Category:Explorers from the Republic of Venice
Pages in category "Explorers from the Republic of Venice"
The following 9 pages are in this category, out of 9 total, this list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 9 pages are in this category, out of 9 total, this list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Giovanni Battista Belzoni – Giovanni Battista Belzoni, sometimes known as The Great Belzoni, was a prolific Italian explorer and pioneer archaeologist of Egyptian antiquities. His father was a barber who sired fourteen children and his family was from Rome and when Belzoni was 16 he went to work there, saying that he studied hydraulics. He intended taking monastic vows, but in 1798 the occupation of the city by French troops drove him from Rome, in 1800 he moved to the Netherlands where he earned a living as a barber. In 1803 he fled to England to avoid being sent to jail, there he married an Englishwoman, Sarah Bane. Belzoni was a man at 6 feet 7 inches tall. They were for some time compelled to find subsistence by performing exhibitions of feats of strength and agility as a strongman at fairs, in 1804 he appears engaged at the circus at Astleys amphitheatre at a variety of performances. Belzoni had an interest in phantasmagoria and experimented with the use of lanterns in his shows. Belzoni wanted to show Muhammad Ali a hydraulic machine of his own invention for raising the waters of the Nile, though the experiment with this engine was successful, the project was not approved by the pasha. Belzoni, now without a job, was resolved to continue his travels, on the recommendation of the orientalist J. L. Shipped by Belzoni to England, this piece is still on prominent display at the British Museum. It took him 17 days and 130 men to tow it to the river and he used levers to lift it onto rollers. Then he had his men distributed equally with 4 ropes drag it on the rollers, on the first day he only covered a few yards, the second he covered 50 yards deliberately breaking the bases of 2 columns to clear the way for his burden. After 150 yards, it sank into the sand, and a detour of 300 yards on firmer ground was necessary. From there, it got a little easier, and, on 12 August and his excavation and removal of the Young Memnon and other stones during this expedition was explicitly authorized by a firman from Muhammed Ali himself, the Pasha of Egypt. He was the first to penetrate into the pyramid of Giza. He also identified the ruins of Berenice on the Red Sea, during 1820 and 1821 he also exhibited facsimiles of the tomb of Seti I. The exhibition was held at the Egyptian Hall, Piccadilly, London, in 1822 Belzoni showed his model in Paris. In 1823 he set out for West Africa, intending to travel to Timbuktu, having been refused permission to pass through Morocco, he chose the Guinea Coast route. He reached the Kingdom of Benin, but was seized with dysentery at a village called Gwato, according to the celebrated traveller Richard Francis Burton he was murdered and robbedGiovanni Battista Belzoni – Giovanni Battista Belzoni
2. John Cabot – To mark the celebration of the 500th anniversary of Cabots expedition, both the Canadian and British governments elected Cape Bonavista, Newfoundland, as Cabots first landing site. However, alternative theories have also been proposed, Giovanni Caboto was born in Italy, the son of Giulio Caboto and his wife, he had a brother Piero. He is known today as Giovanni Caboto in Italy, in English as John Cabot, in French as Jean Cabot, the non-Italian forms are derived from how his name was recorded in related 15th-century documents. In Venice he signed his names as Zuan Chabotto, Zuan being a form of John typical to Venice and he continued to use this form in England, at least among Italians. He was referred to by his Italian banker in London as Giovanni Chabbote, Gaeta and Castiglione Chiavarese have both been proposed as birthplaces. The main evidence for Gaeta are records of a Caboto family residing there until the mid-15th century, pedro de Ayala, the Spanish envoy and Cabots contemporary in London, described him in a letter to the Spanish Crown in 1498 as another Genoese like Columbus. John Cabots son, Sebastian, said his father came from Genoa. In 1476 Cabot was made a citizen of the Republic of Venice and he may have been born slightly earlier than 1450, which is the approximate date most commonly given for his birth. In 1471 Caboto was accepted into the confraternity of St John the Evangelist. Since this was one of the citys prestigious confraternities, his acceptance suggests that he was already a member of the community. He presumably entered this trade shortly thereafter, a 1483 document refers to his selling a slave in Crete whom he had acquired while in the territories of the Sultan of Egypt, which then comprised most of what is now Israel, Syria and Lebanon. This is not sufficient to prove Cabots later assertion that he had visited Mecca, in this Mediterranean trade, he may have acquired better knowledge of the origins of the oriental merchandise he would have been dealing in than most Europeans at that time. Zuan Cabotto is mentioned in a variety of Venetian records of the 1480s and these indicate that by 1484 he was married to Mattea and already had at least two sons. Cabots sons are Ludovico, Sebastian, and Sancto, the Venetian sources contain references to Cabots being involved in house building in the city. He may have relied on this experience when seeking work later in Spain as a civil engineer, Cabot appears to have got into financial trouble in the late 1480s and left Venice as an insolvent debtor by 5 November 1488. He moved to Valencia, Spain, where his creditors attempted to have him arrested by sending a lettera di raccomandazione a giustizia to the authorities, while in Valencia, John Cabot Montecalunya proposed plans for improvements to the harbour. Early in 1494 he moved on to Seville, where he proposed, was contracted to build and, for five months and this project was abandoned following a decision of the City Council on 24 December 1494. After this Cabot appears to have support in Seville and Lisbon for an Atlantic expedition, before moving to London to seek fundingJohn Cabot – John Cabot in traditional Venetian garb by Giustino Menescardi (1762). A mural painting in the Sala dello Scudo in the Palazzo Ducale, Venice.
3. Sebastian Cabot (explorer) – Sebastian Cabot was an Italian explorer, likely born in the Venetian Republic. He was the son of Italian explorer John Cabot and his Venetian wife Mattea, after his fathers death, Cabot conducted his own voyages of discovery, seeking the Northwest Passage through North America for England. He later sailed for Spain, traveling to South America, where he explored the Rio de la Plata, accounts differ as to Sebastian Cabots place and date of birth. At another time, he told the Venetian ambassador at the court of Charles V, Gasparo Contarini, in 1515 Sebastians friend Peter Martyr dAnghiera wrote that Cabot was a Venetian by birth, but that his father had taken him to England as a child. His father had lived in Venice from 1461, as he received citizenship in 1476, the Caboto family moved to England in 1495 if not before. They are believed by historians, including Rodney Skelton, to have still been minors since they were not mentioned in the 1498 patent their father also received. John Cabot sailed from Bristol on the small ship Matthew and reached the coast of a New Found Land on June 24,1497, historians have differed as to where Cabot landed, but two likely locations often suggested are Newfoundland and Nova Scotia. Sancho Gutierrez repeated this text in Castilian on his 1551 map and they put to it the name prima terra vista and This big island was named Saint John, as it was discovered on Saint John holiday. People there wander wearing animal furs and they use bow and arrow to fight, javelins and darts and wooden batons and slings. This is a very sterile land, there are a lot of white bears and very big deers, big as horses, as well there are infinite fish, plaices, salmons, very long soles,1 yard long and many other varieties of fish. Most of them are called cod, and there are also black hawks, black as ravens, eagles, partridges and many other birds. The year is stated as MCCCCXCIV in both hand-written versions, there cannot be confusion with the commonly accepted date for the Cabots voyage, in 1497. Sebastian Cabot and Sancho Gutiérrez may have changed the date in the middle of the sixteenth century, intentional changes and inaccuracies were very common among geographers at the time, depending on the political interests of their sponsors. By the time Cabot was sponsored by Germany and Spain, both England and France had started claiming shares of the New World in competition with Spain and Portugal. If Cabot and Gutiérrez stated the year, it would mean the Cabots sailed to North America on their own account. No documentation has survived for this, in 1504 Sebastian Cabot led an expedition from Bristol to the New World, using two ships, the Jesus of Bristol and the Gabriel of Bristol. These were mastered by Richard Savery and Philip Ketyner, respectively and they brought back a certain amount of salted fish, which suggests the voyage was at least partly commercial and that other expeditions may also have included fishing. Cabot was granted an annuity of ₤10 on 3 April 1505 by Henry VII for services in, in 1508–09 Cabot led one of the first expeditions to find a North-West passage through North AmericaSebastian Cabot (explorer) – Sebastian Cabot in his old age
4. Alvise Cadamosto – Cadamostos accounts of his journeys, including his detailed observations of west African societies, have proven invaluable to historians. Alvise was born at the Ca da Mosto, a palace on the Grand Canal of Venice from which his name derives and his father was Giovanni da Mosto, a Venetian civil servant and merchant, and his mother Elizabeth Querini, from a leading patrician family of Venice. Alvise was the eldest of three sons, having younger brothers Pietro and Antonio, at a remarkably young age, Cadamosto cast out as a merchant adventurer, sailing with Venetian galleys in the Mediterranean. From 1442 to 1448, Alvise undertook various trips on Venetian galleys to the Barbary Coast and Crete, as an agent of his cousin. In 1451, he was appointed officer of the marine corps of crossbowmen on a galley to Alexandria. The next year, he served the position on a Venetian galley to Flanders. Upon his return, he found his family disgraced and dispossessed and his father, caught in a bribery scandal, had been banished from Venice, and taken refuge in the Duchy of Modena. His Querini relatives took the opportunity to seize possession of his familys property and this setback marred the future prospects of Cadamostos career in Venice, and probably encouraged his spirit of adventure, hoping to restore his family name and fortune by great feats of his own. In August,1454 at the age of 22, Alvise and his brother Antonio embarked on a Venetian merchant galley, captained by Marco Zen, on the outward journey, the galley was detained by bad weather near Cape St. Vincent, Portugal. Henry hired him on the spot, Cadamosto made note of the existence of the Portuguese factory-fort at Arguin, but does not seem to have stopped there himself. Cadamosto notes that this spot was used by Portuguese traders. He dates that trade between the Portuguese and the Wolof people of the Senegal region was opened around 1450, Cadamosto had sought to trade Iberian horses for black slaves, the principal line of business at this resgate. Horses were highly valued on the Senegalese coast, and traded at a rate of between 9 and 14 slaves per horse, Cadamosto is said to have sold seven horses and some woolen goods for about 100 slaves. While at the anchorage, Cadamosto was surprised to be met by the ruler himself, the Damel invited him inland while the details of the trade were finalized. Cadamosto spent nearly a month in an inland village, hosted by the prince Bisboror, during which time he delighted in observing much about the local country. His trade in Cayor completed, rather than return home with his cargo, Cadamosto decided to cruise further down the coast. They agreed to join forces and proceeded south together, Cadamosto has nothing good to say about the Serer, characterizing them as savage idolaters of great cruelty. Cadamosto claims he was the one who named the Saloum River as the Rio di Barbacini, pressing south, Cadamosto and Usodimare finally discovered the mouth of the Gambia River in late June or early July,1455Alvise Cadamosto – Map of the Cape Verde islands and the Guinea coast, c. 1771
5. Antonio Pigafetta – Antonio Pigafetta was an Italian scholar and explorer from the Republic of Venice. He traveled with the Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan and his crew by order of the King Charles I of Spain on their voyage around the world, during the expedition, he served as Magellans assistant and kept an accurate journal which later assisted him in translating the Cebuano language. It is the first recorded document concerning the language, Pigafetta was one of the 18 men who returned to Spain in 1522, out of the approximately 240 who set out three years earlier. The voyage completed the first circumnavigation of the world, Juan Sebastián Elcano served as captain after Magellans death, Pigafettas journal is the source for much of what we know about Magellan and Elcanos voyage. At least one warship of the Italian Navy, a destroyer of the Navigatori class, was named after him in 1931, Pigafetta belonged to a rich family of Vicenza. In his youth he studied astronomy, geography and cartography and he served on board the ships of the Knights of Rhodes at the beginning of the 16th century. Until 1519, he accompanied the papal nuncio, Monsignor Chieregati, in Seville, Antonio Pigafetta heard of Magellans planned expedition and elected to embark, accepting the title of sobresaliente and a modest salary of 1,000 maravedís. During the trip, Pigafetta collected extensive data concerning the geography, climate, flora, fauna, the only other sailor to maintain a journal during the voyage was Francisco Albo, Victorias last pilot, who kept a formal logbook. Pigafetta was wounded on Mactan in the Philippines, where Magellan was killed in the Battle of Mactan in April 1521 by the local ruler Lapu-Lapu, nevertheless, he recovered and was among the 18 who accompanied Juan Sebastián Elcano on board the Victoria on the return voyage to Spain. Upon reaching port in Sanlúcar de Barrameda in the modern Province of Cadiz in September 1522, the original document was not preserved. However, it was not through Pigafettas writings that Europeans first learned of the circumnavigation of the globe, rather, it was through an account written by a Flanders-based writer Maximilianus Transylvanus, which was published in 1523. After Magellan and Elcanos voyage, Pigafetta utilized the connections he had prior to the voyage with the Knights of Rhodes to achieve membership in the order. Lord Stanley of Alderley, The first voyage round the world, by Magellan, London, The Hakluyt Society - includes Pigefettas journal, Works by Antonio Pigafetta at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Antonio Pigafetta at Internet ArchiveAntonio Pigafetta – Map of Borneo by Pigafetta.
6. Marco Polo – He learned the mercantile trade from his father and uncle, Niccolò and Maffeo, who travelled through Asia and met Kublai Khan. In 1269, they returned to Venice to meet Marco for the first time, the three of them embarked on an epic journey to Asia, returning after 24 years to find Venice at war with Genoa, Marco was imprisoned and dictated his stories to a cellmate. He was released in 1299, became a merchant, married. He died in 1324 and was buried in the church of San Lorenzo in Venice, Marco Polo was not the first European to reach China, but he was the first to leave a detailed chronicle of his experience. This book inspired Christopher Columbus and many other travellers, there is a substantial literature based on Polos writings, he also influenced European cartography, leading to the introduction of the Fra Mauro map. Marco Polo was born in 1254 in Venice Republic and his exact date and place of birth are archivally unknown. Some historians mentioned that he was born on September 15 but that date is not endorsed by mainstream scholarship, Marco Polos birthplace is generally considered Venice, but also varies between Constantinople, and the island of Korčula. There is dispute as to whether the Polo family is of Venetian origin, the first recorded Polo is Venetian Domenico Polo who was mentioned in 971 regarding the prohibition of trade with the Arabs. Later other Polos were also mentioned in the service of the realm, whether they were related with the family of Marco Polo is uncertain, but this could indicate that his ancestors travelled between Venice and Dalmatia. Some of the first indications of where his family originated and were resident come from Venetian documents and manuscripts. Some scholars argued that this account could go along with the note from Il Milione that his father and uncle, Niccolò and Maffeo Polo, the non-Venetian i. e. Sanuto also mentioned a captain from Korčula, Antonio di Polo. Moule cited two early 17th century Venetian manuscripts questi ueneno de dalmatia, Polo questi uene de Dalmatia, scholars etymologically argued that his family name derives from Latin Paulus, the name of a certain bird species, or like Albert tSerstevens considered - from Eastern origin. However, the habitat of the shorebird is non-existent on Korčula, the surname Polo seems related with other widespread Dalmatian surnames. The lack of evidence makes the Korčula theory as a specific birthplace strongly disputed, in 1168, his great-uncle, Marco Polo, borrowed money and commanded a ship in Constantinople. His grandfather, Andrea Polo of the parish of San Felice, had three sons, Maffeo, yet another Marco, and the travellers father Niccolò and this genealogy, described by Ramusio, is not universally accepted as there is no additional evidence to support it. His father, Niccolò Polo, a merchant, traded with the Near East, becoming wealthy, Niccolò and his brother Maffeo set off on a trading voyage before Marcos birth. In 1260, Niccolò and Maffeo, while residing in Constantinople, then the capital of the Latin Empire, foresaw a political change, they liquidated their assets into jewels and moved away. According to The Travels of Marco Polo, they passed through much of Asia, and met with Kublai Khan and their decision to leave Constantinople proved timelyMarco Polo – Polo wearing a Tatar outfit, date of print unknown