Category:Dukes of Rothesay
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Pages in category "Dukes of Rothesay"
The following 22 pages are in this category, out of 22 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Dukes of Rothesay.|
The following 22 pages are in this category, out of 22 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Charles I of England – Charles I was monarch of the three kingdoms of England, Scotland, Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution in 1649. He became heir apparent on the death of his elder brother, Henry Frederick, Prince of Wales, in 1612. Two years later, he married the Bourbon princess Henrietta Maria of France instead. After his succession, Charles quarrelled with the Parliament of England, which sought to curb his royal prerogative. Charles thought he could govern according to his own conscience. He failed to aid Protestant forces successfully during the Thirty Years' War. From 1642, Charles fought the armies of the English and Scottish parliaments in the English Civil War. After his defeat in 1645, he surrendered to a Scottish force that eventually handed him over to the English Parliament. Charles refused to accept his captors' demands for a constitutional monarchy, temporarily escaped captivity in November 1647. Charles was tried, executed for high treason in January 1649. A republic called the Commonwealth of England was declared. The monarchy was restored in 1660. The second son of King James VI of Denmark, Charles was born in Dunfermline Palace, Fife, on 19 November 1600. In mid-July 1604, Charles left Dunfermline for England where he was to spend most of the rest of his life. He retained a stammer, or hesitant speech, for the rest of his life.Charles I of England – Portrait from the studio of Anthony van Dyck, 1636
2. Charles II of England – Charles II was king of England, Scotland, Ireland. Charles I, was executed at Whitehall January 1649 at the climax of the English Civil War. Cromwell defeated Charles II at the Battle of Worcester on 3 September 1651, Charles fled to mainland Europe. A political crisis that followed the death of Cromwell in 1658 resulted in the restoration of the monarchy, Charles was invited to return to Britain. On his 30th birthday, he was received to public acclaim. After 1660, all legal documents were dated as if he had succeeded his father as king in 1649. Charles's English parliament enacted laws known as the Clarendon Code, designed to shore up the position of the re-established Church of England. Charles acquiesced to the Clarendon Code even though he favoured a policy of religious tolerance. The foreign issue of his early reign was the Second Anglo-Dutch War. In 1670, he entered into the secret treaty of Dover, an alliance with his first cousin King Louis XIV of France. In 1679, Titus Oates's revelations of a supposed "Popish Plot" sparked the Exclusion Crisis when it was revealed that Charles's brother and heir was a Catholic. The crisis saw the birth of the pro-exclusion Whig and anti-exclusion Tory parties. Charles dissolved the English Parliament in 1681, ruled alone until his death on 6 February 1685. He was received into the Roman Catholic Church on his deathbed. Charles's wife, Catherine of Braganza, bore no live children, but Charles acknowledged at least twelve illegitimate children by various mistresses.Charles II of England – Charles II in the robes of the Order of the Garter, by John Michael Wright or studio, c. 1660–1665
3. Charles, Prince of Wales – Charles, Prince of Wales, is the eldest child and heir apparent of Queen Elizabeth II. He was born at Buckingham Palace as the first grandchild of King George VI and Queen Elizabeth. After earning a bachelor of arts degree from Cambridge, he served in the Royal Navy from 1971 to 1976. In 1981, they had two sons: Prince William later to become Duke of Cambridge, Prince Harry. In 1996, the couple divorced, following extramarital affairs. Diana died in a crash in Paris the following year. In 2005, he married Camilla Parker Bowles. He has sought to raise world awareness such as climate change. As an environmentalist, Charles has received numerous awards and recognition from environmental groups around the world. His support including homeopathy, has been criticised by some in the medical community. Charles has been outspoken on the role of the conservation of historic buildings. Subsequently, he created an experimental new town based on his theories, in Dorset in 1993. Charles was baptised in the palace's Music Room by the Archbishop Geoffrey Fisher, on 15 December 1948. When Prince Charles was aged three his mother's accession as Queen Elizabeth II made her heir apparent. He attended his mother's coronation on 2 June 1953, seated alongside his grandmother and aunt.Charles, Prince of Wales – The Prince of Wales in Jersey, July 2012
4. Edward VII – Edward VII was King of the United Kingdom and the British Dominions and Emperor of India from 22 January 1901 until his death in 1910. The eldest son of Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, he was related to royalty throughout Europe. Before his accession to the throne, Edward held the title of Prince of Wales for longer than any of his predecessors. During the long reign of his mother, Edward came to personify the fashionable, leisured elite. Edward represented Britain on visits abroad. As king, he played a role after the Second Boer War. Edward broadened the range of people with whom royalty socialised. He was born at 10:48 in the morning on 9 November 1841 in Buckingham Palace. Edward was her husband Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. Edward was christened Albert Edward at St George's Chapel, on 25 January 1842. Edward was named Albert after his maternal grandfather Prince Edward Duke of Kent and Strathearn. Edward was known as Bertie throughout his life. As the eldest son of the British sovereign, Edward was automatically Duke of Rothesay at birth. As a son of Prince Albert, Edward also held the titles of Duke of Saxony. In 1863, Edward renounced his succession rights in favour of his younger brother, Prince Alfred.Edward VII – Coronation portrait by Sir Luke Fildes
5. Edward VIII – Edward was the eldest son of King George V and Queen Mary. He was named Prince of Wales nine weeks after his father succeeded as king. As a young man, he undertook several overseas tours on behalf of his father. Edward became king in early 1936. However, he caused concern among politicians by his apparent disregard for established constitutional conventions. When it became apparent that he could not remain on the throne, Edward abdicated. He was succeeded by George VI. With a reign of 326 days, Edward was one of the shortest-reigning monarchs in British history. After his abdication, he was created Duke of Windsor. He married Wallis on 3 June 1937, after her second divorce became final. The couple toured Germany. After the war, Edward spent the rest of his life in retirement in France until he died there aged 77 in 1972. Edward was born on 23 June 1894 at White Lodge, Richmond Park, during the reign of his great-grandmother Queen Victoria. He was the eldest son of York. His father was the son of Wales.Edward VIII – In ceremonial dress at age 16 Portrait by Arthur Stockdale Cope
6. Frederick, Prince of Wales – Frederick Louis, Prince of Wales was heir apparent to the British throne from 1727 until his death. Frederick was the eldest but estranged son of King George II and Caroline of Ansbach, well as the father of King George III. Under the Act of Settlement passed by the English Parliament in 1701, he was high in line of succession to the British throne. Frederick was created Prince of Wales. Upon the latter's death on 25 October 1760, the throne passed to Prince Frederick's eldest son, George III. The Elector was the son of Sophia of Hanover, first cousin and heiress-presumptive to the English Queen Anne. This made Frederick's father the new Prince of Wales and Frederick himself second-in-line. Frederick's other godfather was King in Prussia and Elector of Brandenburg-Prussia. He was nicknamed "Griff" within the family. Frederick did not see his parents again for 14 years. In 1722, he was inoculated by Charles Maitland on the instructions of his mother Caroline. The latter two titles have been interpreted differently since -- Snaudon rendered as Snowdon. He arrived as a grown man the year after his father had become King George II. They would never be close. Frederick was not permitted to go to Great Britain after his father took the throne as George II on 11 June 1727.Frederick, Prince of Wales – Frederick
7. Henry Frederick, Prince of Wales – For other people known as Henry, Prince of Wales see Henry, Prince of Wales. Prince of Wales was the elder son of King James I & VI and Anne of Denmark. His name derives from his grandfathers: Henry Stuart, Frederick II of Denmark. Prince Henry was widely seen as a promising heir to his father's thrones. However, at the age of 18, he predeceased his father when he died of typhoid fever. Charles succeeded him as heir apparent to the English, Irish and Scottish thrones. Some Scottish servants from Stirling were retained, including David Murray. He wrote texts for the schooling of his children. The prince's popularity rose so high that it threatened his father. Relations between the two could be tense, on occasion surfaced in public. Most of the party then followed the son. In addition to the alms box that Henry forced swearers to contribute to, he made sure his household attended church services. His religious views were influenced by the clerics in his household, who came largely from a tradition of politicised Calvinism. Charles had to be dragged off in tears. With his father's accession to the throne of England in 1603, Henry at once became Duke of Cornwall.Henry Frederick, Prince of Wales – Henry Frederick in c. 1610
8. George II of Great Britain – George II was King of Great Britain and Ireland, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg and Prince-elector of the Holy Roman Empire from 11 June 1727 until his death. George was the British monarch born outside Great Britain: he was brought up in northern Germany. After Queen of Great Britain, in 1714, Elector of Hanover, inherited the British throne. In the first years of his father's reign as king, George was associated with opposition politicians, until they rejoined the governing party in 1720. As king from 1727, George exercised little control over British domestic policy, largely controlled by the Parliament of Great Britain. As elector, he spent twelve summers in Hanover, where he had more direct control over government policy. He had a difficult relationship with his eldest son, Frederick, who supported the parliamentary opposition. Frederick died unexpectedly nine years before his father, so George II was ultimately succeeded by George III. For two centuries after George II's death, history tended concentrating on his mistresses, boorishness. Since then, most scholars conclude that he exercised influence in foreign policy and military appointments. Both of George's parents committed adultery, in 1694 their marriage was dissolved on the pretext that Sophia had abandoned her husband. In addition to French and German, he was also studied military history and battle tactics with particular diligence. George's second cousin once removed, Queen Anne, ascended the thrones of England, Scotland and Ireland in 1702. Consequently, after his father, George was third in line to succeed Anne of her three realms. Regent of Holstein-Gottorp, came to nothing.George II of Great Britain – Portrait by Thomas Hudson, 1744
9. George IV of the United Kingdom – From 1811 until his accession, he served as Prince Regent during his father's final mental illness. George IV led an extravagant lifestyle that contributed to the fashions of the Regency era. He was a patron of new forms of leisure, style and taste. He commissioned John Nash to build the Royal Pavilion in Brighton and remodel Buckingham Palace, Sir Jeffry Wyattville to rebuild Windsor Castle. For most of George's regency and reign, Lord Liverpool controlled the government as Prime Minister, with little help from George. His ministers found his behaviour selfish, unreliable and irresponsible. At all times he was much under the influence of favourites. Taxpayers were angry at his wasteful spending at a time when Britons were fighting in the Napoleonic Wars. He did not provide national leadership in time of crisis, nor act as a role model for his people. Liverpool's government presided over Britain's ultimate victory, negotiated the peace settlement, attempted to deal with the social and economic malaise that followed. After Liverpool's retirement, George was forced to accept Catholic emancipation despite opposing it. His only child, Princess Charlotte, died before him in 1817 and so he was succeeded by his younger brother, William. George was born at St James's Palace, London, on 12 August 1762, the first child of King George III of the United Kingdom and Queen Charlotte. On 18 September of the same year, he was baptised by Thomas Secker, Archbishop of Canterbury. His godparents were the Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, the Duke of Cumberland and the Dowager Princess of Wales.George IV of the United Kingdom – Coronation portrait by Sir Thomas Lawrence, 1821
10. George V – George V was King of the United Kingdom and the British Dominions, Emperor of India, from 6 May 1910 until his death in 1936. George was the second son of Albert Edward, the grandson of the reigning British monarch, Queen Victoria. On the death of his grandmother in 1901, George was created Prince of Wales. George succeeded his father in 1910. George was the only Emperor of India to be present at his own Delhi Durbar. His reign saw the rise of socialism, communism, fascism, the Indian independence movement, all of which radically changed the political landscape. The Parliament Act 1911 established the supremacy of the elected British House of Commons over the unelected House of Lords. George had health problems at his death was succeeded by his eldest son, Edward VIII. He was born on 3 June 1865, in London. George was the second son of Wales, Albert Edward and Alexandra. His mother was the eldest daughter of King Christian IX of Denmark. George was baptised at Windsor Castle on 7 July 1865 by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Charles Longley. As a younger son of the Prince of Wales, there was little expectation that George would become king. George was third in line after his father and elder brother, Prince Albert Victor. The two princes were educated together.George V – Coronation portrait by Sir Luke Fildes, 1911
11. James I of Scotland – James I, King of Scotland from 1406, was the son of King Robert III and Annabella Drummond. He was the last of three sons. Although parliament exonerated Albany, fears for James's safety grew during the winter of 1405 -- plans were made to send him to France. Two weeks later, on 4 the 12-year-old uncrowned King of Scots began his 18-year detention. The Scottish King's cousin, Albany's son, a captive in England since 1402, was traded for Henry Percy, Earl of Northumberland in 1416. Eight more years passed before James was ransomed, by which time Murdoch had succeeded his father to the governorship of Scotland. James married Joan Beaufort, daughter of the Earl of Somerset shortly before his release in April when they journeyed to Scotland. Noble families would also have to provide hostages as security. Despite this, James held qualities that were admired. The contemporary Scotichronicon by Walter Bower described James as excelling at appreciative of literature and music. Unlike his grandfather he did not take mistresses, but had many children by his consort, Queen Joan. The King applied it selectively at times. In 1428 James detained Alexander, Lord of the Isles, while attending a parliament in Inverness. 5th Earl of Douglas, was arrested in 1431, followed by George, Earl of March, in 1434. Queen Joan, although wounded, was eventually reunited with her son James II in Edinburgh Castle.James I of Scotland – 16th century portrait of James.
12. James II of Scotland – James II, who reigned as king of Scots from 1437 on, was the son of James I and Joan Beaufort. Curiously enough, James held no other titles while Duke of Rothesay. On 21 February 1437, the six-year-old Duke of Rothesay immediately succeeded him as James II. In 1449, nineteen-year-old James married fifteen-year-old Mary of daughter of the Duke of Gelderland. She bore seven children, six of whom survived into adulthood. Subsequently, the relations between Flanders and Scotland improved. James was a singularly successful king. He was popular with whom, like most of the Stewarts, he socialised often, in times of peace and war. His legislation has a markedly popular character. He possessed much of his father's restless energy. However, his murder of the Earl of Douglas leaves a stain on his reign. James I was assassinated on 21 February 1437. The Queen, although hurt, managed to get to her six-year-old son, now king. On 25 the six-year-old was formally crowned King of Scots at Holyrood Abbey. The Parliament of Scotland prohibited them, without the consent of the Estates, until James II's eighteenth birthday.James II of Scotland – James II
13. James III of Scotland – James III was King of Scots from 1460 to 1488. However, it was through his marriage to Margaret of Denmark that the Orkney and Shetland islands became Scottish. In fact, the artistic legacy of his reign is slight, especially when compared to that of his successors, James IV and James V. James was born to James II of Scotland and Mary of Guelders. His exact date and place of birth have been a matter of debate. Claims were made that he was born in 20 July 1451. The place of birth was either Stirling Castle or the Castle of St Andrews, depending on the year. Norman Macdougall, argued strongly for late May 1452 at St Andrews, Fife. He was crowned at a week later. The Boyd faction made itself unpopular, especially with the king, through self-aggrandisement. Lord Boyd's son Thomas was made Earl of Arran and married to the king's sister Mary. When James permanently annexed the islands to the crown in 1472, Scotland reached its greatest ever territorial extent. James married Margaret of Denmark at Edinburgh. Christian I of Denmark gave the Orkney and Shetland Islands to Scotland in lieu of a dowry. Robert and Thomas Boyd were out of the country involved in diplomacy when their regime was overthrown.James III of Scotland – James III
14. James IV of Scotland – James IV was the King of Scots from 11 June 1488 to his death. James was the son of James III and Margaret of Denmark, probably born in Stirling Castle. As heir apparent to the Scottish crown, he became Duke of Rothesay. In 1474, his father arranged his betrothal to Princess Cecily of England. His father was not a popular king and faced two major rebellions during his reign. James III's army rebelled against him and the English army reached Edinburgh. During the second rebellion, the rebels set up the 15-year-old James as their nominal leader. The younger James took the throne and was crowned at Scone on 24 June. When he realised the indirect role which he had played in the death of his father, he decided to do penance for his sin. James IV quickly proved an effective ruler and a wise king. For a time, he supported Perkin Warbeck, pretender to the English throne, carried out a brief invasion of England on his behalf in September 1496. Then, in August 1497, James laid siege to Norham Castle, using his grandfather's bombard Mons Meg. First he ratified the Treaty of Ayton in February 1498. Then, in 1502 James signed the Treaty of Perpetual Peace with Henry VII. He also maintained his relations with France.James IV of Scotland – James IV
15. James V of Scotland – James V was King of Scots from 9 September 1513 until his death, which followed the Scottish defeat at the Battle of Solway Moss. His only surviving legitimate child, Mary, succeeded him when she was just six days old. He became king at just seventeen months old when his father was killed at the Battle of Flodden Field on 9 September 1513. James was crowned in the Chapel Royal at Stirling Castle on 21 September 1513. At Stirling, the 10-year-old James had a guard of 20 footmen dressed in his colours, red and yellow. Poets wrote their own nursery rhymes for James and advised him on royal behavior. As a youth, his education was in the care of University of St Andrews poets such as Sir David Lyndsay. In the autumn of 1524 James dismissed his Regents and was proclaimed an adult ruler by his mother. New court servants were appointed including Henry Rudeman. Later that year, on Sept at the battle of Linlithgow Bridge, failed again to relieve the King from the clutches of Angus. In February 1527, Duke of Richmond, gave twenty hunting hounds and a huntsman. James finally assumed himself. The first action James took as king was to remove Angus from the scene. The Douglas family were forced into exile and James besieged their castle at Tantallon. He then subdued the Border rebels and the chiefs of the Western Isles.James V of Scotland – Anonymous portrait of James V, probably contemporary
16. James VI and I – The kingdoms of Scotland and England were sovereign states, with laws, though both were ruled by James in personal union. James succeeded to the Scottish throne at the age of thirteen months, after his mother Mary was compelled to abdicate in his favour. Four different regents governed during his minority, which ended officially in 1578, though he did not gain full control of his government until 1583. In 1603, he succeeded the last Tudor monarch of England and Ireland, Elizabeth I, who died without issue. He was a major advocate of a single parliament for England and Scotland. In his reign, the Plantation of Ulster and British colonization of the Americas began. At 57 years and 246 days, James's reign in Scotland was longer than those of any of his predecessors. James himself was a talented scholar, the author of works such as Daemonologie, The True Law of Free Monarchies, Basilikon Doron. He sponsored the translation of the Bible that would later be named after him: the Authorised King James Version. Sir Anthony Weldon claimed that James had been termed "the wisest fool in Christendom", an epithet associated with his character ever since. Since the latter half of the 20th century, historians have tended to revise James's reputation and treat him as a serious and thoughtful monarch. James was her second husband, Lord Darnley. Both Mary and Darnley were great-grandchildren of Henry VII of England through Margaret Tudor, the older sister of Henry VIII. Mary's rule over Scotland was insecure, she and her husband, being Roman Catholics, faced a rebellion by Protestant noblemen. He was baptised "Charles James" or "James Charles" on 17 December 1566 in a Catholic ceremony held at Stirling Castle.James VI and I – Portrait by Daniel Mytens, 1621
17. James Francis Edward Stuart – James Francis Edward, Prince of Wales, nicknamed the Old Pretender, was the son of the deposed James II of England and Ireland, VII of Scotland. Following his death in 1766, he was succeeded by his son Charles Edward Stuart in the Jacobite Succession. Had his father not been deposed, Great Britain might have had only two monarchs during himself. Instead there were seven: his father, William III, Mary II, George III. Their attempts are remembered in history as Jacobitism. Prince James Francis Edward was born 10 June 1688, at St. James's Palace. Princess Anne, had been raised as Protestants. Long as there was a possibility of them succeeding him, the king's opponents saw his rule as a temporary inconvenience. In an attempt to scotch this myth, James published the testimonies of over seventy witnesses to the birth. In the midst of the Glorious Revolution, Mary of Modena escaped with the infant James to France. Young James was brought up at the château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye, which Louis XIV had turned over to the exiled James II. On his father's death in 1701, James was recognised by King Louis XIV of France, as the rightful heir to the English and Scottish thrones. Though delayed by an attack of measles, James attempted invasion, trying to land on 23 March 1708. The fleet of Admiral Sir George Byng intercepted the French ships, which combined with bad weather prevented a landing. James served for a time in the French army, as his father had done during the inter-regnum.James Francis Edward Stuart – James Francis Edward Stuart, "The Old Pretender"