Category:Executed French women
Pages in category "Executed French women"
The following 35 pages are in this category, out of 35 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 35 pages are in this category, out of 35 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Henriette Anne Louise d'Aguesseau – Her mother died the day after she was born, on 13 February 1737. Henri François d'Aguesseau was Chancellor of France three times between 1717 and 1750. After her father remarried, she was educated at the Convent of the Visitation at Saint-Denis, by Mme d'Héricourt. His death in 1750 came to her. She had adored the attentive old gentleman. After the death of Henri François d'Aguesseau, she became an heiress. She was married to Jean-Paul-François de Noailles on 25 February 1755. The arranged marriage had been worked out by 3rd duc de Noailles, who had worked with Chancellor d'Aguesseau. She maintained a salon in Paris. She disapproved of the arranged marriage of her daughter Adrienne in view of their youth. So after a year's delay while she managed their courtship, they were married at the Hôtel de Noailles. At the death of Louis, 4th duc de Noailles, she returned to France. During the Reign of Terror, she was arrested at Hôtel de Noailles and imprisoned in Luxembourg Prison in Paris. Along with her mother-in-law, daughter, Anne Jeanne Baptiste Louise vicomtesse d'Ayen, she was guillotined, on 22 July 1794. She was buried in a mass grave of Picpus Cemetery.Henriette Anne Louise d'Aguesseau – Château de la Grange-Bléneau, her mother's ancestral home
2. Anne d'Arpajon – Anne d'Arpajon was a French aristocrat and dame d'honneur to Queens of France, Marie Leszczyńska and Marie Antoinette. She was called "Madame Etiquette" by Marie Antoinette for her insistence that no minutia of etiquette ever be altered or disregarded. Anne Charlotte Le Bas de Montargis, was lady in waiting to the Duchess of Berry, daughter of the regent. Anne Claude married November 1741. Noailles was one of the leading families of France. Her husband Philippe were guillotined during the French Revolution on 27 June 1794. Many of her relatives met the same fate. On 22 the widow, daughter-in-law, granddaughter of Philippe's brother Louis, 4th duc de Noailles, were guillotined. Louis's other granddaughter, wife of the Marquis de Lafayette, was saved by the intervention of America's Minister to France, James Monroe. Louise Henriette Charlotte Philippine de Noailles. Charles Adrien de Noailles Prince of Poix. Louis Philippe de Noailles Prince of Poix. Daniel François Marie de Noailles Marquis of Noailles, later Prince of Poix. Philippe de Noailles, Duke of Monchy. Louis Marie de Noailles, Viscount of Noailles.Anne d'Arpajon – The Lady with the Mask, by Pierre Louis de Surugue (1746)
3. Madame du Barry – Jeanne's father was possibly Jean Baptiste Gormand de Vaubernier, a friar known as frère Ange. Little Jeanette was well liked by Dumonceaux's mistress Francesca, who pampered her in all luxury. Dumonceaux funded Jeanette's education at the Couvent de Saint-Aure. At the age of fifteen, Jeanne left the convent, for she had "come of age". They then moved into the very small household of Anne's husband, Nicolas Rançon. Later, she worked in a haberdashery shop run by her husband. Labille's daughter, the future famed painter Adélaïde Labille-Guiard, became a good friend of Jeanne. As reflected from the time, she was a remarkably attractive blonde woman with blue eyes. Her beauty came to the attention of Jean-Baptiste du Barry, a high-class pimp/procurer nicknamed le roué. Du Barry owned a casino, Jeanne came to his attention in 1763 when she was entertaining in Madame Quisnoy's brothel-casino. She introduced herself as Jeanne Vaubernier. Du Barry installed her in his household and made her his mistress. As Mademoiselle Lange, Jeanne immediately became a sensation in Paris, building up a large aristocratic clientele. She had many lovers from the king's ministers to his courtiers. The dashing yet old Maréchal de Richelieu became one of her recurring lovers.Madame du Barry – Madame du Barry by Élisabeth Vigée Le Brun, 1781
4. Madame de Brinvilliers – Marie-Madeleine-Marguerite d'Aubray, Marquise de Brinvilliers was a French aristocrat accused of three murders. She was convicted on the strength of letters written by a confession obtained by torture, so her guilt remains uncertain. Her alleged accomplice Sainte-Croix had died of natural causes in 1672, so could not be charged. She was not charged with any such killings. On 17 she was tortured with the water cure, made to drink sixteen pints of water and forced to confess. Her body was burned at the stake. The scandal which followed it launched the Affair of the Poisons, which saw several French aristocrats charged with witchcraft and poisoning. Robert Browning's 1846 poem "The Laboratory" imagines an incident in her life. There have been two musical treatments of her life. Rick Roberts premiered in Toronto, Canada in September 2009. The Sailor Moon musical Kessen / no Mori, included a character known as De Brinvilliers-sensei. She was a vampire who posed as a teacher who tested her students about various poisons. A character based on the Vocaloid Hatsune Miku, was based after the woman. A song sung by Hatsune Miku known as "Gift from the Princess who Brought Sleep" describes Margarita's actions. Attribution Chisholm, Hugh, ed..Madame de Brinvilliers – Marie Madeleine Marguerite d'Aubray, Marquise de Brinvilliers, 1676, after her imprisonment, portrait by Charles Le Brun.
5. Charlotte Corday – Marie-Anne Charlotte de Corday d'Armont, known to history as Charlotte Corday, was a figure of the French Revolution. More specifically, Marat played a substantial role with whom Corday sympathized. In 1847, writer Alphonse de Lamartine gave the posthumous nickname l'ange de l'assassinat. Born in a hamlet in the commune of Écorches, in Normandy, Charlotte Corday was a member of a minor aristocratic family. She was a matrilineal descendant of the dramatist Pierre Corneille. Her parents were cousins. While Corday was a young girl, Charlotte Marie Jacqueline Gaultier de Mesnival, died. After 1791, she lived with her cousin, Madame Le Coustellier de Bretteville-Gouville. Corday was the sole heir to her cousin's estate. After the revolution headed towards terror, Charlotte Corday began to sympathize with the Girondins. She grew fond of many of the Girondist groups whom she met while living in Caen. She came to align herself with their thinking. She regarded them as a movement that would ultimately save France. They, like Corday, were skeptical about the direction the revolution was taking. The influence of Girondin ideas on Corday is evident in her words at her trial: "I knew that he Marat was perverting France.Charlotte Corday – Corday's birth house in Normandy
6. Lucile Duplessis – Anne Lucile Philippe Laridon Duplessis was the wife of the French revolutionary and journalist Camille Desmoulins. She was Anne Françoise Marie Boisdeveix. Her sister, Adèle Duplessis, was briefly engaged to Maximilien Robespierre. Though she would eventually marry Camille Desmoulins, the two first met when she was much younger and he was an admirer of her mother. When she fell with Camille, ten years her senior, her father refused the marriage. In one of her journals, Lucile talks about what happened on Bastille Day. "August 9th, 1792. What will become of us? I can endure no more. Camille, O my poor Camille, what will become of you? O God, if it be true that thou hast existence, save the men who are worthy of Thee. We want to be free. O God, the cost of it! As a climax to my misery, courage abandons me." Her father finally agreed to allow Camille to marry her on December 29, 1790, at the Church of Saint Sulpice in Paris.Lucile Duplessis – Lucile Duplessis
7. Saint Faith – Saint Faith or "Saint Faith of Conques" is a saint, said to have been a girl or young woman of Agen in Aquitaine. Her legend recounts how she was refused to make pagan sacrifices even under torture. Saint Faith was tortured to death with a red-hot brazier. Her death is sometimes said to have occurred in the year 290, sometimes in the large-scale persecution under Diocletian beginning in 303. She is listed in the martyrologies. She was confused with the three legendary sisters known as Faith, Hope, Charity. The date of her death is not given. A Passio, now lost, once appears in summarized form in the ninth-century martyrology of Florus of Lyon. Her legends portray her as a patron who could turn against those who only gave small donations at Conques. One such joke was the following story: a local castellan holds onto a ring that his dying wife had promised to the saint. The castellan, whose name is Austrin, uses the ring, however, to wed his second wife. Saint Faith causes the finger of the second wife to swell up in unbearable pain. During the 12th century, Faith's cult was associated with Agen. Caprasius' cult in turn was also fused with that of Primus and Felician, who are called Caprasius' brothers. One legend states that during the persecutions of Christians by the prefect Dacian, Caprasius fled near Agen.Saint Faith – Medieval depiction of the martyrdom of St. Faith
9. Olympe de Gouges – Olympe de Gouges, born Marie Gouze, was a French playwright and political activist whose feminist and abolitionist writings reached a large audience. She began her career as a playwright in the early 1780s. As political tension rose in France, Olympe de Gouges became increasingly politically engaged. She became an outspoken advocate for improving the condition of slaves in the colonies of 1788. At the same time, she began writing political pamphlets. Today she is perhaps best known as an early feminist who demanded that French women be given the same rights as French men. In her Declaration of the Rights of the Female Citizen, she challenged the notion of male -- female inequality. She was executed for her close relation with the Girondists. Marie Gouze was born in southwestern France. In 1765 she married a caterer, who came with the new Intendant of the town. This was not a marriage of love. Gouze said in a semi-autobiographical novel, "I was married to a man, neither well-born. I was sacrificed for no reason that could make up for the repugnance I felt for this man." In 1770 she took the name of Olympe de Gouges. She usually was invited to the salons of Madame de Montesson and the Comtesse de Beauharnais, who also were playwrights.Olympe de Gouges – Olympe de Gouges
10. Joan of Arc – Joan of Arc was born at Domrémy in north-east France. The uncrowned King Charles VII sent Joan as part of a relief mission. She gained prominence after the siege was lifted only nine days later. Several swift victories led to Charles VII's coronation at Reims. This long-awaited event paved the way for the final French victory. On 23 she was captured at Compiègne by the Burgundian faction, allied with the English. She was later put on trial by the pro-English Bishop of Beauvais Pierre Cauchon on a variety of charges. After Cauchon declared her guilty she was burned at the stake on 30 May 1431, dying at about nineteen years of age. In 1456, an inquisitorial court authorized by Pope Callixtus III examined the trial, debunked the charges against her, declared her a martyr. She was canonized in 1920. Thérèse of Lisieux. Cultural depictions of her have continued to this day. The Hundred Years' War had begun as an inheritance dispute over the French throne, interspersed with occasional periods of relative peace. The English army's use of chevauchée tactics had devastated the economy. Its merchants were isolated from foreign markets.Joan of Arc – Painting, c. 1485. An artist's interpretation, since the only known direct portrait has not survived. (Centre Historique des Archives Nationales, Paris, AE II 2490)
11. Marie Antoinette – Marie Antoinette (/ˈmæriˌæntwəˈnɛt/, /ˌɑ̃ːntwə-/, /ˌɑ̃ːtwə-/, US /məˈriː-/; French:; born Maria Antonia Josepha Johanna, was the last Queen of France prior to the French Revolution. She was the second youngest child of Empress Maria Theresa and Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor. To Louis-Auguste, heir apparent to the French throne, she became Dauphine of France. After eight years of marriage, Marie Antoinette gave birth to a daughter, Marie-Thérèse Charlotte, the first of her four children. The Diamond Necklace affair damaged her reputation further. On 21 September 1792, the monarchy was abolished. Maria Antonia was born in Vienna. She was her husband Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor. Her godparents were Mariana Victoria, King and Queen of Portugal; Archduchess Maria Anna acted as proxies for their newborn sister. Shortly after her birth, she was placed under the care of the Governess of the Imperial children, Countess von Brandeis. Maria Antonia was raised with her three-year older sister Maria Carolina, with whom she had a lifelong close relationship. As to her relationship with her mother, her daughter loved each other. Despite the private tutoring she received, results of her schooling were less than satisfactory. At the age of ten she could not write correctly in any language commonly used at court, such as Italian. Conversations with her were stilted.Marie Antoinette – Marie Antoinette with the Rose Portrait by Louise Élisabeth Vigée Le Brun, 1783.
12. Regina (martyr) – Saint Regina was a virgin martyr and saint of the Catholic Church. Regina was born to a pagan named Clement. Her father repudiated her. She then went to live with a Christian nurse who baptized her. Regina helped out by tending the sheep. She meditated on the lives of the saints. Her martyrdom is considered to have occurred either under Maximian in 286. Honored in many Martyrologies, Regina's feast is celebrated on 20 June. In the past, a procession was held in her honor in the town of Dijon. However, her relics were transferred to Flavigny Abbey in 827. The history of the translation of Regina was the subject of a 9th-century account. There are many places in France named Sainte-Reine after her. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Wood, ed.. "name needed". The Nuttall Encyclopædia.Regina (martyr) – Statue of St. Regina at church dedicated to her at Drensteinfurt.
13. Madame Roland – Madame died on the guillotine. Madame Roland, born the sole surviving child of eight pregnancies, was born to Gratien Phlippon and Madame Phlippon in March 1754. From her early years Madame was a enthusiastic, talented student. In her youth Madame studied literature, drawing. From the beginning Madame was willed and frequently challenged her father and instructors as she progressed through an advanced, well-rounded education. Enthusiastically supporting her education, Jeanne's parents enrolled her in Paris - for one year only. Madame was enthusiastically religious, leading John Abbott to state "God thus became in Jane's mind a vision of poetic beauty." Literary figures influenced Roland's philosophy, including Voltaire, Montesquieu, Plutarch, others. Manon Phlippon also, as she traveled, developed an increasing awareness of the outside world. Ah but we are going to be happy! In the winter of 1780, Manon Phlippon married Jean-Marie Roland de la Platière. Madame collaborated in particular. Her most significant influence flowed through her husband's political writings. Nevertheless, attempting to conform to Rousseau's model of femininity, Madame also carefully restricted herself "well within the limits of a woman's domestic function." Thus, through him, Madame proved both powerful and influential in the era of the French Revolution.Madame Roland – Plaster bust by Vital Cornu
14. Violette Szabo – Violette Reine Elizabeth Szabo GC was a French-born British Special Operations Executive agent during the Second World War and a posthumous recipient of the George Cross. Violette Szabo was born Violette Reine Elizabeth Bushell in Paris on 26 June 1921. She was the only daughter of son of a publican from Hampstead Norreys. He was salesman, during the Second World War, a storekeeper. Her mother, Reine Blanche Leroy, was a dressmaker originally from Pont-Remy, Somme. She was an lively girl, enjoying gymnastics, ice-skating with four brothers and several male cousins. She was regarded as a tomboy, especially as she was taught by her father to be a good shot. At the age of fourteen, she went to work at a French corsetière in South Kensington and then at Woolworths in Oxford Street. Her life was loving, though she often clashed with her strict father and once ran away after an argument. The family, except her monolingual father, would often converse in French. At the outbreak of the Second World War, she was working at a Brixton store. They married at Aldershot Registry Office in Manor Park on 21 August 1940 after a whirlwind 42-day romance. Violette was 19, Étienne was 31. They enjoyed a week's honeymoon before Étienne set off from Liverpool to fight in the French attack on Dakar, Senegal. After her marriage Violette became a switchboard operator for the General Post Office in central London, working throughout the Blitz.Violette Szabo – Violette Szabo c.1940s
15. La Voisin – Her purported cult was suspected to have killed anywhere between 1000-2500 people in Black Masses. Catherine Deshayes was married in Paris. After her husband was ruined, she started her career by face-reading to support her family. La Voisin performed abortions. For her practice in fortune telling, La Voisin was to say that she developed the talent God had given her. After her husband became ruined, she decided to profit by it. Reading the client's future by reading their faces and hands. La Voisin also spent a lot of money to provide an atmosphere which could make the clients more inclined to believe in the prophecies. For example, La Voisin acquired a special robe of red velvet embroidered with eagles in gold for a price of 1,500 livres to perform in. Unlike La Voisin, her husband Antoine Monvoisin did not possess a head for business, eventually losing all financial means. La Voisin supported a family of six, including kids, her husband. In fact, La Voisin found him to be so disagreeable, she had taken to greeting him with the phrase "have you dropped dead yet?" And La Voisin had lovers -- many lovers -- on whom she also spent considerable money, always making sure they were comfortable. Her husband never seemed to be particularly jealous but, instead, bent easily to that of her sometimes confrontational lovers. In fact, he was whacked five times by one of her lovers who found him disagreeable.La Voisin – Catherine Deshayes, " La Voisin ", 17th-century print of her portrait held by a winged devil.