Pages in category "Encomenderos"
The following 44 pages are in this category, out of 44 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 44 pages are in this category, out of 44 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Encomienda – The encomienda was a labor system, rewarding conquerors with the labor of particular groups of people. It was first established in Spain during the Roman period, but utilized also following the Christian reconquest of Muslim territory. It was applied on a much larger scale during the Spanish colonization of the Americas and the Philippines. Conquered peoples were considered vassals of the Spanish monarch and the award of an encomienda was a grant from the crown to a particular individual. In return, the natives would provide tributes in the form of metals, any other agricultural product. In the first decade of Spanish presence in the Caribbean, Spaniards divided up the natives, who in some cases were worked relentlessly. With the ouster of Christopher Columbus, the Spanish crown sent a royal governor, Fray Nicolás de Ovando, who established the formal encomienda system. In many cases natives were forced to do hard labor and subjected to extreme punishment and death if they resisted. In the former Inca Empire, for example, the system continued the Incaic traditions of extracting tribute in the form of labor. The heart of encomienda and encomendero lies in the Spanish verb encomendar, "to entrust". The encomienda system in Spanish America differed from the Peninsular institution in that encomenderos did not own the land on which the natives lived. The system did not entail any direct land tenure by the encomendero; Indian lands were to remain in the possession of their communities. The first grantees of the encomienda or encomenderos were usually conquerors who received these grants of labor by virtue of participation in a successful conquest. Later, some receiving encomiendas in New Spain were not conquerors themselves but were sufficiently well connected that they received grants. Holders of encomiendas also included women and indigenous notables.Encomienda – Francisco Hernández Giron was a Spanish encomendero in the Viceroyalty of Peru who protested the New Laws in 1553. These laws, passed in 1542, gave certain rights to indigenous peoples and protected them against abuses. Drawing by Felipe Guamán Poma de Ayala.
2. Fazenda – Fazenda now denotes any kind of farm. Fazendas also led to intensification of slavery in Brazil. Coffee provided a new basis in southern Brazil. In the provinces of Rio de Janeiro and then São Paulo, fazendas, began to spread toward the interior as new lands were opened. By 1850, coffee made up more than half of world coffee production. Along with the expansion of coffee growing came an intensification of slavery as the country's primary form of labor. Of the increased profit from the trade of coffee, the years after 1850 saw considerable growth and prosperity in Brazil. Dom Pedro II proved to be willing to expand economic prosperity, even if that prosperity was based on labor. Railroads, the telegraph were introduced to Brazil, all paid for by the money the fazendas supplied from their coffee crop. HaciendaFazenda – Piedade farm. The master house of a coffee plantation farm founded in the 18th century in Party do Alferes, Rio de Janeiro.
3. Guido de Lavezaris – Guido de Lavezaris was the second Spanish Governor General of the Philippines. He was succeeded by Francisco de Sande on August 25, 1575. Little was known of Governor-General Lavezares. In 1543, he became a member of the Villalobos Expedition that traveled to the Philippines. He became the royal treasurer of the expedition during the navigation. Lavezaris also granted vast encomiendas to his loyal generals. In 1574, he defeated the Chinese pirate Limahong when the latter attempted to colonize the Philippines. In 1575, Spanish friar Martín de Rada filed a complaint against Lavezaris, which led to his removal from office. He was reported for imposing higher tributes to the natives. He never retired as a wealthy encomendero. This was later admonished by Philip II. The municipality of Lavezares, Northern Samar was named after him. Maura, Juan Francisco. "La Relación del suceso de la: Épica española en Asia en el siglo XVI." Edición, transcripción y notas, Juan Francisco Maura.Guido de Lavezaris – Guido de Lavezaris
4. Laws of Burgos – They endorsed their conversion to Catholicism. The scope of the laws was later extended to Puerto Rico and Jamaica. They also established a minutely regulated regime of work, pay, provisioning, living quarters, hygiene, care in a reasonably protective and humanitarian spirit. Women more than four months pregnant were exempted from work. It respected, in the traditional authorities, granting chiefs exemptions from ordinary jobs and granting them various Indians as servants. The limited fulfillment of the laws sometimes led to claims. The Spanish King was outraged by the cases of maltreatment of the Indians. To solve the legal question, he commissioned a group of theologians and academics to come up with a solution. After 1508, the friars made the case to defend the aboriginal American Indians from becoming slaves of the new colonists. 1: The Indians are to be moved to encomiendas. For every fifty Indians, four lodges shall be built. This land cannot be taken from them since they were taken from their original land. The Indians will do the planting of all of the food. During the proper seasons, the encomenderos will raise the hens. 2: The Indians will leave their land voluntarily to come to the encomiendas so that they shall not suffer from being removed by force.Laws of Burgos – Colonization
5. Antonio de Mendoza – Mendoza was born at the son of the Second Conde de Tendilla, Íñigo López de Mendoza y Quiñones and Francisca Pacheco. He was married to María Ana de Trujillo de Mendoza. Mendoza governed for 15 years, longer than any subsequent viceroy. On his arrival in New Spain, he found a recently conquered territory beset among the Spanish conquerors and Spanish settlers. His difficult assignment was to govern without making an enemy of Hernán Cortés. Cortés himself had expected to be made the permanent ruling official of New Spain, since he had led the Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire. In 1530 Cortés was granted the title of the Marquis of the Valley of Oaxaca with multiple encomiendas. With the arrival of Viceroy Mendoza in 1535, Cortés pursued his own economic interests in Cuernavaca. His family's loyalty to the Spanish crown made him a suitable candidate for appointment. These institutions were second universities respectively to be established in the mainland of the Americas. In 1536 he began the minting of copper coins, known as macuquinas. Also under his instructions, the first press in the New World was brought to Mexico in 1539, by printer Juan Pablos. The first book printed in Mexico: La Escala Espiritual de San Juan Clímaco. On May 1541 don Antonio founded the city of Valladolid. In 1542 an insurrection of the Indians, called the Mixtón Rebellion threatened bringing the area under indigenous control.Antonio de Mendoza – Don Antonio de Mendoza
6. Isabel Moctezuma – Doña Isabel Moctezuma was a daughter of the Aztec ruler Moctezuma II. She was the consort as such the last Aztec empress. After the Spanish conquest, Doña Isabel became one of the Mexican Indians granted an encomienda. Among the others were Juan Sánchez, an Indian governor in Oaxaca. Doña Isabel was married to three Spaniards and widowed five times. She had a daughter out of Leonor Cortés Moctezuma, with conquistador Hernán Cortés. Her sons founded a line of Spanish nobility. The title of Duke of Moctezuma de Tultengo still exists. Her birth name was Tecuichtzin, translated as "lord's daughter" in Nahuatl. Teotlalco was Moctezuma's principal wife and, thus, among Moctezuma's daughters Tecuichpotzin had primacy. As a small child, Tecuichpotzin was married to Atlixcatzin, who died by 1520. Cuauhtémoc became emperor and married Tecuichpotzin. She was about eleven or twelve years old at the time of her third marriage. When the Aztecs expelled Cortés and his army from Tenochtitlan, Tecuichpotzin was left behind in the city by the Spanish. Aztec leaders quickly married her to the new emperor, after he died of smallpox, to Cuauhtémoc.Isabel Moctezuma – Genealogy of Tecuichpoch
7. New Laws – These had been effective to a limited extent due to the opposition of some colonists. Some regarded the laws as legalizing the system of Indian labor. His alleged goal was the abolition of the system, which forced the Indians to abandon their previous lifestyle and homelands. His role in the movement earned him the nickname "Defender of the Indians". However, his motivations were sometimes also political. Eventually, the reformists were able to influence the King to pass a new set of reforms that came to be known as the New Laws. The encomenderos could no longer demand their labor. , if they worked, they would be paid wages in exchange for their labor. As a result, the promulgation of the New Laws caused great unrest in the Spanish Americas, leading to a revolt in Peru, led by Gonzalo Pizarro. Pizarro headed protesting landowners who took to arms in order to "maintain their rights by force". Gonzalo Pizarro was invited by the Supreme Court to assume control over its government after marching to Lima with his troops. Pizarro forced himself upon Lima and Quito. The revolt led to the overthrow of Viceroy Blasco Núñez Vela, who had attempted to impose the decrees. His army defeated and killed Núñez Vela in 1546. Pizarro's power stretched all the way to Panama.New Laws – Cover of "Leyes Nuevas" of 1542.
8. Slavery in the Spanish New World colonies – The Spanish colonists influenced the development of modern racial ideologies, such as limpieza de sangre. Spaniards regarded some indigenous people as tribute during the late 1400s and part of the 1500s. Spanish slavery in the Americas did not diverge drastically from that in European colonies. It reshuffled the Atlantic World's populations through forced migrations, promoted racial and social hierarchies throughout the empire. In fact, Spanish colonization set some egregious records in the field of slavery. The official contract for trading in slaves in the vast Spanish territories was a major engine of the Atlantic slave trade. When Spain first then replaced them with captive Africans, it established unfree labor as the basis for colonial mass-production. The tale of Spanish exploits in the Americas, amplified for propagandistic reasons, earned such notoriety that European rivals called the Black Legend. Enslaved people challenged their captivity in ways that ranged from introducing non-European elements to mounting alternative societies outside of the plantation system. The first black rebellion occurred in Spanish plantations in 1521. Resistance, particularly to the enslavement of indigenous people, also came from Spanish legal ranks. Resistance to Amerindian captivity in the Spanish colonies produced the legitimacy of slavery. And laws like the New Laws of 1542, were enacted early in the colonial period to protect natives from bondage. Altogether, the struggle against slavery in the American colonies left a notable tradition of opposition that set the stage for current conversations about human rights. The Spanish had established precedents for regimes of forced labor with New World peoples.Slavery in the Spanish New World colonies – Slavery
9. Valladolid debate – The Valladolid debate was the first moral debate in European history to discuss the rights and treatment of a colonized people by colonizers. Although both sides claimed to have won the disputation, there is no clear record supporting either interpretation. The affair is considered one of the earliest examples of moral debates about colonialism, human rights of colonized peoples and international relations in history. In Spain, it served to establish de las Casas as the primary, though controversial defender of the Indians. He and others contributed to the passing of the New Laws of 1542, which limited the encomienda system further. Though they did not fully reverse the situation, the laws achieved considerable improvement in the treatment of Indians and consolidated their rights granted by earlier laws. More importantly, the debate reflected a concern for morality and justice in 16th century Spain that only surfaced in other colonial powers centuries later. Spain's colonization and conquest of the Americas inspired an intellectual debate especially regarding the compulsory Christianization of the Indians. His efforts influenced the papal bull Sublimis Deus of 1537. More significantly, Las Casas was instrumental in the passage of the New Laws of 1542, which were designed to end the encomienda system. Moved by Las Casas and others, in 1550 the King of Spain Charles V ordered further military expansion to cease until the issue was investigated. The King assembled a Junta of eminent doctors and theologians to hear both sides and to issue a ruling on the controversy. Las Casas represented one side of the debate. His position found some support from the monarchy, which wanted to control the power of the encomenderos, within the Catholic Church. Representing the other side was Juan Ginés de Sepúlveda, whose arguments supported the interests of the colonists and landowners who benefited from the system.Valladolid debate – "Wild Men" depicted on the facade of the Colegio de San Gregorio