Jaffa and Ascalon, Agnes soon thereafter married Hugh of Ibelin, to whom she had been engaged before her marriage with Amalric. The church ruled that Amalric and Agnes children were legitimate and preserved their place in the order of succession, through her children Agnes would exert much influence in Jerusalem for almost 20 years. During Baldwin IIIs reign, the County of Edessa, the first crusader state established during the First Crusade, was conquered by Zengi, Zengi united Aleppo, Mosul, and other cities of northern Syria, and intended to impose his control on Damascus in the south. The Second Crusade in 1148 had failed to conquer Damascus, which fell to Zengis son Nur ad-Din. Jerusalem also lost influence to Byzantium in northern Syria when the Empire imposed its suzerainty over the Principality of Antioch, Jerusalem thus turned its attention to Egypt, where the Fatimid dynasty was suffering from a series of young caliphs and civil warsAmalric of Jerusalem – Amalric
4. Philip Howard, 20th Earl of Arundel – Saint Philip Howard, 1st Earl of Arundel was an English nobleman. He was canonised by Pope Paul VI in 1970, as one of the Forty Martyrs of England and he is variously numbered as 1st, 20th or 13th Earl of Arundel. Born in the Strand, London, he was the child of Thomas, Duke of Norfolk and Lady Mary FitzAlan, daughter of Henry. He was baptised at Whitehall Palace with the Royal Family in attendance, Philip Howard was born during the upheaval of the Reformation. His home from the age of seven was a former Carthusian monastery, at the age of fourteen he was married to his stepsister, Anne Dacre. He graduated from St Johns College, Cambridge in 1574 and was eighteen when he attended Queen Elizabeth Is Court. His life had been a one, both at Cambridge and at Court where he was a favourite of the Queen. Philip Howards father, the Duke of Norfolk, was arrested on 1 October 1569 for his intrigues against Queen Elizabeth. The Duke was attainted and executed in 1572, but Philip Howard succeeded to his mothers inheritance upon the death of his grandfather, becoming Earl of Arundel in 1580. He was present at a debate held in 1581 in the Tower of London and he was so impressed by the Catholics that he experienced a spiritual conversion. He renounced his previous, frivolous life and was reconciled with his wife, Arundel, with much of his family, remained Catholic recusants during the reign of Queen Elizabeth. They also attempted to leave England without permission, while some might have been able to do this unobserved, Arundel was a second cousin of the Queen. He was betrayed by a servant and arrested not long after his ship set sail from Littlehampton, Howard was committed to the Tower of London on 25 April 1585. While charges of treason were never proven, he spent ten years in the Tower. Queen Elizabeth never signed the warrant, but Howard was never told this. Although these two men never met, Howard’s dog helped them to deepen their friendship and exchange encouragement in each others plight, Philip Howard loved his pet, who is remembered along with him in a statue at Arundel Cathedral. He petitioned the Queen as he lay dying to allow him to see his wife and his son, who had been born after his imprisonment. The Queen responded that If he will but once attend the Protestant Service, he not only see his wife and childrenPhilip Howard, 20th Earl of Arundel – Lord Arundel aged 18, by George Gower
5. Robert Atkyns (topographer) – Sir Robert Atkyns was a topographer, antiquary, and Member of Parliament. He is best known for his county history, the Ancient and Present State of Gloucestershire, Sir Robert was born in 1647, the first son of Sir Robert Atkyns, chief baron of the Exchequer, and sometime speaker of the House of Lords. Robert was educated at St Edmund Hall, Oxford, and Lincolns Inn and he was called to the Bar in 1668 but did not practise. He was Deputy Receiver-General of Law Duties, Receiver-General, Comptroller, Commissioner for Assessment for Gloucestershire and he was knighted by Charles II on his visit to Bristol 5 Sep 1663. He was elected M. P. for the borough of Cirencester and he died at his house in Westminster of dysentery, at the age of sixty-five, and was buried at Sapperton, where his monument is preserved. He had married Louise, the daughter of Sir George Carteret of Hawnes and he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in November 1664. He is the author of the Ancient and Present State of Gloucestershire, London,1712. The first edition, now scarce, contains a portrait of the author by Van der Gucht, together with a series of views of seats in the county, drawn. References Sources This article incorporates text from a now in the public domain, AtkynsRobert Atkyns (topographer) – Effigy of Atkyns in St Kenelm's Church, Sapperton
6. Baldwin III of Jerusalem – Baldwin III was King of Jerusalem from 1143 to 1163. He was the eldest son of Melisende and Fulk of Jerusalem and he became king while still a child, and was at first overshadowed by his mother Melisende, whom he eventually defeated in a civil war. During his reign Jerusalem became more closely allied with the Byzantine Empire, Baldwin captured the important Egyptian fortress of Ascalon, but also had to deal with the increasing power of Nur ad-Din in Syria. He died childless and was succeeded by his brother Amalric, Baldwin III was born in 1130, during the reign of his maternal grandfather Baldwin II, one of the original crusaders. This made him the third generation to rule Jerusalem, Baldwins mother Princess Melisende was heiress to her father, Baldwin II King of Jerusalem. Baldwin IIIs father was Fulk of Anjou, the former Count of Anjou, King Baldwin II died at the age of 60 when his grandson was a year old, which led to a power struggle between Melisende and Fulk. Melisende asserted her right to rule as successor to her father, yet Baldwin showed little interest in the intricacies of governance. In the Muslim world, Zengi ruled northern Syria from the cities of Mosul and Aleppo, in 1144, Zengi captured Edessa, which shocked the Western world and led to the Second Crusade. This crusade did not reach Jerusalem until 1148, and in the meantime Zengi was assassinated in 1146 and he was succeeded by his son Nur ad-Din, who was just as eager to bring Damascus under his control. To counter this, Jerusalem and Damascus had made an alliance for their mutual protection, Baldwin marched out from Jerusalem and attempted to capture the Muslim fortress Bosra, but Nur ad-Din arrived with his army and forced the Crusaders to withdraw. Later, Jerusalems truce with Damascus was restored, in 1148 the crusade finally arrived in Jerusalem, led by Louis VII of France, his wife Eleanor of Aquitaine, and Conrad III of Germany. Damascus was also considered important in the history of Christianity than Aleppo. Baldwin agreed to the plan to attack Damascus, but the siege ended in defeat after only four days. The city fell under Nur ad-Dins control in 1154, and the loss of a Muslim counterweight to Nur ad-Din was a diplomatic disaster, by 1149 the crusaders had returned to Europe, leaving behind a weakened Jerusalem. Nur ad-Din took advantage of the defeat to invade Antioch. Baldwin III hurried north to take up the regency of the principality, raymonds wife, Constance, was Baldwins cousin through his mother and heiress of Antioch by right of her father. Baldwin unsuccessfully tried to marry her to an ally, also in the north, Baldwin was unable to help defend Turbessel, the last remnant of the County of Edessa, and was forced to cede it to Byzantine emperor Manuel I Comnenus in August 1150. He evacuated Turbessels Latin Christian residents despite being attacked by Nur ad-Din in the Battle of Aintab, in 1152 Baldwin and his mother were called to intervene in a dispute between Baldwins aunt Hodierna of Tripoli and her husband Count Raymond IIBaldwin III of Jerusalem – Baldwin III
7. James Barry (surgeon) – Dr James Miranda Steuart Barry, was a military surgeon in the British Army, born in Ireland. After graduation from the University of Edinburgh Medical School, Barry served first in Cape Town, South Africa, by the end of Barrys career, he had risen to the rank of Inspector General in charge of military hospitals. In his/her travels, Barry not only improved conditions for wounded soldiers, among his accomplishments was the first caesarean section in Africa by a British surgeon in which both the mother and child survived the operation. Although Barry lived his adult life as a man, he was born anatomically female. Depending on historic interpretation, Barry might be considered either the first medically qualified British woman or the first medically qualified British transgender person. In the case of the former, Barry would precede Elizabeth Garrett Anderson as the first British woman qualified to practice as a doctor by over 50 years. In the case of the latter, he would precede Michael Dillon as the first British transgender medical doctor by over 100 years, other than some personal correspondence, there are few good sources of information about the non-military parts of Barrys life. They provide a skeleton onto which much of myth and speculation has been added by various commentators, in their well-researched biography, du Preez and Dronfield state that Barry was born in Cork in 1789. This birth date is based on Mrs Bulkleys description of her child as being fifteen years old in a letter dated 14 January 1805. Once he began presenting himself as a man, Barry pretended to be younger than he was, which has lead various commentators to give dates of 1792,1795. Barry was the child born to Jeremiah and Mary-Ann Bulkley. At birth, Barry was named Margaret Anne, the childs mother was the sister of James Barry, a celebrated Irish artist and professor of painting at Londons Royal Academy. Jeremiah Bulkley ran the house on Merchants Quay Cork. However, Anti-catholic sentiment led to him being dismissed from this post and this and subsequent financial mismanagement left Mary-Ann and Margaret Bulkley without the support of either Jeremiah Bulkley or later the Bulkleys married son John. A third child appeared in the Bulkley family and was named Juliana, a conspiracy was developed between Mary-Ann Bulkley and some of her late brothers influential, liberal-minded friends to get the teenage Margaret into medical school. The University of Edinburgh was chosen and Mary-Ann and Margaret boarded a Leith smack on 30 November 1809. This was the first day that the formerly known as Margaret Anne Bulkley became James Barry nephew of the late James Barry RA the Irish romantic painter. Barry never again wore womens clothes, opting to spend his remaining 56 years of life as a man, although the letter was signed by Barry, the solicitor wrote on the back of the envelope Miss Bulkley,14 DecemberJames Barry (surgeon) – Dr James Barry (left) with John, a servant, and his dog Psyche, c. 1862, Jamaica
8. Jacques Nicolas Billaud-Varenne – Jacques Nicolas Billaud-Varenne, also known as Jean Nicolas, was a French personality of the Revolutionary period. Though not one of the most well known figures of the French Revolution, Billaud-Varenne climbed his way up the ladder of power during the period of The Terror, becoming a member of the Committee of Public Safety. He was recognized and worked with French Revolution figures Georges Danton and Maximilien Robespierre, no, we will not step backward, our zeal will only be smothered in the tomb, either the Revolution will triumph or we will all die. Billaud-Varenne was born in La Rochelle as the son of a lawyer to the parlement of Paris, since both his grandfather and father were lawyers, and he was the first son in his direct family, Varenne was guaranteed a solid education and the same profession. Billaud-Varenne was educated at the College of Oratorians of Niort and took Philosophy at La Rochelle and his education at Niort was particularly important in shaping his character because its methods of teaching were uncommon to the revolution. At Niort, modernity and tolerance were emphasized, as opposed to overbearing, Billaud-Varenne was also sent to Oratory school at Juilly, where he later became a professor when he felt dissatisfied with practicing law. He then went to Paris, married and bought a position as lawyer in the parlement, in early 1789 he published at Amsterdam a three-volume work on the Despotisme des ministres de la France, and he adopted with enthusiasm the principles of the Revolution. Joining the Jacobin Club, Billaud-Varenne became, from 1790, one of the most violent anti-Royalist orators, after the flight to Varennes of King Louis XVI, he published a pamphlet, LAcéphocratie, in which he demanded the establishment of a federal republic. On 1 July, in speech at the Jacobin Club, he spoke of a republic. But when he repeated his demand for a republic a fortnight later, on the night of 10 August 1792 he was elected one of the deputy-commissioners of the sections who shortly afterwards became the general council of the Paris Commune. He was accused of having been an accomplice in the September Massacres in the Abbaye prison, at the trial of Louis XVI he added new charges to the accusation, proposed to refuse counsel to the king, and voted for death within 24 hours. On 15 July he made a violent speech in the Convention in accusation of the Girondists, sent in August as representative on mission to the départements of the Nord and of Pas-de-Calais, he showed himself inexorable to all suspects. Meanwhile, he published Les Éléments du républicanisme, in which he demanded a division of property among the citizens, becoming concerned about his own safety, he turned against Robespierre, whom he attacked on 8 Thermidor as a moderate and a Dantonist. Surprised by the Thermidorian Reaction, he denounced its partisans to the Jacobin Club and he was then attacked himself in the Convention for his ruthlessness, and a commission was appointed to examine his conduct and that of some other members of the former Committee of Public Safety. After Napoleon Bonapartes 18 Brumaire coup, he refused the pardon offered by the French Consulate, in 1816 he left Guiana, went to New York City for a few months, and finally took refuge in Port-au-Prince, where he died of dysentery. Despotisme des ministres de France, combattu par les droits de la Nation, par les loix fondamentales, Mémoires écrits au Port-au-Prince en 1818, contenant la relation de ses voyages et aventures dans le Mexique, depuis 1815 jusquen 1817. Billaud Varenne membre du comité de salut public, Mémoires inédits et Correspondance, accompagnés de notices biographiques sur Billaud Varenne et Collot dHerbois, Paris, Librairie de la Nouvelle Revue,1893. Attribution This article incorporates text from a now in the public domain, Chisholm, Hugh, ed. Billaud-VarenneJacques Nicolas Billaud-Varenne – Billaud-Varenne portraited by Jean-Baptiste Greuze, c. 1790 (Dallas Museum of Art)
9. Geoffrey of Briel – Geoffrey of Briel, in older literature Geoffrey of Bruyères, was a French knight and the third lord of the Barony of Karytaina in the Principality of Achaea, in Frankish Greece. He led a colourful and turbulent life, narrated in detail in the Chronicle of the Morea and he was pardoned both times, but henceforth held his title as a gift of the Prince. He died childless in 1275, and the Barony of Karytaina was split up, Geoffrey was the son of Hugh of Briel and Alice of Villehardouin, a daughter of the Prince of Achaea, Geoffrey I of Villehardouin. The family, which hailed from Briel-sur-Barse in the French province of Champagne, is named in the sources, e. g. Brieres or Prieres, Bruières, Briers. Geoffreys father inherited the Barony of Karytaina sometime around 1222 from his brother, the Barony was the third largest in the Principality of Achaea, counting 22 knights fiefs and being responsible for keeping watch over the rebellious inhabitants of the mountainous Skorta area. Geoffrey was born in Greece, possibly in Karytaina, soon after his fathers arrival there, Hugh of Briel died in early 1238, not yet forty years old, and was succeeded by the young Geoffrey. The Chronicle credits Geoffrey with the construction of the castle of Karytaina, Geoffrey enjoyed a high reputation as a warrior, and was deemed to be the best knight in the Morea. According to the Aragonese version of the Chronicle he maintained a school of chivalry at the castle Karytaina, Geoffrey married Isabella de la Roche, daughter of the Great Lord of Athens and Thebes, Guy I de la Roche. Later, however, he sided with his father-in-law Guy de la Roche, William however prevailed in the Battle of Karydi in 1258, and a parliament was assembled at Nikli to judge the defeated lords. Geoffrey was pardoned by the Prince and his lands returned. In 1259, Geoffrey participated in the army that joined the Achaean–Epirote–Sicilian alliance opposing the Empire of Nicaea. The allied forces, riven by distrust between the Latins and the Epirote Greeks, were dealt a defeat in the Battle of Pelagonia. Prince William and most of his barons, including Geoffrey, were captured in the aftermath of the battle, after William agreed, Geoffrey was released in order to convey the emperors proposals to the nobles of the Principality. A parliament was again held in Nikli, in the presence of Geoffrey, Guy de la Roche. The captive lords were represented by their wives, whereby this assembly became known as the Parliament of Ladies, the surrender of the fortresses began a long period of conflict between the Greeks of the reconstituted Byzantine Empire and the forces of the Principality for control of the Morea. Prince William was absolved by the Pope of his oaths to Palaiologos and his absence allowed the inhabitants of Skorta to rise up and aid the Byzantine troops in their offensive, which was halted by the same John of Katavas in the Battle of Prinitsa. Geoffrey was again deprived of his barony for this act, but was pardoned and restored to it on his return, Geoffrey is mentioned again in the campaigns of the early 1270s, when Palaiologos sent a new commander to the Morea, Alexios Doukas Philanthropenos. In 1270, Geoffrey and his neighbour, the Baron of Akova, the Latin force raided the Byzantine holdings in Laconia, but Philanthropenos avoided being drawn into a pitched battleGeoffrey of Briel – View of Karytaina and its castle
10. Johann Ludwig Burckhardt – Johann Ludwig Burckhardt was a Swiss traveller, geographer and orientalist. He wrote his letters in French and signed Louis and he is best known for rediscovering the ruins of the ancient Nabataean city of Petra in Jordan. Burckhardt was born on 24 November 1784 in Lausanne, Switzerland to a wealthy Basel family of silk merchants, after studying at the universities of Leipzig and Göttingen, he travelled to England in the summer of 1806 with goal of obtaining employment in the civil service. Unsuccessful, he took employment with the African Association with the objective of resolving some of the problems of the course of the Niger River, the expedition called for an overland journey from Cairo to Timbuktu. To prepare for the journey, he attended Cambridge University and studied Arabic, science, at this time he also began to adopt Arabian costume. In 1809 he left England and travelled to Aleppo, Syria to perfect his Arabic, en route to Syria, he stopped in Malta and learned of a Dr. Seetzen who had left Cairo in search of the lost city of Petra and had subsequently been murdered. Once in Syria, he adopted the moniker Sheikh Ibrahim Ibn Abdallah to hide his true European identity, while in Syria, he investigated local languages and archaeological sites and became the first discoverer of Hittite or Luwian hieroglyphs. He suffered setbacks during his time in Syria having been robbed of his belongings more than once by people he had paid to guarantee his protection. After more than 2 years living and studying as a Muslim in Aleppo, he felt he could travel safely and not be questioned on his identity. To test his disguise, he made 3 journeys in the area of Syria, Lebanon, Palestine and Transjordan travelling as a poor Arab, sleeping on the ground, with these trips being successful, he prepared to continue his journey to Cairo. He left Aleppo in early 1812 and headed south through Damascus, Ajloun, in Kerak, he trusted his security to the local governor, Sheikh Youssef. The governor, under the guise of concern for his guest, liberated him of his most valuable belongings, the guide soon after took the remainder of his belongings and abandoned him in the desert. Burckhardt found a nearby Bedouin encampment and obtained a new guide, on the road to Cairo along the more dangerous inland route to Aqaba, Burckhardt encountered rumours of ancient ruins in a narrow valley near the supposed biblical tomb of Aaron, the brother of Moses. This region was the former Roman province of Arabia Petraea leading him to believe these were the ruins he had heard about in Malta, the natives call this monument Kaszr Faraoun, or Pharaoh’s castle, and pretend that it was the residence of a prince. But it was rather the sepulchre of a prince, and great must have been the opulence of a city and he could not remain long at the ruins or take detailed notes due to his fears of being unmasked as a treasure-seeking infidel. Seeing no evidence of the name of the ruins, he could only speculate that they were in fact the ruins of Petra which he had been informed about on his journey to Syria. He continued his travels and after crossing the southern deserts of Transjordan, after spending four months in Cairo with no westbound caravans across the Sahara available, Burckhardt decided to journey up the Nile River to Upper Egypt and Nubia. He justified this to his employer with the argument that the information he would collect on African cultures would help him in his journey to west AfricaJohann Ludwig Burckhardt – Jean Louis Burckhardt
11. Frances Xavier Cabrini – She was the first naturalized citizen of the United States to be canonized by the Roman Catholic Church, on July 7,1946. Sadly, only four of the thirteen survived beyond adolescence, small and weak as a child, born two months premature, she remained in delicate health throughout her life. At thirteen Francesca attended a school run by the Daughters of the Sacred Heart, five years later she graduated cum laude, with a teaching certificate. After the deaths of her parents in 1870, she applied for admission to the congregation of the Daughters of the Sacred Heart at Arluno. These sisters were her former teachers but reluctantly, they told her she was too frail for their life and she became the headmistress of the House of Providence orphanage in Codogno, where she taught, and drew a small community of women to live a religious way of life. Cabrini took religious vows in 1877 and added Xavier to her name to honor the Jesuit saint, Francis Xavier, in November 1880, she and six other women who had taken religious vows with her founded the Missionary Sisters of the Sacred Heart of Jesus. Cabrini composed the Rule and Constitutions of the institute. The sisters took in orphans and foundlings, opened a day school to pay expenses, started classes in needlework. The institute established seven homes and a school and nursery in its first five years. Its good works brought Cabrini to the attention of Giovanni Scalabrini, Bishop of Piacenza, in September 1877, Cabrini went to seek approval of the pope to establish missions in China. Instead, he suggested to her that she go to the United States to help the Italian immigrants who were flooding to that nation in that era, not to the East, but to the West was his advice. Cabrini left for the United States, arriving in New York City on March 31,1889 and she encountered disappointment and difficulties at every step. Archbishop Michael Corrigan, who was not immediately supportive, found them housing at the convent of the Sisters of Charity and she obtained the permission of the archbishop to found an orphanage, which is located in West Park, New York today and is known as Saint Cabrini Home. Cabrini organized catechism and education classes for the Italian immigrants and provided for the needs of the many orphans and she established schools and orphanages despite tremendous odds. She was as resourceful as she was prayerful, finding people who would donate what she needed in money, time, labor, in New York City, she founded Columbus Hospital and Italian Hospital. In the 1980s, they were merged into Cabrini Medical Center, in Chicago, the sisters opened Columbus Extension Hospital in the heart of the city’s Italian neighborhood on the Near West Side. Both hospitals eventually closed near the end of the 20th century and their foundress’ name lives on in Chicagos Cabrini Street. Long after her death, the Missionary Sisters would achieve Cabrinis goal of being missionaries to China, in only a short time, after much social and religious upheaval there, the Sisters left China and, subsequently, a Siberian placementFrances Xavier Cabrini – St. Frances Xavier Cabrini, M.S.C.
12. Fruto Chamorro – Born in Guatemala City in 1804 to Bayardo Paez, he was initially known as Fruto Pérez. His father, Pedro José Chamorro Argüello, had come to Guatemala from Nicaragua for graduate studies, Fruto grew up in Guatemala and attended school there. His father returned to Nicaragua after completing his studies and married Josefa Margarita Alfaro Monterroso in 1814 and he was acknowledged by his father shortly before the latters death in 1824, and his stepmother insisted he use the name Fruto Chamorro Pérez. The death of his father forced Fruto to leave his studies and go to Nicaragua to assume responsibility for the family and his half brothers and sisters, Pedro Joaquín, Dionisio, Carmen, Mercedes and Fernando grew under his guardianship. Frutos father was one of the founders of the Conservative Party of Nicaragua and he was committed to the Conservative cause and became an activist of the Party. In 1836, he became a representative in the State Assembly, from 1839 to 1842, he was a Senator of the State of Nicaragua. In 1842, an attempt was made to reestablish a union of Central American states as the Central American Confederation and it was to include El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua. In 1843, Fruto Chamorro was appointed Supreme Director of the Confederation junta, however, Guatemala withdrew, and Fruto was instrumental in preventing a war over the decision. The nascent Confederation collapsed in 1844, in 1845, Fruto Chamorro was appointed Prefect and Military Governor of the Department of Granada, and Minister of the Treasury. In November 1851, during the administration of Supreme Director Laureano Pineda, Fruto Chamorro himself became Supreme Director of Nicaragua on 1 April 1853. Almost immediately and with support of the oligarchy, he transferred the government headquarters to Granada. In March, Fruto Chamorro relinquished his title as Supreme Director and with acquiescence of the Assembly and they initiated a civil war by establishing their own government in León in May 1854, with the support of the governments of Honduras and El Salvador. A force under the command of General Máximo Jerez was sent to besiege Granada, in preparation for the siege, President Chamorro placed himself at the headquarters of the Army and left executive authority with his deputy, José María Estrada. His defenses for Granada were successful and subsequent attacks failed to take the city, a victim of dysentery, Fruto Chamorro died at his hacienda outside Granada on 12 March 1855. A few months later, the city was taken in an attack by the filibuster William Walker. He was married to Mercedes Avilés, Nicaragua America Central, Presidents Genealogia Familia Chamorro, por El Dr. Emilio Alvarez Lejarza, Talleres Tipograficos y Litograficos de la Editorial Catolica, S. A. Managua, Nic. -C. A. Recorrido Historico de las Principales Figuras de la Familia Chamorro, Emilio Alvarez Lejarza, Revista Consevadora del Pensamiento Centroamericano, Vol. XIX - No.91Fruto Chamorro – President Fruto Chamorro Pérez
13. Pierre Choderlos de Laclos – Pierre Ambroise François Choderlos de Laclos was a French novelist, official, freemason and army general, best known for writing the epistolary novel Les Liaisons dangereuses. A unique case in French literature, he was for a time considered to be as scandalous a writer as the Marquis de Sade or Nicolas-Edme Rétif. It is one of the masterpieces of literature of the 18th century. It has inspired a number of critical and analytic commentaries, plays. Born in Amiens into a family, in 1760 Laclos began studies at the École royale dartillerie de La Fère. As a young lieutenant he served in a garrison at La Rochelle until the end of the Seven Years War. Postings to Strasbourg, Grenoble and Besançon followed, in 1763 Laclos became a freemason in LUnion military lodge in Toul. Despite a promotion to the rank of captain, Laclos grew increasingly bored with his garrison duties and with the company of soldiers. His first works, several poems, appeared in the Almanach des Muses. Later he wrote an opéra comique, Ernestine, inspired by a novel by Marie Jeanne Riccoboni and its premiere on 19 July 1777, in the presence of Queen Marie Antoinette, proved a failure. In the same year he established a new school in Valence. On his return to Besançon in 1778 Laclos was promoted captain of the Engineers. In this period he wrote works which showed his great admiration of Jean-Jacques Rousseau. In 1776 Laclos requested and received affiliation with the Henri IV lodge in Paris, there he helped Louis Philippe II, Duke of Orléans leading the Grand Orient of France. In 1777, in front of the Grand Orients dignitaries, he delivered what is considered as the first feminist speech by a man, in 1779 he was sent to Île-dAix to assist Marc René, marquis de Montalembert in the construction of fortifications there against the British. However, he spent most of his writing his new epistolary novel, Les Liaisons dangereuses. When he asked for and received six months of vacation, he spent the time in Paris, durand Neveu published Les Liaisons Dangereuses in four volumes on 23 March 1782, it became a widespread success. Laclos was immediately ordered to return to his garrison in Brittany, here he met Marie-Soulange Duperré, whom he would marry on May 3,1786, and remain with for the rest of his lifePierre Choderlos de Laclos – Portrait of Choderlos de Laclos attributed to Alexander Kucharsky
14. Constantine IV – Constantine IV, sometimes incorrectly called Pogonatos, the Bearded, out of confusion with his father, was Byzantine Emperor from 668 to 685. The eldest son of Constans II, Constantine IV had been named a co-emperor with his father in 654 and he had been given the responsibility of managing the affairs at Constantinople during his father’s extended absence in Italy and became senior Emperor when Constans was assassinated in 668. His mother was Fausta, daughter of patrician Valentinus, the first task before the new Emperor was the suppression of the military revolt in Sicily under Mezezius which had led to his fathers death. Within seven months of his accession, Constantine IV had dealt with the insurgency with the support of Pope Vitalian, but this success was overshadowed by troubles in the east. As early as 668 the Caliph Muawiyah I received an invitation from Saborios and he sent an army under his son Yazid against the Eastern Roman Empire. Yazid reached Chalcedon and took the important Byzantine center Amorion, while the city was quickly recovered, the Arabs next attacked Carthage and Sicily in 669. In 670 the Arabs captured Cyzicus and set up a base from which to further attacks into the heart of the Empire. Their fleet captured Smyrna and other cities in 672. Finally, in 672, the Arabs sent a fleet to attack Constantinople by sea. While Constantine was distracted by this, the Slavs unsuccessfully attacked Thessalonika, commencing in 674, the Arabs launched the long-awaited siege of Constantinople. Additional squadrons reinforced the forces of Abd ar-Rahman before they proceeded to the Hellespont, knowing that it was only a matter of time before Constantinople was under siege, Constantine had ensured that the city was well provisioned. He also constructed a number of fireships and fast-sailing boats provided with tubes or siphons for squirting fire. This is the first known use of Greek fire in combat, in September the Arabs, having failed in their attempts to take the city, sailed to Cyzicus, which they made their winter quarters. Over the following five years, the Arabs would return spring to continue the siege of Constantinople. The city survived, and finally in 678 the Arabs were forced to raise the siege, the Arabs withdrew and were almost simultaneously defeated on land in Lycia in Anatolia. This unexpected reverse forced Muawiyah I to seek a truce with Constantine, the raising of the siege allowed Constantine to go to the relief of Thessalonika, still under siege from the Slavs. With the temporary passing of the Arab threat, Constantine turned his attention to the Church, in November 680 Constantine convened the Sixth Ecumenical Council. Constantine presided in person during the formal aspects of the proceedings, surrounded by his court officials, the Council reaffirmed the Orthodox doctrines of the Council of Chalcedon in 451Constantine IV – Constantine IV and his retinue, mosaic in basilica of Sant'Apollinare in Classe (Ravenna)
15. Thomas Coryat – Thomas Coryat was an English traveller and writer of the late Elizabethan and early Jacobean age. He is principally remembered for two volumes of writings he left regarding his travels, often on foot, through Europe and he is often credited with introducing the table fork to England, with Furcifer becoming one of his nicknames. His description of how the Italians shielded themselves from the sun resulted in the umbrella being introduced into English. Coryat was born in Crewkerne, Somerset, and lived most of his life in the Somerset village of Odcombe and he was educated at Winchester College from 1591, and at Gloucester Hall, Oxford from 1596 to 1599. He was employed by Prince Henry, eldest son of James I as a sort of court jester from 1603 to 1607, alongside Ben Jonson, John Donne, from May to October 1608 he undertook a tour of Europe, somewhat less than half of which he walked. He travelled through France and Italy to Venice, and returned via Switzerland, Germany and he published his memoirs of the events in a volume entitled Coryats Crudities hastily gobbled up in Five Months Travels in France, Italy, &c. This volume gives a picture of life in Europe during the time. In 1611 he published a volume of travel writings, this one entitled Coryats Crambe. Coryats letters from this time refer to the famous Mermaid Tavern in London, in September 1617, at the invitation of Sir Thomas Roe, he visited the imperial court at Mandu, Madhya Pradesh. In November 1617 he left for Surat, he died of dysentery there in December of that year, though his planned account of the journey was never to be, some of his unorganized travel notes have survived and found their way back to England. Coryats writings were popular at the time. He is considered by many to have been the first Briton to do a Grand Tour of Europe, british travel writer and humorist Tim Moore retraced the steps of Coryats tour of Europe, as recounted in his book Continental Drifter. In 2008 Daniel Allen published an account of his nine-month cycle trip following Coryates journey to the East, entitled The Sky Above, lonely Planet founder Tony Wheeler spoke at the Australian Festival of Travel Writing about Thomas Coryate. Wheeler traces Coryate’s journey as he observes the invention of leisure travel, http, //www. wheelercentre. com/broadcasts/tony-wheeler-thomas-coryate-the-first-tourist/ John Sandford William Stansby Adams, Percy G. Travel Literature and the Evolution of the Novel. Allen, Daniel The Sky Above, The Kingdom Below, ISBN 1-905791-30-5 Chaney, Edward, Thomas Coryate, The Grove-Macmillan Dictionary of Art. Chaney, Edward, The Evolution of the Grand Tour, 2nd ed, Routledge, ISBN 0-7146-4474-9 Moraes, Dom and Sarayu Srivatsa. The Long Strider, How Thomas Coryate Walked From England to India in the Year 1613, Moore, Tim The Grand Tour, St. Martins Press, New York,2001. Philadelphia, U of Pennsylvania P,1942, petroski, Henry, The evolution of useful things, New York, Alfred A. Knopf, ISBN 978-0-6797-4039-1 Pritchard, R. EThomas Coryat – Thomas Coryat
16. William Doherty – William Doherty was an American entomologist who specialised in Lepidoptera and later also collected birds for the Natural History Museum at Tring. He died of dysentry while in Nairobi, from 1877 to 1881, before he became a collector, he traveled widely in Europe, the Middle East and thence to Persia. His entomological collecting activities commenced in earnest in 1882 while in South Asia and he collected butterflies in India, Burma, the Andaman Islands, Nicobar, Siam, Indonesia, Malaysia, New Guinea and British East Africa and described many new species. After a visit to Hartert at Tring in 1895, he was recruited by Walter Rothschild, 2nd Baron Rothschild, BHL Hartert, Ernst An account of the collections of birds made by Mr. William Doherty in the Eastern Archipelago LondonWilliam Doherty – Arhopala alitaeus mirabella Doherty, 1889 J. asiat. Soc. Bengal
17. Francis Drake – Sir Francis Drake, vice admiral was an English sea captain, privateer, navigator, slaver, and politician of the Elizabethan era. With his incursion into the Pacific he inaugurated an era of privateering, Elizabeth I of England awarded Drake a knighthood in 1581. He was second-in-command of the English fleet against the Spanish Armada in 1588 and he died of dysentery in January 1596 after unsuccessfully attacking San Juan, Puerto Rico. His exploits made him a hero to the English but a pirate to the Spaniards, King Philip II was said to have offered a reward of 20,000 ducats, about £4 million by modern standards, for his life. Francis Drake was born in Tavistock, Devon, England, although his birth is not formally recorded, it is known that he was born while the Six Articles were in force. Drake was two and twenty when he obtained the command of the Judith and this would date his birth to 1544. A date of c.1540 is suggested from two portraits, one a miniature painted by Nicholas Hilliard in 1581 when he was allegedly 42 and he was the eldest of the twelve sons of Edmund Drake, a Protestant farmer, and his wife Mary Mylwaye. The first son was alleged to have named after his godfather Francis Russell. Because of religious persecution during the Prayer Book Rebellion in 1549, there the father obtained an appointment to minister the men in the Kings Navy. He was ordained deacon and was vicar of Upnor Church on the Medway. Drakes father apprenticed Francis to his neighbour, the master of a used for coastal trade transporting merchandise to France. The ship master was so satisfied with the young Drakes conduct that, being unmarried and childless at his death, Francis Drake married Mary Newman in 1569. She died 12 years later, in 1581, in 1585, Drake married Elizabeth Sydenham—born circa 1562, the only child of Sir George Sydenham, of Combe Sydenham, who was the High Sheriff of Somerset. After Drakes death, the widow Elizabeth eventually married Sir William Courtenay of Powderham. At age 23, Drake made his first voyage to the Americas, sailing with his cousin, Sir John Hawkins, on one of a fleet of ships owned by his relatives. In 1568 Drake was again with the Hawkins fleet when it was trapped by the Spaniards in the Mexican port of San Juan de Ulúa, following the defeat at San Juan de Ulúa, Drake vowed revenge. He made two voyages to the West Indies, in 1570 and 1571, of which little is known, in 1572, he embarked on his first major independent enterprise. He planned an attack on the Isthmus of Panama, known to the Spanish as Tierra Firme and the English as the Spanish MainFrancis Drake – Sir Francis Drake in Buckland Abbey 16th century, oil on canvas, by Marcus Gheeraerts the Younger
18. Edward I of England – Edward I, also known as Edward Longshanks and the Hammer of the Scots, was King of England from 1272 to 1307. He spent much of his reign reforming royal administration and common law, through an extensive legal inquiry, Edward investigated the tenure of various feudal liberties, while the law was reformed through a series of statutes regulating criminal and property law. Increasingly, however, Edwards attention was drawn towards military affairs, the first son of Henry III, Edward was involved early in the political intrigues of his fathers reign, which included an outright rebellion by the English barons. In 1259, he sided with a baronial reform movement. After reconciliation with his father, however, he remained throughout the subsequent armed conflict. After the Battle of Lewes, Edward was hostage to the rebellious barons, Montfort was defeated at the Battle of Evesham in 1265, and within two years the rebellion was extinguished. With England pacified, Edward joined the Ninth Crusade to the Holy Land, the crusade accomplished little, and Edward was on his way home in 1272 when he was informed that his father had died. Making a slow return, he reached England in 1274 and was crowned at Westminster on 19 August, after suppressing a minor rebellion in Wales in 1276–77, Edward responded to a second rebellion in 1282–83 with a full-scale war of conquest. After a successful campaign, Edward subjected Wales to English rule, built a series of castles and towns in the countryside, next, his efforts were directed towards Scotland. Initially invited to arbitrate a dispute, Edward claimed feudal suzerainty over the kingdom. In the war followed, the Scots persevered, even though the English seemed victorious at several points. At the same there were problems at home. In the mid-1290s, extensive military campaigns required high levels of taxation and these crises were initially averted, but issues remained unsettled. When the King died in 1307, he left to his son, Edward II, Edward I was a tall man for his era, hence the nickname Longshanks. He was temperamental, and this, along with his height, made him an intimidating man, nevertheless, he held the respect of his subjects for the way he embodied the medieval ideal of kingship, as a soldier, an administrator and a man of faith. The Edict remained in effect for the rest of the Middle Ages, Edward was born at the Palace of Westminster on the night of 17–18 June 1239, to King Henry III and Eleanor of Provence. Among his childhood friends was his cousin Henry of Almain, son of King Henrys brother Richard of Cornwall, Henry of Almain would remain a close companion of the prince, both through the civil war that followed, and later during the crusade. Edward was in the care of Hugh Giffard – father of the future Chancellor Godfrey Giffard – until Bartholomew Pecche took over at Giffards death in 1246, there were concerns about Edwards health as a child, and he fell ill in 1246,1247, and 1251Edward I of England – Portrait in Westminster Abbey, thought to be of Edward I
19. Enos (chimpanzee) – Enos was the second chimpanzee launched into space by NASA. He was the first chimpanzee, and third hominid after cosmonauts Yuri Gagarin and Gherman Titov, Enos flight occurred on November 29,1961. Enos was brought from the Miami Rare Bird Farm on April 3,1960 and he completed more than 1,250 training hours at the University of Kentucky and Holloman Air Force Base. Training was more intense for him than for his predecessor Ham, because Enos was exposed to weightlessness and his training included psychomotor instruction and aircraft flights. Enos was selected for only three days before launch. Two months prior, NASA launched Mercury Atlas 4 on September 13,1961, Enos flew into space aboard Mercury Atlas 5 on November 29,1961. He completed his first orbit in 1 hour and 28.5 minutes, the capsule was brought aboard the USS Stormes in the late afternoon and Enos was immediately taken below deck by his Air Force handlers. The Stormes arrived in Bermuda the next day, on November 4,1962, Enos died of shigellosis-related dysentery, which was resistant to then-known antibiotics. He was constantly observed for two months before his death, pathologists reported no symptoms that could be attributed or related to his previous space flight. Many believe Enoss remains were dissected like Ham, who was extensively studied postmortem at the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, some of Hams remains, minus the skeleton, were buried at the International Space Hall of Fame in New Mexico. Recent attempts by scholars to locate Enoss remains were unsuccessful. Some confirmed post-mortem study was undertaken, but no evidence of final disposition has been found, Enoss body may have been discarded when examinations completed. Documentary on History of Primates Used in Space Travel Atlantic. com article about electrical shocks MentalFloss. com on 54th anniversary of flightEnos (chimpanzee) – Enos with handler
20. Erasmus – Desiderius Erasmus Roterodamus, known as Erasmus or Erasmus of Rotterdam, was a Dutch/Netherlandish Renaissance humanist, Catholic priest, social critic, teacher, and theologian. Erasmus was a scholar and wrote in a pure Latin style. Among humanists he enjoyed the sobriquet Prince of the Humanists, and has called the crowning glory of the Christian humanists. He also wrote On Free Will, The Praise of Folly, Handbook of a Christian Knight, On Civility in Children, Copia, Foundations of the Abundant Style, Julius Exclusus, and many other works. Erasmus remained a member of the Roman Catholic Church all his life, remaining committed to reforming the Church and he also held to the Catholic doctrine of free will, which some Reformers rejected in favor of the doctrine of predestination. His middle road approach disappointed and even angered scholars in both camps, Erasmus died suddenly in Basel in 1536 while preparing to return to Brabant, and was buried in Basel Minster, the former cathedral of the city. A bronze statue of him was erected in his city of birth in 1622, Desiderius Erasmus is reported to have been born in Rotterdam on 28 October in the late 1460s. He was named after Saint Erasmus of Formiae, whom Erasmuss father Gerard personally favored, a 17th-century legend has it that Erasmus was first named Geert Geerts, but this is unfounded. He was born in Rotterdam, but there are insufficient records to confirm that, a well-known wooden picture indicates, Goudæ conceptus, Roterodami natus. According to an article by historian Renier Snooy, Erasmus was born in Gouda, the exact year of his birth is debated, with most biographers citing the year as 1466. Some evidence confirming 1466 can be found in Erasmuss own words, of twenty-three statements Erasmus made about his age, all and he was christened Erasmus after the saint of that name. Although associated closely with Rotterdam, he lived there for four years. Information on his family and early life comes mainly from vague references in his writings and his parents were not legally married. His father, Gerard, was a Catholic priest and curate in Gouda, little is known of his mother other than that her name was Margaretha Rogerius and she was the daughter of a physician from Zevenbergen, she may have been Gerards housekeeper. Erasmus was given the highest education available to a man of his day. During his stay there the curriculum was renewed by the principal of the school, for the first time ever Greek was taught at a lower level than a university in Europe, and this is where he began learning it. He also gleaned there the importance of a relationship with God but eschewed the harsh rules. His education there ended when plague struck the city about 1483, and his mother, in 1492, poverty forced Erasmus into the consecrated lifeErasmus – Desiderius Erasmus in 1523 as depicted by Hans Holbein the Younger. The Greek and Latin words on the book translate to "The Herculean Labours of Erasmus of Rotterdam".
21. Walter Devereux, 1st Earl of Essex – Walter Devereux, 1st Earl of Essex, KG, was an English nobleman and general. From 1573 until his death he fought in Ireland in connection with the Plantation of Ulster and he was the father of Elizabeth Is favourite of her later years, Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex. Walter Devereuxs mother was Dorothy Hastings, daughter of George Hastings, 1st Earl of Huntingdon and Anne Stafford, on his grandfathers death, Devereux became on 27 September 1558 the 2nd Viscount Hereford and 10th Baron Ferrers of Chartley. He was entrusted with joint custody of the Queen of Scots in 1568, Devereux provided signal service in suppressing the Northern Rebellion of 1569, serving as high marshal of the field under the Ambrose Dudley, 3rd Earl of Warwick and Lord Clinton. At that time, Ulster was completely under the dominion of the ONeills, led by Sir Brian MacPhelim and Turlough Luineach and his offer, with certain modifications, was accepted. He set sail for Ireland in July 1573, accompanied by a number of earls, knights and gentlemen and his enterprise had an inauspicious beginning, a storm dispersed his fleet and drove some of his vessels as far as Cork and the Isle of Man. His forces did not all reach the place of rendezvous till late in the autumn, here his troops were diminished by sickness, famine and desertion to not much more than 200 men. Intrigues of various sorts and fighting of a type followed. He was in dire straits, and his movements in Ulster took the form of raids. In October 1574, he treacherously captured MacPhelim at a conference in Belfast and he arrested William Piers, who had been active in driving the Scots out of Ulster, and accused him of passing military intelligence to Brian mac Phelim ONeill. Essex ordered Pierss arrest and detention in Carrickfergus Castle in December 1574, after encouraging Essex to prepare to attack the Irish chief Turlough Luineach, apparently at the instigation of the earl of Leicester, the queen suddenly commanded him to break off his enterprise. However, she left him a certain power, and he took advantage of that to defeat Turlough Luineach. He returned to England at the end of 1575, resolved to live henceforth an untroubled life and he was however persuaded to accept the offer of the queen to make him Earl Marshal of Ireland. He arrived in Dublin in September 1576, but died three weeks later of dysentery and it was suspected that he had been poisoned at the behest of the Earl of Leicester, who married his widow two years later. A post-mortem was carried out and concluded that Essex had died of natural causes and he was succeeded in the Earldom of Essex by his son Robert. In 1561 or 1562, Devereux married Lettice, daughter of Sir Francis Knollys, Walter and Lettice had the following children, Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex Married Frances Walsingham Sir Walter Devereux. Married Margaret, daughter of Arthur Dakyns and he was killed at the siege of Rouen in 1591. Penelope Devereux Married Robert Rich, 3rd Baron Rich Dorothy DevereuxWalter Devereux, 1st Earl of Essex – Walter Devereux, 1st Earl of Essex as Earl Marshal of England, 1575
22. Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor – Frederick II was a Holy Roman Emperor and King of Sicily in the Middle Ages, a member of the House of Hohenstaufen. His political and cultural ambitions, based in Sicily and stretching through Italy to Germany, however, his enemies, especially the popes, prevailed, and his dynasty collapsed soon after his death. As such, he was King of Germany, of Italy, at the age of three, he was crowned King of Sicily as a co-ruler with his mother, Constance of Hauteville, the daughter of Roger II of Sicily. His other royal title was King of Jerusalem by virtue of marriage, Pope Gregory IX went so far as to call him an Antichrist. Speaking six languages, Frederick was a patron of science. He played a role in promoting literature through the Sicilian School of poetry. His Sicilian royal court in Palermo, from around 1220 to his death, saw the first use of a form of an Italo-Romance language. The poetry that emanated from the school had a significant influence on literature and he was also the first king who explicitly outlawed trials by ordeal as they were considered irrational. After his death, his line died out and the House of Hohenstaufen came to an end. Born in Iesi, near Ancona, Italy, Frederick was the son of the emperor Henry VI and he was known as the puer Apuliae. Some chronicles say that his mother, the forty-year-old Constance, gave birth to him in a square in order to forestall any doubt about his origin. In 1196 at Frankfurt am Main the infant Frederick was elected King of the Germans and his rights in Germany were disputed by Henrys brother Philip of Swabia and Otto of Brunswick. At the death of his father in 1197, Frederick was in Italy travelling towards Germany when the bad news reached his guardian, Conrad of Spoleto. Frederick was hastily brought back to his mother Constance in Palermo, Sicily, Constance of Sicily was in her own right queen of Sicily, and she established herself as regent. Upon Constances death in 1198, Pope Innocent III succeeded as Fredericks guardian, Fredericks tutor during this period was Cencio, who would become Pope Honorius III. However, Markward of Annweiler, with the support of Henrys brother, Philip of Swabia, reclaimed the regency for himself, in 1200, with the help of Genoese ships, he landed in Sicily and one year later seized the young Frederick. He thus ruled Sicily until 1202, when he was succeeded by another German captain, William of Capparone, Frederick was subsequently under tutor Walter of Palearia, until, in 1208, he was declared of age. His first task was to reassert his power over Sicily and southern Italy, Otto of Brunswick had been crowned Holy Roman Emperor by Pope Innocent III in 1209Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor – Frederick II
23. Bartholomew Gosnold – Bartholomew Gosnold was an English lawyer, explorer, and privateer who was instrumental in founding the Virginia Company of London, and Jamestown in colonial America. He led the first recorded European expedition to Cape Cod and he is considered by Preservation Virginia to be the prime mover of the colonization of Virginia. Gosnold was born in Grundisburgh in Suffolk, England in 1571 and his parents were Anthony Gosnold of Grundisburgh and Dorothy Bacon of Hessett. Henry Gosnold, the judge and friend of Francis Bacon, was his cousin, Bartholomew had a younger brother, born sometime between 1573 and 1578, who, according to tradition, accompanied him to Virginia. In 1578, the will of Bartholomews great-grandmother Ann Doggett Gosnold shows five sisters to Bartholomew, Gosnold graduated from the University of Cambridge and studied law at Middle Temple. He was a friend of Richard Hakluyt and sailed with Walter Raleigh and he married Mary Golding at Latton, Essex in 1595, and together they had seven children, six of whom were baptized at Bury St. Edmunds, Suffolk, between 1597 and 1607. Mary Golding was daughter of Robert Golding and Martha Judd and her mother was daughter of Sir Andrew Judd a wealthy London merchant who, among other offices, was Lord Mayor of London, 1550–51. More importantly for Gosnolds story, he was grandfather to Thomas Smith. Gosnold married Mary Goldinge, daughter of Robert Goldinge of Bury St Edmunds and his wife Martha Judd and they had several children, daughter Mary married Richard Pepys, kinsman of the diarist Samuel Pepys. His biographer has suggested, based on evidence, that in 1597–98 he served under the Earl of Essex on his Azores voyages. Many of those involved in that voyage afterwards became involved in the colonization of Virgina, but it could as easily describe Gosnolds effort to interest his friends in a colonizing effort at the beginning of the 17th century. In the Elizabethan ages, exploration and colonization was a private endeavor, while the crown did not defray any of the expenses of these enterprises, it granted monopolizes to an individual or corporation to exploit a particular area that the crown claimed. This made the efforts profit-drive, much like privateering, so a would-be colonizer, like Gosnold, had to raise the capital for the expedition among private sources. As these ventures became more common great corporations would arise, much like the corporations which exploited the trading routes, substantial obstacles stood in the way of organizing a commercial colonizing venture to the New World. In the first place, Ireland beckoned as a prospect for colonization, one that was less expensive. Most of the capitalists who were considering New World ventures were also involved in Irish ventures. Thomas Smiths son, for example, was involved in the first substantial effort to colonize Ulster > There was also the financial risk involved in colonizing projects. Sir Walter Raleigh had lost 40 thousand pounds in founding Roanoke colony, the loss of that colony as well as colonial failures elsewhere seems to have prevented commercial efforts to colonize Virginia from the time of the failure of the Roanoke colonyBartholomew Gosnold – Albert Bierstadt 's 1858 painting: "Gosnold at Cuttyhunk, 1602"
24. Texas Guinan – Mary Louise Cecilia Texas Guinan was an American actress, producer, and entrepreneur. Guinan was one of seven siblings born in Waco, Texas, to Irish-Canadian immigrants Michael and she attended parochial school at the Loretta Convent in Waco. When she was 16 years old, her moved to Denver, Colorado. Guinan married John Moynahan, a cartoonist for the Rocky Mountain News, moynahans career took them to Chicago, where Guinan studied music before divorcing him and starting her career as a professional singer. She toured regional vaudeville with some success, but became known less for her singing than for her entertaining Wild West-related patter. In 1906, she moved to New York City, where she found work as a girl before making a career for herself in national vaudeville. In 1917, Texas Guinan made her debut in a silent film called The Wildcat. She became the United Statess first movie cowgirl, nicknamed The Queen of the West and she claimed she had a sojourn in France, entertaining the troops during World War I. She was one of the first female emcees, upon the introduction of Prohibition, she opened a speakeasy called the 300 Club at 151 W. 54th Street in New York City. The club became famous for its troupe of 40 scantily clad fan dancers and for Guinans distinctive aplomb, Guinan maintained that she had never sold an alcoholic drink in her life. Ruby Keeler and George Raft were discovered as dancers at the club by Broadway, walter Winchell credited Guinan with opening the insider Broadway scene and cafe society to him when he was starting as a gossip columnist. Guinan capitalized on her notoriety, earning $700,000 in ten months in 1926, Guinan has been credited with coining a number of phrases. She was also friends with legendary illustrator J. C. They shared a building in the basement of which she had a speakeasy called Club Intime, the middle floor was Leyendeckers studio, and the top floor was where she hid the bar. Together, they held lavish parties which the elite of society would attend, during the Great Depression, she took her show on the road. She made a sally towards Europe, but her reputation preceded her and she turned this to her advantage by launching a satirical revue, Too Hot For Paris. Bandleader Paul Whiteman was a pallbearer along with two of her lawyers and writer Heywood Broun. She was survived by both of her parents and her mother died at age 101 in 1959 and her father was 79 years old at his death in 1935Texas Guinan – Texas Guinan
25. Henry Havelock – Major General Sir Henry Havelock KCB was a British general who is particularly associated with India and his recapture of Cawnpore from rebels during the Indian Mutiny of 1857. Henry Havelock was born at Ford Hall, Bishopwearmouth, the son of William Havelock, a wealthy shipbuilder and he was the second of four brothers, all of whom entered the army. The family moved to Ingress Park, Greenhithe, Kent, when Henry was still a child, raine, headmaster of Charterhouse School until he was 17. Among his contemporaries at Charterhouse were Connop Thirlwall, George Grote, William Hale, Julius Hare, and William Norris, shortly after leaving Charterhouse his father lost his fortune by unsuccessful speculation, sold Ingress Hall, and removed to Clifton. In accordance with the desire of his mother he entered the Middle Temple in 1813, henrys legal studies having been interrupted by a misunderstanding with his father, Havelock was thrown upon his own resources, and obliged to abandon the law as a profession. He was promoted lieutenant on 24 October 1821, during the following eight years of service in Britain he read extensively all the standard works and acquired a good acquaintance with the theory of war. Before embarkation he studied the Persian and Hindustani languages with success under John Borthwick Gilchrist, at about the same time he became a Baptist, being baptized by Mr. John Mack at Serampore. He introduced some of his new familys missionary ideas to the army and he also introduced all-rank bible study classes and established the first non-church services for military personnel. By the time Havelock took part in the First Afghan War in 1839 and he was present as aide-de-camp to Willoughby Cotton at the capture of Ghazni, on 23 May 1839, and at the occupation of Kabul. In 1840, being attached to Sir Robert Henry Sales force, he took part in the passage of the defiles of the Ghilzais. Here, after many months siege, his column in an en masse defeated Akbar Khan on 7 April 1842. He used his time to produce analytical reports about the skirmishes and battles in which he was involved. These writings were returned to Britain and were reported on in the press of the day, for his military services he was made Deputy Adjutant-General at Bombay. He returned to India in 1852 with further promotion, he was appointed Quartermaster-General, promoted to full colonel, throughout August Havelock led his soldiers northwards across Oudh, defeating all rebel forces in his path, despite being greatly outnumbered. His years of study of the theories of war and his experiences in earlier campaigns were put to good use, at this time Lady Canning wrote of him in her diary, General Havelock is not in fashion, but all the same we believe that he will do well. But in spite of this lukewarm commendation Havelock proved himself the man for the occasion and won a reputation as a military leader. Three times he advanced for the relief of the Lucknow, but twice held back rather than fighting with troops wasted by battle. Reinforcements arrived at last under Outram, and he was able to capture Lucknow on 25 September 1857, however, a second rebel force arrived and besieged the town againHenry Havelock – Henry Havelock 1865 portrait
26. Henry the Young King – Henry, known as the Young King, was the second of five legitimate sons of Henry II of England and Eleanor of Aquitaine but the first to survive infancy. Beginning in 1170, he was titular King of England, Duke of Normandy, Count of Anjou, Henry the Young King was the only King of England since the Norman conquest to be crowned in the lifetime of his father, but never exercised any power. Little is known of the young prince Henry before the associated with his marriage. His mothers children by her first marriage to Louis VII of France were Marie of France, Countess of Champagne and he had one older brother, William IX, Count of Poitiers, and his younger siblings included Matilda, Richard, Geoffrey, Eleanor, Joan, and John. He was known in his own lifetime as Henry the Young King to distinguish him from his father, because he was not a reigning king, he is not counted in the numerical succession of kings of England. Henry did not appear to have been interested in the day-to-day business of government. His father, however, is reputed to have failed to delegate authority to his son, the majority opinion amongst historians is that of W. L. Warren, The Young Henry was the only one of his family who was popular in his own day. It was true that he was also the one who gave no evidence of political sagacity, military skill. And elaborated in a book, He was gracious, benign, affable, courteous. Unfortunately he was also shallow, vain, careless, high-hoped, incompetent, improvident, the Young Kings contemporary reputation, however, was by no means so negative. This had much to do with his place in the enthusiastic tournament culture of his own day. We can see this from his appearances in the History of William Marshal, the biography of the assigned to him as a tutor in 1170. The History depicts him as constantly moving from one tournament to another across northern, with his cousins, Philip, Count of Flanders, and Baldwin V, Count of Hainaut, Flanders and Namur, he was one of the key patrons of the sport. He is said to have spent over £200 a day on the great retinue of knights he brought to the tournament of Lagny-sur-Marne in November 1179, if he lacked political weight, the Young Kings patronage gave him celebrity status throughout western Europe. The baron and troubador Bertran de Born, who knew him, said that he was the best king who took up a shield. There was a perception amongst his contemporaries and the generation that his death in 1183 marked a decline both in the tournament and knightly endeavour. His former chaplain, Gervase of Tilbury, said that his death was the end of everything knightly, the young Henry played an important part in the politics of his fathers reign. On 2 November 1160, he was betrothed to Margaret of France, daughter of King Louis VII of France and his wife, Constance of CastileHenry the Young King – Henry the Young King
27. Henry V of England – Henry V was King of England from 1413 until his death at the age of 36 in 1422. He was the second English monarch who came from the House of Lancaster, after his fathers death in 1413, Henry assumed control of the country and embarked on war with France in the ongoing Hundred Years War between the two nations. His military successes culminated in his famous victory at the Battle of Agincourt and he was the son of 20-year-old Henry of Bolingbroke, and 16-year-old Mary de Bohun. He was also the grandson of the influential John of Gaunt, at the time of his birth, Richard II of England, his cousin once removed, was king. As he was not close to the line of succession to the throne and his grandfather, John of Gaunt, was the guardian of the king at that time. Upon the exile of Henrys father in 1398, Richard II took the boy into his own charge, the young Henry accompanied King Richard to Ireland, and while in the royal service, he visited Trim Castle in County Meath, the ancient meeting place of the Irish Parliament. He was created Prince of Wales at his fathers coronation, and Duke of Lancaster on 10 November 1399 and his other titles were Duke of Cornwall, Earl of Chester, and Duke of Aquitaine. A contemporary record notes that during that year Henry spent time at The Queens College, Oxford, under the care of his uncle Henry Beaufort, from 1400 to 1404, he carried out the duties of High Sheriff of Cornwall. It was there that the prince was almost killed by an arrow that became stuck in his face. An ordinary soldier might have died from such a wound, the operation was successful, but it left Henry with permanent scars, evidence of his experience in battle. The Welsh revolt of Owain Glyndŵr absorbed Henrys energies until 1408, then, as a result of the kings ill health, Henry began to take a wider share in politics. From January 1410, helped by his uncles Henry Beaufort and Thomas Beaufort – legitimised sons of John of Gaunt – he had control of the government. Both in foreign and domestic policy he differed from the king, the quarrel of father and son was political only, though it is probable that the Beauforts had discussed the abdication of Henry IV, and their opponents certainly endeavoured to defame the prince. It may be that the tradition of Henrys riotous youth, immortalised by Shakespeare, is due to political enmity. Henrys record of involvement in war and politics, even in his youth, the most famous incident, his quarrel with the chief justice, has no contemporary authority and was first related by Sir Thomas Elyot in 1531. The story of Falstaff originated in Henrys early friendship with Sir John Oldcastle, shakespeares Falstaff was originally named Oldcastle, following his main source, The Famous Victories of Henry V. However, his descendants objected, and the name was changed. That friendship, and the political opposition to Thomas Arundel, Archbishop of Canterbury. If so, their disappointment may account for the statements of ecclesiastical writers like Thomas Walsingham that Henry, after Henry IV died on 20 March 1413, Henry V succeeded him and was crowned on 9 April 1413 at Westminster Abbey, London, Kingdom of EnglandHenry V of England – Henry V
28. Thomas Hodgkin – Thomas Hodgkin was a British physician, considered one of the most prominent pathologists of his time and a pioneer in preventive medicine. He is now best known for the first account of Hodgkins disease, Hodgkins work marked the beginning of times when a pathologist was actively involved in the clinical process. He was a contemporary of Thomas Addison and Richard Bright at Guys Hospital, Thomas Hodgkin was born to a Quaker family in Pentonville, St. James Parish, Middlesex, the son of John Hodgkin. He received private education with his brother John Hodgkin, and in 1816 took a position as secretary to William Allen. His aim was to learn the trade of apothecary, one of the routes into medicine and they parted, and Hodgkin went to an apothecary cousin, John Glaisyer, in Brighton instead. He inherited property from his great-uncle of the name, meaning that from age 21 he had a degree of financial independence. In September 1819 Hodgkin was admitted to St. Thomass and Guys Medical School and he walked the wards for a year on the rounds of physicians and surgeons, and attended lectures, in particular those by Astley Cooper. He then studied at the University of Edinburgh, where the lecturers who impressed him included Andrew Duncan, the younger and his first published paper, on the spleen, came from Duncans course, and drew on the veterinary writings of his friend Bracy Clark. During his time as a student, he became a member of the Royal Medical Society, in 1821, Hodgkin went to France, where he learned to work with the stethoscope, a recent invention of René Laennec. He also took account of the statistical and clinical approach of Pierre Charles Alexandre Louis. He associated there with British expatriates including Robert Knox and Helen Maria Williams, in 1823, he qualified for his M. D. at the University of Edinburgh Medical School with a thesis on the physiological mechanisms of absorption in animals. In Paris Hodgkin met Benjamin Thorpe, a banker for Rothschilds at the time, Hodgkin became his physician for a while, and Thorpe was cured. This contact led to appointment as physician to Abraham Montefiore, married to Henriette. Once graduated at Edinburgh, Hodgkin joined the couple for travel in Italy, Abraham was seriously ill with tuberculosis and the position proved unsatisfactory for both sides, with Hodgkin dismissed. But the relationship he built up with Moses Montefiore, Abrahams brother, staying in Paris for an extended period from September 1824 to June 1825, Hodgkin made significant medical contacts. The Edwards brothers, William-Frédéric Edwards and Henri Milne Edwards, were both physiologists with distinctive theories, and Hodgkin looked over their work in the few years. Achille-Louis Foville was a neurologist, around whom Hodgkin tried unsuccessfully, from 1838, Hodgkin found a position at Guys, first as a volunteer clerk in 1825, and then in 1826 as the curator of the museum there, also carrying out autopsies. He built up his reputation on the work his posts brought him in morbid anatomy, Hodgkins hospital career came to an end, however, in 1837, when he clashed with the autocratic Benjamin HarrisonThomas Hodgkin – Thomas Hodgkin
29. John Tristan, Count of Valois – John Tristan was a French prince of the Capetian dynasty. He was jure uxoris Count of Nevers from 1265 to 1270, Count of Auxerre and Tonnerre and also Count of Valois, John was born in Damietta, Egypt. He was the child and the fourth son of king Louis IX of France, called St. Louis after canonization. Moreover, he was the first of three children of this couple who were born during the Seventh Crusade. He was born at the Egyptian port town of Damietta which had been conquered by the crusaders in 1249, according to chronicler Jean de Joinville, an old knight acted as midwife during Johns birth. Two days prior to his birth, the king was captured by the Mamluks which was the reason to name the child Tristan due to the triste occasion and he was baptised in the grand mosque of Damietta that had been re-consecrated into a church. One month later, Damietta had to be abandoned, John subsequently spent his childhood in the Holy Land where his siblings Peter and Blanche were born. His father wished that John joined the Dominican Order, but John resisted this wish successfully, in 1266, he was married to Yolande II, Countess of Nevers, making him Count of Nevers, Auxerre and Tonnere. In 1268, John was made Count of Valois and Crépy on his own right by his father the king, two years later, John accompanied his father during the Eighth Crusade, which reached Tunis in July after setting out from Cagliari on Sardinia. But at Tunis the army suffered an outbreak of dysentery, John Tristan was one of the victims who died of it, and three weeks later, St. Louis also succumbed to the disease. Both bodies were transported to France and buried in the Basilica of St Denis and his widow married again in 1272 with Robert III of Flanders, the county of Valois, his prerogative, returned to the CrownJohn Tristan, Count of Valois – John Tristan
30. John, King of England – John, also known as John Lackland, was King of England from 6 April 1199 until his death in 1216. The baronial revolt at the end of Johns reign led to the sealing of Magna Carta, John, the youngest of five sons of King Henry II of England and Duchess Eleanor of Aquitaine, was at first not expected to inherit significant lands. Following the failed rebellion of his brothers between 1173 and 1174, however, John became Henrys favourite child. He was appointed the Lord of Ireland in 1177 and given lands in England, Johns elder brothers William, Henry and Geoffrey died young, by the time Richard I became king in 1189, John was a potential heir to the throne. John unsuccessfully attempted a rebellion against Richards royal administrators whilst his brother was participating in the Third Crusade, John spent much of the next decade attempting to regain these lands, raising huge revenues, reforming his armed forces and rebuilding continental alliances. Johns judicial reforms had a impact on the English common law system. An argument with Pope Innocent III led to Johns excommunication in 1209, Johns attempt to defeat Philip in 1214 failed due to the French victory over Johns allies at the battle of Bouvines. When he returned to England, John faced a rebellion by many of his barons, although both John and the barons agreed to the Magna Carta peace treaty in 1215, neither side complied with its conditions. Civil war broke out shortly afterwards, with the barons aided by Louis of France and it soon descended into a stalemate. John was born to Henry II of England and Eleanor of Aquitaine on 24 December 1166, Henry had inherited significant territories along the Atlantic seaboard—Anjou, Normandy and England—and expanded his empire by conquering Brittany. The result was the Angevin Empire, named after Henrys paternal title as Count of Anjou and, more specifically, its seat in Angers. The Empire, however, was fragile, although all the lands owed allegiance to Henry. As one moved south through Anjou and Aquitaine, the extent of Henrys power in the provinces diminished considerably, scarcely resembling the concept of an empire at all. Some of the ties between parts of the empire such as Normandy and England were slowly dissolving over time. It was unclear what would happen to the empire on Henrys death, most believed that Henry would divide the empire, giving each son a substantial portion, and hoping that his children would continue to work together as allies after his death. To complicate matters, much of the Angevin empire was held by Henry only as a vassal of the King of France of the line of the House of Capet. Henry had often allied himself with the Holy Roman Emperor against France, shortly after his birth, John was passed from Eleanor into the care of a wet nurse, a traditional practice for medieval noble families. Eleanor then left for Poitiers, the capital of Aquitaine, and sent John and this may have been done with the aim of steering her youngest son, with no obvious inheritance, towards a future ecclesiastical careerJohn, King of England – Tomb effigy of King John, Worcester Cathedral
31. Gilbert Jose – Gilbert Edgar Jose was an Australian first-class cricketer who played for South Australia. He died while a prisoner of war in Changi during World War II, Jose was born in Taizhou, China, where his father, George Jose, worked as a CMS missionary. Back in Australia, Jose attended St Peters College in Adelaide, Jose made his first-class debut for South Australia in the 1918/19 season, against Victoria at the Melbourne Cricket Ground. He scored a pair, run out without scoring in the first innings, although he only batted in the lower order, Jose wasnt called on to bowl in the match. His second first-class appearance came in 1920/21, at the Adelaide Oval and he came in at six in the batting order and scored 16 in his first innings. Promoted up the order to five in the innings, Jose scored just two. Jose, a Fellow of the Royal Australasian College of Surgeons, a Major, he was assigned to the 10th Australian General Hospital and was taken prisoner by the Japanese. He was kept as a prisoner of war in Changi, Singapore and he had two brothers, Ivan Bede Jose and Oswald Wilfred Jose, who both served in the first World War. Ivan was awarded a Military Cross and was later the Chief Surgeon at the Royal Adelaide Hospital, Oswald was killed in action in 1917. His son, Tony Jose, was also a first-class cricketerGilbert Jose – Gilbert Jose
32. William Lanne – William Lanne was a Tasmanian Aborigine. He is most well known as the last full-blooded Aboriginal Tasmanian man, Lanne was captured along with his family in 1842 during a period known as the Black War. He was the youngest child in the last family taken to the Aboriginal camp at Wybelenna on Flinders Island by George Augustus Robinson. His native name is lost, probably because at 7 he was too young when arriving at Wybalenna, in 1847, he temporarily moved to Oyster Cove, and was sent to an orphanage in Hobart until 1851. In 1855 he joined a ship and regularly visited Oyster Cove when he had time. Lanne died on 3 March 1869 from a combination of cholera, following his death, Lannes body was dismembered and used for scientific purposes. An argument broke out between the Royal College of Surgeons of England and the Royal Society of Tasmania over who should possess his remains. Nonetheless, Crowther managed to break into the morgue where Lannes body was kept and decapitated the corpse, removed the skin, the Tasmanian Royal Society soon discovered Crowthers work, and decided to thwart any further attempts to collect samples by amputating the hands and feet. Lanne was then buried in this state, because he was accused of the theft of Lannes head, Crowthers honorary appointment as surgeon at the Colonial Hospital terminated. Yet in 1869, the Council of the Royal College of Surgeons awarded him a gold medal, Crowther later became Premier of Tasmania. Other colonists took note of Crowthers act, A fracas occurred outside the Council chamber, Hobart Town, Mr. Kennerley called the attention of the House to the circumstance, and Mr. Crowther was reprimanded. In the 1990s, the Tasmanian Aboriginal Centre believed Lannes skull to be among them, the remains of Aboriginals were ultimately returned and reburied, though the university officially denied that any of the remains belonged to Lanne. William Lannes name is believed to be the source of the King Billy Pine, or Athrotaxis selaginoides, Island Magazine Article on Trugannini and Lannes bodies desecrationsWilliam Lanne – William Lanne
33. James A. Leonard – James A. Leonard was a young American chess master, who grew up as a son of poor Irish immigrants in New York City. He learned to play chess at age 16 or 17, before his 20th birthday, he was already famous for his fierce attacking play and prowess at blindfold chess, at which he played as many as ten games simultaneously. In 1862, he fought for the Union in the American Civil War and he was captured, and while being held as a prisoner of war, died of dysentery before reaching his 21st birthday. Commentators have compared his promise, never realized, to that of American chess giants Paul Morphy, nineteenth-century chess journalists and Jeremy Gaiges book Chess Personalia, A Biobibliography state that Leonard was born in New York City. However, his biographer John S. Hilbert, states, based on Leonards military records, Leonard grew up in New York City with his parents, who were poor, working-class Irish immigrants. Hilbert believes, based on 1850 census records, that his parents may have been John Leonard, a cabinet maker, Leonard also had a brother Joseph, about two years his junior. Leonard learned chess at age 16 or 17 and he played chess primarily at the Morphy Chess Rooms in New York. Chess journalist Myron Hazeltine remarked that Leonard was the Rooms light, in the summer of 1860, he won the second New York Handicap tournament held there. In October 1860, Paul Morphy, the de facto world champion, visited New York and played Leonard. The result of the game is unknown, in 1861, Leonard visited Philadelphia, where he played a match against William Dwight, who later became a general in the Union Army. The match was a class of chess cultures, Leonard wrote of Dwight, to Hazeltine, OH GOLLY aint he a slow player. He considers 3 moves a side every hour as getting along very fast, the Philadelphians treated Leonard as a social inferior, and took offense at an article about the match he published in the New York Clipper. The match was a disaster for Leonard, whose second stole his money, Leonard returned to New York with the match unfinished, while leading with six wins, two draws, and three losses, and needing only one more win for victory in the match. By late 1861, Leonard was giving exhibitions of blindfold chess. Hazeltine referred to Leonards wonderful blindfold séances in the Fall of 1861, the most blindfold games that Leonard ever played simultaneously was apparently ten, in New York on November 16,1861. He scored four wins, two draws, and four losses, the number of boards played by Leonard was close to the world record, which was then held by Louis Paulsen, who had played as many as 12 blindfold games simultaneously. Although the two chess matches he played were left unfinished, his dominance in those matches was evident. On February 1,1862, Leonard enlisted on the side of the Union in the American Civil War in Company F.88 N. Y, after seven days of battles, he was captured by the Confederate ArmyJames A. Leonard – James A. Leonard
34. David Livingstone – The Nile sources, he told a friend, are valuable only as a means of opening my mouth with power among men. It is this power which I hope to remedy an immense evil and his subsequent exploration of the central African watershed was the culmination of the classic period of European geographical discovery and colonial penetration of Africa. His meeting with Henry Morton Stanley on 10 November 1871 gave rise to the popular quotation Dr. Livingstone and he was the second of seven children born to Neil Livingstone and his wife Agnes. David was employed at the age of 10 in the mill of Henry Monteith & Co. in Blantyre Works. He and his brother John worked twelve-hour days as piecers, tying broken cotton threads on the spinning machines and he was a student at the Charing Cross Hospital Medical School in 1838–40, with his courses covering medical practice, midwifery, and botany. Neil Livingstone was a Sunday school teacher and teetotaller who handed out Christian tracts on his travels as a tea salesman. He extensively read books on theology, travel, and missionary enterprises and this rubbed off on the young David, who became an avid reader, but he also loved scouring the countryside for animal, plant, and geological specimens in local limestone quarries. Other significant influences in his life were Thomas Burke, a Blantyre evangelist. At age nineteen, David and his left the Church of Scotland for a local Congregational church, influenced by preachers like Ralph Wardlaw. For Livingstone, this meant a release from the fear of eternal damnation, Livingstones reading of missionary Karl Gützlaffs Appeal to the Churches of Britain and America on behalf of China enabled him to persuade his father that medical study could advance religious ends. Livingstones experiences in H. Monteiths Blantyre cotton mill were important from ages 10 to 26. To enter medical school, he required some knowledge of Latin, a local Roman Catholic named Daniel Gallagher helped him learn Latin to the required level. Later in life, Gallagher became a priest and founded the third oldest Catholic Church in Glasgow, St Simons, a painting of both Gallagher and Livingstone by Roy Petrie hangs in that churchs coffee room. In addition, he attended divinity lectures by Wardlaw, a leader at this time of vigorous anti-slavery campaigning in the city, shortly after, he applied to join the London Missionary Society and was accepted subject to missionary training. He qualified as a Licentiate of the Faculty of Physicians and Surgeons of Glasgow on 16 November 1840, Livingstone hoped to go to China as a missionary, but the First Opium War broke out in September 1839 and the LMS suggested the West Indies instead. In 1840, while continuing his studies in London, Livingstone met LMS missionary Robert Moffat, on leave from Kuruman. He was excited by Moffats vision of expanding missionary work northwards, buxtons arguments that the African slave trade might be destroyed through the influence of legitimate trade and the spread of Christianity. Livingstone, therefore, focused his ambitions on Southern Africa, during this time, Livingstone was attacked by a lion while staying in an African village, trying to defend the villages sheep from the animalDavid Livingstone – David Livingstone
35. Jack London – John Griffith Jack London was an American novelist, journalist, and social activist. Some of his most famous works include The Call of the Wild and White Fang, both set in the Klondike Gold Rush, as well as the short stories To Build a Fire, An Odyssey of the North, and Love of Life. He also wrote about the South Pacific in stories such as The Pearls of Parlay and The Heathen, London was part of the radical literary group The Crowd in San Francisco and a passionate advocate of unionization, socialism, and the rights of workers. He wrote several works dealing with these topics, such as his dystopian novel The Iron Heel, his non-fiction exposé The People of the Abyss. Jack Londons mother, Flora Wellman, was the fifth and youngest child of Pennsylvania Canal builder Marshall Wellman and his first wife, Marshall Wellman was descended from Thomas Wellman, an early Puritan settler in the Massachusetts Bay Colony. Flora left Ohio and moved to the Pacific coast when her father remarried after her mother died, in San Francisco, Flora worked as a music teacher and spiritualist, claiming to channel the spirit of a Sauk chief, Black Hawk. Biographer Clarice Stasz and others believe Londons father was astrologer William Chaney, Flora Wellman was living with Chaney in San Francisco when she became pregnant. Whether Wellman and Chaney were legally married is unknown, most San Francisco civil records were destroyed by the extensive fires that followed the 1906 earthquake, nobody knows what name appeared on her sons birth certificate. Stasz notes that in his memoirs, Chaney refers to Londons mother Flora Wellman as having been his wife, according to Flora Wellmans account, as recorded in the San Francisco Chronicle of June 4,1875, Chaney demanded that she have an abortion. When she refused, he disclaimed responsibility for the child and she was not seriously wounded, but she was temporarily deranged. After giving birth, Flora turned the baby over for care to Virginia Prentiss and she was a major maternal figure throughout Londons life. Late in 1876, Flora Wellman married John London, a partially disabled Civil War veteran, the family moved around the San Francisco Bay Area before settling in Oakland, where London completed public grade school. He wrote to William Chaney, then living in Chicago, Chaney concluded by saying that he was more to be pitied than London. London was devastated by his fathers letter, in the following, he quit school at Berkeley. London was born near Third and Brannan Streets in San Francisco, the house burned down in the fire after the 1906 San Francisco earthquake, the California Historical Society placed a plaque at the site in 1953. Although the family was working class, it was not as impoverished as Londons later accounts claimed, in 1885, London found and read Ouidas long Victorian novel Signa. He credited this as the seed of his literary success, in 1886, he went to the Oakland Public Library and found a sympathetic librarian, Ina Coolbrith, who encouraged his learning. In 1889, London began working 12 to 18 hours a day at Hickmotts Cannery, seeking a way out, he borrowed money from his foster mother Virginia Prentiss, bought the sloop Razzle-Dazzle from an oyster pirate named French Frank, and became an oyster pirateJack London – London in 1903
36. Louis VIII of France – Louis VIII the Lion was King of France from 1223 to 1226. He also claimed the title King of England from 1216 to 1217, Louis VIII was born in Paris, the son of King Philip II of France and Isabelle of Hainaut, from whom he inherited the County of Artois. While Louis VIII only briefly reigned as king of France, he was a leader in his years as crown prince. During the First Barons War of 1215-17 against King John of England, after his victory at the Battle of Roche-au-Moine in 1214, he invaded southern England and was proclaimed King of England by rebellious barons in London on the 2 June 1216. He was never crowned, however, and renounced his claim after being excommunicated and repelled, in 1217, Louis started the conquest of Guyenne, leaving only a small region around Bordeaux to Henry III of England. Louiss short reign was marked by an intervention using royal forces into the Albigensian Crusade in southern France that decisively moved the conflict towards a conclusion and he died in 1226 and was succeeded by his son Louis IX. In summer 1195, a marriage between Louis and Eleanor of Brittany, niece of Richard I of England, was suggested for an alliance between Philip II and Richard, but it failed and this led to a sudden deterioration in relations between Richard and Philip. On 23 May 1200, at the age of 12, Louis was married to Blanche of Castile, daughter of King Alfonso VIII of Castile and Eleanor of England, the marriage could only be concluded after prolonged negotiations between King Philip II of France and Blanches uncle John. In 1214, King John of England began his campaign to reclaim the Duchy of Normandy from Philip II. John was optimistic, as he had built up alliances with Holy Roman Emperor Otto IV, Count Renaud of Boulogne. Johns plan was to split Philips forces by pushing north-east from Poitou towards Paris, while Otto, Renaud and Ferdinand, supported by the Earl of Salisbury, marched south-west from Flanders. Whereas Philip II took personal command of the front against the emperor and his allies. The first part of the campaign went well for the English, with John outmanoeuvring the forces under the command of Prince Louis, John besieged the castle of Roche-au-Moine, a key stronghold, forcing Louis to give battle against Johns larger army. The local Angevin nobles refused to advance with the king, left at something of a disadvantage, shortly afterwards, Philip won the hard-fought Battle of Bouvines in the north against Otto and Johns other allies, bringing an end to Johns hopes of retaking Normandy. In 1215, the English barons rebelled against the unpopular King John in the First Barons War, the barons offered the throne to Prince Louis, who landed unopposed on the Isle of Thanet in eastern Kent, England, at the head of an army on 21 May 1216. There was little resistance when the prince entered London, and Louis was proclaimed king at Old St Pauls Cathedral with great pomp and celebration in the presence of all of London. Even though he was not crowned, many nobles, as well as King Alexander II of Scotland on behalf of his English possessions, on 14 June 1216, Louis captured Winchester and soon controlled over half of the English kingdom. But just when it seemed that England was his, King Johns death in October 1216 caused many of the barons to desert Louis in favour of Johns nine-year-old sonLouis VIII of France – Louis VIII's seal
37. Louis IX of France – Louis IX, commonly known as Saint Louis, was King of France from 1226 until his death. Louis was crowned in Reims at the age of 12, following the death of his father Louis VIII the Lion, although his mother, Blanche of Castile, ruled the kingdom until he reached maturity. During Louiss childhood, Blanche dealt with the opposition of rebellious vassals, as an adult, Louis IX faced recurring conflicts with some of the most powerful nobles, such as Hugh X of Lusignan and Peter of Dreux. Simultaneously, Henry III of England tried to restore his continental possessions and his reign saw the annexation of several provinces, notably Normandy, Maine and Provence. Louis IX was a reformer and developed French royal justice, in which the king is the judge to whom anyone is able to appeal to seek the amendment of a judgment. He banned trials by ordeal, tried to prevent the private wars that were plaguing the country, to enforce the correct application of this new legal system, Louis IX created provosts and bailiffs. According to his vow made after an illness, and confirmed after a miraculous cure. He was succeeded by his son Philip III, Louiss actions were inspired by Christian values and Catholic devotion. He decided to punish blasphemy, gambling, interest-bearing loans and prostitution and he also expanded the scope of the Inquisition and ordered the burning of Talmuds. He is the only canonized king of France, and there are many places named after him. Much of what is known of Louiss life comes from Jean de Joinvilles famous Life of Saint Louis, two other important biographies were written by the kings confessor, Geoffrey of Beaulieu, and his chaplain, William of Chartres. The fourth important source of information is William of Saint-Parthus biography, while several individuals wrote biographies in the decades following the kings death, only Jean of Joinville, Geoffrey of Beaulieu, and William of Chartres wrote from personal knowledge of the king. Louis was born on 25 April 1214 at Poissy, near Paris, the son of Prince Louis the Lion and Princess Blanche, and baptised in La Collégiale Notre-Dame church. His grandfather on his fathers side was Philip II, king of France, while his grandfather on his mothers side was Alfonso VIII, tutors of Blanches choosing taught him most of what a king must know—Latin, public speaking, writing, military arts, and government. He was 9 years old when his grandfather Philip II died, a member of the House of Capet, Louis was twelve years old when his father died on 8 November 1226. He was crowned king within the month at Reims cathedral, because of Louiss youth, his mother ruled France as regent during his minority. Louis mother trained him to be a leader and a good Christian. She used to say, I love you, my son, as much as a mother can love her childLouis IX of France – Representation of Saint Louis considered to be true to life, early 14th century. Statue from the church of Mainneville, Eure, France.
38. Jacques Marquette – Father Jacques Marquette S. J. sometimes known as Père Marquette or James Marquette, was a French Jesuit missionary who founded Michigans first European settlement, Sault Ste. Marie, and later founded St. Ignace, Michigan, in 1673 Father Marquette and Louis Jolliet were the first Europeans to explore and map the northern portion of the Mississippi River. Jacques Marquette was born at Laon, France, on June 1,1637, after he worked and taught in France for several years, the Jesuits assigned him to New France in 1666 as a missionary to the indigenous peoples of the Americas. He showed great proficiency in learning the languages, especially Huron. In 1668 Father Marquette was moved by his superiors to missions farther up the St. Lawrence River in the western Great Lakes region and he helped found missions at Sault Ste. Marie in present-day Michigan in 1668, St. Ignace in 1671, at La Pointe he encountered members of the Illinois tribes, who told him about the important trading route of the Mississippi River. They invited him to teach their people, whose settlements were mostly farther south, leave was granted, and in 1673, Marquette joined the expedition of Louis Jolliet, a French-Canadian explorer. They departed from St. Ignace on May 17, with two canoes and five voyageurs of French-Indian ancestry and they followed Lake Michigan to Green Bay and up the Fox River, nearly to its headwaters. From there, they were told to portage their canoes a distance of less than two miles through marsh and oak plains to the Wisconsin River. Many years later, at point the town of Portage, Wisconsin was built. From the portage, they ventured forth, and on June 17, they entered the Mississippi near present-day Prairie du Chien, the Joliet-Marquette expedition traveled to within 435 miles of the Gulf of Mexico but turned back at the mouth of the Arkansas River. By this point they had encountered natives carrying European trinkets. They followed the Mississippi back to the mouth of the Illinois River and they reached Lake Michigan near the site of modern-day Chicago, by way of the Chicago Portage. In September Marquette stopped at the mission of St. Francis Xavier, located in present-day Green Bay, Wisconsin, Marquette and his party returned to the Illinois Territory in late 1674, becoming the first Europeans to winter in what would become the city of Chicago. As welcomed guests of the Illinois Confederation, the explorers were feasted en route, in the spring of 1675, Marquette traveled westward and celebrated a public mass at the Grand Village of the Illinois near Starved Rock. A bout of dysentery which he had contracted during the Mississippi expedition sapped his health, on the return trip to St. Ignace, he died at age 37 near the modern town of Ludington, Michigan. Marquette Transportation Company, a company using a silhouette of the Pere in his canoe as their emblem. Other types of memorials were erected, including those at his birthplace in Laon, France, the Legler Branch of the Chicago Public Library displays Wilderness, Winter River Scene, a restored mural by Midwestern artist R. Fayerweather BabcockJacques Marquette – Jacques Marquette
39. William Pope McArthur – William Pope McArthur was an American naval officer and hydrologist who was involved in the first surveys of the Pacific Coast for the U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey. Genevieve, Missouri to John and Mary Linn McArthur, mcArthurs uncle, Dr. Lewis F. Linn was U. S. At Linns request McArthur was appointed Midshipman in the U. S. Navy on February 11,1832, in 1837 he attended the Naval School at Norfolk, Virginia. During the Second Seminole War he was promoted to the rank of Lieutenant. Among the passengers was future American Civil War General Joseph E. Johnston who accompanied the vessel as a topographical engineer. McArthur was wounded in both legs at Jupiter, Florida, while one musket ball was pulled from one leg, the ball remained in the other leg. He was sent to the Naval Hospital in Norfolk where he was to court and marry the Mary Stone Young, among their children is Lewis Linn McArthur, an Oregon Supreme Court Justice. In 1840 he began a survey of the Gulf Of Mexico aboard the brig Consort. On October 27,1848 A. D. Bache, Superintendent U. S. Coast Survey, instructed him to go to San Francisco, after sailing from New York McArthur was delayed in Panama by the influx of settlers in the California Gold Rush. In Panama, McArthur was asked to captain a former coal storage ship to San Francisco, the von Humboldt left Panama on May 21,1849 and took 102 days to arrive at San Francisco, the first 46 of which were spent getting to the Mexican port of Acapulco. Among the four hundred passengers on von Humboldt were Collis P. Huntington, in 1848 Congress had appropriated funds for two lighthouses in the act creating the Oregon Territory. McArthur was to recommend placing one at Cape Disappointment on the Columbia, McArthur and some of his ship mates were quite taken with Oregon and the Willamette Valley, he wrote, The climate is agreeable and healthy. The water is not inferior to any in the world, the face of the country is too uneven to permit as general cultivation, still it will and must soon become a great agricultural and stock growing country. The scenery is beautiful and in places and some points of view the grandest that the eye ever beheld. Lieutenant Blunt who accompanied him on the expedition made a land claim on behalf of himself, McArthur. McArthurs uncle, Senator Linn, along with Senator Thomas Hart Benton, had been an advocate of American expansion in the West, McArthur was not to survive the voyage to the east coast in 1850. He became ill onboard with dysentery, died, and was buried in Panama, the Navy purchased the original 956 acres of the Mare Island Naval Shipyard on January 4,1853. McArthurs family share was $5,218.20. in 1867, his body was disinterred, mcArthurs name is applied to several ships and placenamesWilliam Pope McArthur – William Pope McArthur
40. Eric Archibald McNair – Eric Archibald McNair VC was a British soldier. He was a recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and he was educated at Charterhouse School from 1907–1913, where he was Head of the School. On 14 February 1916 near Hooge, Belgium, when the enemy exploded a mine, Lieutenant McNair, although much shaken, the lieutenant at once organised a party with a machine-gun to man the near edge of the crater and opened rapid fire on the enemy who were advancing. They were driven back with many dead, Lieutenant McNair then ran back for reinforcements, but the communication trench being blocked he went across the open under heavy fire and held up the reinforcements the same way. His prompt and plucky action undoubtedly saved a critical situation and he later achieved the rank of Captain. He died of dysentery at the base hospital in Genoa, Italy. His Victoria Cross is displayed at the Eastbourne Redoubt Museum, Eastbourne, Sussex, Redoubt Fortress Museum Eastbourne Redoubt The Royal Sussex Living History Group WebsiteEric Archibald McNair – Eric Archibald McNair
41. Percy B. Molesworth – Percy Braybrooke Molesworth was a Major in the corps of Royal Engineers and an amateur astronomer. Molesworth was the youngest son of Sir Guildford Molesworth, and was educated at Winchester College and he obtained his commission in the Corps of Royal Engineers in 1886 and was stationed at Fort Camden until 1891. He then was ordered to Hong Kong and three later moved to Trincomalee on Ceylon. He retired in 1906 intending to pursue astronomy full-time at his estate at Trincomalee and he is buried in the St Stephens Cemetery in Docklands Road Trincomalee and the grave is two to the left of the memorial to the Royal Engineers. The inscription can be seen clearly on the stone, as at Sept 19th 2013. He was a member of the British Astronomical Association in 1890 and was elected a Fellow of the Royal Astronomical Society in 1898. Molesworth was a talented observer creating first-class drawings of Mars and Jupiter in the years 1903 to 1905 and he is credited with discovering a great disturbance in the southern bands of Jupiter on 28 February 1901. Known as the South Tropical Disturbance it lasted for close to forty years, a crater on Mars was named in his honour. The Reflector Telescope that he used was gifted to the University of Colombo many years after his death and it was used till 1988, when bandits looted the telescopes metallic parts and sold them for scrap. It hasnt been used since, and can still be seen at the Astronomy dome of the University at Reid Avenue, monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 248 Obs 108 Description of the discovery of the southern disturbance Molesworths description of his Mars observationsPercy B. Molesworth – v
42. Sir William Norris, 1st Baronet – Sir William Norris, 1st Baronet was an English politician and ambassador to Aurangzeb. He was the son of Thomas Norris of Speke Hall, Lancashire, by Katherine. The eldest son, Thomas Norris, was a Whig M. P. for Liverpool,1688 to 1690 and 1690 to 1695. William succeeded his eldest brother, Thomas, as member for Liverpool in 1695, and held the seat till 1701, he was re-elected during his absence in India and he was made a baronet on 3 December 1698, of Speke, Lancashire. The title became extinct on his death, the Old Company had its firmans from the Mughal Emperors conferring special privileges of trading. Norris landed on 25 September 1699 at Masulipatam on the Indian east coast, the English company was incompetent to carry the offer into effect. Niccolao Manucci excused himself as an interpreter, and Pitt had made no preparations for the inland journey, Norris fell out with him, and sailed on 23 August 1700 for Swally, the port on the Indian west coast for Surat, which he reached on 10 December. Norris paid for a state entry into Surat. On 27 January 1701 he set out from Surat on a journey to the emperors camp and he was escorted by over sixty Europeans, including his brother Edward Norris, and three hundred Indians. The route taken across Maharashtra via Daulatabad, Aurangabad and Jalgaon was around 470 miles, while in Burhanpur Norris let protocol stand in the way of meeting Asad Khan, chief vizier to the Emperor. He set off south to meet the Emperor himself, who was engaged in an operation at Panhala fort. An audience was granted on 28 April, and King Williams letter was presented in a ceremony with many gifts. He left the camp, which he had followed to Mandangad and he was then held up in Burhanpur. In February 1702 Aurangzeb sent Norris at Burhanpur a letter, and a sword for King William, with a promise that, after all, on 9 February the ambassador resumed his journey, and arrived on 12 March in the neighbourhood of Surat. He immediately entered upon a dispute with Sir Nicholas Waite. He was married, to the widow of a Pollexfen, Leigh Rayments Historical List of MPs Leigh Rayments list of baronets Attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain, Norris, WilliamSir William Norris, 1st Baronet – Letter from Aurangzeb to William III (BL Or. 6286)
43. Philip I of Namur – Philip I, called the Noble, was the margrave of Namur from 1195 until his death. He was the son of Baldwin V, Count of Hainault. His paternal grandmother was Alice, Countess of Namur, baldwins will left Namur to Philip, but as a fief of Hainault. However, Theobald I of Bar, who had married Henry of Luxembourgs heiress, Ermesinda, refused to relinquish Namur, the war lasted for three years until the Treaty of Dinant, signed on 26 July 1199, recognised Philip as holder of Namur. Philip was left as regent of Hainault while his brother, Baldwin VI, went on the Fourth Crusade and acted as guardian to the young heiresses Joanna. This insulted the barons of Flanders and Hainault and they revolted and forced him to give up the regency, in Namur, Philip reigned as a peaceful and pious promoter of social development. He intervened as the mediator between many feuding lords and he died of dysentery on 9 October 1212, in Valenciennes. He had designated his twin sister Yolande as heirPhilip I of Namur – Ancestry 
44. Philip III of France – It can also refer to Philippe III de Croÿ and Philippe III, Duke of Orléans. Philip III, called the Bold, was King of France from 1270 to 1285, Philip proved indecisive, soft in nature, and timid. The strong personalities of his parents apparently crushed him, and policies of his father dominated him, people called him the Bold on the basis of his abilities in combat and on horseback and not on the basis of his political or personal character. He was pious but not cultivated and he followed the suggestions of others, first of Pierre de La Broce and then of his uncle King Charles I of Naples, Sicily, and Albania. His father, Louis IX, died in Tunis during the Eighth Crusade, Philip, who was accompanying him, came back to France to claim his throne and was anointed at Reims in 1271. Philip made numerous territorial acquisitions during his reign, the most notable being the County of Toulouse which was annexed to the Crown lands of France in 1271. Following the Sicilian Vespers, a rebellion triggered by Peter III of Aragon against Philips uncle Charles I of Naples, Philip was forced to retreat and died from dysentry in Perpignan in 1285. He was succeeded by his son Philip the Fair, Philip was born in Poissy to King Saint Louis IX of France and Margaret of Provence, queen consort of France. As a younger son, Philip was not expected to rule a kingdom, at the death of his elder brother Louis in 1260, he became the heir to the throne. He was then 15 years old and has less skill than his brother, being of a character, submissive, timid and versatile. Pope Urban IV released Philip from his oath on June 6,1263, from 1268 Pierre de La Brosse became mentor. Saint Louis also provided him his own advice, writing in particular Enseignements and he also received a very faith-oriented education. Guillaume dErcuis was also his chaplain before being the tutor of his son, as Count of Orléans, he accompanied his father to the Eighth Crusade in Tunis,1270. After taking Carthage, the army was struck by an epidemic of dysentery and his brother John Tristan, Count of Valois died first, on August 3, and on August 25 the king died. To prevent putrefaction of the remains of the sovereign, they recoursed to Mos Teutonicus, Philip, then 25 years old, was proclaimed king in Tunis. With neither great personality or will, very pious, but a good rider and he was unable to command the troops at the death of his father. He left his uncle Charles I of Naples to negotiate with Muhammad I al-Mustansir, Hafsid Sultan of Tunis and he got the payment of tribute from the caliph of Tunis in exchange for the departure of the crusaders. A treaty was concluded October 28,1270 between the kings of France, Sicily and Navarre and the barons on one hand and the caliph of Tunis on the otherPhilip III of France – Coronation of King Philip III
45. Philip V of France – Philip V, the Tall, was King of France and King of Navarre. He reigned from 1316 to his death and was the monarch of the main line of the House of Capet. As the second son of king Philip IV, he was entitled to an appanage, when Louis died in 1316, he left a daughter and a pregnant wife, Clementia of Hungary. Philip the Tall successfully claimed the regency, Queen Clementia gave birth to a boy, who was proclaimed king as John I, but the infant king lived only for five days. At the death of his nephew, Philip immediately had himself crowned at Reims, however, his legitimacy was challenged by the party of Louis X’s daughter Joan. The succession of Philip, instead of Joan, set the precedent for the French royal succession that would be known as the Salic law. A spontaneous popular crusade started in Normandy in 1320 aiming to liberate Iberia from the Moors, instead the angry populace marched to the south attacking castles, royal officials, priests, lepers, and Jews. Philip V engaged in a series of reforms intended to improve the management of the kingdom. These reforms included the creation of an independent Court of Finances, the standardization of weights and measures, Philip V died from dysentery in 1322 without a male heir and was succeeded by his younger brother Charles IV. Philip was born in Lyon, the son of King Philip IV of France. His father granted to him the county of Poitiers in appanage, modern historians have described Philip V as a man of considerable intelligence and sensitivity, and the wisest and politically most apt of Philip IVs three sons. At the heart of the problems for both Philip IV and Louis X were taxes and the difficulty in raising them outside of crises, Philip married Joan, the eldest daughter of Count Otto IV of Burgundy, in 1307. The original plan had been for Louis X to marry Joan, Philip went to great lengths not only to endow Joan with lands and money but to try to ensure that these gifts were irrevocable in the event of his early death. Amongst the various gifts were a palace, villages, additional money for jewels, and her servants and the property of all the Jews in Burgundy, which he gave to Joan in 1318. Joan was implicated in Margarets adultery case during 1314, Margaret was accused and convicted of adultery with two knights, upon the testimony of their sister-in-law, Isabella. Joan was suspected of having known about the adultery, placed under house arrest at Dourdan as punishment. With Philips support she continued to protest her innocence, and by 1315 her name had been cleared by the Paris Parlement, partially through Philips influence and it is unclear why Philip stood by her in the way that he did. Philips older brother, Louis X, died in 1316 leaving the pregnant Clementia of Hungary as his widowPhilip V of France – Contemporary picture from the L'arbre généalogique Bernard Gui, Généalogie des rois de France
46. FitzRoy Somerset, 1st Baron Raglan – Field Marshal FitzRoy James Henry Somerset, 1st Baron Raglan, GCB, PC, known before 1852 as Lord FitzRoy Somerset, was a British Army officer. As a junior officer he served in the Peninsular War and the Hundred Days and he also took part in politics as Tory Member of Parliament for Truro before becoming Master-General of the Ordnance. He became commander of the British troops sent to the Crimea in 1854, after an early success at the Battle of Alma, a failure to deliver orders with sufficient clarity caused the fateful Charge of the Light Brigade at the Battle of Balaclava. Despite further success at the Battle of Inkerman, an allied assault on Sevastopol in June 1855 was a complete failure. Raglan died later that month from a mixture of dysentery and clinical depression, promoted to lieutenant on 1 June 1805, Somerset accompanied Sir Arthur Paget on his visit to Sultan Selim III of the Ottoman Empire, who had been aligning himself too closely with France, in 1807. He became a captain in the 43rd Regiment of Foot on 5 May 1808 shortly before his appointment as aide-de-camp to Sir Arthur Wellesley in July 1808, Somerset accompanied Wellesleys Army when it was sent to Portugal later that month. Somerset fought at the Second Battle of Porto in May 1809, the Battle of Talavera in July 1809, promoted to brevet major on 9 June 1811, he also took part in the Battle of El Bodón in September 1811. They also fought together at the Battle of the Nive in December 1813, the Battle of Orthez in February 1814, following Wellingtons appointment as British Ambassador during the short period of Bourbon restoration, Somerset assumed a role as his secretary at the Embassy on 5 July 1814. Somerset transferred to the 1st Guards on 25 July 1814 and was appointed a Knight Commander of the Order of the Bath on 2 January 1815. Somerset also saw action during the Hundred Days, he served on Wellingtons staff at the Battle of Quatre Bras on 16 June 1815 and at the Battle of Waterloo two days later. Promoted to colonel and appointed an aide-de-camp to the Prince Regent on 28 August 1815 and he remained with the Army of Occupation in France until May 1816 when he returned to the post of secretary at the British Embassy in Paris. Somerset was elected Tory Member of Parliament for Truro in 1818, Somerset lost his seat at the general election in 1820 but, having been promoted to major-general on 27 May 1825, regained his seat in Parliament in 1826. Following Wellingtons appointment as Commander-in-Chief of the Forces in January 1827 Somerset became Military Secretary in August 1827 and he stood down from Parliament in 1829 and was promoted to lieutenant-general on 28 June 1838. Raglan became commander of the British troops sent to the Crimea with the rank of full general on 21 February 1854 and was promoted to the substantive rank of full general on 20 June 1854. An Anglo-French force under the joint command of Somerset and General Jacques St. Arnaud defeated General Alexander Menshikovs Russian army at the Battle of Alma in September 1854 and he was also awarded the Ottoman Empire Order of the Medjidie, 1st Class on 15 May 1855. A piecemeal allied assault on Sevastopol on 18 June 1855 was a complete failure, the anxieties of the siege began to seriously undermine Raglans health and he died from a mixture of dysentery and clinical depression on 29 June 1855. His body was brought home and interred at St Michael and All Angels Church, Raglan had also served as honorary colonel of the 53rd Regiment of Foot and then as honorary colonel of the Royal Regiment of Horse Guards. A blue plaque was erected outside Raglans house at Stanhope Gate in London in 1911, on 6 August 1814 Somerset married Lady Emily Harriet Wellesley-PoleFitzRoy Somerset, 1st Baron Raglan – FitzRoy Somerset by William Salter, 1838–1840
47. Rao Tula Ram – Rao Tula Ram was one of the key leaders of the Indian rebellion of 1857, in Haryana, where he is considered a state hero. His plans were cut short by his death from dysentery in Kabul on 23 September 1863, Rao Tula Ram was born on 9 December 1825. His father was Rao Puran Singh, his grandfather Rao Tej Singh and his mothers name was Rani Gyan Kanwar, daughter of Rao Zahari Singh, Rao Tula Ram was one of the great leaders of the Indian Uprising of 1857 against the colonial British forces. His story is one of rebellion and guerilla warfare against the stronger, Rao Tula Ram helped Emperor Bahadur shah and others rebels forces who were waging war against Britishers in Delhi. The battle of Narnaul was undoubtedly one of the most decisive battles of the uprising of 1857, the English felt jubilant over their success in this confrontation, for it resulted in the marked close of the crucial period of the struggle in the Haryana Region and Northern Rajasthan. In 1877, his title was restored to his son Rao Yudhister Singh, russias growing activity in Central Asia in the middle of the 19th century substantially influenced both the policy of the British colonialists and public sentiment in India. From time to time missions arrived in Russia from India, representing interests of different sections of the population. These people complained about the methods used by the British authorities. Documents about an unknown mission which set out for Russia in 1859 has been found in the archives. These documents are all the more interesting since they are connected with a most important event in Indias 19th-century history, anti-British fedual rulers of the Indian principalities are known to have predominated among the leaders of the popular uprising. At the moment when the uprising suffered a set-back, a group of Indian princes elected from among themselves an envoy, Rao Raja Tula Singh Bahadur, the ruler of Rewari, agreed to make this dangerous and long trip. There is every evidence that there had been agreement among them, for their messages were very similar in content and used similar expressions. During his long voyage, Rao Raja Tula Singh Bahadur lost all he had and the people accompanying him were arrested and it is not known whether he ever went to the capital of Russia, but in any case the documents which he had brought did reach St. Petersburg. The texts of the letters were general and did not contain any concrete proposals. The rajas paid their respects to the tsar and complained of being oppressed by the British authorities, evidentlly fearing that the letters might get into the hands of the British, the maharajas llimited themselves to brief appeals to the tsar, relying on Rao Raja for everything. The envoy of the maharajas wrote his letter at Rasht on December 5,1860 and it contained more detailed data of utmost interest to historians and disclosed hitherto unknown circumstances concerning the outbreak of the 1857 uprising. According to Rao Raja it was not only planned beforehand, but was connected with hopes for the movement of Russian troops in Central Asia, the document opened a hitherto unknown page in the history of mutual relations between the two nations. The government of India issued on 23 September 2001, a stamp featuring Maharaj Rao Tula RamRao Tula Ram – Raja Rao Tula Ram
48. Red Bird – Red Bird was a leader of the Winnebago Native American tribe. He was a leader in the Winnebago War against the United States and he was for many years one of the most friendly and trusted of the Wisconsin Native Americans. In the late 1820s Red Bird and his followers began to grow uneasy over the encroachments of lead miners on Ho-Chunk land. The tribe was also disturbed by the belief that two Ho-Chunk had been put to death at Fort Snelling in 1826 for a murder they did not commit. They fled after Gagniers wife and son escaped and gave the alarm in Prairie du Chien, on June 30,1827, a band of Ho-Chunk fired on the Wisconsin River keelboat Oliver Perry killing two of the crew and wounding several others. With an Indian war threatening, the militia was mobilized and federal troops were dispatched to Prairie du Chien from Jefferson Barracks, to avert a general war, Red Bird and his companions surrendered at Portage on Sept.2,1827. Although the chief expected the dignity of being put to death, he was taken to Prairie du Chien where he died in prison. Several months later the other Indians were pardoned, one of the most dramatic incidents in Wisconsin history, the surrender of the proud and handsome chief became the subject of stories, paintings, and plays. For story of Red Bird troubles, see, Snelling, Winnebago Outbreak of 1827, also, Moses M. Strong, Indian Wars of Wisconsin, Id. Also, James H. Lockwood, Early Times and Events in Wisconsin, Red Bird statue, other views, overlooking the northeast end of Lake Winnebago, in High Cliff State ParkRed Bird – Red Bird dressed in white buckskin for his surrender to U.S. authorities
49. Gerard Reynst – Gerard Reynst was a Dutch merchant, father of a museum curator, and later the second Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies. All that is known of his early years is that he was born in Amsterdam, the son of Pieter Rijnst, soap boiler, and Trijn Sijverts. In 1599 he became a merchant and ship-owner, as well as a founder-member and administrator of the Nieuwe or Brabantsche Compagnie which, in 1600 and this company then in 1602 merged into the Dutch East India Company. On the request of his elders in the college of the Heren XVII, he became Governor-general of the Dutch East Indies in 1613, the trip lasted 18 months, after which he took over command from Pieter Both. On the way, he had sent one of his ships to the Red Sea to start trade relations with the Arabs there. He died more than a year after arrival, having caught dysentery so that he could do little there, there is a street named after him in The Hague, Gerard Reijnststraat, which is situated very close to the area which the Allies mistakenly bombed during World War II. In 1588 in Haarlem Reijnst married Margriet Niquet, daughter of the wealthy merchant, at his death, Reijnst left his wife, who had accompanied him to the East Indies, with seven children. The younger of these she raised with her brother Jacques Nicquet, among their children were the art-collecting brothers Gerard and Jan. His daughter Weijntje became the mother of the merchant Isaak Isaaksz Coymans, one of the founders of the Danish West India CompanyGerard Reynst – Portrait of Gerard Reynst
50. Edmund Roberts (diplomat) – Roberts concluded treaties with Thailand and Said bin Sultan, Sultan of Muscat and Oman, ratified in Washington, D. C.30 June 1834. He returned in 1836 to exchange ratifications with Oman and Thailand and he fell seriously ill with dysentery and died in Portuguese Macau, which precluded his becoming Americas first envoy to Edo Japan. Young Edmund at age 13 received through his congressman a Midshipmans warrant in the United States Navy, Roberts put to sea in 1800, eventually residing in London until age 24. Of the couples 11 children,8 survived their parents, New Hampshire, with only 16 miles of coast line, and the Portsmouth Naval Shipyard in Maine is credited with shaping Roberts character. Formation of an American naval force was a topic of debate for years, with opponents arguing that building a navy would only lead to calls for a navy department and the staff to operate it. This would further lead to more appropriations of funds, which would eventually spiral out of control, after some debate and prompting by President Washington, Congress passed an act on 20 April 1796 allowing the construction and funding to continue only on the three ships nearest to completion. Congress, laid at Portsmouth in 1795, was spared the axe due to the Quasi-War and XYZ Affair, in 1819, under the command of John D. Henley, she was the first U. S. warship to visit China. In fact, from 1798 to 1883 the foreign affairs of the United States were primarily, but not entirely, Roberts entered the New England triangular trade as shipowner and his own supercargo, but never as a captain. Robert Hopkins Miller says Roberts lost his wealth in a series of misfortunes. However, Miller erroneously places Demerara on the east coast of Africa, the 1823 revolt had a special significance. t attracted attention in Britain inside and outside Parliament to the terrible evil slavery and the need to abolish it. Roberts own account mentions neither Demerara nor the slave revolt but his aversion to slavery colors his negotiating stance. By 1827, nearly impoverished by depredations of French and Spanish privateers on his ships in the West Indies, senator Levi Woodbury, a personal friend, of the aggravations endured by American shipping, that might be alleviated by negotiating commercial treaties. The stage was set for Roberts diplomatic career by Salems trade with China, from 1826 to 1832, John Shillaber, American consul in Batavia, sent a series of letters suggesting that he be empowered to negotiate trade treaties. As the Potomac was departing the schooner Boxer was nearing commissioning, Peacock, outfitted for exploration, Woodbury convinced Jackson to send both 10-gun ships to support Potomac – with Roberts as Jacksons special agent. Livingston adds a postscript that Roberts is to receive $6 per diem, Jackson later explains to the Senate in his message of 30 May 1834, The expenses of the agency have been defrayed out of the contingent fund for foreign intercourse. In mid-February 1832, Boxer is dispatched to Liberia, with orders to join the Peacock off the coast of Brazil, but the ships fail to rendezvous until 5 June 1834 – in the unhealthy roadstead of Batavia. In March 1832, Peacock sails for Brazil under Commander David Geisinger, with Francis Baylies appointed chargé d’affaires to Buenos Aires and his published account follows the general outline of that published two years previously of East India Company agent John Crawfurds 1822 mission to Siam and Cochinchina. Roberts, in both his report to State and in his journal, cites page 269 of his copy of Mr. Crawford – page 414 in Crawfurds second editionEdmund Roberts (diplomat) – Peacock. Alfred T. Agate. Pencil.
51. Rudolf I of Bohemia – Rudolf of Habsburg was Duke of Austria and Styria from 1298 as well as King of Bohemia and titular King of Poland from 1306 until his death. Rudolf was the eldest son of the Habsburg duke Albert I of Austria, upon the election of his father as King of the Romans, sixteen-year-old Rudolph was vested as a co-ruler with the Austrian and Styrian hereditary lands of the Habsburg dynasty. According to the Rheinfelden order of succession, Rudolf acted as regent on behalf of his younger brothers Frederick the Fair. On May 25,1300, King Albert I arranged his marriage with the Capetian princess Blanche, the intended union with the French House of Capet however failed as the couples son and daughter died young and Blanche herself died in 1305. Rudolph was vested with the Bohemian throne, however contested by his maternal uncle Henry of Gorizia, Duke of Carinthia, when several Bohemian nobles elected Henry King of Bohemia, Albert I placed his brother-in-law under the Imperial ban and marched against Prague. Henry fled, first to Bavaria, then back to his Carinthian homelands, mocked as král kaše for his stomach problems, Rudolf was rejected by several Bohemian nobles, who continued to hold out for Henry. His aims to hold of the silver deposits at Kutná Hora sparked a rebellion led by the noble House of Strakonice. The king besieged the fortress of Horažďovice, but died at the campsite in the night of 3 to 4 July 1307. Instead Rudolphs enfeoffment intensified the inner Habsburg inheritance conflict, culminating in the assassination of King Albert I by his nephew John Parricida in 1308, Rudolph is buried at the St. Vitus Cathedral in PragueRudolf I of Bohemia – Rudolf I
52. Caspar Schwenckfeld – Caspar Schwenkfeld von Ossig was a German theologian, writer, and preacher who became a Protestant Reformer and spiritualist, one of the earliest promoters of the Protestant Reformation in Silesia. Schwenckfeld came to Reformation principles through Thomas Müntzer and Andreas Karlstadt, however, he developed his own principles and fell out with Martin Luther over the eucharistic controversy. He had his own views on the sacraments - the Heavenly Flesh doctrine - developed in association with his humanist colleague. His followers became a new sect, which was outlawed in Germany, but his ideas influenced Anabaptism, Pietism on mainland Europe, Schwenckfeld was born in Ossig near Liegnitz, Silesia now Osiek, near Legnica, Poland, to noble parents in 1489. From 1505 to 1507 he was a student in Cologne, between 1511 and 1523, Schwenckfeld served the Duchy of Liegnitz as an adviser to Duke Charles I, Duke George I, and Duke Frederick II. In 1518 or 1519, Schwenckfeld experienced an awakening that he called a visitation of God, Luthers writings had a deep influence on Schwenckfeld, and he embraced the Lutheran Reformation and became a student of the Scriptures. In 1521, Schwenckfeld began to preach the gospel, and in 1522 won Duke Friedrich II over to Protestantism and he organized a Brotherhood of his converts for the purpose of study and prayer in 1523. In 1525, he rejected Luthers idea of Real Presence and came to an interpretation of the Lords Supper. Schwenckfeld began to teach that the true believer ate the spiritual body of Christ and he pushed for reformation wherever he went, but also criticized reformers that he thought went to extremes. He emphasized that for one to be a true Christian, one must not change only outwardly but inwardly, because of the communion and other controversies, Schwenckfeld broke with Luther and followed what some describe as a middle way. Because of his break from Luther and the Magisterial Reformation, scholars typically categorize Schwenckfeld as a member of the Radical Reformation and he voluntarily exiled himself from Silesia in 1529 in order to relieve pressure on and embarrassment of his duke. He lived in Strassburg from 1529–1534 and then in Swabia and he rejected infant baptism, outward church forms, and denominations. His views on the Eucharist prompted Luther to publish several sermons on the subject in his 1526 The Sacrament of the Body, in 1540 Martin Luther expelled Caspar Schwenckfeld from Silesia. In 1541, Schwenckfeld published the Great Confession on the Glory of Christ, many considered the writing to be heretical. He taught that Christ had two natures, divine and human, but that he became progressively more divine and he also published a number of works about interpreting the Scriptures during the 1550s, often responding to the rebuttals of the Lutheran Reformer Matthias Flacius Illyricus. In 1561, Schwenckfeld became sick with dysentery, and gradually grew weaker until he died in Ulm on the morning of December 10,1561, because of his enemies, the fact of his death and the place of his burial were kept secret. Schwenckfeld did not organize a church during his lifetime, but followers seemed to gather around his writings. In 1700 there were about 1,500 of them in Lower Silesia, many fled Silesia under persecution of the Austrian emperor, and some found refuge on the lands of Count Nicolaus Ludwig ZinzendorfCaspar Schwenckfeld – This article may be expanded with text translated from the corresponding article in German. (February 2011) Click [show] for important translation instructions.
53. George Smith (Assyriologist) – George Smith, was a pioneering English Assyriologist who first discovered and translated the Epic of Gilgamesh, one of the oldest-known written works of literature. As the son of a family in Victorian England, Smith was limited in his ability to acquire a formal education. At age fourteen, he was apprenticed to the London-based publishing house of Bradbury and Evans to learn banknote engraving, from his youth, he was fascinated with Assyrian culture and history. In his spare time, he read everything that was available to him on the subject, in 1863 Smith married Mary Clifton, and they had six children. As early as 1861, he was working evenings sorting and cleaning the mass of friable fragments of clay cylinders, in 1866 Smith made his first important discovery, the date of the payment of the tribute by Jehu, king of Israel, to Shalmaneser III. Sir Henry suggested to the Trustees of the Museum that Smith should join him in the preparation of the third, Smiths earliest successes were the discoveries of two unique inscriptions early in 1867. This discovery is the cornerstone of ancient Near Eastern chronology, the other was the date of an invasion of Babylonia by the Elamites in 2280 BC. This work is known today as the eleventh tablet of the Epic of Gilgamesh. This journey resulted not only in the discovery of some missing tablets, in November 1873 Smith again left England for Nineveh for a second expedition, this time at the expense of the Museum, and continued his excavations at the tell of Kouyunjik. An account of his work is given in Assyrian Discoveries, published early in 1875, the rest of the year was spent in fixing together and translating the fragments relating to the creation, the results of which were published in The Chaldaean Account of Genesis. In March 1876, the trustees of the British Museum sent Smith once more to excavate the rest of Assurbanipals library, at Ikisji, a small village about sixty miles northeast of Aleppo, he fell ill with dysentery. He died in Aleppo on 19 August and he left a wife and several children to whom an annuity of 150 pounds was granted by the Queen. Smith wrote about eight important works, including studies, historical works. Assyrian Discoveries, An Account of Explorations and Discoveries on the Site of Nineveh, the Chaldean Account of Genesis George Smith. New York, Scribner, Armstrong & Co.1876, New York, Scribner, Armstrong & Co.1876. London, Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, New York, E. & J. B, the Buried Book, The Loss and Rediscovery of the Great Epic of Gilgamesh. Ch 1–2 of Smiths life, includes new-found evidence about Smiths death, C. W. Ceram, Gods, Graves and Scholars, The Story of Archeology, trans. Garside and Sophie Wilkins, 2nd ed, the great good luck of Mister Smith, in Saudi Aramco World, Volume 22, Number 1, January/February 1971George Smith (Assyriologist) – George Smith
54. William Stevenson (colonial administrator) – Sir William Stevenson KCB was a Jamaican-born British colonial administrator who served as the 9th Governor of Mauritius from 20 September 1857 to 9 January 1863. He was born to one of the oldest English families on Jamaica and he was the son of William James Stevenson of Kingston. His mother was descended from Colonel Richard James, who was the first person born of English parents in British Jamaica, stevensons grandmother was descended from Henry Lawrence, President of Cromwells Council of State, whose son founded a plantation in Jamaica in the 17th century. He first served as superintendent of British Honduras from 1854–1857 before being appointed Governor of Mauritius in May 1857 and he was invested as a Knight Commander of the Order of the Bath in 1862. He married a Miss Allwood, and had a son, William Lawrence Stevenson, and a daughter and he married secondly Caroline Octavia Biscoe, and their son was Francis Seymour Stevenson, M. P. He died of dysentery in 1863William Stevenson (colonial administrator) – Government offices
55. Emmeline Charlotte Elizabeth Stuart-Wortley – Lady Emmeline Stuart-Wortley née Manners was an English poet and writer, best known for her Travels in the United States, etc. She was editor of The Keepsake in 1837 and 1840 and she was a daughter of John Manners, 5th Duke of Rutland and on 17 February 1831, she married Hon. Charles Stuart-Wortley-Mackenzie, a son of James Stuart-Wortley-Mackenzie, 1st Baron Wharncliffe. They had a daughter, Lady Victoria Welby, after the death of her husband in 1844, she began to travel as a wealthy Victorian widow, along with her daughter, Victoria. In October 1855, she died of dysentery in the area between Antioch and Beirut, while travelling through Ottoman Empire regions following the history of the early Christians, Travels in the United States, etc. During 1849 and 1850 The Maiden of MoscowEmmeline Charlotte Elizabeth Stuart-Wortley – Lady Emmeline Stuart-Wortley
56. Michael de la Pole, 2nd Earl of Suffolk – Michael de la Pole, 2nd Earl of Suffolk, an English nobleman, supported Henry IV against Richard II. He died during the Siege of Harfleur in 1415 and he was a son of Michael de la Pole, 1st Earl of Suffolk and Katherine Wingfield, daughter of Sir John Wingfield. His father fled abroad amid accusations of treason during the Merciless Parliament in 1388, forfeiting the title of Earl of Suffolk and the family estates. Over the next decade the younger Michael de la Pole made vigorous attempts to recover these lands, however, his close association with the Lords Appellant, particularly the Earl of Warwick and the Duke of Gloucester prejudiced Richard II against him. He finally obtained the restoration of the earldom in January 1398, while the first Parliament of Henry IV technically upheld the forfeitures of the Merciless Parliament, Henry IV immediately restored de la Poles estates and title in recognition of his support. However, he would spend the remainder of his trying to obtain possession of the remaining estates which had not been restored. He played a small role in national politics, although he regularly attended Parliament. He took part in the campaign in Scotland in 1400, in operations around 1405. Suffolk also acted as a lieutenant of the Duke of Clarence during his campaign of 1412–1413, however, he devoted most of his energies to re-establishing de la Pole influence in East Anglia. He took the role of a justice of the peace in Norfolk and Suffolk from 1399 and he completed his fathers building plans at Wingfield, Suffolk and enlarged the local church. Suffolk brought 40 men-at-arms and 120 archers with him on the 1415 campaign of Henry V in France and he died of dysentery at Harfleur, and was succeeded by his eldest son Michael, who later died at Agincourt. Michael married Katherine de Stafford, daughter of Hugh de Stafford and they were parents to at least eight childrenMichael de la Pole, 2nd Earl of Suffolk – The Tomb of Michael de la Pole, 2nd Earl of Suffolk and his wife in Wingfield Church
57. Theuderic II – Theuderic II, king of Burgundy and Austrasia, was the second son of Childebert II. He also received the lordship of the cities of Toulouse, Agen, Nantes, Angers, Saintes, Angoulême, Périgueux, Blois, Chartres, and Le Mans. During his minority, and later, he reigned under the guidance of his grandmother Brunhilda, in 596, Clotaire II, king of Neustria, and Fredegund, Clotaires mother, took Paris, which was supposed to be held in common. Fredegund, then her sons regent, sent a force to Laffaux, in 599, Brunhilda was forced out of Austrasia by Theudebert and she was found wandering near Arcis in Champagne by a peasant, who brought her to Theuderic. The peasant was rewarded with the bishopric of Auxerre. Theuderic welcomed her and readily fell under her influence, which was inclined to war with Theudebert at the time. Soon, Theuderic and his brother were at war and he defeated Theudebert at Sens, but their cousin Clotaires restless warmaking prompted them to ally against him. They resumed the fight against Neustria and, in 600, defeated Clotaire at Dormelles on the Orvanne, the land between the Seine and the Oise was divided between Theuderic and Theudebert, with Theuderic receiving the territory between the Seine and the Loire including the Breton frontier. They also campaigned together in Gascony, where they subjugated the local population, at this point, however, the two brothers took up arms against each other resulting in Theuderics defeat of Theudebert at Étampes. Theuderics kingdom was invaded by Clotaire and his mayor of the palace, Berthoald in 604, Theuderic met them at Étampes on the Louet, but Theudebert refused him aid. Theuderic won the day, but Berthoald was killed, the next mayor, Protadius, a partisan of Brunhilda, encouraged war with Austrasia, but the nobles assassinated him and battle was never met, a pact being enforced by Theuderics men. In 610, he lost Alsace, the Saintois, the Thurgau, however, he routed Theudebert at Toul and later at Tolbiac in 612. He captured the fleeing Theudebert in the battle and gave him over—after taking his royal paraphernalia—to his grandmother Brunhilda. Bishop Ludegast is said to have beseeched him in a fable to spare Theudeberts life, Brunhilda probably had Theudebert murdered to allow Theuderic to succeed to both thrones unhindered. Thus depriving himself of the opportunity of having legitimate offspring, he was succeeded by his bastard son Sigbert II under the regency of Brunhilda. Theuderic had four sons by unnamed mistresses, Sigebert II, who succeeded him in both his realms Childebert Corbus Merovech, godson of Clotaire II Wallace-Hadrill, J. M. translator, the Fourth Book of the Chronicle of Fredegar with its Continuations Connecticut, Greenwood Press,1960Theuderic II – The Frankish realm as it was after the Treaty of Andelot in 587. The Burgundian kingdom of Guntram (pink) was inherited first by Childebert II and then by Theuderic II.
58. Leo I the Thracian – Leo I was an Eastern Roman Emperor from 457 to 474. A native of Dacia Aureliana near historic Thrace, he was known as Leo the Thracian, ruling the Eastern Empire for nearly 20 years, Leo proved to be a capable ruler. He oversaw many ambitious political and military plans, aimed mostly for the aid of the faltering Western Roman Empire and he is notable for being the first Eastern Emperor to legislate in Greek rather than Latin. He is commemorated as a Saint in the Orthodox Church, with his feast day on January 20 and he was born Leo Marcellus in Thracia or in Dacia Aureliana province in the year 401 to a Thraco-Roman family. His Dacian origin is mentioned by Candidus Isaurus, while John Malalas believes that he was of Bessian stock and he served in the Roman army, rising to the rank of comes. Leo was the last of a series of emperors placed on the throne by Aspar, the Alan serving as commander-in-chief of the army, instead, Leo became more and more independent from Aspar, causing tension that would culminate in the assassination of the latter. Leos coronation as emperor on 7 February 457, was the first known to involve the Patriarch of Constantinople, Leo I made an alliance with the Isaurians and was thus able to eliminate Aspar. The price of the alliance was the marriage of Leos daughter to Tarasicodissa, leader of the Isaurians who, as Zeno, in 469, Aspar attempted to assassinate Zeno and very nearly succeeded. Finally, in 471, Aspars son Ardabur was implicated in a plot against Leo, Leo overestimated his capacities and he made some errors that menaced the internal order of the Empire. There were also some raids by the Huns, Leos reign was also noteworthy for his influence in the Western Roman Empire, marked by his appointment of Anthemius as Western Roman Emperor in 467. He attempted to build on this achievement with an expedition against the Vandals in 468. This disaster drained the Empire of men and money, the expedition, which cost 130,000 pounds of gold and 700 pounds of silver, consisted of 1,113 ships carrying 100,000 men, but in the end lost 600 ships. After this defeat, Vandals raided Greek coasts until a peace agreement was signed between Leo and Genseric. Leo became very unpopular in his last days as Emperor for abolishing any non-religious celebration or event on Sundays, Leo died of dysentery at the age of 73 on 18 January 474. Leo and Verina had three children and their eldest daughter Ariadne was born prior to the death of Marcian. Ariadne had a sister, Leontia. Leontia was first betrothed to Patricius, a son of Aspar, Leontia then married Marcian, a son of Emperor Anthemius and Marcia Euphemia. The couple led a revolt against Zeno in 478–479Leo I the Thracian – Imperial portrait of Leo I at the Louvre Museum
59. Kyra Vassiliki – Vassiliki Kontaxi, nicknamed Kyra Vassiliki was an influential Greek woman brought up in the seraglio of the Ottoman ruler Ali Pasha. Vassiliki Kontaxi was born in the Greek village of Plisivitsa in Thesprotia, at the age of twelve she sought an audience with the local Ottoman ruler, Ali Pasha, to intercede for her fathers life. Having granted her father pardon, Ali Pasha married Vassiliki in 1808, being allowed to practice her Christian faith, she interceded on behalf of Greeks. She was perhaps contacted by the Greek patriotic organization Filiki Eteria During this period she undertook a number of charity initiatives, in 1819–20 she financed a number of restoration works in Mount Athos. In January 1822, during the last stage of the siege of Ioannina by the Ottoman Sultans forces, Vassiliki together with Ali Pasha, Ali Pasha was executed there on January 22 by an Ottoman delegation, having being declared an outlaw by the Sultan. Following Alis death, Vassiliki was sent as a prisoner to the Ottoman capital and she was later pardoned and returned to Greece, which meanwhile gained its independence after the successful Greek War of Independence. In 1830, the Greek state gave Vassiliki a medieval tower in Katochi and she died of dysentery in 1834. In 1895, the gold-embroidered velvet purse of Vassiliki was bought by Nikolaos Konstantinidis for 25 drachmas, Vassiliki was depicted by various artistsKyra Vassiliki – Portrait of Kyra Vassiliki, 1850
60. William H.C. Whiting – He was wounded at the Second Battle of Fort Fisher by a musket ball to his leg, and died in prison camp on March 10,1865 of dysentery. William Whiting was born on March 22,1824, in the community of Biloxi in southern Mississippi. At the age of twelve, he was a student and graduate of English High School of Boston in Boston. At sixteen, he graduated from Georgetown College in Washington, D. C, appointed Second Lieutenant of Engineers, Whiting was involved in constructing seacoast defenses in Maryland and Florida and surveying military routes and frontier forts in west Texas. Whiting served at Fort Davis, Texas and he was the first to survey the Big Bend area for the U. S. Army. Promoted to First Lieutenant in 1853, Whiting was sent west, erecting harbor fortifications in San Francisco, California, lt. Whiting spent the five years before the Civil War improving rivers, canals, and harbors in North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida. He was promoted to Captain in the Corps of Engineers in 1858, in January 1861, Captain Whiting was an engineer responsible for US Army installations in Georgia and Florida. As Georgia and Florida state militia seized these sites by force, on January 3, Whiting received information that Georgia was moving to take Fort Marion, but he made no effort to warn the garrison there or its commander. By the end of the month, more than half a dozen U. S. Army forts, arsenals, Whiting resigned his commission February 20,1861, in the weeks before Fort Sumter. He was appointed Major of Engineers in the ACSA, the regular Confederate States Army, while improving the defenses of Charleston harbor he was also named Brigadier and Inspector General of the North Carolina Militia. During the first Battle of Fort Sumter he served on the staff of General P. G. T, later Whiting served under General Joseph E. Johnston as Chief Engineer of the Army of the Shenandoah and at the First Battle of Bull Run. After a brief service as Inspector General he was promoted to Brigadier General on July 21,1861, Davis, himself a Mississippian, ordered the suspension of Whiting from his rank and position, effectively demoting him to Major of Engineers again. It was only due to General Joe Johnstons hearty requests and protests that Whiting was reinstated to his rank, despite the earlier controversy, Whiting was elevated to division command in early 1862, though Johnstons promotion request was denied. He led his division, consisting of the brigades of Hood, Hampton, Law, Pettigrew and Hatton. Stationed in the center of the Confederate line he led his force into the flanks of Keyess IV Corps, despite the repulse and heavy losses Whiting was praised by General Joe Johnston. Whiting rapidly redeployed with 11 regiments to support Stonewall Jackson in his second Valley Campaign, afterwards he returned southward by rail to arrive in time for the Peninsula Campaign, leading his division in the battles at Gaines Mill and Malvern Hill. Whiting was assigned to command the more peaceful Military District of Wilmington, by late 1864, Whiting found himself defending the district against forces under Maj. Gen. Alfred Howe Terry in the Wilmington Campaign. Wounded in the thigh and hip he was captured in the Second Battle of Fort FisherWilliam H.C. Whiting – Major General William H.C. Whiting
61. Zeno (emperor) – Zeno the Isaurian, originally named Tarasis Kodisa Rousombladadiotes /ˈtærəsᵻs/, was Eastern Roman Emperor from 474 to 475 and again from 476 to 491. Domestic revolts and religious dissension plagued his reign, which succeeded to some extent in foreign issues. His reign saw the end of the Western Roman Empire under Romulus Augustus, Zenos original name was Tarasis, and more accurately Tarasikodissa in his native Isaurian language. Tarasis was born in Isauria, at Rusumblada, later renamed Zenonopolis in Zenos honour and his father was called Kodisa, his mother Lallis, his brother Longinus. Tarasis had a wife, Arcadia, whose name indicates a relationship with the Constantinopolitan aristocracy, the Isaurians were a people who lived inland from the Mediterranean coast of Anatolia, in the core of the Taurus Mountains. Like most borderland tribes, they were looked upon as barbarians by the Romans even though they had been Roman subjects for more than five centuries. However, being Orthodox Christians rather than Arians, as the Goths and other Germanic tribes were, they were not formally barred from the throne. According to some scholars, in the mid-460s, Eastern Roman Emperor Leo I wanted to balance the weight of the Germanic component of the army and he thought that Tarasis and his Isaurians could be that counterweight, and called him, with many Isaurians, to Constantinople. This interpretation, however, has been contested, by mid-460s, Arcadia and Zeno had been living at Constantinople for some time, where also Lallis and Longinus lived, the latter married to a Valeria, possibly a woman of aristocrat rank. Through these letters, which Tarasis gave to Leo, the Emperor could dismiss Ardabur, as reward for his loyalty, which Leo praised with Daniel the Stylite, Tarasis was appointed comes domesticorum, an office of great influence and prestige. This appointment could mean that Tarasis had been a protector domesticus, either at Leos court in Constantinople, or attached at Ardaburs staff in Antioch. In 465, Leo and Aspar quarreled about the appointment of consuls for the year, it was on this occasion that Tarasis position was strengthened, as he became friend. To make himself acceptable to the Roman hierarchy and the population of Constantinople, Tarasis adopted the Greek name of Zeno. In mid-late 466, Zeno married Ariadne, elder daughter of Leo I and Verina, as there is no reference to a divorce with Arcadia, she should have died in those years. Zeno, however, was not present at the birth of his son, as in 467, Zeno, as member of the protectores domestici, did not take part in the disastrous expedition against the Vandals, led in 468 by Leos brother-in-law Basiliscus. The following year, during which he held the honour of the consulate, he was appointed magister militum per Thracias, the sources do not clearly state what enemy he fought there, and historians had proposed either Goths or Huns, or the rebels of Anagastes. What happened was that Leo sent some of his soldiers with Zeno to protect him. Zeno was informed of their intention and fled to Serdica, and because of this episode, after the attack, Zeno did not return to Constantinople, where Aspar and Ardabur were and had still considerable powerZeno (emperor) – Zeno depicted on a Tremissis; the coin's design celebrates Zeno's victories, and was issued during his second reign.