Category:Deaths from dysentery
Pages in category "Deaths from dysentery"
The following 100 pages are in this category, out of 100 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 100 pages are in this category, out of 100 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Akbar – Abu'l-Fath Jalal ud-din Muhammad Akbar, popularly known as Akbar I and later Akbar the Great, was Mughal Emperor from 1556 until his death. He was one of the greatest rulers of the Mughal Dynasty in India. Akbar succeeded Humayun, under a regent, Bairam Khan, who helped the young emperor expand and consolidate Mughal domains in India. Akbar gradually enlarged the Mughal Empire to include nearly all of the Indian Subcontinent north of the Godavari river. His influence, however, extended over the entire country because of Mughal military, political, cultural, economic dominance. To preserve order in a religiously and culturally diverse empire, he adopted policies that won him the support of his non-Muslim subjects. Mughal India developed a stable economy, leading to commercial expansion and greater patronage of culture. Akbar himself was a patron of culture. Holy men of many faiths, poets, artisans adorned his court from all over the world for study and discussion. Akbar's courts at Delhi, Fatehpur Sikri became centres of the arts, letters, learning. A distinct Indo-Persian culture emerged characterised by Mughal style arts, painting, architecture. It centred on Akbar as a prophet, for which he drew the ire of the ulema and orthodox Muslims. Akbar's reign significantly influenced the course of Indian history. During his rule, the Mughal empire tripled in wealth. He instituted effective political and social reforms.Akbar – Late 16th century portrait of Akbar by Manohar
2. Alfonso XII of Spain – Alfonso XII was King of Spain, reigning from 1874 to 1885, after a coup d'état restored the monarchy and ended the ephemeral First Spanish Republic. Having been forced after the Glorious Revolution deposed his mother Isabella II from the throne in 1868, Alfonso studied in Austria and France. He returned to Spain as king in 1874 following a military coup. Alfonso was succeeded by his unborn son, who became Alfonso XIII on his birth the following year. Alfonso was born as the eldest son of Queen Isabella II. Officially, his father was King Francis. Alfonso's biological paternity is uncertain: there is speculation that his biological father may have been Enrique Puigmoltó y Mayans. These rumours were used by the Carlists. His mother's accession created the second cause of instability, the Carlist Wars. The supporters of the Count of Molina as king of Spain rose to have him enthroned. This led to the third cause of instability of the "Independence of the American Kingdoms", recognized between 1823 and 1850. When her husband were forced to leave Spain by the Revolution of 1868, Alfonso accompanied them to Paris. From there, he was sent at Vienna to continue his studies. After Amadeo's abandonment in 1873, Parliament declared the first act of President Estanislao Figueras was to extend the Abolition Act to Puerto Rico. Cuban slaves would have to wait until 1889.Alfonso XII of Spain – 1884 photograph
3. Amalric of Jerusalem – Amalric was King of Jerusalem from 1163, Count of Jaffa and Ascalon before his accession. He was the second son of Melisende and Fulk of Jerusalem, succeeded his older brother Baldwin III. During his reign, Jerusalem became more closely allied with the Byzantine Empire, the two states launched an unsuccessful invasion of Egypt. Meanwhile, the Muslim territories surrounding Jerusalem began to be united under Nur ad-Din and later Saladin. He was the father of three future rulers of Jerusalem, Sibylla, Baldwin IV, Isabella I. Now scholars recognize that the two names were not the same and no longer add the number for either king. Confusion between the two names was common even among contemporaries. Melisende did not step down when Baldwin came of age two years later, by 1150 the two were becoming increasingly hostile towards each other. In 1152 Baldwin had himself crowned sole king, civil war broke out, with Melisende retaining Jerusalem while Baldwin held territory further north. Melisende was defeated in this struggle and Baldwin ruled alone thereafter. In 1153 Baldwin captured the Egyptian fortress of Ascalon, then added to Amalric's fief of Jaffa. Amalric married Agnes of Courtenay in 1157. Agnes, daughter of Joscelin II of Edessa, had lived in Jerusalem since the western regions of the former crusader County of Edessa were lost in 1150. Agnes bore Amalric three children: Sibylla, the future Baldwin IV, Alix, who died in childhood. Nevertheless, consanguinity was enough for the opposition.Amalric of Jerusalem – Amalric
4. Philip Howard, 20th Earl of Arundel – Saint Philip Howard, 1st Earl of Arundel was an English nobleman. He was canonised by Pope Paul VI in 1970, as one of the Forty Martyrs of England and Wales. He is variously numbered as 1st, 20th or 13th Earl of Arundel. Born in the Strand, London, he was daughter of Henry, Earl of Arundel. He was named after King of Spain. Philip Howard was born during the upheaval of the Reformation. His home from the age of seven was a former Carthusian monastery. At the age of fourteen he was married to his stepsister, Anne Dacre. He graduated from St John's College, Cambridge in 1574 and was about eighteen when he attended Queen Elizabeth I's Court. His life had been a frivolous one, both at Cambridge and at Court where he was a favourite of the Queen. Philip Howard's father, the Duke of Norfolk, was arrested on 1 October 1569 for his intrigues against Queen Elizabeth. He was so impressed by the Catholics that he experienced a spiritual conversion. He renounced his previous, frivolous life and was reconciled with his wife. Arundel, with much of his family, remained Catholic recusants during the reign of Queen Elizabeth. They also attempted to leave England without permission.Philip Howard, 20th Earl of Arundel – Lord Arundel aged 18, by George Gower
5. Robert Atkyns (topographer) – Sir Robert Atkyns was a topographer, antiquary, Member of Parliament. He is best known for his county history, Present State of Gloucestershire. Sir Robert was born in 1647, sometime speaker of the House of Lords. Robert was educated at St Edmund Hall, Lincoln's Inn. He did not practise. He was Deputy Receiver-General of Deputy Lieutenant for Gloucestershire. He was knighted to Bristol 5 Sep 1663. He was elected M.P. for the borough of Cirencester and afterwards for the county of Gloucester. He was buried at Sapperton, where his monument is preserved. He had married the daughter of Sir George Carteret of Hawnes, Bedfordshire circa 1674. He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in November 1664. . He is the author of Gloucestershire, London, 1712. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: "Atkyns, Robert". Dictionary of National Biography.Robert Atkyns (topographer) – Effigy of Atkyns in St Kenelm's Church, Sapperton
6. Baldwin III of Jerusalem – Baldwin III was King of Jerusalem from 1143 to 1163. Baldwin was the eldest son of Jerusalem. Baldwin was at first overshadowed by his mother Melisende, whom he eventually defeated in a civil war. The Second Crusade tried and failed to conquer Damascus. He captured the Egyptian fortress of Ascalon, but also had to deal with the increasing power of Nur ad-Din in Syria. Baldwin was succeeded by his brother Amalric. Baldwin III was born during the reign of his maternal grandfather Baldwin II, one of the original crusaders. This made the third generation to rule Jerusalem. Baldwin's mother Princess Melisende was heiress to Baldwin II King of Jerusalem. Baldwin III's father was Fulk of the former Count of Anjou. King Baldwin II died at the age of 60 when his grandson was a year old, which led to a struggle between Melisende and Fulk. Melisende and Fulk reconciled and conceived a second child, Baldwin III's brother Amalric. Yet he showed little interest in the intricacies of governance. In the Muslim world, Zengi desired to add Damascus in the south to his control. In 1144, Zengi captured Edessa, which led to the Second Crusade.Baldwin III of Jerusalem – Baldwin III
7. James Barry (surgeon) – James Miranda Stuart Barry, was an Irish military surgeon in the British Army. After graduation from the University of Edinburgh Medical School, Barry served in South Africa. By the end of his career, he had risen to the rank of Inspector General in charge of military hospitals. In his travels he only improved conditions for wounded soldiers, but also the conditions of the native inhabitants. Although Barry lived his adult life as a man, he was assigned female at birth, named Margaret Ann Bulkley. Barry was surgeon known, anticipating Elizabeth Garrett Anderson by over 50 years. Information about Barry's early life has been rife with speculation, with no contemporary records known. The exact date of Barry's birth is uncertain, with sources putting the date at 1792, 1795, or 1799. At birth, Barry was given Margaret Ann. The child's mother was the sister of painting at London's Royal Academy. Jeremiah, had a shop on Merchant's Quay which serviced the ships. However, family financial mismanagement left Mary-Ann and Margaret Bulkley without the support of either their son John. A financial record from the solicitor indicates that Mary-Ann and Margaret Bulkley travelled to Edinburgh by sea at the end of November 1809. Although the letter was signed by Barry, the solicitor wrote on the back of 14 December'. Following his 1809 arrival in Edinburgh, Barry began studies as a ` literary and medical student'.James Barry (surgeon) – Dr James Barry (left) with John, a servant, and his dog Psyche, c. 1862, Jamaica
8. Jacques Nicolas Billaud-Varenne – Jacques Nicolas Billaud-Varenne, also known as Jean Nicolas, was a French personality of the Revolutionary period. Billaud-Varenne climbed his way during the period of The Terror becoming a member of the Committee of Public Safety. "No, we will not step backward, our zeal will only be smothered in the tomb; we will all die." Billaud-Varenne was born to the parlement of Paris. Billaud-Varenne took Philosophy at La Rochelle. His education at Niort was particularly important in shaping his character because its methods of teaching were uncommon to the revolution. At Niort, tolerance were emphasized, as opposed to overbearing and possibly obstructive religious instruction present in most other schools of the time. Billaud-Varenne was also sent at Juilly, where he later became a professor when he felt dissatisfied with practicing law. He then went to Paris, bought a position as lawyer in the parlement. Joining the Jacobin Club, Billaud-Varenne became, from 1790, one of the most violent anti-Royalist orators, closely linked to Jean-Marie Collot d'Herbois. After the flight to Varennes of King Louis XVI, he published L'Acéphocratie, in which he demanded the establishment of a federal republic. On 1 July, in another speech at the Jacobin Club, he spoke of a republic, arousing the derision of partisans of the constitutional monarchy. But when he repeated his demand for a republic a fortnight later, the speech was sent to the Jacobin branch societies throughout France. He was accused of having been an accomplice in the September Massacres in the Abbaye prison. On July he made a violent speech in the Convention in accusation of the Girondists.Jacques Nicolas Billaud-Varenne – Billaud-Varenne portraited by Jean-Baptiste Greuze, c. 1790 (Dallas Museum of Art)
9. Geoffrey of Briel – He led a turbulent life, narrated in detail in the Chronicle of the Morea. Henceforth held his title as a gift of the Prince. The Barony of Karytaina was split up. Geoffrey was the son of Hugh of Briel and Alice of Villehardouin, Geoffrey I of Villehardouin. Geoffrey's father inherited the Barony of Karytaina from his brother, Renaud of Briel. Geoffrey was born in Greece, possibly in Karytaina, soon after his father's arrival there. Hugh of Briel was succeeded by the young Geoffrey. The Chronicle credits Geoffrey with the construction of the castle of Karytaina, the "Greek Toledo" as William Miller calls it. Geoffrey was deemed to be the "best knight in the Morea". Geoffrey married Isabella de la Roche, Guy I de la Roche. However, he sided with his father-in-law Guy de la Roche and the other Frankish lords who opposed William's hegemonic ambitions. A parliament was assembled at Nikli to judge the defeated lords. In 1259, Geoffrey participated in the princely army that joined the Achaean–Epirote–Sicilian alliance opposing the Empire of Nicaea. The allied forces, riven by distrust between the Epirote Greeks, were dealt a crushing defeat in the Battle of Pelagonia. Most of his barons, including Geoffrey, were captured in the aftermath of the battle.Geoffrey of Briel – View of Karytaina and its castle
10. Johann Ludwig Burckhardt – Johann Ludwig Burckhardt was a Swiss traveller, geographer, orientalist. He signed Louis. He is best known for rediscovering the ruins of the ancient Nabataean city of Petra in Jordan. Burckhardt was born on November 24, 1784 to a wealthy Basel family of silk merchants. Unsuccessful, he took employment with the objective of resolving some of the problems of the course of the Niger River. The expedition called to Timbuktu. To prepare for the journey, he studied Arabic, science and medicine. At this time he also began to adopt Arabian costume. In 1809 he travelled to Aleppo, Syria to perfect his Arabic and Muslim customs. Once in Syria, he adopted the moniker Sheikh Ibrahim Ibn Abdallah to hide his European identity. While in Syria, he became the first discoverer of Hittite or Luwian hieroglyphs. He suffered setbacks during his time in Syria having been robbed of his belongings more than once by people he had paid to guarantee his protection. After more than 2 years studying as a Muslim in Aleppo, he felt he could travel safely and not be questioned on his identity. With these trips being successful, he prepared to continue his journey to Cairo. He headed south through Damascus, Ajloun and Amman.Johann Ludwig Burckhardt – Jean Louis Burckhardt
11. Frances Xavier Cabrini – She was the naturalized citizen of the United States to be canonized by the Roman Catholic Church, on July 7, 1946. Sadly, only four of the thirteen survived beyond adolescence. Weak as a child, born two months premature, she remained in delicate health throughout her life. At thirteen Francesca attended a run by the Daughters of the Sacred Heart. Five years later she graduated laude, with a teaching certificate. After the deaths of her parents in 1870, she applied for admission at Arluno. Reluctantly, they told her she was too frail for their life. Cabrini added Xavier to her name to honor the Jesuit saint, Francis Xavier, the patron saint of missionary service. In November 1880, six other women who had taken religious vows with her founded the Missionary Sisters of the Sacred Heart of Jesus. She continued as its superior general until her death. The institute established a free school and nursery in its first five years. Its good works brought Cabrini of Pope Leo XIII. In September 1877, Cabrini went to seek approval of the pope to establish missions in China. "Not to the East, but to the West" was his advice. Cabrini left for the United States, arriving in New York City on March 1889, along with six other sisters.Frances Xavier Cabrini – St. Frances Xavier Cabrini, M.S.C.
12. Fruto Chamorro – Born to Bayardo Paez, he was initially known as Fruto Pérez. Pedro José Chamorro Argüello, had come to Guatemala from Nicaragua for graduate studies. Fruto attended school there. His father married Josefa Margarita Alfaro Monterroso in 1814. His stepmother insisted he use the name Fruto Chamorro Pérez. Pedro Joaquín, Dionisio, Carmen, Mercedes and Fernando grew under his guardianship. Fruto's father was one of the founders of the Conservative Party of Nicaragua, centered on the city of Granada. He became an activist of the Party. In 1836, he became a representative in the State Assembly. From 1839 to 1842, he was a Senator of the State of Nicaragua. In 1842, an attempt was made to reestablish a union of Central American states in accord with the "Pact of Chinandega". It was to include El Salvador, Guatemala, Nicaragua. In 1843, he took up residence in San Miguel, El Salvador. However, Fruto was instrumental in preventing a war over the decision. The nascent Confederation collapsed in 1844.Fruto Chamorro – President Fruto Chamorro Pérez
13. Pierre Choderlos de Laclos – Pierre Ambroise François Choderlos de Laclos was a French novelist, official, freemason and army general, best known for writing the epistolary novel Les Liaisons dangereuses. It is one of the masterpieces of novelistic literature of the 18th century, which explores the amorous intrigues of the aristocracy. It has inspired a large number of critical and analytic commentaries, films. Born in Amiens into a bourgeois family, in 1760 Laclos began studies at the École royale d'artillerie de La Fère, ancestor of the École Polytechnique. As a young lieutenant he briefly served until the end of the Seven Years' War. Postings to Strasbourg, Grenoble and Besançon followed. In 1763 Laclos became a freemason in "L'Union" military lodge in Toul. Several light poems, appeared in the Almanach des Muses. Later he wrote Ernestine, inspired by a novel by Marie Jeanne Riccoboni. Its premiere on 19 July 1777, in the presence of Queen Marie Antoinette, proved a failure. In the same year he established a new school in Valence, which would include Napoleon Bonaparte among its students in the mid 1780s. On his return to Besançon in 1778 Laclos was promoted second captain of the Engineers. In this period he wrote several works which showed his great admiration of Jean-Jacques Rousseau. In 1776 Laclos requested and lodge in Paris. There he helped Louis Philippe II, Duke of Orléans leading the Grand Orient of France.Pierre Choderlos de Laclos – Portrait of Choderlos de Laclos attributed to Alexander Kucharsky
14. Constantine IV – Constantine IV, sometimes incorrectly called Pogonatos, "the Bearded", out of confusion with his father, was Byzantine Emperor from 668 to 685. The eldest son of Constantine IV had been named a co-emperor with his father in 654. His mother was daughter of patrician Valentinus. The first task before the new Emperor was the suppression of the military revolt in Sicily under Mezezius which had led to his father's death. Within seven months of his accession, Constantine IV had dealt with the insurgency with the support of Pope Vitalian. But this success was overshadowed by troubles in the east. He sent an army against the Eastern Roman Empire. Yazid took the important Byzantine center Amorion. While the city was quickly recovered, the Arabs next attacked Carthage and Sicily in 669. In 670 the Arabs set up a base from which to launch further attacks into the heart of the Empire. Their fleet captured other coastal cities in 672. Finally, in 672, the Arabs sent a large fleet to attack Constantinople by sea. While Constantine was distracted by this, the Slavs unsuccessfully attacked Thessalonika. Commencing in 674, the Arabs launched the long-awaited siege of Constantinople. Additional squadrons reinforced the forces of Abd ar-Rahman before they proceeded to the Hellespont, into which they sailed in about April 674.Constantine IV – Constantine IV and his retinue, mosaic in basilica of Sant'Apollinare in Classe (Ravenna)
15. Thomas Coryat – Thomas Coryat was an English traveller and writer of the late Elizabethan and early Jacobean age. He is principally remembered for two volumes of writings he left regarding his travels, often on foot, through Europe and parts of Asia. He is often credited with introducing the fork with "Furcifer" becoming one of his nicknames. His description of how the Italians shielded themselves from the sun resulted in the word "umbrella" being introduced into English. Coryat was born in Crewkerne, Somerset, lived most of his life in the Somerset village of Odcombe. He was educated at Winchester College from 1591, at Gloucester Hall, Oxford from 1596 to 1599. From May to October 1608 he undertook a tour of Europe, somewhat less than half of which he walked. He travelled through France and Italy to Venice, returned via Switzerland, Germany and the Netherlands. He published his memoirs of the events in a volume entitled Coryat's Crudities hastily gobbled up in Five Travels in c'. This volume gives a vivid picture of life in Europe during the time. In 1611 he published his Coleworte twice Sodden. At the invitation of Sir Thomas Roe, he visited the imperial court at Madhya Pradesh. In November 1617 he left for Surat; he died of dysentery there in December of that year, his demise hastened by the consumption of sack. Though his planned account of the journey was never to be, some of his unorganized travel notes have survived and found their way back to England. Coryat's writings were hugely popular at the time.Thomas Coryat – Thomas Coryat
16. Francis Drake – Sir Francis Drake, vice admiral was an English sea captain, privateer, navigator, slaver, politician of the Elizabethan era. Elizabeth I of England awarded a knighthood in 1581. Drake was second-in-command of the English fleet against the Spanish Armada in 1588. Drake died of dysentery after unsuccessfully attacking San Juan, Puerto Rico. His exploits made him a hero to the English but a pirate to whom he was known as El Draque. King Philip II was said to have offered a reward of about # 4 million by modern standards, for his life. Francis Drake was born in Devon, England. Although his birth is not formally recorded, it is known that he was born while the Six Articles were in force. "he was twenty when he obtained the command of the Judith". This would date his birth to 1544. Drake was the eldest of the twelve sons of Edmund Drake, his wife Mary Mylwaye. The first son was alleged to have been named after 2nd Earl of Bedford. Because of religious persecution during the Prayer Book Rebellion in 1549, the Drake family fled into Kent. There the father obtained an appointment to minister the men in the King's Navy. Drake was made vicar of Upnor Church on the Medway.Francis Drake – Sir Francis Drake in Buckland Abbey 16th century, oil on canvas, by Marcus Gheeraerts the Younger
17. Edward I of England – Edward I, also known as Edward Longshanks and the Hammer of the Scots, was King of England from 1272 to 1307. In 1259, he briefly sided with a baronial reform movement, supporting the Provisions of Oxford. After reconciliation with his father, however, he remained loyal throughout the subsequent armed conflict, known as the Second Barons' War. After the Battle of Lewes, Edward was hostage to the rebellious barons, but escaped after a few months and joined the fight against Simon de Montfort. Montfort was defeated at the Battle of Evesham in 1265, within two years the rebellion was extinguished. With England pacified, Edward joined the Ninth Crusade to the Holy Land. The crusade accomplished little, Edward was on his way home in 1272 when he was informed that his father had died. Making a slow return, he reached England in 1274 and was crowned at Westminster on 19 August. He spent much of his reign reforming royal administration and common law. Increasingly, however, Edward's attention was drawn towards military affairs. After suppressing a minor rebellion in Wales in 1276–77, Edward responded to a second rebellion in 1282–83 with a full-scale war of conquest. After a successful campaign, Edward subjected Wales to English rule, built a series of castles and towns in the countryside and settled them with English people. Next, his efforts were directed towards Scotland. Initially invited to arbitrate a succession dispute, Edward claimed feudal suzerainty over the kingdom. In the war that followed, the Scots persevered, even though the English seemed victorious at several points.Edward I of England – Portrait in Westminster Abbey, thought to be of Edward I
18. Enos (chimpanzee) – Enos was the second chimpanzee launched into space and the first chimpanzee to achieve Earth orbit. Enos was brought on April 3, 1960. He completed more than 1,250 training hours at the University of Kentucky and Holloman Air Force Base. Training was more intense for him than for his Ham, because Enos was exposed to weightlessness and higher gs for longer periods of time. His training included psychomotor aircraft flights. Enos was selected only three days before launch. Two months prior, NASA launched Mercury Atlas 4 on September 1961, to conduct an identical mission with a "crewman simulator" on board. Enos flew into space on November 29, 1961. He completed his first orbit in 28.5 minutes. Enos was immediately taken below deck by his Air Force handlers. The Stormes arrived in Bermuda the next day. On November 1962, Enos died of shigellosis-related dysentery, resistant to then-known antibiotics. He was constantly observed before his death. Pathologists reported no symptoms that could be related to his previous space flight. Many believe Enos's remains were dissected like Ham, extensively studied postmortem at the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology.Enos (chimpanzee) – Enos with handler
19. Walter Devereux, 1st Earl of Essex – Walter Devereux, 1st Earl of Essex, KG, was an English nobleman and general. Until his death he fought in Ireland in connection with the Plantation of Ulster, where he ordered the massacre of Rathlin Island. He was the father of Elizabeth I's favourite of Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex. Walter Devereux's mother was Dorothy Hastings, 1st Earl of Huntingdon and Anne Stafford, said to have been a mistress of Henry VIII. On his grandfather's death, Devereux became on 10th Baron Ferrers of Chartley. He was appointed Lord Lieutenant of Staffordshire in 1569. His offer, with certain modifications, was accepted. He set sail with a force of about 1200 men. His enterprise had an inauspicious beginning; a storm drove some of his vessels as far as Cork and the Isle of Man. Here his troops were diminished to not much more than 200 men. Essex had difficulties both with his deputy Fitzwilliam and with the Queen. His offensive movements in Ulster took the form of raids and brutal massacres among the O'Neills. In October 1574, he treacherously captured MacPhelim after slaughtering his attendants, had MacPhelim, his wife and brother executed at Dublin. Piers was freed and he successfully executed Brian mac Phelim O'Neill for treason. However, he took advantage of that to defeat Turlough Luineach and chastise County Antrim.Walter Devereux, 1st Earl of Essex – Walter Devereux, 1st Earl of Essex as Earl Marshal of England, 1575
20. Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor – Frederick II was a Holy Roman Emperor and King of Sicily in the Middle Ages, a member of the House of Hohenstaufen. His cultural ambitions, based in Sicily and stretching through Italy to Germany, even to Jerusalem, were enormous. However, his dynasty collapsed soon after his death. As such, he was King of Germany, of Burgundy. His other title was King of Jerusalem by virtue of marriage and his connection with the Sixth Crusade. Pope Gregory IX went so as to call him an Antichrist. Speaking six languages, Frederick was an avid patron of the arts. He played a major role in promoting literature through the Sicilian School of poetry. His Sicilian royal court from around 1220 to his death, saw the first use of a literary form of an Italo-Romance language, Sicilian. The poetry that emanated from the school had a significant influence on what was to become the modern Italian language. He was also the first king who explicitly outlawed trials by ordeal as they were considered irrational. After his death, the House of Hohenstaufen came to an end. Born near Ancona, Italy, Frederick was the son of the emperor Henry VI. He was known as the Apuliae. Some chronicles say that the forty-year-old Constance, gave birth to him in a public square in order to forestall any doubt about his origin.Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor – Frederick II
21. Bartholomew Gosnold – Bartholomew Gosnold was an English lawyer, explorer, privateer, instrumental in founding the Virginia Company of London, Jamestown in colonial America. He led the first European expedition to Cape Cod. He is considered by Preservation Virginia to be the "prime mover of the colonization of Virginia". His family seat was at Otley, Suffolk. His parents were Dorothy Bacon of Hessett. The judge and friend of Francis Bacon, was his cousin. Bartholomew had a younger brother, born sometime between 1578, who, according ot tradition, accompanied him to Virginia. In 1578, the will of Bartholomew's great-grandmother Ann Doggett Gosnold shows five sisters to Bartholomew and Anthony. Gosnold studied law at Middle Temple. He sailed with Walter Raleigh. They intended to establish a colony in New England. Gosnold pioneered a direct sailing route due west to what later became New England arriving in May 1602 at Cape Elizabeth in Maine. He sailed into Provincetown Harbor, where he is credited with naming Cape Cod. Gosnold established a small post in Massachusetts. Gosnold himself served as vice-admiral of the captain of the Godspeed.Bartholomew Gosnold – Albert Bierstadt 's 1858 painting: "Gosnold at Cuttyhunk, 1602"
22. Texas Guinan – Mary Louise Cecilia "Texas" Guinan was an American actress, producer, entrepreneur. She was one of seven siblings born to Irish-Canadian immigrants Michael and Bessie Guinan. Guinan attended parochial school in Waco. When she was 16 years old, her family moved to Denver, Colorado, where she played the organ in church. She married a cartoonist for the Rocky Mountain News, on December 2, 1904. The union was childless. Moynahan's career took them to Chicago, where Guinan studied music before starting her career as a professional singer. Guinan became known less for her singing than for her entertaining "Wild West" - related patter. In 1917, "Texas" Guinan made her debut in a silent film called The Wildcat. Guinan became the United States's first cowgirl, nicknamed "The Queen of the West". She claimed she had a sojourn in France, entertaining the troops during World War I. Guinan was one of the female emcees. Upon the introduction of Prohibition, Guinan opened a speakeasy called the 300 Club in New York City. The club became famous for Guinan's distinctive aplomb, which made her a celebrity. She maintained that she had never sold an alcoholic drink in her life.Texas Guinan – Texas Guinan
23. Rudolf HasseRudolf Hasse – Rudolf Hasse driving an Auto Union at the 1937 Donington Grand Prix. He finished fifth.
24. Henry Havelock – Henry Havelock was born at Ford Hall, Bishopwearmouth, the son of William Havelock, a wealthy shipbuilder, Jane, daughter of John Carter, solicitor, of Stockton-on-Tees. He was the second of four brothers, all of whom entered the army. Here his mother died in 1811. Among his contemporaries at Charterhouse were Connop Thirlwall, George Grote, William Hale, Julius Hare, William Norris, the last two being his special friends. Shortly after leaving Charterhouse his father lost his fortune by unsuccessful speculation, removed to Clifton. He was promoted October 1821. During the following eight years of service in Britain he acquired a good acquaintance with the theory of war. Before embarkation he studied the Persian and Hindustani languages under John Borthwick Gilchrist. At about the same time he became a Baptist, being baptized by Mr. John Mack at Serampore. He began the distribution of bibles to all soldiers. He also established the first non-church services for military personnel. By the time Havelock took part in 1839, he had been promoted to the rank of captain. He was present as aide-de-camp at the occupation of Kabul. Here, after many months siege, his column in a sortie en masse defeated Akbar Khan on 7 April 1842. He used his spare time to produce analytical reports about the battles in which he was involved.Henry Havelock – Henry Havelock 1865 portrait
25. Henry the Young King – Beginning in 1170, Henry was titular King of England, Duke of Normandy, Count of Anjou and Maine. Little is known before the events associated with his marriage and coronation. His mother's children by her first marriage to Louis VII of France were Marie of France. His younger siblings included Matilda; Richard; Geoffrey; Eleanor; Joan; and John. Henry was known as "Henry the Young King" to distinguish him from his father. Because he was not a reigning king, Henry is not counted in the numerical succession of kings of England. He did not appear to have been very interested in the day-to-day business of government, which distinguished him from younger brothers. His father, however, is reputed to have failed to delegate authority to retaining power in England. Unfortunately Henry was also shallow, vain, careless, high-hoped, improvident, irresponsible." The Young King's contemporary reputation, however, was by no means so negative. This had much to do with his place in the enthusiastic culture of his own day. The History depicts him as constantly moving to another across northern and central France between 1175 and 1182. With his cousins, Philip, Baldwin V, Count of Hainaut, Flanders and Namur, Henry was one of the key patrons of the sport. Henry is said to have spent on the great retinue of knights he brought to the tournament of Lagny-sur-Marne in November 1179. If he lacked political weight, the Young King's patronage gave celebrity status throughout western Europe.Henry the Young King – Henry the Young King
26. Henry V of England – Henry V was King of England from 1413 until his death at the age of 36 in 1422. He was the second English monarch who came from the House of Lancaster. His military successes culminated in his famous victory at the Battle of Agincourt and saw him come close to conquering France. Following Henry V's sudden and unexpected death in France two years later, he was succeeded by his infant son, who reigned as Henry VI. Henry was born in the tower above the gatehouse of Monmouth Castle, Monmouth, Principality of Wales. He was the son of 20-year-old Henry of Bolingbroke, 16-year-old Mary de Bohun. He was also the grandson of the influential John of Gaunt and great-grandson of Edward III of England. At the time of his birth, Richard II of England, his cousin once removed, was king. As he was not close to the line of succession to the throne, Henry's date of birth was not officially documented. His grandfather, John of Gaunt, was the guardian of the king at that time. Upon the exile of Henry's father in 1398, Richard II took the boy into his own charge and treated him kindly. In 1399, Henry's grandfather died. His other titles were Duke of Cornwall, Earl of Chester, Duke of Aquitaine. From 1400 to 1404, he carried out the duties of High Sheriff of Cornwall. It was there that the sixteen-year-old prince was almost killed by an arrow that became stuck in his face.Henry V of England – Henry V
27. Thomas Hodgkin – Thomas Hodgkin was a British physician, considered one of the most prominent pathologists of his time and a pioneer in preventive medicine. He is now best known for a form of lymphoma and blood disease, in 1832. Hodgkin's work marked the beginning of times when a pathologist was actively involved in the clinical process. Hodgkin was Richard Bright at Guy's Hospital. Thomas Hodgkin was born in Pentonville, St. James Parish, Middlesex, the son of John Hodgkin. Hodgkin in 1816 took a position as private secretary to William Allen. Hodgkin went to an apothecary cousin, John Glaisyer, in Brighton instead. Hodgkin inherited property from his great-uncle of the same name, meaning that from age 21 he had a degree of financial independence. In September 1819 he was admitted to and Guy's Medical School. Hodgkin "attended lectures, in particular those by Astley Cooper. Hodgkin then studied at the University of Edinburgh, where the lecturers who impressed him included Andrew Duncan, Robert Jameson in natural history. His first published paper, on the spleen, came from Duncan's course, drew on the veterinary writings of his friend Bracy Clark. In 1821, he went to France, where he learned to work with a recent invention of René Laennec. Hodgkin also took account of clinical approach of Pierre Charles Alexandre Louis. Hodgkin associated there with British expatriates including Helen Maria Williams.Thomas Hodgkin – Thomas Hodgkin
28. John Tristan, Count of Valois – John Tristan was a French prince of the Capetian dynasty. He was jure uxoris Count of Nevers from 1265 to 1270, Count of Auxerre and Tonnerre and also Count of Valois and Crépy. John was born in Damietta, Egypt. He was the sixth child and the fourth son of king Louis IX of France, called St. Louis after canonization, Margaret of Provence. Moreover, he was the first of three children of this royal couple who were born during the Seventh Crusade. He was born at the Egyptian port town of Damietta, conquered by the crusaders in 1249. According to chronicler Jean de Joinville, an old knight acted as midwife during John's birth. He was baptised in the grand mosque of Damietta, re-consecrated into a church. One month later, Damietta had to be abandoned. John subsequently spent his childhood in the Holy Land where his siblings Peter and Blanche were born. His father wished that John joined the Dominican Order, but John resisted this wish successfully. In 1266, he was married to Countess of Nevers, making Count of Nevers, Auxerre and Tonnere. In 1268, John was made Count of Valois and Crépy by a gift he received as paréage. Two years later, John accompanied his father during the Eighth Crusade, which reached Tunis in July after setting out from Cagliari on Sardinia. But at Tunis the army suffered an outbreak of dysentery.John Tristan, Count of Valois – John Tristan
29. John, King of England – John, also known as John Lackland, was King of England from 6 April 1199 until his death in 1216. The youngest of five sons of King Henry II of England and Eleanor of Aquitaine, was at first not expected to inherit significant lands. Following the failed rebellion between 1173 and 1174, however, John became Henry's favourite child. He was given lands in England and on the continent. John's elder brothers William, Henry and Geoffrey died young; by the time Richard I became king in 1189, John was a potential heir to the throne. John unsuccessfully attempted a rebellion against Richard's royal administrators whilst his brother was participating in the Third Crusade. John spent much of the next decade attempting to regain these lands, raising huge revenues, rebuilding continental alliances. John's judicial reforms had a lasting impact on the common law system, as well as providing an additional source of revenue. An argument with Pope Innocent III led in 1209, a dispute finally settled by the king in 1213. John's attempt to defeat Philip in 1214 failed due to the French victory over John's allies at the battle of Bouvines. Although the barons agreed to the Magna Carta peace treaty in 1215, neither side complied with its conditions. Civil war broke afterwards with the barons aided by Louis of France. It soon descended into a stalemate. John was born on 24 December 1166. Henry had expanded his empire by conquering Brittany.John, King of England – Tomb effigy of King John, Worcester Cathedral
30. Gilbert Jose – Gilbert Edgar Jose was an Australian first-class cricketer who played for South Australia. He died during World War II. Jose was born in Taizhou, China, where George Jose, worked as a CMS missionary. Back in Australia, Jose attended St Peter's College in Adelaide. Jose made his first-class debut for South Australia in the 1918/19 season, at the Melbourne Cricket Ground. He scored a pair, bowled for 0 by Ted McDonald in his second innings. Although he only batted in the lower order, Jose wasn't called on to bowl in the match. His first-class appearance came in 1920/21, at the Adelaide Oval, against the touring Marylebone Cricket Club. He scored 16 in his first innings. Promoted up the order to five in the second innings, Jose scored just two. A Fellow of the Royal Australasian College of Surgeons, served with the Australian Army Medical Corps in World War II. He was assigned to the 10th Australian General Hospital and was taken prisoner by the Japanese. He died from dysentery on 27 March 1942. He had two brothers, Oswald Wilfred Jose, who both served in the first World War. Ivan was was later the Chief Surgeon at the Royal Adelaide Hospital.Gilbert Jose – Gilbert Jose
31. William Lanne – William Lanne was a Tasmanian Aborigine. He is most well known as the full-blooded Aboriginal Tasmanian man. Lanne was captured along during a period known as the Black War. He was the youngest child in the last family taken to the Aboriginal camp by George Augustus Robinson. In 1847, he was sent to an orphanage in Hobart until 1851. In 1855 he regularly visited Oyster Cove when he had time. Lanne died on 3 March 1869 from a combination of dysentery. Following his death, Lanne's body was used for scientific purposes. An argument broke out over who should possess his remains. The Tasmanian Royal Society soon decided to thwart any further attempts to collect "samples" by amputating the hands and feet. Lanne was then buried in this state. Because he was accused of the theft of Lanne's head, Crowther's honorary appointment as surgeon at the Colonial Hospital terminated. Crowther later became Premier of Tasmania. Other colonists took note of Crowther's act: A fracas occurred outside Hobart Town, a few nights ago. Mr. Crowther was reprimanded.William Lanne – William Lanne
32. Leo I the Thracian – Leo I was Eastern Roman Emperor from 457 to 474. A native of Dacia Aureliana near historic Thrace, he was known as Leo the Thracian. Ruling the Eastern Empire for nearly 20 years, Leo proved to be a capable ruler. Leo oversaw ambitious military plans, aimed mostly for the aid of the faltering Western Roman Empire and recovering its former territories. He is notable for being the first Eastern Emperor to legislate in Greek rather than Latin. He is commemorated as a Saint in the Orthodox Church, with his feast day on January 20. Leo was born Leo Marcellus in Dacia Aureliana province to a Thraco-Roman family. His Dacian origin is mentioned by Candidus Isaurus, while John Malalas believes that he was of Bessian stock. He served in the Roman army, rising to the rank of comes. Instead, Leo became more and more independent from Aspar, causing tension that would culminate in the assassination of the latter. Leo's coronation as emperor on 7 February 457, was the first known to involve the Patriarch of Constantinople. Leo I made an alliance with the Isaurians and was thus able to eliminate Aspar. The price of the alliance was the marriage of Leo's daughter to Tarasicodissa, leader of the Isaurians who, as Zeno, became emperor in 474. In 469, Aspar attempted to assassinate Zeno and very nearly succeeded. Finally, in 471, Aspar's son Ardabur was implicated in a plot against Leo and Ardabur was killed by palace eunuchs acting on Leo's orders.Leo I the Thracian – Imperial portrait of Leo I at the Louvre Museum
33. James A. Leonard – James A. Leonard was a young American chess master, who grew up as a son of poor Irish immigrants in New York City. Leonard learned to play chess at 17. In 1862, Leonard fought in the American Civil War. While being held as a prisoner of war, died of dysentery before reaching his 21st birthday. Commentators have compared his promise, never realized, to that of American chess giants Paul Morphy and Harry Nelson Pillsbury. Nineteenth-century chess journalists and Jeremy Gaige's book Chess Personalia: A Biobibliography state that Leonard was born in New York City. However, states, based on Leonard's military records, that "recent evidence strongly suggests he was born in Ireland". He grew up in New York City with his parents, who were poor, Irish immigrants. Hilbert believes, based on 1850 census records, that his parents may have been John Leonard, his wife Eleanor. He also had a brother Joseph, about two years his junior. He learned chess at 17. Leonard played chess in New York. Chess journalist Myron Hazeltine remarked that Leonard was the Rooms' "lustre". In the summer of 1860, Leonard won the second New York Handicap tournament held there. In October 1860, the de facto world chess champion, visited New York and played Leonard, giving him rook odds.James A. Leonard – James A. Leonard
34. David Livingstone – "The Nile sources," he told a friend, "are valuable only as a means of opening my mouth with power among men. It is this power which I hope to remedy an immense evil." His subsequent exploration of the African watershed was the culmination of the classic period of European geographical discovery and colonial penetration. His meeting with Henry Morton Stanley on 10 November 1871 gave rise to the popular quotation "Dr. Livingstone, I presume?" Livingstone was the second of seven children born to his wife Agnes. David was employed in the cotton mill of Henry Monteith & Co. in Blantyre Works. His brother John worked twelve-hour days as piecers, tying broken cotton threads on the spinning machines. Livingstone was a student in 1838 -- 40, with his courses covering medical practice, midwifery, botany. Neil Livingstone was a Sunday school teetotaller who handed out Christian tracts on his travels as a door-to-door tea salesman. Livingstone extensively read books on theology, missionary enterprises. Significant influences in his early life were Thomas Burke, a Blantyre evangelist, David Hogg, his Sabbath school teacher. For Livingstone, this meant a release from the fear of eternal damnation. Livingstone's experiences in H. Monteith's Blantyre mill were also important from ages 10 to 26, first as a piecer and later as a spinner. To enter medical school, Livingstone required some knowledge of Latin. A local Roman Catholic named Daniel Gallagher helped him learn Latin to the required level.David Livingstone – David Livingstone
35. Jack London – John Griffith "Jack" London was an American novelist, journalist, social activist. London was a passionate advocate of unionization, socialism, the rights of workers. Flora Wellman, was the fifth and youngest child of Pennsylvania Canal builder Marshall Wellman and his first wife, Eleanor Garrett Jones. Marshall Wellman was descended from an early Puritan settler in the Massachusetts Bay Colony. Flora moved to the Pacific coast when her father remarried after her mother died. In San Francisco, Flora worked as spiritualist, claiming to channel the spirit of a Sauk chief, Black Hawk. Others believe London's father was astrologer William Chaney. Flora Wellman was living in San Francisco when she became pregnant. Whether Wellman and Chaney were legally married is unknown. Most San Francisco civil records were destroyed by the extensive fires that followed the 1906 earthquake; nobody knows what name appeared on her son's certificate. According to Flora Wellman's account, as recorded in the San Francisco Chronicle of June 1875, Chaney demanded that she have an abortion. When she refused, he disclaimed responsibility for the child. In desperation, she shot herself. She was temporarily deranged. After giving birth, Flora turned the baby to Virginia Prentiss, an African-American woman and former slave.Jack London – London in 1903
36. Louis VIII of France – Louis VIII the Lion was King of France from 1223 to 1226. He also claimed the title King of England from 1216 to 1217. Louis VIII was born in Paris, the son of King Philip II of France and Isabelle of Hainaut, from whom he inherited the County of Artois. While Louis VIII only briefly reigned as king of France, he was an active leader in his years as crown prince. During the First Barons' War against King John of England, his military prowess earned the epithet the Lion. He renounced his claim after being repelled. In 1217, Louis started the conquest of Guyenne, leaving only a small region around Bordeaux to Henry III of England. Louis's short reign was marked by an intervention using royal forces into the Albigensian Crusade in southern France that decisively moved the conflict towards a conclusion. He was succeeded by Louis IX. This led to a sudden deterioration in relations between Richard and Philip. The marriage could only be concluded after prolonged negotiations between John. In 1214, King John of England began his final campaign to reclaim the Duchy of Normandy from Philip II. John was optimistic, as he had successfully built up Count Ferdinand of Flanders. John besieged the castle of Roche-au-Moine, a key stronghold, forcing Louis to give battle against John's larger army. The local Angevin nobles refused to advance with the king; left at something of a disadvantage, John retreated back to La Rochelle.Louis VIII of France – Louis VIII's seal
37. Louis IX of France – Louis IX, commonly known as Saint Louis, was King of France from 1226 until his death. During Louis's childhood, Blanche dealt with the opposition of rebellious vassals and put an end to the Albigensian crusade which had started 20 years earlier. As an adult, Louis IX faced recurring conflicts with some of the most powerful nobles, such as Hugh X of Lusignan and Peter of Dreux. Simultaneously, Henry III of England tried to restore his continental possessions, but was defeated at the battle of Taillebourg. His reign saw the annexation of several provinces, notably Normandy, Maine and Provence. He banned trials by ordeal, tried to prevent the private wars that were plaguing the country and introduced the presumption of innocence in criminal procedure. To enforce the correct application of this new legal system, Louis IX created provosts and bailiffs. He was succeeded by his son Philip III. Louis's actions were inspired by Christian values and Catholic devotion. He decided to punish blasphemy, gambling, interest-bearing loans and prostitution, bought presumed relics of Christ for which he built the Sainte-Chapelle. He also expanded the scope of the Inquisition and ordered the burning of Talmuds. He is the only canonized king of France, there are consequently many places named after him. Much of what is known of Louis's life comes from Jean de Joinville's famous Life of Saint Louis. Two other important biographies were written by the king's confessor, Geoffrey of Beaulieu, his chaplain, William of Chartres. The fourth important source of information is William of Saint-Parthus' biography, which he wrote using the papal inquest mentioned above.Louis IX of France – Representation of Saint Louis considered to be true to life, early 14th century. Statue from the church of Mainneville, Eure, France.
38. Jacques Marquette – Father Jacques Marquette S.J. sometimes known as Père Marquette or James Marquette, was a French Jesuit missionary who founded Michigan's first European settlement, Sault Ste. Marie, later founded St. Ignace, Michigan. In 1673 Father Marquette and Louis Jolliet were the first Europeans to map the northern portion of the Mississippi River. Jacques Marquette joined the Society of Jesus at age 17. He showed great proficiency in learning the local languages, especially Huron. In 1668 Father Marquette was moved by his superiors to missions farther up the St. Lawrence River in the western Great Lakes region. He helped found missions at Sault Ste. Marie in present-day Michigan in 1668, St. Ignace in 1671, at La Pointe, on Lake Superior near the present-day city of Ashland, Wisconsin. At La Pointe he encountered members of the Illinois tribes, who told him about the important route of the Mississippi River. They invited him to teach their people, whose settlements were farther south. In 1673, Marquette joined the expedition of Louis Jolliet, a French-Canadian explorer. They departed with two canoes and five voyageurs of French-Indian ancestry. They followed Lake Michigan up the Fox River, nearly to its headwaters. From there, they were told to portage their canoes a distance of slightly less than two miles to the Wisconsin River. Many years later, at that point the town of Portage, Wisconsin was built, named for the ancient path between the two rivers.Jacques Marquette – Jacques Marquette
39. William Pope McArthur – McArthur was born in Ste. Genevieve, Missouri to John and Mary Linn McArthur. McArthur's uncle, Dr. Lewis F. Linn was U.S. Senator for Missouri. At Linn's request McArthur was appointed Midshipman in the U.S. Navy on February 1832. In 1837 he attended the Naval School at Norfolk, Virginia. During the Second Seminole War he was placed in command of a small craft. Among the passengers was future American Civil War General Joseph E. Johnston who accompanied the vessel as a topographical engineer. McArthur was wounded in both legs at Jupiter, Florida. While one ball was pulled from one leg, the ball remained in the other leg. Among their children is Lewis Linn McArthur, an Oregon Supreme Court Justice. In 1840 he began a survey of the Gulf Of Mexico aboard the brig Consort. After sailing from New York McArthur was delayed by the influx of settlers in the California Gold Rush. In Panama, McArthur was asked to captain a former coal ship to San Francisco. They managed to survey Mare Island Strait before steaming to Hawaii to obtain crewmen from Hawaiian monarch King Kamehameha III.William Pope McArthur – William Pope McArthur
40. Eric Archibald McNair – Eric Archibald McNair VC was a British soldier. He was educated at Charterhouse School from 1907–1913, where he was Head of the School. They were driven back with many dead. His plucky action undoubtedly saved a critical situation. He later achieved the rank of Captain. He died of chronic dysentery on 12 August 1918. His Victoria Cross is displayed at Eastbourne, Sussex, England. Redoubt Fortress Museum Eastbourne Redoubt The Royal Sussex Living History Group WebsiteEric Archibald McNair – Eric Archibald McNair
41. Percy B. Molesworth – Percy Braybrooke Molesworth was a Major in the corps of Royal Engineers and an amateur astronomer. Molesworth was educated at Winchester College. He was stationed at Fort Camden until 1891. He then was ordered to Hong Kong and three years later moved to Trincomalee on Ceylon. He died of dysentery before he could realize his plans. The inscription can be still seen clearly on the stone, as at Sept 19th 2013. He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Astronomical Society in 1898. Molesworth was a talented observer creating first-class drawings of Mars and Jupiter in the years 1903 to 1905. He is credited with discovering a "great disturbance" on 28 February 1901. Known as the "South Tropical Disturbance" it lasted to forty years. A crater on Mars was named in his honour. The Reflector Telescope that he used was gifted after his death. It was used till 1988, when bandits sold them for scrap. It hasn't been used since, can still be seen at Reid Avenue, Colombo 7. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 248 Obs 108 Description of the discovery of the southern disturbance Molesworth's description of his Mars observationsPercy B. Molesworth – v
42. Robert NewellRobert Newell – Robert Newell
43. Sir William Norris, 1st Baronet – Sir William Norris, 1st Baronet was an English politician and ambassador to Aurangzeb. He was the second son of Thomas Norris of Lancashire, by Katherine, daughter of Sir Henry Garraway. Thomas Norris, was a Whig M.P. for Liverpool, 1688 to 1690 and 1690 to 1695. He was made December 1698 of Speke, Lancashire. The title became extinct on his death. The Old Company had its firmans from the Mughal Emperors conferring special privileges of trading. Norris landed on 25 September 1699 on the Indian east coast, where he found Consul Pitt of the English Company expecting him. The English company was incompetent to carry the offer into effect. Pitt had made no preparations for the inland journey. Norris paid into Surat. On January 1701 he set out from Surat on a journey to the emperor's camp, then some way south of Burhanpur. He was escorted over sixty Europeans, including his brother Edward Norris, three hundred Indians. The route taken across Maharashtra via Daulatabad, Aurangabad and Jalgaon took 38 days, with Burhanpur reached on 6 March. While in Burhanpur Norris let stand in the way of meeting Asad Khan, chief vizier to the Emperor. King William's letter was presented in an elaborate ceremony with many gifts.Sir William Norris, 1st Baronet – Letter from Aurangzeb to William III (BL Or. 6286)
44. Philip I of Namur – Philip I, called the Noble, was the margrave of Namur from 1195 until his death. He was the second son of Baldwin V, Margaret I, Countess of Flanders. His paternal grandmother was Alice, Countess of Namur. Baldwin's will left Namur as a fief of Hainault. However, Theobald I of Bar, who had married Henry of Ermesinda, refused to relinquish Namur and attacked Philip. The war lasted for three years until the Treaty of Dinant, signed on 26 July 1199, recognised Philip as holder of Namur. They revolted and forced him to give up the regency. In Namur, Philip reigned as a pious promoter of social development. He intervened as the mediator between many feuding lords. He died of dysentery October 1212 in Valenciennes. He had designated his twin Yolande as heir.Philip I of Namur – Ancestry 
45. Philip III of France – Philippe III redirects here. It can also refer to Duke of Orléans. Philip III, called the Bold, was King of France from 1270 to 1285, a member of the House of Capet. He proved indecisive, timid. Policies of his father dominated him. Philip was pious but not cultivated. Philip followed the suggestions of others, then of his uncle King Charles I of Naples, Sicily, Albania. Louis IX, died in Tunis during the Eighth Crusade. Philip, accompanying him, was anointed at Reims in 1271. He died from dysentry in Perpignan in 1285. Philip was succeeded by his son Philip the Fair. He was born to King Saint Louis IX of France and Margaret of Provence, queen consort of France. As a younger son, he was not expected to rule a kingdom. At the death of his elder brother Louis in 1260, Philip became the heir to the throne. Pope Urban IV released Philip on June 6, 1263.Philip III of France – Coronation of King Philip III
46. Philip V of France – Philip V, the Tall, was King of France and King of Navarre. He reigned from 1316 to his death and was the penultimate monarch of the main line of the House of Capet. When Louis died in 1316, he left a daughter and a pregnant wife, Clementia of Hungary. Philip the Tall successfully claimed the regency. The king lived only for five days. At the death of his nephew, Philip immediately had himself crowned at Reims. However, his legitimacy was challenged by the party of Louis X’s daughter Joan. The succession instead of Joan, set the precedent for the French succession that would be famously known as the Salic law. A popular crusade started in 1320 aiming to liberate Iberia from the Moors. Instead the angry populace marched to the south attacking castles, royal officials, Jews. Philip V engaged in a series of domestic reforms intended to improve the management of the kingdom. These reforms included the establishment of a single currency. Philip V was succeeded by Charles IV. Philip was born in Queen Joan I of Navarre. His father granted to him the county of Poitiers in appanage.Philip V of France – Contemporary picture from the L'arbre généalogique Bernard Gui, Généalogie des rois de France
47. FitzRoy Somerset, 1st Baron Raglan – Field Marshal FitzRoy James Henry Somerset, 1st Baron Raglan, GCB, PC, known before 1852 as Lord FitzRoy Somerset, was a British Army officer. As a junior officer Somerset served to the Duke of Wellington. Somerset also took part before becoming Master-General of the Ordnance. Despite further success at the Battle of Inkerman, a piecemeal allied assault on Sevastopol in June 1855 was a complete failure. Raglan died later that month from a mixture of dysentery and clinical depression. Somerset accompanied Wellesley's Army when it was sent to Portugal later that month. Somerset fought at the Second Battle of Porto in May 1809, the Battle of Talavera in July 1809 and the Battle of Bussaco in September 1810. Promoted to brevet June 1811, Somerset also took part in September 1811. Somerset transferred to the 1st Guards on 25 July 1814 and was appointed a Knight Commander of the Order of the Bath on 2 January 1815. Somerset remained until May 1816 when he returned at the British Embassy in Paris. Following Wellington's appointment as Commander-in-Chief of the Forces in January 1827 Somerset became Military Secretary in August 1827. He stood down from Parliament in 1829 and was promoted to lieutenant-general on 28 June 1838. He was also awarded the Ottoman Empire Order of the Medjidie, 1st Class on 15 May 1855. A piecemeal allied assault on Sevastopol on 18 June 1855 was a complete failure. He died on 29 June 1855.FitzRoy Somerset, 1st Baron Raglan – FitzRoy Somerset by William Salter, 1838–1840
48. Rao Tula Ram – Rao Tula Ram was one of the key leaders of the Indian rebellion of 1857, in Haryana, where he is considered a state hero. His plans were cut short by his death on 23 September 1863, aged 38. Rao Tula Ram was born on 9 December 1825. His father was Rao Puran Singh, his grandfather Rao Tej Singh and his mother's name was Gyan Kanwar, daughter of Rao Zahari Singh, a local jagirdar. Rao Tula Ram was one against the colonial British forces. His story is one of rebellion and warfare against the stronger and better-equipped imperialist forces of the British Army. The battle of Narnaul was undoubtedly one of the most decisive battles of the uprising of 1857. Rao Tula Ram's Istemraree estates were confiscated in 1859 though proprietary rights of his two wives were retained. In 1877, his title was restored to his son Rao Yudhister Singh, made head of the Ahirwal. The government of India issued on 23 a postal stamp featuring Maharaj Rao Tula Ram. Rao Tula Ram Hospital is approachable from Rawta mor of Dhansa Road. The Rao Tula Ram Govt. Sarvodaya Co.Ed is located at Sr Sec School Surera New Delhi. The school was established in year 1957. It is a Co-educational school and offers education in Hindi medium,running under the aegis of Delhi Administration.Rao Tula Ram – Raja Rao Tula Ram
49. Red Bird – Red Bird was a leader of the Winnebago Native American tribe. He was a leader in the Winnebago War against the United States. He was for many years one of the most trusted of the Wisconsin Indians. In the late 1820s his followers began to grow uneasy over the encroachments of lead miners on Indian land. They fled after Gagnier's son escaped and gave the alarm in Prairie du Chien. On June 1827, a band of Ho-Chunk fired on the Wisconsin River keelboat "Oliver Perry" killing two of the crew and wounding several others. With an Indian war threatening, federal troops were dispatched to Prairie du Chien from Jefferson Barracks, Mo.. To avert a general war, his companions surrendered at Portage on Sept. 2, 1827. Several months later the other Indians were pardoned. One of the surrender of the proud and handsome chief became the subject of stories, paintings, plays. "For story of Red Bird troubles, see: Snelling, Wis.. Hist. Colls. V, 143-154. Also: Moses M. Strong, Indian Wars of Wisconsin, Id. VIII, 254-265. Also: Col. Thos.Red Bird – Red Bird dressed in white buckskin for his surrender to U.S. authorities
50. Gerard Reynst – Gerard Reynst was a Dutch merchant, father of a museum curator, later the second Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies. All, known of his early years is that he was born in the son of Pieter Rijnst, soap boiler, Trijn Sijverts. This company then in 1602 merged into the Dutch East India Company. The trip lasted 18 months, after which he took from Pieter Both. On the way, he had already sent one of his ships to the Red Sea to start trade relations with the Arabs there. In 1588 in Haarlem Reijnst married Margriet Niquet, daughter of the wealthy merchant and art-collector Jean Niquet from Antwerp. At his death, Reijnst left his wife, who had accompanied him with seven children. The younger of these she raised with her brother Jacques Nicquet, an art-collector well. Among their children were the art-collecting brothers Jan.. His daughter Weijntje became the mother of the merchant Isaak Isaaksz Coymans, one of the founders of the Danish West India Company.Gerard Reynst – Portrait of Gerard Reynst
51. Edmund Roberts (diplomat) – Roberts concluded treaties with Thailand and Said bin Sultan, Sultan of Muscat and Oman, ratified in Washington, D.C. 30 June 1834. He returned in 1836 for a second attempt at negotiation. He died in Portuguese Macau, which precluded his becoming America's first envoy to Edo Japan. Roberts put in 1800 eventually residing in London until age 24. Of the couple's 11 children, 8 survived their parents. New Hampshire, with only 16 miles of line, the Portsmouth Naval Shipyard in Maine is credited with shaping Roberts' character. This would further lead to more appropriations of funds, which would eventually spiral out of control, giving birth to a "self-feeding entity". Roberts entered the New England trade as shipowner and his own supercargo, but never as a captain. Robert Hopkins Miller says Roberts succeeded in 1823 in being appointed US Consul at Demerara. However, Miller does not mention the Demerara rebellion of 1823. "The 1823 revolt had a special significance... t attracted attention in Britain to the terrible evil slavery and the need to abolish it." Upon returning, he wrote U.S. Senator Levi Woodbury, a personal friend, of the aggravations endured by American shipping, that might be alleviated by negotiating commercial treaties. The stage was set for Roberts diplomatic career with China and the East Indies. From 1826 to 1832, American consul in Batavia, sent a series of letters suggesting that he be empowered to negotiate trade treaties.Edmund Roberts (diplomat) – Peacock. Alfred T. Agate. Pencil.
52. Rudolf I of Bohemia – Rudolf was the eldest son of his wife Elizabeth of Gorizia-Tyrol. According to the Rheinfelden order of succession, Rudolf acted as ducal regent on behalf of his younger brothers Frederick I. The intended union with the French House of Capet however failed as the couple's daughter died young and Blanche herself died in 1305. Rudolph was vested with the Bohemian throne, however contested by his maternal uncle Henry of Gorizia, Duke of Carinthia and husband of Wenceslaus' sister Anne. When several Bohemian nobles elected Henry King of Bohemia, Albert I marched against Prague. Henry fled, first to Bavaria, back to his Carinthian homelands. Mocked as král kaše for his stomach problems, Rudolf was rejected by Bohemian nobles, who continued to hold out for Henry. His aims to take hold of the silver deposits at Kutná Hora sparked a rebellion led by the noble House of Strakonice. The king died at the campsite in the night of 3 to 4 July 1307, probably of gastrointestinal perforation. Instead Rudolph's enfeoffment intensified the inner Habsburg conflict, culminating in the assassination of King Albert I by his nephew John Parricida in 1308. Rudolph is buried at the St. Vitus Cathedral in Prague.Rudolf I of Bohemia – Rudolf I
53. Caspar Schwenckfeld – Schwenckfeld came through Thomas Müntzer and Andreas Karlstadt. However, he fell out with Martin Luther over the eucharistic controversy. He had his own views on the sacraments - the Heavenly doctrine - developed in close association with his humanist colleague, Valentin Crautwald. His ideas influenced Anabaptism, Pietism on mainland Europe, Puritanism in England. Schwenckfeld was born in Ossig near Liegnitz, Silesia now Osiek, to noble parents in 1489. From 1505 to 1507 he was a student in 1507 enrolled at the University of Frankfurt on the Oder. Between 1523, Schwenckfeld served the Duchy of Liegnitz as an adviser to Duke Charles I, Duke George I, Duke Frederick II. In 1519, Schwenckfeld experienced an awakening that he called a "visitation of God." He embraced the "Lutheran" Reformation and became a student of the Scriptures. In 1521, Schwenckfeld in 1522 won Duke Friedrich II over to Protestantism. He organized a Brotherhood of his converts in 1523. In 1525, he came to a spiritual interpretation of the Lord's Supper, subsequently rejected by Luther. Schwenckfeld began to teach that the true believer ate the spiritual body of Christ. He pushed for reformation wherever he also criticized reformers that he thought went to extremes. He emphasized that for one to be a true Christian, one must not change outwardly but inwardly.Caspar Schwenckfeld – This article may be expanded with text translated from the corresponding article in German. (February 2011) Click [show] for important translation instructions.
54. George Smith (Assyriologist) – George Smith, was a pioneering English Assyriologist who first discovered and translated the Epic of Gilgamesh, one of the oldest-known written works of literature. As the son of a working-class family in Victorian England, Smith was limited in his ability to acquire a formal education. At age fourteen, he was apprenticed to the London-based house of Bradbury and Evans to learn banknote engraving, at which he excelled. From his youth, he was fascinated with Assyrian history. In his spare time, he read everything, available to him on the subject. They had six children. As early as 1861, he was working evenings cleaning the mass of friable fragments of clay cylinders and tablets in the Museum's storage rooms. In 1866 Smith made his first important discovery, the date of the payment of the tribute by Jehu, king of Israel, to Shalmaneser III. Smith's earliest successes were the discoveries of two unique inscriptions early in 1867. This discovery is the cornerstone of ancient Near Eastern chronology. The other was the date of an invasion of Babylonia by the Elamites in 2280 BC. This work is better known today as the eleventh tablet of the Epic of one of the oldest known works of literature. This journey resulted not only in the discovery of some missing tablets, but also of fragments that recorded the duration of the Babylonian dynasties. An account of his work is given in Assyrian Discoveries, published early in 1875. In March 1876, the trustees of the British Museum sent Smith once more to excavate the rest of Assurbanipal's library.George Smith (Assyriologist) – George Smith
56. William Stevenson (colonial administrator) – Sir William Stevenson KCB was a Jamaican-born British colonial administrator who served as the 9th Governor of Mauritius from 20 September 1857 to 9 January 1863. He was born to one of the oldest English families on Jamaica. He was the son of William James Stevenson of Kingston. His mother was descended from Colonel Richard James, the first person born of English parents in British Jamaica. Stevenson's grandmother was descended from President of Cromwell's Council of State, whose son founded a plantation in Jamaica in the 17th century. Stevenson was a barrister. He first served from 1854 -- 1857 before being appointed Governor of Mauritius in May 1857. He was invested in 1862. He had a son, William Lawrence Stevenson, a daughter, who married Colonel Sir Francis Marindin. Their son was Francis Seymour Stevenson, M.P.. He died in 1863.William Stevenson (colonial administrator) – Government offices
57. Emmeline Charlotte Elizabeth Stuart-Wortley – Lady Emmeline Stuart-Wortley née Manners was an English poet and writer, best known for her Travels in the United States, etc. During 1849 and 1850. She was editor of The Keepsake in 1840. They had Lady Victoria Welby. After the death of her husband in 1844, she began to travel as a Victorian widower, along with her daughter, Victoria. Travels in the United States, etc. During 1849 and 1850 The Maiden of MoscowEmmeline Charlotte Elizabeth Stuart-Wortley – Lady Emmeline Stuart-Wortley
58. Michael de la Pole, 2nd Earl of Suffolk – Michael de la Pole, 2nd Earl of Suffolk, an English nobleman, supported Henry IV against Richard II. He died in 1415. He was a son of Michael de la Pole, Katherine Wingfield, daughter of Sir John Wingfield. His father fled abroad during the Merciless Parliament in 1388 forfeiting the title of Earl of Suffolk and the family estates. However, his close association with the Lords Appellant, the Duke of Gloucester prejudiced Richard II against him. He finally obtained the restoration of the earldom in January 1398. However, he would spend the remainder of his life trying to obtain possession of the remaining estates which had not been restored. He played a relatively small role in national politics, although he regularly attended Parliament. Suffolk also acted during his campaign of 1412 -- 1413. However, he devoted most of his energies to re-establishing la Pole influence in East Anglia. He assembled a considerable following among the local gentry. He completed his father's building plans at Wingfield, enlarged the local church. Suffolk brought 40 men-at-arms and 120 archers on the 1415 campaign of Henry V in France. He was succeeded by his eldest son Michael, who later died at Agincourt. Daughter of Hugh de Stafford, 2nd Earl of Stafford.Michael de la Pole, 2nd Earl of Suffolk – The Tomb of Michael de la Pole, 2nd Earl of Suffolk and his wife in Wingfield Church
59. Theuderic II – Theuderic II, king of Burgundy and Austrasia, was the second son of Childebert II. He also received the lordship of Le Mans. During his minority, later, he reigned under the guidance of his grandmother Brunhilda, evicted from Austrasia by his brother Theudebert II. In 596, king of Neustria, Fredegund, Clotaire's mother, took Paris, supposed to be held in common. The armies of Theudebert and Theuderic were defeated. The peasant was supposedly rewarded with the bishopric of Auxerre. Theuderic readily fell under her influence, inclined to vengeful war with Theudebert at the time. Soon, his brother were at war. Their cousin Clotaire's restless warmaking prompted them to ally against him. They, in 600, defeated Clotaire at Dormelles on the Orvanne. They also campaigned together in Gascony, where they instated Genialis as duke. At this point, however, the two brothers took up arms against each other resulting in Theuderic's defeat of Theudebert at Étampes. Theudebert refused him aid. Berthoald was killed. However, he later at Tolbiac in 612.Theuderic II – The Frankish realm as it was after the Treaty of Andelot in 587. The Burgundian kingdom of Guntram (pink) was inherited first by Childebert II and then by Theuderic II.
60. Kyra Vassiliki – Kyra Vassiliki was an influential Greek woman brought up in the seraglio of the Ottoman ruler Ali Pasha. Vassiliki Kontaxi was born in Thesprotia. At the age of twelve she sought an audience with Ali Pasha, to intercede for her father's life. She joined his harem. Being allowed to practice her Christian faith, she interceded on behalf of Greeks. In 1818 she became a member of the patriotic organization Filiki Eteria. Vassiliki was directly recruited by one of the three founding members of Nikolaos Skoufas. During this period she undertook a number of charity initiatives. In 1819–20 she financed a number of restoration works in Mount Athos. Ali Pasha was executed there by an Ottoman delegation having being declared an outlaw by the Sultan. Following Ali's death, Vassiliki was sent to the Ottoman capital, Constantinople. She was later returned to Greece, which meanwhile gained its independence after the successful Greek War of Independence. In 1830, the Greek state gave a medieval tower in Katochi, where she lived the rest of her life. She died in 1834. In 1895, the gold-embroidered purse of Vassiliki was bought by Nikolaos Konstantinidis for 25 drachmas.Kyra Vassiliki – Portrait of Kyra Vassiliki, 1850
61. William VousdenWilliam Vousden – William Vousden VC, CB
62. William H.C. Whiting – William Whiting was born in southern Mississippi. At the age of twelve, he was an outstanding graduate of English High School of Boston in Boston, Massachusetts. At sixteen, he graduated in Washington, D.C.. Appointed Second Lieutenant of Engineers, Whiting was involved in surveying military routes and frontier forts in west Texas. Whiting served at Texas. He was the first to survey the Big Bend area for the U.S. Army. Lt. Whiting spent the five years before the Civil War improving rivers, harbors in North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Florida. He was promoted in the Corps of Engineers in 1858. In January 1861, then Captain Whiting was an engineer responsible for US Army installations in Georgia and Florida. As Georgia and Florida militia seized these sites by force, Whiting took no discernible action. Whiting resigned February 20, 1861, in the weeks before Fort Sumter. He was appointed Major of Engineers in the regular Confederate States Army, on March 16. While improving the defenses of Charleston harbor he was also named Brigadier and Inspector General of the North Carolina Militia. During the first Battle of Fort Sumter he served on the staff of General P.G.T. Beauregard, who praised his work.William H.C. Whiting – Major General William H.C. Whiting
63. Zeno (emperor) – Zeno the Isaurian, originally named Tarasis Kodisa Rousombladadiotes /ˈtærəsᵻs/, was Eastern Roman Emperor from 474 to 475 and again from 476 to 491. Domestic revolts and religious dissension plagued his reign, which nevertheless succeeded to some extent in foreign issues. His reign saw the end of the Western Roman Empire under Romulus Augustus, but he contributed much to stabilizing the eastern Empire. Zeno's original name was Tarasis, more accurately Tarasikodissa in his native Isaurian language. Tarasis was born in Isauria, at Rusumblada, later renamed Zenonopolis in Zeno's honour. His father was called his brother Longinus. The Isaurians were a people who lived inland from the Mediterranean coast of Anatolia, in the core of the Taurus Mountains. Like most borderland tribes, they were looked upon as barbarians by the Romans even though they had been Roman subjects for more than five centuries. However, being Orthodox Christians rather than Arians, as Germanic tribes were, they were not formally barred from the throne. He thought that Tarasis and his Isaurians could be that counterweight, called him, with many Isaurians, to Constantinople. This interpretation, however, has been contested. As reward for his loyalty, which Leo praised with Daniel the Stylite, Tarasis was appointed comes domesticorum, an office of great influence and prestige. This appointment could mean that Tarasis had been a protector domesticus, either at Leo's court in Constantinople, or attached at Ardabur's staff in Antioch. Zeno, however, was not present at the birth of his son, as in 467, he participated in a military campaign against the Goths. Zeno, as member of the protectores domestici, did not take part in the disastrous expedition against the Vandals, led in 468 by Leo's brother-in-law Basiliscus.Zeno (emperor) – Zeno depicted on a Tremissis; the coin's design celebrates Zeno's victories, and was issued during his second reign.