Category:Deaths from gangrene
Deaths from gangrene.
Pages in category "Deaths from gangrene"
The following 33 pages are in this category, out of 33 total, this list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
Deaths from gangrene.
The following 33 pages are in this category, out of 33 total, this list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Pyotr Bagration – Pyotr Bagration was a Russian general and prince of Georgian origin, prominent during the Napoleonic Wars. Bagration was born in Kizlyar or Tbilisi to a family, part of the Bagrationi dynasty and his father was an officer in the Imperial Russian Army, which Bagration also enlisted in 1782. Bagration began his career serving in the Russo-Circassian War for a couple years, afterwards he participated in a war against the Ottomans and the capture of Ochakov in 1788. Later he helped suppress the Kościuszko Uprising of 1794 in Poland, during the Italian and Swiss campaigns of 1799 against the French, he served with distinction under Alexander Suvorov. In 1805, Russia joined the coalition against Napoleon, the combined Russo-Austrian army was defeated at the Battle of Austerlitz in December, where Bagration commanded the right wing against the French under Jean Lannes. Years later he commanded Russian troops in the Finnish War against Sweden, during the French invasion of Russia in 1812, Bagration commanded one of two large Russian armies, the other commanded by Barclay de Tolly, fighting a series of rear-guard actions. The Russians failed to stop the French advance at the Battle of Smolensk, Barclay had proposed a scorched earth retreat that was approved by Alexander I, although Bagration preferred to confront the French in a major battle. Mikhail Kutuzov succeeded Barclay as Commander-in-Chief and continued his policy until the Battle of Borodino near Moscow, Bagration commanded the left wing, later called the Bagration flèches, at Borodino, where he was mortally wounded and died a few weeks later. He was originally buried at a church, but in 1839 was reburied on the battlefield of Borodino. He studied Russian and German and was taught Persian, Turkish, Armenian, however, unlike many other Russian aristocrats, he did not know French. Bagration personally identified himself as a pure Russian, Pyotr joined the Imperial Russian Army in 1782, enlisting as a sergeant in the Kavsansk Rifles of the Astrakhan Infantry Regiment. His younger brother Roman joined the Chuguevsk Cossack regiment as a uryadnik at the age of thirteen in 1791, both would go on to become generals of the Imperial Russian Army. Bagration served for years in the Russian-Circassian War. He participated in the Siege of Ochakov, in 1792 he was commissioned as a Captain and transferred to the Kiev Cavalry Regiment that year as a second Major, transferring as a full first Major to the Sofiiskii Carabineers on 15 May 1794. He served in the campaign to suppress the Polish Kościuszko Uprising of 1794. He received successive promotions to Lieutenant-Colonel, to Colonel and to Major-General and his merits were recognized by Suvorov, whom he accompanied in the Italian and Swiss campaigns of 1799, winning particular distinction by the capture of the town of Brescia. From 1798 to 1799, he commanded the 6th Chasseurs, from 1801 to 1802, he commanded the Chasseurs of the Imperial Guard, then from 1802 to 1805 and he was the alleged lover of Emperor Pauls daughter Catherine. Bagration and Catherine had been involved, but the marriage was a failurePyotr Bagration – Portrait of General Bagration by George Dawe
2. Mariam Baouardy – Saint Mariam Baouardy, O. C. D. was a Discalced Carmelite nun of the Melkite Greek Catholic Church. Born to Greek Catholic parents from Syria and Lebanon, she was known for her service to the poor while refusing forced conversion to Islam, in addition, she became a Christian mystic who suffered the stigmata, and has been canonized by the Catholic Church. Her path to canonization solidified on 6 December 2014 with the recognition of a miracle needed for her canonization. In the consistory of 14 February 2015, Pope Francis announced that she would be canonized on 17 May 2015, Mariam was their 13th child and first daughter, and none of her preceding brothers had survived infancy. She was born after a trip the couple made a pilgrimage on foot to Bethlehem, some 70 miles away, when they were later blessed with the birth of a daughter, they named her after the Virgin Mary, out of gratitude. She was joined by a new brother, Boulos, two years later, Baouardys parents both died from an illness in 1848, only a few days apart. The siblings were each taken in by relatives on different sides of her family living in different villages. The brother and sister would never see one another again and she was raised in a loving home in comfortable circumstances. As a child she had a spirit of religious fervor, choosing, for example. When Baouardy was eight, her uncle and his moved to Alexandria, Egypt. Five years later, in 1858 when she was aged 13, in keeping with tradition, she was engaged by her uncle to his wifes brother, who lived in Cairo. The night before the wedding, she had an experience in which she felt called not to marry. Upon being told this the morning, her uncle flew into a rage. Despite this, and the subsequent ill treatment she began to experience from her uncle, nonetheless, Baouardy felt depressed and alone. She wrote her brother, then living in Nazareth, asking him to visit her, the young male servant she asked to deliver the letter drew out of her the cause for her sadness. Upon learning of this, he attempted to woo her for himself and she rejected his proposal, which caused the young man to fly into a rage, in which he drew a knife and cut her throat. He then dumped her body in a nearby alley, Baouardy then experienced what she was convinced was a miracle. As she related later, a nun dressed in blue picked up her body and stitched her wounds and her voice was affected for the rest of her life as a result of the cut, which a French doctor later measured as being 10 cm. wideMariam Baouardy – Saint Mariam Baouardy
3. Ofspring Blackall – Ofspring Blackall, Bishop of Exeter and religious controversialist, was born in London. Blackalls father owned land in several counties as well as property in the city, during Blackalls youth his parents resided in Lordshold Manor, an ancient brick house in Dalston, Middlesex. He was educated in nearby Hackney, perhaps at the school of which Robert Skingle was master, before being admitted as a pensioner to St Catharines College, Cambridge. He graduated BA in 1675, proceeded MA in 1678, and was elected in 1679 to a fellowship and he was ordained deacon on 11 March 1677 and priest on 19 December 1680. The university awarded him the degree of DD in 1700 and he also held the city lectureships of St Olave Jewry from 1695 to 1698, and St Dunstan-in-the-West from 1698. He was appointed chaplain to William and Mary, although it was alleged that he had been a nonjuror and had refused to swear allegiance to the new monarchs for two years. It was consequently remarked wittily that he was the queens bishop and he was consecrated at Lambeth on 8 February 1708. He was a diligent bishop in his diocese, and he was instrumental in the institution of charity schools in Exeter. He lived to see the establishment of two schools for boys and two for girls, of fifty pupils each. Blackall was consecrated a bishop at Lambeth on 8 February,17008 by the Bishop of London, by a strange twist of fate, Sir William Dawes was on the same date consecrated a bishop at nearby Westminster by the Bishop of Winchester. Dawes later edited and published a posthumous edition of Blackalls sermons. Blackall came to prominence in 1699 when he engaged in a controversy with the Irish deist. In his Life of John Milton, Toland had disputed Charles Is authorship of Eikon Basilike, Blackall understood that Toland had slyly insinuated that parts of the New Testament were forgeries. Toland replied with Amyntor, or, A Defence of Miltons Life, Toland disingenuously claimed he had disputed the authenticity not of the New Testament, but of spurious apocryphal Christian works, of which he provided an extensive catalogue. Blackalls altercation with Toland had brought him to prominence as a defender of revealed religion against the attacks of the deists, consequently, he was chosen to deliver the Boyle Lectures in 1700. These consisted of seven sermons, which he preached at St Pauls Cathedral, ten years after his exchange with Toland, Blackall found himself embroiled in controversy again, this time with a fellow clergyman. On 8 March 1709, the anniversary of Queen Annes accession, Blackall preached a sermon before the queen in St Jamess Chapel and it was later published, with the title The Divine Institution of Magistracy. Its themes echoed those of a sermon which Blackall had preached on the occasion in 1705, at St DunstansOfspring Blackall – Engraving by Michael Vandergucht, after Michael Dahl (NPG)
4. John Brough – John Brough was a War Democrat politician from Ohio. He served as the 26th Governor of Ohio during the years of the American Civil War. Born in Marietta, Ohio, to an English immigrant and a Pennsylvania-born mother, to support himself, he became a printers apprentice, and later received three years of part-time education at Ohio University, where he worked part-time as a reporter for the Athens Mirror. He rose to become a publisher in Marietta and then in Lancaster, where he and his brother Charles purchased the Ohio Eagle. Brough served two years as Clerk of the Ohio Senate and he was elected as a Democrat to the Ohio House of Representatives in 1837, representing the Fairfield-Hocking district, and served from 1838–39, chairing the Committee on Banks and Currency. He then took office as State Auditor, serving until 1845 and he was a trustee of Ohio University from 1840 to 1843. In 1841, he and his brother bought the Cincinnati Advertiser, Brough then moved to Indiana, where he entered the railroad business and became President of the Madison and Indianapolis Railway in 1848. He later presided over the Bellefontaine and Indiana Railway, in Madison, Indiana, he was remembered for leading the railroad through a period in which it made Madison the leading pork packing city in the nation, but the line then fell prey to competition. His attempt to combat competing lines was the construction of two tunnels as part of an effort to avoid a steep incline at Madison, the company spent more than $300,000 on construction during two years, before the effort was stopped in 1855. The project was known locally as Broughs Folly and he left in 1853 when the Madison line underwent a merger with another railroad company. Brough was a large and corpulent man, as well as being a hard worker. “We are told this engine is called the John Brough on account of its weight and for the great amount of business it is capable of doing. ”Ohio Republicans. He was elected to the governorship that fall on a pro-Union ticket, Brough also defeated Copperhead leader Clement Vallandigham. This prompted President Abraham Lincoln to wire Brough, Glory to God in the Highest, Brough took office in January 1864. A blunt, outspoken, rude man who loved to chew tobacco presented quite a contrast with his two handsome and dignified predecessors, William Dennison and David Tod. Ohio contributed more than 34,000 troops, and was the one of the five participating states to exceed its quota. Brough supported Lincolns reelection in 1864, despite the machinations of Ohios favorite son Salmon P. Chase, when Chase resigned as Secretary of the Treasury, Brough was offered the position but declined it to remain as governor. With the conclusion of the war in 1865, the alliance between Ohios Republicans and War Democrats dissolved, and the now-dominant Republicans looked elsewhere for a candidateJohn Brough – John Brough
5. Cambyses II – Cambyses II son of Cyrus the Great, was emperor of the Achaemenid Empire. Cambyses grandfather was Cambyses I, king of Anshan, after the Egyptian campaign and the truce with Libya, Cambyses invaded the Kingdom of Kush but with little success. Though numerous scholars link Cambyses to the Sanskrit tribal name Kamboja there are also few scholars who suggest Elamite origin of the name, jean Przyluski had sought to find an Austric affinity for Kamboja. Friedrich von Spiegel, Sten Konow, Ernst Herzfeld, James Hope Moulton, Wojciech Skalmowski, James Hope Moulton regards Spiegels suggestions as the best of other etymological explanations of these two names. On the other hand, Arnold J, when Cyrus the Great conquered Babylon in 539 BC, Cambyses was employed in leading religious ceremonies. In the cylinder which contains Cyrus proclamation to the Babylonians, Cambyses name is joined to his fathers in the prayers to Marduk, on a tablet dated from the first year of Cyrus, Cambyses is called king of Babylon, although his authority seems to have been ephemeral. Only in 530 BC, when Cyrus set out on his last expedition into the East, numerous Babylonian tablets of the time date from the accession and the first year of Cambyses, when Cyrus was king of the countries. After the death of his father in 530 BC, Cambyses became sole king, the tablets dating from his reign in Babylonia run to the end of his eighth year, in 522 BC. Herodotus, who dates his reign from the death of Cyrus, gives his reign a length of seven years five months, the traditions about Cambyses, preserved by the Greek authors, come from two different sources. The first, which forms the part of the account of Herodotus, is of Egyptian origin. Here Cambyses is made the son of Cyrus and a daughter of Apries named Nitetis. Intermingled are some stories derived from the Greek mercenaries, especially about their leader Phanes of Halicarnassus, who betrayed Egypt to the Persians. In the Persian tradition the crime of Cambyses is the murder of his brother, he is accused of drunkenness, in which he commits many crimes. These traditions are found in different passages of Herodotus, and in a later form and it is difficult to form a correct picture of Cambysess character from these inscriptions. It was quite natural that, after Cyrus had conquered the Middle East, Cambyses should undertake the conquest of Egypt, the war took place in 525 BC, when Amasis II had just been succeeded by his son Psamtik III. Cambyses had prepared for the march through the desert by forming an alliance with Arabian chieftains, King Amasis had hoped that Egypt would be able to withstand the threatened Persian attack through his alliance with the Greeks. In the decisive battle at Pelusium the Egyptian army was defeated, the captive king Psammetichus was executed, having attempted a rebellion. The Egyptian inscriptions show that Cambyses officially adopted the titles and the dress of the PharaohsCambyses II – Cambyses II
6. Charles Fielding – Charles Fielding was a British naval officer who gained brief notoriety for his role in the Affair of Fielding and Bylandt in the run-up to the Fourth Anglo-Dutch War. He attained the rank of Commodore and died of gangrene after being wounded in action during the Battle of Cape Spartel, Fielding was born the son of Charles Feilding, Colonel in the Guards and Equerry to king George II of England, and Anne Palmer. His biographers apparently thought it important that he was related to the fourth Earl of Denbigh. He married Sophia Finch, a Woman of the Bedchamber of the Queen on 29 February 1772 and they had three daughters and a son, also called Charles, who became a rear-admiral in the Royal Navy. Fielding enlisted in the Royal Navy at an age, probably following the usual career after starting as a midshipman. From his early career little is known, according to his biographer, Charnock, in 1762 he was given command of HMS Unicorn which was decommissioned after the end of the war. Apparently, he did not receive a new command until 1770, soon after, he received command of HMS Rainbow on which he sailed till he received command of HMS Kent in 1772. During his tenure the Kent experienced an explosion in July,1774 in which eleven seamen lost their lives, apparently, he was not blamed, because he retained his command for the usual term. In 1776 he received command of HMS Diamond with which he transported troops to America and he remained in that area for some years and in 1778 temporarily commanded the Halifax Station, where he distinguished himself. As officer commanding a squadron he was allowed to carry the title of commodore though his formal rank remained that of captain, the commotion this incident caused in the Republic would eventually lead to the Fourth Anglo-Dutch War. Shortly afterwards he was removed to HMS Minerva in which he accompanied Admiral George Darby, after the commissioning of HMS Ganges in 1782 he became her first captain. He accompanied Admiral Howe to Gibraltar in September,1782 and he was lightly wounded by a splinter in the arm during the skirmish that is known as the Battle of Cape Spartel on 20 October 1782. Though the wound was far from serious, infection set in, clarke, J. S. and Jones, S. * Fielding, Charles, in, Charnock, JohnCharles Fielding – Commodore Charles Fielding
7. Robert Halpin – Robert Charles Halpin, Master Mariner, born 16 February 1836 at the Bridge Tavern Wicklow, Ireland –20 January 1894 and died at Tinakilly, Wicklow. He captained the Brunel-designed leviathan SS Great Eastern which laid transoceanic telegraph cables in the late 19th century and he was, arguably, one of the most important mariners in the 19th century. He helped make the world a global village by connecting empires and he was the son of James and Anne Halpin, the youngest of 13 children. His father, James, was the proprietor of a small tavern, from an early age Robert showed a fondness for the sea. He received his education at a private school nearby at Leitrim Place, possibly that of Ellen White, The Murrough. He joined the brig Briton that was engaged in the Cumberland coal trade and was shipwrecked off Bude, Cornwall in 1851 with many lives lost and he joined the crew of the 388 ton barque Henry Tanner, later that same year. Henry Tanner plied the Britain - Australia run and Halpins first voyage to Australia coincided with the Australian Gold Rush of 1852, over half the crew jumped ship to seek their fortunes in the gold fields. Unable to muster a crew Henry Tanner was forced to remain in port until the enthusiasm of these same prospectors wore thin, Halpin then joined the ship Boomerang as a third mate. Boomerang worked on the Liverpool to Melbourne to Kio route, returning with cargo of guano, Halpin was promoted to second mate of Salem, a wool clipper on the Australia run before he transferred over from sail to steam ships. Halpin believed steam was the future of shipping and became first officer in Khersonese, at 22 years of age, he was given command of the S. S. Propellor, later joining Circassian both steamships belonging to the Atlantic Royal Company. In 1858 Robert became involved in new sea route that had started from Galway, Ireland to St. Johns Newfoundland, emigration from Europe to North America was the new large shipping trade and operated from major ports such as Liverpool, Hamburg and Galway. By 1859 the Galway line was prospering and the popular S. S. Argo was commanded by Robert Halpin, disaster struck in August 1859 while in thick fog at the Newfoundland fishing banks when Argo struck an iceberg and sank. At subsequent enquiry, Halpin lost his masters ticket, despite this setback in 1860 the Spanish Government commissioned him to deliver two troop ships, Isla de Cuba and Isla de Puerto Rica, to South America. At the break out of the American Civil War, Halpin ran the Yankee blockades bringing supplies to the Confederate States, in 1864 he was forced to run his ship aground to evade capture but was then detained by the Northern Union forces. The case against him was unproven and he was released after the Battle of Mobile Bay and it was then Halpin began his association with the steam ship Great Eastern. The following extract is taken from notes on William Thomson, Lord Kelvin, Thomson was actually aboard the Great Eastern. The first officer and key navigator was another Irishman, Robert Halpin from Wicklow Town, Halpin was soon appointed captain of the ship, and went on to earn further distinction for cable laying, earning the nickname Mr Cable. Launched at the Isle of Dogs, Kent,31 January 1858, Great Eastern had a career dogged by misfortuneRobert Halpin – Tinakilly House Front View
8. Nicholas van Hoorn – Nicholas van Hoorn was a merchant sailor, privateer and pirate. He was born in the Netherlands and died near Veracruz after being wounded on the Isla de Sacrificios, nikolaas or Klaas was engaged in the Dutch merchant service from about 1655 until 1659, and then bought a vessel with his savings. With a band of men whom he had enlisted, he became a terror to the commerce of the Netherlands. Later he had several ships in his employment and obtained such notoriety that some governments were willing to employ him against their enemies, in 1666 a French minister sent Van Hoorn a commission, empowering him to pursue and capture Spanish vessels. As he was successful, he amassed enormous sums. He made the mistake of pillaging a French ship, but after an attempt to take him was made in 1663. Learning that several Spanish galleons were waiting in the harbour of Puerto Rico for a convoy, he entered the harbour and he put forward his recent quarrel with the French, and declared that his only chance of safety was in the protection of the King of Spain. At end of 1682, the Saint Nicholass Day, commanded by Nicolas Van Hoorn and this vessel, armed by the commander of Dover Castle, had left England the previous year, intending to trade with the Spaniards in Cadiz then in America. Said promise could not be fulfilled and Van Hoorn sought alternate employ, Van Hoorn was then transformed into a true pirate. He plundered the coast of Western Africa expecting to be supplied with slaves, the president of the Royal Audience of Santo Domingo indeed prohibited Johnson from any contact with Van Hoorn. The reason was simple, the president retained the Saint Nicholass Day, for a made from Cadiz by his captain. All this made Van Hoorn determined to gain the French part of the Hispaniola Island, to take a commission from its governor Pouançey, Van Hoorn was engaged with Laurens de Graaf and Michel de Grammont in the capture of Veracruz in 1683. After the sacking of Veracruz, the two retreated to Isla de Sacrificios with prisoners where they planned to wait for ransom payments, impatient that payments did not arrive immediately, Van Hoorn ordered the execution of a dozen prisoners and had their heads sent to Veracruz as a warning. De Graaf was furious, the two argued and then fought a duel, Van Hoorn received a minor wound and was returned to his ship in shackles. The wound soon turned gangrenous and Van Hoorn died shortly thereafter, calendar of State Papers, Colonial Series, America and West Indies, 1681-1685, no.1163. Depositions of Events Nicolaas van Hoorn at Zuidhoeks Zeerovers Horn, Van deNicholas van Hoorn – Anne Bonny
9. John Ainsworth Horrocks – John Ainsworth Horrocks, English pastoralist and explorer, was one of the first settlers in the Clare Valley of South Australia where, in 1840, he established the village of Penwortham. Horrocks was born on Easter Sunday,22 March 1818, at Penwortham Lodge, near Preston and his father, Peter Horrocks, was an investor/shareholder in the Secondary Towns Association, which aspired to develop secondary towns in the new colony of South Australia. John Ainsworth Horrocks, aged 21, and his brother Eustace, aged 16, impatient to settle on their own land, the brothers set up camp on 16 January 1840 at present Penwortham, a village which they founded and named. He returned to England in 1842-3 after his fathers death, on 29 July 1846 he commenced an exploratory expedition into the far north-west of South Australia, aiming for distant hills near Lake Torrens, hoping to find good agricultural land. His second in command was John Henry Theakston, a surveyor who in 1844 had served dutifully as second in command of the ill-fated Darke expedition, an unpaid volunteer in the party was artist and amateur botanist Samuel Thomas Gill. The several hired men included Bernard Kilcoy as cook and driver, and goatherd Jimmy Moorhouse, a young Aboriginal employee at his Penwortham station. On 1 September, near Lake Dutton, still short of his objective, Horrocks was accidentally shot while reloading his shotgun and his injuries included loss of the middle finger of the right hand and a row of teeth from the right upper jaw. The expedition was abandoned and the party returned to Horrockss home at Penwortham, marks Anglican Church, the land for which he had earlier donated to the town. On Horrockss order, the camel, which had attacked other animals. Although Horrocks expedition thus failed to reach its objective, in 1851 this was achieved by Horrockss close associate John Jackson Oakden. Horrocks gave his name to several features in the vicinity of Mount Remarkable. A short biography published in 1906 was derived from Horrockss diary plus notes written by his sister, John Ainsworth Horrocks Pearce, G. AJohn Ainsworth Horrocks – John Horrocks monument at Penwortham, South Australia
10. Aaron Kosminski – Aaron Kosminski was a Jewish Polish emigrant in England who is a suspect in the Jack the Ripper case. Kosminski was a Polish Jew who emigrated from Russian Poland to England in the 1880s and he worked as a hairdresser in Whitechapel in the East End of London, where a series of murders ascribed to the Ripper were committed in 1888. From 1891, he was institutionalised in an insane asylum, Police officials from the time of the murders named one of their suspects as Kosminski, and described him as a Polish Jew in an insane asylum. Possibly, Kosminski was confused with another Polish Jew of the same age named Aaron or David Cohen, in September 2014, author Russell Edwards claimed to have proved Kosminskis guilt using mitochondrial DNA evidence from a shawl he believed to have been left at a murder scene. His claim has not been published or verified by the peer-review process, Aaron Kosminski was born in Kłodawa in Congress Poland, then part of the Russian Empire. His parents were Abram Józef Kozmiński, a tailor, and his wife Golda née Lubnowska and he may have been employed in a hospital as a hairdresser or orderly for a time. Aaron emigrated from Poland in 1880 or 1881, likely with his sisters families, the family initially lived in Germany for a while. A nephew of Aarons was born there in 1880 and a niece in 1881, the family moved to Britain and settled in London sometime in 1881 or 1882. His mother, who was listed as a widow, apparently did not emigrate with the family immediately and it is unknown whether his father died or abandoned the family, but he did not emigrate to Britain with the rest of them. However, he may have worked only sporadically, it was reported that he had not attempted any kind of work for years by 1891 and he possibly relied on his sisters families for financial support, and may have even lived with them. On 12 July 1890, Kosminski was placed in Mile End Old Town workhouse because of his behaviour, with his brother Woolf certifying the entry. On 4 February 1891, he was returned to the workhouse, possibly by the police, a witness to the certification of his entry, recorded as Jacob Cohen, gave some basic background information and stated that Kosminski had threatened his sister with a knife. It is unclear whether this meant Kosminskis sister or Cohens, Kosminski remained at the Colney Hatch Lunatic Asylum for the next three years until he was admitted on 19 April 1894 to Leavesden Asylum. Case notes indicate that Kosminski had been ill since at least 1885 and his insanity took the form of auditory hallucinations, a paranoid fear of being fed by other people that drove him to pick up and eat food dropped as litter, and a refusal to wash or bathe. The cause of his insanity was recorded as self-abuse, which is thought to be a euphemism for masturbation and his poor diet seems to have kept him in an emaciated state for years, his low weight was recorded in the asylum case notes. By February 1919, he weighed just 96 pounds and he died the following month, aged 53. Seven of the victims suffered a slash to the throat, five of the cases, between August and November 1888, show such marked similarities that they are generally agreed to be the work of a single serial killer, known as Jack the Ripper. Despite an extensive investigation, the Ripper was never identifiedAaron Kosminski – Colney Hatch Lunatic Asylum, North London. Kosminski was an inmate from 1891 to 1894.
11. Leopold V, Duke of Austria – Leopold V, known as the Virtuous, a member of the House of Babenberg, was Duke of Austria from 1177 and Duke of Styria from 1192 until his death. Just before his birth, his father had achieved the elevation of the Austrian margraviate to a duchy according to the 1156 Privilegium Minus, as the eldest son of Henry II, Leopold was already enfeoffed with the Austrian duchy by the emperor in the summer of 1174 at Regensburg. He succeeded his father as Duke of Austria upon his death on 13 January 1177, soon after, Leopold lent his support to Duke Frederick of Bohemia stuck in a conflict with his Přemyslid cousin Soběslav II, who had campaigned in the Austrian duchy. In turn, Leopold reached an agreement with the neighbouring Duchy of Bohemia. Two years later, he attended an Imperial Diet in Erfurt, in 1182 Leopold went on a pilgrimage to the Holy Land and was received with honour at the courts of King Béla III of Hungary and of Emperor Alexios II Komnenos in Constantinople. Back in Germany, he began negotiating the Georgenberg Pact with the last Otakar duke Ottokar IV of Styria, who had received the ducal title from Emperor Frederick in 1180. The agreement was concluded on 17 August 1186, whereafter Styria, the next year Leopold was enfeoffed with Styria by the emperor, this was the first step towards the creation of modern Austria. Leopold is mainly remembered outside Austria for his participation in the Third Crusade, border disputes with King Béla III of Hungary had initially impeded the duke from accompanying Emperor Frederick on his departure in May 1189. When he heard about the death in 1190, he got up and went to Venice. Autumn storms forced him to winter in Zadar on the Adriatic coast, Leopold took over command of what remained of the Imperial forces after the death of the emperors son Duke Frederick of Swabia in January. According to legend, his tunic was blood-soaked after the fights and when he doffed his belt, the new emperor Henry VI granted him the privilege to adopt these colours as his new banner, that later would become the flag of Austria. Acre surrendered on July 12, after the arrival of King Philip II of France, Duke Leopold, as commander of the German contingent, demanded rights equal to those of the two kings but was rejected. The emperor probably agreed with King Philip II of France, already in conflict with the English king, when Richard left the Holy Land in late October 1192, he found the French ports closed and sailed up the Adriatic Sea. He took the road from Aquileia across Austria, to reach the Bavarian estates of his Welf brother-in-law Henry the Lion. Whilst travelling under a disguise, he had to stop at Vienna shortly before Christmas 1192, initially Duke Leopold had the king imprisoned in Dürnstein, and in March 1193 Richard was brought before Emperor Henry VI at Trifels Castle, accused of Conrads murder. A ransome of 35,000 kilogrammes of silver was paid to release King Richard. Leopolds share became the foundation for the mint in Vienna, and was used to new city walls for Vienna, as well as to found the towns of Wiener Neustadt. However, the duke was excommunicated by Pope Celestine III for having taken a fellow crusader prisoner, to achieve absolution, Leopold prepared for another crusade, but his plans failed, in 1194, his foot was crushed when his horse fell on him at a tournament in GrazLeopold V, Duke of Austria – Leopold the Virtuous receiving the banner from Emperor Henry VI, Babenberger Stammbaum, Klosterneuburg Monastery, 1489–1492
12. Noah Lewis – Noah Lewis was an American jug band and country blues musician, generally known for playing the harmonica. Lewis was born in Henning, Tennessee, and learned to play the harmonica as a child and he moved to Memphis, Tennessee, in his early teens, where he met Gus Cannon in 1907. By that time he was already a respected original stylist on the harmonica, noted for his tone and breath control. Lewis developed unusual levels of control and volume from playing in string bands. When Will Shades Memphis Jugband recorded and became popular in the late 1920s, Cannon added a coal-oil can on a rack round his neck and it was this lineup that made the Jug Busters first recordings, for Victor Records, in Memphis on January 30,1928. The songs from that session included Minglewood Blues, Springdale Blues, Big Railroad Blues, by the time of the bands next recording, on September 5,1928, Cannon had replaced Thompson with Elijah Avery on banjo and guitar. The bands lineup remained unchanged from then on, with the Jug Stompers, Lewis sang lead vocal and played a melancholy harmonica solo on Viola Lee Blues. Lewis recorded four tracks and another four sides with the Noah Lewis Jug Band, consisting of Lewis, Sleepy John Estes and Yank Rachell. His songs New, New Minglewood Blues, Viola Lee Blues, Lewis died in poverty, of gangrene brought on by frostbite, in Ripley, Tennessee, in 1961. He is buried in a cemetery near Nutbush, Tennessee, mount Pleasant, South Carolina, Arcadia Publishing. West, Carroll Van, Duncan Binnicker, MargaretNoah Lewis – Cannon's Jug Stompers with Noah Lewis on right
13. Louis XIV of France – Louis XIV, known as Louis the Great or the Sun King, was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who ruled as King of France and Navarre from 1643 until his death in 1715. His reign of 72 years and 110 days is the longest of any monarch of a country in European history. In the age of absolutism in Europe, Louis XIVs France was a leader in the centralization of power. Louis began his rule of France in 1661, after the death of his chief minister. By these means he became one of the most powerful French monarchs, under his rule, the Edict of Nantes, which granted rights to Huguenots, was abolished. The revocation effectively forced Huguenots to emigrate or convert in a wave of dragonnades, which managed to virtually destroy the French Protestant minority. During Louis reign, France was the leading European power, and it fought three wars, the Franco-Dutch War, the War of the League of Augsburg. There were also two lesser conflicts, the War of Devolution and the War of the Reunions, warfare defined Louis XIVs foreign policies, and his personality shaped his approach. Impelled by a mix of commerce, revenge, and pique, in peacetime he concentrated on preparing for the next war. He taught his diplomats their job was to create tactical and strategic advantages for the French military, Louis XIV was born on 5 September 1638 in the Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye, to Louis XIII and Anne of Austria. He was named Louis Dieudonné and bore the title of French heirs apparent. At the time of his birth, his parents had married for 23 years. His mother had experienced four stillbirths between 1619 and 1631, leading contemporaries thus regarded him as a divine gift and his birth a miracle of God. Sensing imminent death, Louis XIII decided to put his affairs in order in the spring of 1643, in defiance of custom, which would have made Queen Anne the sole Regent of France, the king decreed that a regency council would rule on his sons behalf. His lack of faith in Queen Annes political abilities was his primary rationale and he did, however, make the concession of appointing her head of the council. Louis relationship with his mother was uncommonly affectionate for the time, contemporaries and eyewitnesses claimed that the Queen would spend all her time with Louis. Both were greatly interested in food and theatre, and it is likely that Louis developed these interests through his close relationship with his mother. This long-lasting and loving relationship can be evidenced by excerpts in Louis journal entries, such as, but attachments formed later by shared qualities of the spirit are far more difficult to break than those formed merely by bloodLouis XIV of France – Louis XIV by Hyacinthe Rigaud (1701)
14. Jean-Baptiste Lully – Jean-Baptiste Lully was an Italian-born French composer, instrumentalist, and dancer who spent most of his life working in the court of Louis XIV of France. He is considered a master of the French baroque style, Lully disavowed any Italian influence in French music of the period. He became a French subject in 1661, Lully was born on November 28,1632 in Florence, Grand Duchy of Tuscany, to a family of millers. His general education and his training during his youth in Florence remain uncertain. He used to say that a Franciscan friar gave him his first music lessons and he also learned to play the violin. Guise took the boy to Paris, where the fourteen-year-old entered Mademoiselles service and he probably honed his musical skills by working with Mademoiselles household musicians and with composers Nicolas Métru, François Roberday and Nicolas Gigault. The teenagers talents as a guitarist, violinist, and dancer quickly won him the nicknames Baptiste, when Mademoiselle was exiled to the provinces in 1652 after the rebellion known as the Fronde, Lully begged his leave. Because he did not want to live in the country, by February 1653 Lully had attracted the attention of young Louis XIV, dancing with him in the Ballet royal de la nuit. By March 16,1653, Lully had been made royal composer for instrumental music and his vocal and instrumental music for court ballets gradually made him indispensable. In 1660 and 1662 he collaborated on performances of Francesco Cavallis Xerse. When Louis XIV took over the reins of government in 1661, in December 1661 the Florentine was granted letters of naturalization. The latter assertion was an untruth, from 1661 on, the trios and dances he wrote for the court were promptly published. When he became surintendant de la de la chambre du roi in 1661. He relied mainly on the Little Violins for court ballets and their collaboration began in earnest in 1664 with Le Mariage forcé. In 1672 Lully broke with Molière, who turned to Marc-Antoine Charpentier, having acquired Pierre Perrins opera privilege, Lully became the director of the Académie Royale de Musique, that is, the royal opera, which performed in the Palais-Royal. Between 1673 and 1687 he produced a new opera almost yearly and fiercely protected his monopoly over that new genre, after Queen Marie-Thérèses death in 1683 and the kings secret marriage to Mme de Maintenon, devotion came to the fore at court. The kings enthusiasm for opera dissipated, he was revolted by Lullys dissolute life, in 1686, to show his displeasure, Louis XIV made a point of not inviting Lully to perform Armide at Versailles. Lully died from gangrene, having struck his foot with his conducting staff during a performance of his Te Deum to celebrate Louis XIVs recovery from surgeryJean-Baptiste Lully – Jean-Baptiste Lully
15. James Pitt Mabee – James Pitt Mabee was a Canadian lawyer, judge, and railway commissioner. Born in Port Rowan, Upper Canada, Mabee studied at University of Toronto, a lawyer, he ran unsuccessfully as the Liberal Party of Canada candidate against Alexander Ferguson MacLaren in the riding of Perth North in the Federal election of 1904. In 1905, he was appointed the first chairman of the Canadian section of the International Waterways Commission, later in 1905, he resigned when he was appointed the chancery division of the Ontario Superior Court of Justice. He was appointed head of the Board of Railway Commissioners succeeding Albert Clements Killam and he served until getting appendicitis in April 1912. He died of the complications from gangrene in May 1912 and was buried in the Anglican cemetery at Port RowanJames Pitt Mabee – James Pitt Mabee
16. Martin Maginnis – Martin Maginnis was a nineteenth-century politician, soldier, publisher, editor and miner from Minnesota and the Montana Territory. Maginnis was born in 1841 on his familys farm near Pultneyville, Wayne County, New York, to Patrick and his parents came from Ireland, his father from County Clare and his mother from Galway, and they met and married in Liverpool, England. After mixed success in business, Patrick and Winifred Maginnis immigrated to the United States in 1838 and settled in Wayne County, Patrick worked as a contractor on the New York Central Railway. In 1851, the Maginnis family moved west to LaSalle, Illinois where Patrick worked on the Illinois Central railroad, the family next moved to Goodhue Township near Red Wing, Minnesota in 1853. Young Maginnis pursued an education in the schools and in Minnesota he attended Hamline University. Maginnis had come to know William Wallace Phelps, a lawyer and part owner of the Red Wing Sentinel newspaper, and William J. Colvill, the first editor of the Sentinel. Colvill took young Maginnis under his wing, liberally sharing his library with him, by early 1861 Maginnis owned the Red Wing Sentinel, while Phelps edited. At the outbreak of the Civil War, he enlisted as a private in the 1st Minnesota Volunteer Infantry Regiment in 1861, Maginnis was promoted to first lieutenant in 1862, to captain in 1863 and to major of the 11th Minnesota Volunteer Infantry Regiment in 1864. He was ordered to join the Army of the Cumberland where he served under the command of General George H. Thomas until being mustered out along with his regiment in 1865. After the War, he moved to Helena, Montana with his brothers in 1866 where he engaged in mining, Maginnis was elected a Democrat to the United States House of Representatives in 1872, serving from 1873 to 1885. Maginnis moved to Los Angeles, California for health reasons in 1915 where he died of gangrene of the foot on March 27,1919 and he was interred in Resurrection Cemetery in Helena, Montana. Finding Aid to MC50, Martin Maginnis Papers, 1864-1912 at the Montana Historical Society Research Center, Martin Maginnis Incoming Correspondence Transcriptions, Merrill G. Burlingame Special Collections Library, Montana State University Collection websiteMartin Maginnis – Martin Maginnis
17. William McKinley – McKinley was the last president to have served in the American Civil War, beginning as a private in the Union Army and ending as a brevet major. After the war, he settled in Canton, Ohio, where he practiced law, in 1876, he was elected to Congress, where he became the Republican Partys expert on the protective tariff, which he promised would bring prosperity. His 1890 McKinley Tariff was highly controversial, which together with a Democratic redistricting aimed at gerrymandering him out of office and he was elected Ohios governor in 1891 and 1893, steering a moderate course between capital and labor interests. With the aid of his close adviser Mark Hanna, he secured the Republican nomination for president in 1896 and he defeated his Democratic rival, William Jennings Bryan, after a front-porch campaign in which he advocated sound money and promised that high tariffs would restore prosperity. Rapid economic growth marked McKinleys presidency and he promoted the 1897 Dingley Tariff to protect manufacturers and factory workers from foreign competition, and in 1900, he secured the passage of the Gold Standard Act. The United States annexed the independent Republic of Hawaii in 1898, McKinley defeated Bryan again in the 1900 presidential election, in a campaign focused on imperialism, protectionism, and free silver. William McKinley, Jr. was born in 1843 in Niles, Ohio, there, the elder McKinley was born in Pine Township, Mercer County. The family moved to Ohio when the senior McKinley was a boy and he met Nancy Allison there, and married her later. The Allison family was of mostly English descent and among Pennsylvanias earliest settlers, the family trade on both sides was iron-making, and McKinley senior operated foundries throughout Ohio, in New Lisbon, Niles, Poland, and finally Canton. The McKinley household was, like many from Ohios Western Reserve, steeped in Whiggish and abolitionist sentiment, William followed in the Methodist tradition, becoming active in the local Methodist church at the age of sixteen. He was a lifelong pious Methodist, in 1852, the family moved from Niles to Poland, Ohio so that their children could attend the better schools there. Graduating in 1859, he enrolled the following year at Allegheny College in Meadville and he remained at Allegheny for only one year, returning home in 1860 after becoming ill and depressed. He also spent time at Mount Union College in Alliance, Ohio and he did not graduate from either university. Although his health recovered, family finances declined and McKinley was unable to return to Allegheny, first working as a clerk and later taking a job teaching at a school near Poland. When the Southern states seceded from the Union and the American Civil War began, among them were McKinley and his cousin William McKinley Osbourne, who enlisted as privates in the newly formed Poland Guards in June 1861. The men left for Columbus where they were consolidated with other units to form the 23rd Ohio Infantry. The men were unhappy to learn that, unlike Ohios earlier volunteer regiments, they would not be permitted to elect their officers, they would be designated by Ohios governor, William Dennison. Dennison appointed Colonel William Rosecrans as the commander of the regiment, McKinley quickly took to the soldiers life and wrote a series of letters to his hometown newspaper extolling the army and the Union causeWilliam McKinley – William McKinley
18. Werner Ostendorff – Werner Ostendorff, was a German SS-Gruppenführer in the Waffen-SS who served as chief of staff of II SS Panzer Corps and divisional commander of SS Division Das Reich. He died of wounds in May 1945, NSDAP #,4691488 - SS #,257146 - Ostendorff joined the army in 1925. In 1933 and 1934, he helped form an SA military training school, moving to the SS-Verfügungstruppe in 1935, he was an instructor at an SS school until April 1938. Ostendorff then transferred to the new SS-Standarte Der Führer, with the forming of the first SS division on 10 October 1939, that became SS Division Das Reich, he was appointed divisional chief of staff and held the post until June 1942. The village was recaptured and the danger of a Soviet breakthrough was eliminated, Ostendorff led Kampfgruppe Das Reich on the Eastern front from February to June 1942, earning the German Cross in Gold. When Paul Hausser formed the initial SS corps in June 1942 and he held the post with SS-Generalkommando until November 1943. Promoted to Oberführer for his actions at Kharkov, he was given a divisional command. Ostendorff was assigned command of the SS Division Götz von Berlichingen, during the fighting in Normandy, Ostendorff was seriously wounded near Carentan on 16 June 1944. Resuming command on 21 October 1944, he remained the commander until transferred in late November 1944. Ostendorff was promoted to Gruppenführer on 1 December 1944 and became chief of staff for Heinrich Himmlers Army Group Oberrhein from 2 December 1944 to 22 January 1945, werner Ostendorff died at a field hospital in Bad Aussee on 1 May 1945. Werner Ostendorff was a son of the Prussian Regierungsvizepräsident Ernst Ostendorff, married in October 1935, he and his wife had two sons and a daughter. SS-Panzer-Division Das Reich Mentioned in the Wehrmachtbericht on 29 July 1944Werner Ostendorff – Werner Ostendorff
19. Nikolai Pomyalovsky – Nikolai Gerasimovich Pomyalovsky, was a Russian novelist and short story writer. Pomyalovsky was born in Saint Petersburg in 1835 and his father was a deacon in the Orthodox Church in Malaya Okhta, a village on the bank of the Neva River, across from Saint Petersburg. Pomyalovsky studied at the Alexander Nevsky Theological School, where his problem with alcoholism began. His work Seminary Sketches is a description of his years in these schools. Though a talented student, he graduated next to last in his class, upon leaving the seminary, he earned a living by serving at funerals, singing in choirs, and giving private lessons. He also attended lectures at Saint Petersburg State University and his story Vukol, A Psychological Sketch was published in the Journal for Education in 1859. In 1860 he started teaching at the largest of Saint Petersburgs Sunday schools, which were staffed by volunteers and he had high expectations for the usefulness and influence of the Sunday schools, but when these expectations went unrealized he turned to drinking again. He published his first novel Bourgeois Happiness in Sovremennik and he also became friends with the editor of Sovremennik, Nikolay Nekrasov, and with its guiding spirit Nikolai Chernyshevsky. As a result of success, he attended many parties, and drank heavily. His novel Molotov, the sequel to Bourgeois Happiness, secured his reputation, the two novels tell the story of a poor young intellectuals search for self-realization and his place in the world. The protagonist Molotov, an orphan raised by a university professor, the gentry family whose children he tutors are alien to him, and hes not seen by them as an equal, even though hes a college graduate. Molotov wont become a servant because he feels it would take away his freedom. His girlfriend Nadya must break all ties with her family, who want her to marry a middle-aged general, in the end Nadya chooses to be with Molotov as they try to enjoy a simple bourgeois lifestyle. He rebelled by getting drunk often and acting in a way that alienated his friends, at a dinner party held by Dostoyevsky, he ended up passed out drunk on the floor. He began disappearing for weeks at a time, living in the Saint Petersburg slums among prostitutes and criminals and his binges usually led to his being jailed or hospitalized. During this time he worked on his Seminary Sketches, the first of which was published in Dostoyevskys journal Vremya, Seminary Sketches gives a fictionalized but accurate account of the 14 years that Pomyalovsky spent in the seminaries. He tells of the drudgery and mindless rote learning that Russias future spiritual leaders were subjected to and he goes on to describe teacher-student favoritism, suppression of independent thinking, and an endless repetition of brutal floggings. The seminary is ruled by the strong and brings out the worst in the students while killing the good in them, Pomyalovsky attempted suicide several times, and spent the winter of 1862-63 in the hospitalNikolai Pomyalovsky – Pomyalovsky by Nevrev 1860
20. Philip Sidney – Sir Philip Sidney was an English poet, courtier, scholar, and soldier, who is remembered as one of the most prominent figures of the Elizabethan age. His works include Astrophel and Stella, The Defence of Poesy, born at Penshurst Place, Kent, he was the eldest son of Sir Henry Sidney and Lady Mary Dudley. His mother was the eldest daughter of John Dudley, 1st Duke of Northumberland, and his younger brother, Robert was a statesman and patron of the arts, and was created Earl of Leicester in 1618. His younger sister, Mary, married Henry Herbert, 2nd Earl of Pembroke and was a writer, translator, Sidney dedicated his longest work, the Arcadia, to her. After her brothers death, Mary reworked the Arcadia, which known as The Countess of Pembrokes Arcadia. Philip was educated at Shrewsbury School and Christ Church, Oxford and he spent the next several years in mainland Europe, moving through Germany, Italy, Poland, the Kingdom of Hungary and Austria. On these travels, he met a number of prominent European intellectuals, returning to England in 1575, Sidney met Penelope Devereux, the future Lady Rich, though much younger, she would inspire his famous sonnet sequence of the 1580s, Astrophel and Stella. Her father, Walter Devereux, 1st Earl of Essex, is said to have planned to marry his daughter to Sidney, in England, Sidney occupied himself with politics and art. He defended his fathers administration of Ireland in a lengthy document, more seriously, he quarrelled with Edward de Vere, 17th Earl of Oxford, probably because of Sidneys opposition to the French marriage, which de Vere championed. In the aftermath of episode, Sidney challenged de Vere to a duel. He then wrote a letter to the Queen detailing the foolishness of the French marriage. Characteristically, Elizabeth bristled at his presumption, and Sidney prudently retired from court, during a 1577 diplomatic visit to Prague, Sidney secretly visited the exiled Jesuit priest Edmund Campion. Sidney had returned to court by the middle of 1581 and in 1584 was MP for Kent and that same year Penelope Devereux was married, apparently against her will, to Lord Rich. An early arrangement to marry Anne Cecil, daughter of Sir William Cecil, in 1583, he married Frances, teenage daughter of Sir Francis Walsingham. In the same year, he made a visit to Oxford University with Giordano Bruno and his artistic contacts were more peaceful and more significant for his lasting fame. During his absence from court, he wrote Astrophel and Stella, somewhat earlier, he had met Edmund Spenser, who dedicated The Shepheardes Calender to him. Both through his heritage and his personal experience, Sidney was a keenly militant Protestant. In the 1570s, he had persuaded John Casimir to consider proposals for a united Protestant effort against the Roman Catholic Church, in the early 1580s, he argued unsuccessfully for an assault on Spain itselfPhilip Sidney – Sir Philip Sidney
21. Stor-Stina – From 1837 onward, she toured Sweden, Great Britain, Denmark, France and Russia exhibiting herself for money under the stage name The Lapland Giantess - Tallest Woman in the World. Stor-Stina eventually returned to her family in Brännäs in Malå and she is portrayed in the 1981 novel Långa lappflickan by Åke Lundgren, and in the 2012 novel Rekviem för en vanskapt by Mattias Hagberg. Stina Kajsa i Wilhelmina Stålberg, Anteckningar om svenska qvinnor Åke Lundgren om bakgrunden till Långa lappflickan Mattias Olofssons performance om Stor-StinaStor-Stina – Monument over Stor-Stina at Brännäs in Malå.
22. Josip Broz Tito – Josip Broz Tito, born Josip Broz, was a Yugoslav revolutionary and statesman, serving in various roles from 1943 until his death in 1980. During World War II he was the leader of the Partisans, while his presidency has been criticized as authoritarian, and concerns about the repression of political opponents have been raised, some historians consider him a benevolent dictator. He was a public figure both in Yugoslavia and abroad. Viewed as a symbol, his internal policies maintained the peaceful coexistence of the nations of the Yugoslav federation. He gained further attention as the chief leader of the Non-Aligned Movement, working with Jawaharlal Nehru of India, Gamal Abdel Nasser of Egypt. He was General Secretary of the League of Communists of Yugoslavia, and went on to lead the World War II Yugoslav guerrilla movement, after the war, he was the Prime Minister, President of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. From 1943 to his death in 1980, he held the rank of Marshal of Yugoslavia, serving as the commander of the Yugoslav military. With a highly favourable reputation abroad in both Cold War blocs, Josip Broz Tito received some 98 foreign decorations, including the Legion of Honour, Josip Broz was born to a Croat father and Slovene mother in the village of Kumrovec, Croatia. Drafted into military service, he distinguished himself, becoming the youngest sergeant major in the Austro-Hungarian Army of that time, after being seriously wounded and captured by the Imperial Russians during World War I, Josip was sent to a work camp in the Ural Mountains. He participated in the October Revolution, and later joined a Red Guard unit in Omsk, upon his return home, Broz found himself in the newly established Kingdom of Yugoslavia, where he joined the Communist Party of Yugoslavia. Tito was the architect of the second Yugoslavia, a socialist federation that lasted from 1943 to 1991–92. Tito was a backer of independent roads to socialism, in 1951 he implemented a self-management system that differentiated Yugoslavia from other socialist countries. A turn towards a model of market socialism brought economic expansion in the 1950s and 1960s and his internal policies included the suppression of nationalist sentiment and the promotion of the brotherhood and unity of the six Yugoslav nations. He remains a figure in the Balkans. He was the seventh or eighth child of Franjo Broz and Marija née Javeršek and he was christened and raised as a Roman Catholic. His father, Franjo, was a Croat whose family had lived in the village for three centuries, while his mother Marija, was a Slovene from the village of Podsreda, the villages were only 16 kilometres apart, and his parents had been married on 21 January 1891. Franjo Broz had inherited a 4. 0-hectare estate and a good house, despite his mixed parentage, Broz was considered an ethnic Croat. In July 1900, at the age of eight, Broz entered primary school at Kumrovec, as a result of his limited schooling, throughout his life he was poor at spellingJosip Broz Tito – Marshal Josip Broz Tito GCLH GCB OMRI GCollSE GColIH RoKavKMO etc.
23. Muhammad Ali Khan Wallajah – Muhammad Ali Khan Wallajah, or Muhammad Ali Khan Walla Jah, was the Nawab of Arcot in India and an ally of the British East India Company. Muhammed Ali Khan Wallajah the Nawab of Arcot often referred to himself as the Subedar of the Carnatic in his letters and he held two investitures, bestowing the KB upon Sir John Lindsay and Sir Hector Munro, in 1771 and 1779, respectively. By Imperial firman on 5 April 1750 and he joined forces with Nasir Jung and the British in opposing Chanda Sahib, the French nominee for the Subadarship. He defeated by the French at Gingee in December 1750, and he was received an Imperial firman confirming his possession of the Carnatic and appointing him as Naib to Viceroy of the Deccan,21 January 1751. He was recognised by the Treaty of Paris as an independent ruler,1763, raised to the titles of Walla Jah 1760, and Sahib us-Saif wal-qalam Mudabbir-i-Umur-i-Alam Farzand-i-Aziz-az Jan by Emperor Shah Alam II. Sir John Macpherson, writing to Lord Macartney in November 1781 declared, I have been sending him sheep and bags of rice by every ship. It is more than he did for me when I was fighting his battles, much of the ensuing war was fought on the Nawabs territory. For the defence of his territory, the Nawab paid the British 400,000 pagodas per annum and 10 out of the 21 battalions of the Madras army were posted to garrison his forts, the British derived income from his jagirs. For a period the situation of the Nawab was a significant factor in Westminster politics, the Nawab had borrowed heavily, and many East India Company officials, in India or in the United Kingdom, were his creditors. Elections in the UK could be, and were, influenced by money, with the result that a group of about a dozen Members of Parliament formed a discernible Arcot interest. By the 1780s issues affecting Arcot were therefore having an impact on British politics. He died from poisoning, at Madras on 13 October 1795. He was buried outside the gate of the Gunbad of Shah Chand Mastan and he was succeeded by his son Umdat ul-Umara, who was later accused of supporting Tipu Sultan the heir of Hyder Ali during the Fourth Anglo-Mysore WarMuhammad Ali Khan Wallajah – Muhammad Ali Khan Walla Jah