Category:Explorers of Central Asia
Pages in category "Explorers of Central Asia"
The following 77 pages are in this category, out of 77 total, this list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 77 pages are in this category, out of 77 total, this list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Ban Chao – Ban Chao, courtesy name Zhongsheng, was a Chinese general, explorer and diplomat of the Eastern Han Dynasty. He was born in Fufeng, now Xianyang, Shaanxi, as a Han general and cavalry commander, Ban Chao was in charge of administrating the Western Regions while he was in service. He also led Han forces for over 30 years in the war against the Xiongnu and he was awarded the title Protector General of the Western Regions by the Han government for his efforts in protecting and governing the regions. He was generally outnumbered, but skillfully played on the divisions among his opponents, the kingdoms of Khotan and Kashgar came under Chinese rule by A. D.74. Pan Chao crushed fresh rebellions in Kashgar and Yarkand, and made the Wusun of the Ili his allies, Ban Chao was recalled to Luoyang, but then sent again to the Western Region area four years later, during the reign of the new emperor Han Zhangdi. Ban Chao ultimately brought the whole of the Tarim Basin under Chinese control, in recognition for their support to the Chinese, the Kushans requested, but were denied, a Han princess, even though they had sent presents to the Chinese court. In retaliation, they marched on Ban Chao in 90 CE with a force of 70,000, the Yuezhi retreated and paid tribute to the Chinese Empire. In 91 CE, Ban Chao finally succeeded in pacifying the Western Regions and was awarded the title of Protector General and stationed at Qiuci. A Wuji Colonel was re-established and, commanding five hundred soldiers, stationed in the Kingdom of Nearer Jushi, in 94 CE, Chao proceeded to again attack and defeat Yanqi. Subsequently, more than fifty kingdoms presented hostages, and submitted to the Interior, in 97 CE Ban Chao sent an envoy, Gan Ying, who reached the Persian Gulf and left the first recorded Chinese account of Europe. Some modern authors have claimed that Ban Chao advanced to the Caspian Sea, however. Following his death, the power of the Xiongnu in the Western Territories increased again, Ban Chao also belonged to a family of historians. His father was Ban Biao who started the History of the Western Han Dynasty in 36, Ban Chao was probably the key source for the cultural and socio-economic data on the Western Regions contained in the Hanshu. Ban Chaos youngest son Ban Yong participated in campaigns with his father. Ban Biao Ban Gu Ban Chao Ban Xiong Ban Shi Ban Yong Ban Zhao Shes the one who petitioned the reigning Emperor to let his brother home from his posting. Clear water can not harbor big fish, clean politics can not foster harmony among the general public Throw away your writing brush and join the military. Based on his words A brave man has no plan but to follow Fu and Zhang Qians footsteps and do something. How can I waste my life on writing, clear water harbors no fish. he who does not enter the tigers lair will never catch its cubsBan Chao – Statue of Ban Chao in Kashgar
2. Edmund Barrow – General Sir Edmund George Barrow GCB KCMG was a senior British Army officer who went on to be Military Secretary to the India Office. Barrow was commissioned into the 102nd Regiment of Foot in 1871, having joined the Indian Army in 1877, he served in the Second Anglo-Afghan War of 1878 and the Anglo-Egyptian War of 1882. He was a member of the Lockhart Boundary Commission to Chitral, Kafirstan, Hunza and Wakhan in 1885 and he was made Commanding Officer of the Hong Kong Regiment in 1892, and took part in the Tirah Expedition to the North West Frontier of India in 1897. In 1900 he became Chief of Staff for the China Expeditionary Force in response to the Boxer Rebellion and he was appointed General Officer Commanding the Southern Army in India in 1908. He served in World War I as Military Secretary to the India Office from 1914 and he was appointed a member of the Council of India in 1917 and retired in 1919Edmund Barrow – Barrow in 1916
3. Gabriel Bonvalot – Pierre Gabriel Édouard Bonvalot was a French explorer of Central Asia and Tibet. Bonvalot was born in the commune of Épagne in the Aube department in north-central France and he was the son of Pierre Bonvalot and Louise-Félicie, née Congniasse des Jardins. In 1880–82 he visited Russian controlled Central Asia and returned to France via Bukhara, the Caspian sea, and his travels were financed by the Minister of Public Instruction. In 1886 he set out for Russian Central Asia with Guillaume Capus, a botanist, ethnographer, and doctor of natural sciences and they departed from Tashkent in 1886 and traveled up to the border with Afghanistan. During the winter season, they remained in Samarkand and sought a way to cross the Pamir Mountains from north to south, in 1887 they crossed through Kyrgyz territory in the Alai Mountains. As a European, Bonvalot felt superior to the locals and used threats or force to obtain equipment, supplies, pack animals and he crossed the Pamirs, Chitral, where he was detained for more than a month, and the Karakoram, until he reached Kashmir. He was rewarded for this expedition by the Société de Géographie in Paris, in 1889 Bonvalot was one of the first Europeans to visit the Tibetan plateau. The expedition was financed by the Duke of Chartres and his son, Bonvalots original plan was to cross Asia and reach Tonkin in French Indochina. Bonvalot wanted to cross Europe and Russia by train and then continue on foot, Bonvalot then wanted to be the first European to cross the Gobi and Lop Nor deserts. He thought that he could cut across the Tibetan plateau and try to visit Lhasa. Finally he intended to cross 1,700 kilometers of land in eastern Tibet that had been unexplored by Europeans until he reached Yunnan, in total his planned expedition was 9,500 kilometers and traversed lands that were still unknown to Europeans. The expedition began with relative comfort and did not become difficult until they reached the border between Russian and Chinese Turkestan, the group crossed into Chinese controlled territory and traveled through the Ili River valley, Tian Shan Mountains, the Tarim Basin, and the Lop Nor. They then had to spend the winter in Tibet, Bonvalots expedition again coerced the population into providing horses and guides and even threatened the local commander with imprisonment. Just before they reached Lhasa, they were detained by officials of the Tibetan government and they were not allowed to enter Lhasa and Bonvalots expedition was only allowed to continue its journey after lengthy negotiations. The group then continued traveling across the Tibetan Plateau to its eastern extremities, in June they finally reached Kangding in Qing controlled territory. They finally reached Hanoi in late September 1890, Gabriel Bonvalot wanted by his expeditions financed by the French government in order to demonstrate French power in the eyes of the world. In 1894 he founded the Comité Dupleix, a pro-colonialist organization, in 1898 Bonvalot launched an expedition to cross Ethiopia and join the Marchand expedition at Fashoda. But Bonvalot failed to obtain the cooperation of the Ethiopian emperor, Menilek II, in 1898 Bonvalot founded the journal La France de demain and remained the editor until 1904Gabriel Bonvalot – Gabriel Bonvalot photograph by Eugène Pirou.
4. Hamilton Bower – Major-General Sir Hamilton Bower KCB was a British Indian Army officer who wrote about his travels through Chinese Turkestan and Tibet. He was born 1 September 1858 on Portsea Island, Hampshire and he was educated at Edinburgh Collegiate School and the Royal Naval School, New Cross. He later married Maud Edith Ainslie and had three daughters, originally commissioned into the Duke of Edinburghs Own Artillery Militia, he was appointed a Second Lieutenant in the Devonshire Regiment 23 October 1880. He was appointed to the Indian Staff Corps 2 February 1884, in 1889-1890 Lieutenant Hamilton Bower travelled through Chinese Turkestan, where in the city of Kucha he purchased a Sanskrit-language manuscript written in the Brahmi alphabet. In the 1890s Bower travelled to Tibet and wrote a memoir of his experiences entitled Diary of a Journey across Tibet, in 1894 he received the Royal Geographical Societys Founderss Gold Medal for his remarkable journey across Tibet, from west to east. Served as D. A. Q. M. G18 April 1893 to 4 May 1895, served in the Dongola Expedition 1896 as D. A. Q. M. G and was rewarded with a Brevet of Major. Raised and commanded the 1st Chinese Regiment at Wei-hei-Wei in 1898, commanded the Legation Guard, Peking,1 December 1901 to 24 November 1906. Appointed Brevet Colonel 10 February 1904, appointed Squadron Commander, 17th Cavalry 15 October 1906, promoted Lieutenant-Colonel 23 October 1906. In January 1908 he was the second in command of the 17th Cavalry, promoted Colonel 1 December 1908 and temporary Brigadier-general commanding the Dehra Ismail Khan Brigade and subsequently the Assam Brigade. Promoted Major-General 15 February 1909 and appointed a Companion of the Order of the Bath CB in October 1910 and he was the General Officer Commanding for the Abor Campaign and was rewarded with promotion to Knight Commander of the Order of the Bath KCB. He retired a Major General on 30 January 1914 and he was appointed temporary Lieutenant-Colonel and commandant of the Haddington Volunteer Regiment 1 September 1916. Calcutta, Office of the Superintendent of Government Printing, India,1893, Diary of a journey across Tibet. London, Rivington, Percival and Co.1894, the Bower Manuscript, facsimile leaves, Nagari transcript, romanised transliteration and English trans. with notes. Calcutta, Off. of the Superintendent of Govt, co-authored with A. F. Rudolf Hoernle A trip to Turkistan. 241-257 The Abor Expedition, Geographical Results, Discussion, co-authored with L A Bethell and Thomas HoldichHamilton Bower – Sir Hamilton Bower
5. Alexander Burnes – Captain Sir Alexander Burnes, FRS was a Scottish traveller and explorer who took part in The Great Game. He was nicknamed Bokhara Burnes for his role in establishing contact with and exploring Bukhara and his memoir, Travels into Bokhara, was a bestseller when it was first published in 1835. Burnes was born in Montrose, Scotland, to the son of the local provost, who was first cousin to the poet Robert Burns. At the age of sixteen, Alexander joined the army of the East India Company and while serving in India, he learned Hindi and Persian, Afghanistan, one of the most remote and impoverished kingdoms in the world, found itself sandwiched between the rival British and Russian empires. British control in India made the Russians suspect an intention to move northwards through Afghanistan, conversely, sensing the two empires would collide in Afghanistan, the British Government needed intelligence and dispatched Burnes to get it. In 1831, travelling in disguise, Burnes surveyed the route through Kabul to Bukhara, in the same year he arrived in Lahore with a present of horses from King William IV to Maharaja Ranjit Singh. The British claimed that the horses would not survive the journey, so they were allowed to transport the horses up the Indus. In the following years, in company with Mohan Lal, his travels continued through Afghanistan across the Hindu Kush to Bukhara and Persia. The narrative which he published on his visit to England in 1834 added immensely to contemporary knowledge of these countries, the first edition earned the author £800, and his services were recognised not only by the Royal Geographical Society of London, but also by that of Paris. He was also elected a Fellow of the Royal Society the same year, londons prestigious Athenaeum Club admitted him without ballot. On the restoration of Shah Shuja in 1839, Burnes became regular political agent at Kabul, an account of his later labours was published in 1842 under the title of Cabool. Sir Alexander Burnes was duly informed by his Afghan servants, the day previous to his murder, that there was a stir in the city, Burnes, who had grown comfortable with his masterful command of the Persian language, ignored the admonitions. In the early morning of 2 November, disorder broke out in Kabul, by 03,00, a hostile mob had formed outside Burnes house and set fire to the gates. Informed that Shah Shujah had sent an escort, Burnes ran to the rooftop to look for them. Burnes and his escort fired at the mob around the building, an Afghan swore that if Burnes party ceased fire, he would lead them safely to a nearby fort occupied by Persian troops in Shah Shujas service. Burnes disguised himself as Afghan to facilitate the arrangement, but only a few metres from the house, Burnes and his party, including his brother, fifteen sepoys, and several Hindu servants, were attacked by the mob and killed – most cut up by knives. Burnes Afghan servants and several others in native clothing escaped and he is commemorated in the name of the Rufous-vented Prinia Prinia burnesii. Being an account of a Journey from India to Cabool, Tartary, also, narrative of a Voyage on the Indus from the Sea to LahoreAlexander Burnes – Sir Alexander Burnes in the Costume of Bokharra
6. George K. Cockerill – Brigadier General Sir George Kynaston Cockerill, CB was a British Army officer and a Conservative Party politician. Cockerill was the son of the Surgeon-General Robert William Cockerill, and his wife Clara Sandys and he joined the Queens Royal Regiment in February 1888, was promoted to a lieutenant on 26 June 1889, and served in the Hazara Expedition in 1891. From 1892 to 1895 he explored the eastern Hindu Kush, for which he won the MacGregor Memorial medal and was a gold medallist of the Royal United Services Institute in India. He served with the Chitral Relief Force in 1895, on the North-West Frontier of India from 1897 to 1898 and he was a staff officer in the Second Boer War from 1900 to 1902, serving as deputy assistant adjutant general for communications from February 1900. For his war service, he was mentioned in despatches and received the promotion as major in the South African Honours list published on 26 June 1902. Following the end of the war, he received a commission as a captain in the Royal Warwickshire Regiment in August 1902. In 1907 he became a major in the Royal Fusiliers, at the December 1910 general election he stood unsuccessfully as the Conservative candidate in the Thornbury division of Gloucestershire. He was British technical delegate at the Hague Conference in 1907 and he received many honours for his wartime work, including being made a Companion of the Order of the Bath in 1916. At the 1918 general election he was elected unopposed as the Member of Parliament for the Reigate division of Surrey and he was returned unopposed in 1922 and in 1923, and re-elected with large majorities in 1924 and 1929. He retired from the House of Commons at the 1931 general election, “Pioneer Exploration in Hunza and Chitral. ”Hansard 1803–2005, contributions in Parliament by George CockerillGeorge K. Cockerill – Sir George Cockerill in 1919, photographed by Walter Stoneman
7. Alexander Cunningham – Sir Alexander Cunningham KCIE CSI was a British army engineer with the Bengal Engineer Group who later took an interest in the history and archaeology of India. In 1861 he was appointed to the newly created position of surveyor to the government of India. He wrote numerous books and monographs and made collections of artefacts. Some of his collections were lost, but most of the gold and silver coins, Cunningham was born in London in 1814 to the Scottish poet Allan Cunningham and his wife Jean née Walker. Along with his brother, Joseph, he received his early education at Christs Hospital. Alexander joined the Bengal Engineers at the age of 19 as a Second Lieutenant and spent the next 28 years in the service of British Government of India, soon after arriving in India on 9 June 1833, he met James Prinsep. He was in communication with Prinsep during 1837 and 1838 and became his intimate friend, confidant. Prinsep passed on to him his lifelong interest in Indian archaeology, from 1836 to 1840 he was ADC to Lord Auckland, the Governor-General of India. During this period he visited Kashmir, which was not well explored. He finds mention by initials in Up the Country by Emily Eden, in 1841 Cunningham was made executive engineer to the king of Oudh. In 1842 he was called to serve the army in thwarting an uprising in Bundelkhand by the ruler of Jaipur and he was then posted at Nowgong in central India before he saw action at the Battle of Punniar in December 1843. He became engineer at Gwalior and was responsible for constructing a stone bridge over the Morar River in 1844–45. In 1845–46 he was called to serve in Punjab and helped construct two bridges of boats across the Beas river prior to the Battle of Sobraon, in 1846 he was made commissioner along with P. A. Letters were written to the Chinese and Tibetan officials by Lord Hardinge, a second commission was established in 1847 which was led by Cunningham to establish the Ladakh-Tibet boundary, which also included Henry Strachey and Thomas Thomson. Henry and his brother Richard Strachey had trespassed into Lake Mansarovar and Rakas Tal in 1846 and his early work Essay on the Aryan Order of Architecture arose from his visits to the temples in Kashmir and his travels in Ladakh during his tenure with the commission. He was also present at the battles of Chillianwala and Gujrat in 1848–9, in 1851, he explored the Buddhist monuments of Central India along with Lieutenant Maisey, and wrote an account of these. In 1856 he was appointed engineer of Burma, which had just been annexed by Britain. In both regions he established public works departments and he was therefore absent from India during the Rebellion of 1857Alexander Cunningham – Alexander Cunningham
8. George Curzon, 1st Marquess Curzon of Kedleston – As Viceroy of India, he is noted for the creation of Eastern Bengal and Assam. As Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, he drew the Curzon Line as the eastern frontier of Poland. He was passed over as Prime Minister in 1923 in favour of Stanley Baldwin and his character polarised opinion amongst his contemporaries, sow gratitude and resentment along his path with equally lavish hands. He quarrelled endlessly and his arrogance and inflexibility made even more enemies, critics have been negative in contrasting his enormous talents and energy on behalf of British imperialism with his mixed results and unrealized ambitions. He was born at Kedleston Hall, built on the site where his family and his mother, worn out by childbirth, died when George was 16, her husband survived her by 41 years. Neither parent exerted an influence on Curzons life. Lord Scarsdale was an austere and unindulgent father who believed in the family tradition that landowners should stay on their land. He thus had little sympathy for those journeys across Asia between 1887 and 1895 which made his son one of the most travelled men who sat in a British cabinet. Paraman periodically forced him to parade through the wearing a conical hat bearing the words liar, sneak. Curzon later noted, No children well born and well-placed ever cried so much and he was educated at Wixenford School, Eton College and Balliol College, Oxford. At Eton he was a favourite of Oscar Browning, a relationship that led to his tutors dismissal. While at Eton, he was a figure who was liked and disliked with equal intensity by large numbers of masters. This strange talent for both attraction and repulsion stayed with him all his life, few people ever felt neutral about him, at Oxford he was President of the Union and Secretary of the Oxford Canning Club. Although he failed to achieve a first class degree in Greats, he won the Lothian and Arnold Prizes and he was elected a prize fellow of All Souls College in 1883. Whilst at Oxford, he was a contemporary and close friend of Cecil Spring Rice and Edward Grey. While at Oxford, Curzon was the inspiration for the following Balliol rhyme and my cheeks are pink, my hair is sleek, I dine at Blenheim once a week. Curzon became Assistant Private Secretary to Lord Salisbury in 1885, subsequent performances in the Commons, often dealing with Ireland or reform of the House of Lords, received similar verdicts. He was Under-Secretary of State for India in 1891–92 and Under-Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs in 1895–98George Curzon, 1st Marquess Curzon of Kedleston – The Lord Curzon of Kedleston as Viceroy of India
9. Henry Hugh Peter Deasy – Henry Hugh Peter Deasy was an Irish army officer, founder of the Deasy Motor Car Company and a writer. He was born in Dublin, only surviving son of Rickard Deasy and his father was a highly successful politician and barrister who was elevated to the Bench and ended his career as a judge of the Court of Appeal. He served as a British Army Captain, mostly in India and he married Dolores Hickie, daughter of Colonel James Francis Hickie of Borrisokane, County Tipperary, and Lucila Larios de Tejeda of Castile, and had three children. Dolores was a sister of the prominent soldier and statesman Sir William Bernard Hickie, after his army service he became one of the first westerners to write a detailed account of Tibet, covering his travels between 1897 and 1899. Consequently, he won the Royal Geographical Societys Founders Medal in 1900 for surveying nearly 40,000 square miles of the Himalayas and he also provided photographs for a book by Percy W. Church. Later, his interests turned to Motor Cars, in 1903 he helped promote the Rochet-Schneider Company by driving a car from London to Glasgow non-stop. He also drove a Martini car up a mountain railway near Montreaux. At this time H H P Deasy and Co. was formed to import both Rochet-Schneider and Martini cars into the UK, in 1906 The Deasy Motor Co. was formed, and took over the factory formerly used by the Iden Car Co. at Parkside, Coventry. Deasy became increasingly frustrated after clashes with is chief designer, Edmund Lewis, in 1909, John Davenport Siddeley left Wolseley to join the Deasy Motor Company, which Siddeley later built up and merged into Hawker Siddeley Group, which ultimately became part of Rolls Royce. His cousin was Agnes Mary Clerke, whose mother was a Deasy, and who was one of the best known popular science authors of the 19th century, brief history of Armstrong Siddeley Motor CoHenry Hugh Peter Deasy – Captain Deasy
10. Charles Murray, 7th Earl of Dunmore – Charles Adolphus Murray, 7th Earl of Dunmore VD, styled Viscount Fincastle from birth until 1845, was a Scottish peer and Conservative politician. Fincastle was the eldest son of Alexander Murray, 6th Earl of Dunmore and his wife and his maternal grandmother was the Russian noblewoman Countess Catherine Woronzoff, daughter of the Russian ambassador to St Jamess, Semyon Romanovich Vorontsov. In 1874, he was appointed a Lord-in-Waiting in Disraelis government, in 1875, he was made Lord Lieutenant of Stirlingshire, which he remained until 1885. In 1882 he was appointed Lieutenant-Colonel of the 1st Inverness-shire Rifle Volunteers, in 1892–93 he traveled through the eastern Pamirs to Kashgar. He was engaged in some form of diplomacy or espionage but the matter is not clear, Lord Dunmore married Lady Gertrude Coke, third daughter of Thomas Coke, 2nd Earl of Leicester, on 5 April 1866. They had five children, Alexander Edward, styled Viscount Fincastle, later 8th Earl of Dunmore Lady Evelyn Cobbold, Lady Muriel, married Harold Gore Browne. Lady Grace, married William James Barry, Esq, Lady Victoria Alexandrina Lady Mildred, married Gilbert Follet, Sir John FitzGerald, 3rd Baronet. The Pamirs, Being a Narrative of a Years Expedition on Horseback and on Foot Through Kashmir, Western Tibet, Chinese Tartary, the Revelation of Christianus and Other Christian Science Poems. Dictionary of National Biography,1912 supplement, london, Smith, Elder & Co. S. E. Fryer, rev. Murray, Charles Adolphus, seventh earl of Dunmore, middleton, Robert, Thomas, Huw, Whitlock, Monica. Tajikistan and the High Pamirs, A Companion and Guide, works by or about Charles Murray, 7th Earl of Dunmore at Internet Archive Hansard 1803–2005, contributions in Parliament by the Earl of DunmoreCharles Murray, 7th Earl of Dunmore – "Charlie". Caricature by Spy published in Vanity Fair in 1878.
11. Ney Elias – Ney Elias, CIE, was an English explorer, geographer, and diplomat, most known for his extensive travels in Asia. Modern scholars speculate that he was a key intelligence agent for Britain during the Great Game, Elias travelled extensively in the Karakoram, Hindu Kush, Pamirs, and Turkestan regions of High Asia. He born in Widmore, Bromley, Kent on 10 February 1844, was the son of Ney Elias of Kensington. Educated in London, Paris, and Dresden, he became in 1865 a fellow of the Royal Geographical Society and studied geography and surveying under the societys instructors. In 1866, he went to Shanghai in the employment of a mercantile house, the geographical results of the journey were summed up by Elias in a paper for the Royal Geographical Society, but he said little about its hardships. It was accomplished at a time when the Chinese provinces traversed were overrun by the Tungani rebels, Elias received the Founders Medal of the Royal Geographical Society, and on the recommendations of Rawlinson and Sir Bartle Frere, his services were retained by the government of India. In 1876, Elias drew up a project for an expedition to Tibet, but, owing to misunderstandings, in 1877, he was attached to Robert B. In 1879, he started, on his own initiative, to inspect the road over the Karakorum, and, on nearing the frontier, sent a message to the Chinese Amban of Yarkund. The visit, however, ended without serious misadventure, and the Indian government gave its sanction to this, in a letter to the Times, dated Kashgar,10 July 1880, he gave an account of the reconquest of Eastern Turkestan by the Chinese. In January 1888, he was made a C. I. E, francis Younghusband states that in the spring of 1889 Elias advised him at the outset of his second major expedition through Hunza territory to the Yarkand River. On 14 December 1891 he was appointed agent to the governor-general at Meshed, while on furlough in 1895, in collaboration with Mr. E. D. In November 1896, he retired from the service, on 31 May 1897, he died suddenly at his rooms in North Audley Street, London, from the effects of blood poisoning. Eliass writings are for the most part only accessible in the archives of the Indian government. Notes of a Journey to the New Course of the Yellow River in 1868, visit to the Valley of the Shueli in Western Yunnan. Introductory Sketch of the History of the Shans in Upper Burma and Western Yunnan, the Tarikh-i-Rashidi of Mirza Muhammad Haidar, Dughlat, English version, edited by N. Elias, London,1895. Notice of an Inscription at Turbat-i-Jam, the Khojas of E. Turkestan, ed. E. Elias, Asiatic Society of Bengal,1897, Supplement. Attribution This article incorporates text from a now in the public domain, Wheeler. Dictionary of National Biography,1901 supplement, explorer and envoy extraordinary in High AsiaNey Elias – Ney Elias
12. Thomas Douglas Forsyth – Sir Thomas Douglas Forsyth KCSI CB FRGS was an Anglo-Indian administrator and diplomat. Forsyth was born in Birkenhead on 7 October 1827 and he was the tenth child of Thomas Forsyth, a Liverpool merchant. He was educated at Sherborne and Rugby, and under private tuition until he entered the East India Companys College at Haileybury and he embarked for India in January 1848, and arrived at Calcutta in the following March. Here he gained honours in Persian, Hindustani, and Hindi at the companys college and he was shortly afterwards appointed by Lord Dalhousie to the post of assistant-commissioner at Simla. While holding this post he married in 1850 Alice Mary, daughter of Thomas Plumer of Canons Park and he was next stationed at Kangra, where he remained till 1854, when an attack of brain fever obliged him to return for a time to England. On going back to India he spent a time as deputy-commissioner, first at Gurdaspur and subsequently at Rawalpindi. He was here at the outbreak of the Indian Rebellion of 1857, detected the first signs of disaffection, and reported them. After the capture of Delhi he was one of the commissioners appointed to hunt up the rebels. For his services during the rebellion he received the Order of Companion of the Bath, in 1867 he visited Leh, the capital of Ladakh, with the object of obtaining from the Kashmir officials a removal of restrictions on trade between Xinjiang and the Punjab. On his return he instituted an annual fair at Palampur, in the Kangra valley, the experiences which he gained in this way encouraged him in the idea of improving relations between the Indian government, Central Asia and the Russians. In this mission he succeeded in proving that the disputed districts belonged to the Amir, Forsyth returned to India in 1869. Forsyth was instructed to return with the envoy, without political capacity, for the purpose of acquiring information about the people, and a feeling of exhaustion and severe nausea were continuous. In 1872 resistance by the Namdhari sect of Ram Singh occurred at Malerkotla, troops were at once ordered to the disaffected districts, and Forsyth was entrusted with the duty of suppressing the insurrection. When the insurrection was put down, an inquiry instituted into the conduct of Forsyth, Forsyth appealed against this decision to Lord Northbrook who had recently come out as viceroy, he was compensated by being appointed in 1873 envoy on a mission to Kashgar. The object of this mission was to conclude a treaty with the Amir. Among the Indian Army officers who accompanied Forsyth were Thomas E. Gordon, John Biddulph, Henry Bellew, Ferdinand Stoliczka, Henry Trotter, on his return Forsyth received the order of Knight Commander of the Star of India. Forsyth left India on furlough in 1876, in the following year he resigned, and occupied himself during the remaining years of his life in the direction of Indian railway companies. He died on 17 December 1886 at Eastbourne, report of a mission to Yarkund in 1873, under command of Sir T. D. Forsyth, with historical and geographical information regarding the possessions of the ameer of YarkundThomas Douglas Forsyth – Photo of Forsyth, circa 1870
13. German Turfan expeditions – The German Turfan expeditions were conducted between 1902 and 1914. Grünwedel and Le Coq, returned to Berlin with thousands of paintings and other art objects, in 1902, the first research team financed largely by Friedrich Krupp, the arms manufacturer, left for Turfan and returned a year later with 46 crates full of treasures. Kaiser Wilhelm II was enthusiastic and helped finance the expedition along with Krupp. The third was financed by means of the Ministry of Culture, the fourth expedition under Le Coq was dogged by many difficulties and was finally cut short by the outbreak of World War I in 1914. Many important finds were made, especially on the second expedition and they discovered important documents and works of art and the remains of a Nestorian church near ancient Khocho, a ruined ancient city, built of mud,30 km east of Turfan. Turfan is in Xinjiang on the northern Silk Road and it has an area of 170 km2 between 42° and 43° north latitude and between 88° and 90° east longitude in a depression 154 m below sea level. This is the site to which expeditions were mounted by Germans to explore and collect precious art objects and texts written in many languages. He could follow up the work in years during his last expeditions between 1928 and 1935. His collections of that period are in the Stockholm Ethnographical Museum, German expeditions from 1902 and 1914 not only to Turfan but also other sites such as Kucha, Qarashahr and Tumshuq were most fruitful. The finds of the four expeditions were murals, other artefacts, the four German expeditions covered Turfan but also Kucha, Qarashahr and Tumshuq. The first Expedition from December,1902 to April 1903, led by Prof. A. Grünwedel along with Dr. G. Kl. Impressed with the accomplishments of the first expedition, Emperor Wilhelm II donated 32,000 Marks from his private purse which was supplemented by 10,000 Marks from other donors. On account of Wilhelm IIs donation as King of Prussia, this expedition was named the First Royal Prussian Turfan expedition. Since Grünwedel who was enthusiastic about leading the second expedition also could not make it due to ill health. The third Expedition merged with this expedition and the finds covered mostly paintings and it was carted to Berlin in 105 crates. The Third Expedition was also funded by the state and it was undertaken from December 1905 to April 1907. In the middle of 1906 Le Coq had to return due to illness. Grünwedel and Bartus continued the work and covered the oases to the west of Turfan, including Kïzïl, the route followed was initially from Kashgarto Tumshuk and then from Kizilto Kucha to Kumtura and further along Shorchuk—Turfan Oasis—Ürümqi—Hami—Toyuk and backGerman Turfan expeditions – Expedition leaders Albert Grünwedel (left) and Albert von Le Coq (right)
14. Thomas Edward Gordon – Sir Thomas Edward Gordon KCIE CB CSI was a Scottish soldier, diplomat, and traveler. A British Army officer, he fought in India, served as a diplomat in Tehran and these days he is primarily remembered as an author of several books about the India, Persia, and Central Asia of the 19th century. Gordon was born on 12 January 1832 in Aberdeen and was a son of Captain William Gordon of the 2nd Queen’s Royal Regiment. Alongside his twin brother, Sir John James Hood Gordon, Thomas entered the British Army and he served in the Indian Mutiny campaign of 1857-1858. Later he became Military Attaché and Oriental Secretary to the British Legation in Tehran, in 1896 his work, Persia Revisited, was published. In 1873-1874 he participated in the Second Yarkand Mission led by Thomas Douglas Forsyth, the main goal of the expedition was to meet Yakub Beg, the ruler of Chinese Turkestan. Gordon also joined a party traveled west to the Pamirs. Gordon was accompanied on the mission by John Biddulph, Ferdinand Stoliczka, Henry Walter Bellew, Henry Trotter, in 1876 Gordon published his account of the expedition. He was also a painter, perhaps the first European to paint the landscapes of certain locations of the Pamirs. Gordons twin brother, General John James H Gordon, served alongside him, Gordon was married to Lady Ella GordonThomas Edward Gordon – "Chinese Taifurchi s" (gunners) in Kashgar, T.E. Gordon's drawing in The Roof of the World
15. Bronislav Grombchevsky – Bronislav Grombchevsky was an ethnic Polish officer in the Imperial Russian Army and an explorer/spy, famed for his participation in The Great Game. Grombchevsky traveled extensively in the Far East and Central Asia during the period 1888–92 and he is regarded as the Russian counterpart to the British military-explorer Francis Younghusband. The two Great Game rivals famously met in 1889 when they were exploring the Raskam Valley for their respective governments and his name also appears in English as Gromtchevsky and Gromchevsky. Grombchevsky was born on January 15,1855, in the mansion in what is now the town of Kaunatava. His father, Louis Grąbczewski, partook in the Polish uprising of 1863 and was sent to Siberia, while his estate, therefore, his mother and other relatives moved to Warsaw, where Grombchevsky entered a Russian classical school. In 1873, Grombchevsky entered the Saint Petersburg Mining Institute but left before completing his studies to join the Life Grenadier Regiment of the Imperial Russian Guard at Kexholm and he took leave to attend infantry school in Warsaw and returned to the regiment with the rank of Praporshchik. There, Grombchevsky served as orderly to General Mikhail Dmitrievich Skobelev, during this time, he learned the Uzbek, Tajik, and Persian languages, which later helped him on his expeditions in Central Asia. In 1886, he led another in the Central Tian Shan Basin, for these expeditions, he was awarded a silver medal by the Russian Geographical Society. In 1888, he led an expedition from Margilan through passages in the Pamirs along the Gilgit River, on the way back explore the Muztagh Ata Peak and left tributaries of the Raskemdarya river, which becomes the Yarkand river lower down and flows into the Tarim Basin. In 1889, he returned to the Raskemdarya basin and he explored the Raskem and Tohtakorum ranges and the Kirchinbulak river. He reached the foot of Chogori and the ridge of Agil-Karakorum. By late November, he found the sources of the Tiznaf river, in December, he followed the Karakash into Tibet to Karangutag between the Black Jade River and White Jade River in Hotan. In the spring of 1890, he climbed along the Kerry and to Ustyuntag, in 1892, he took part in the military expedition to the Pamir under a Major-General Mikhail Ionov. In 1893, Grombchevsky was promoted to colonel, for his expeditions, he was awarded a gold medal by the Russian Geographical Society. In 1900, Grombchevski became a general and civil commissioner of Kwantung province in China. He then served as its governor and managed the Astrakhan Ataman of Astrakhan Cossack army and he represented the Russian Red Cross in Morocco during the war between Spain and France with local insurgents. During the revolution he lost all his property, was imprisoned in Siberia, finally, he returned to Poland, where he worked in the State Institute of Meteorology and wrote many books about his travels in Central Asia. Grombchevsky died in Warsaw on February 27,1926, at the age of 71 years, Francis Younghusband wrote his name Gromtchevsky and Peter Hopkirk spelled it GromchevskyBronislav Grombchevsky – Bronislav Grombchevsky
16. Johann Grueber – Johann Grueber was an Austrian Jesuit missionary and astronomer in China, and noted explorer. He joined the Society of Jesus in 1641, and went to China in 1656, in 1661 his superiors sent him, together with the Belgian Father Albert Dorville, to Rome in order to defend Schalls work on the Chinese calendar. As it was impossible to journey by sea on account of the blockade of Macau by the Dutch, they conceived the idea of going overland from Peking to Goa by way of Tibet. This led to Gruebers memorable journey, which won him fame as one of the most successful explorers of the seventeenth century and they first travelled to Sinning-fu, on the borders of Kan-su, thence, through the Kukunor territory and Kalmyk Tartary, to Lhasa. Dorville died at Agra, a victim of the hardships he had undergone, Jesuit Father Heinrich Roth, a Sanskrit scholar, substituted for Dorville and with Grueber carried on the overland journey through Persia and Turkey, reaching Rome on the 2 February 1664. Their journey showed the possibility of an overland connection between China and India, and the value and significance of the Himalayan passes. Tonnier says, It is due to Gruebers energy that Europe received the first correct information concerning Thibet, although Oderico of Pordenone had traversed Tibet, in 1327, and visited Lhasa, he had not written any account of this journey. Antonio de Andrada and Manuel Marquez had pushed their explorations as far as Tsaparang on the northern Setledj, though in poor health Grueber lived another 14 years as preacher and spiritual guide in the Jesuit schools of Trnava and Sárospatak where he died in 1680. In the French edition of China is also incorporated a letter of Grueber written to the Duke of Tuscany, for letters of Grueber see Neue Welt-Bott, no. 34, Thévenot, Divers voyages curieux, II, extracts in Ritter, Asien, II,173, III,453, IV,88,183, Anzi, II genio vagante, III, 331-399. Carlieri, Notizie varie dell Imperio della China Ashley, Collection of voyages, IV, 651sq George Bogle, narratives of the Mission of George Bogle to Tibet, and of the Journey of Thomas Manning to Lhasa, ed. by C. R. Markham. Von Richthofen, China,761, etc. with routes and plate, Grueber und Albert de Dorville im Jahre 1661 in Zeitschr, d. Ges. fur Erdkunde zu Berlin,1904, pp. 328–361 Wessels, early Jesuit Travellers in Central Asia, The Hague,1924, pp. 164–203. This article incorporates text from a now in the public domain, Herbermann, CharlesJohann Grueber – Statues of the Fifth Dalai Lama and (apparently) Güshi Khan seen by Grueber in the lobby of Dalai Lama's palace
17. Sven Hedin – Sven Anders Hedin, KNO1kl RVO, was a Swedish geographer, topographer, explorer, photographer, travel writer, and illustrator of his own works. During four expeditions to Central Asia, he made the Transhimalaya known in the West and located sources of the Brahmaputra, Indus and Sutlej Rivers. He also mapped lake Lop Nur, and the remains of cities, grave sites, in his book Från pol till pol, Hedin describes a journey through Asia and Europe between the late 1880s and the early 1900s. While traveling, Hedin visited Constantinople, Caucasus, Tehran, Mesopotamia, lands of the Kyrgyz people, India, China, Asiatic Russia, the posthumous publication of his Central Asia Atlas marked the conclusion of his life’s work. At 15 years of age, Hedin witnessed the return of the Arctic explorer Adolf Erik Nordenskiöld after his first navigation of the Northern Sea Route. From that moment on, young Sven aspired to become an explorer, upon his return to Stockholm in 1909 he was received as triumphantly as Adolf Erik Nordenskiöld. In 1902, he became the last Swede to be raised to the nobility and was considered one of Sweden’s most important personalities. As a member of two academies, he had a voice in the selection of Nobel Prize winners for both science and literature. Hedin never married and had no children, rendering his family line now extinct, Hedins expedition notes laid the foundations for a precise mapping of Central Asia. He was one of the first European scientific explorers to employ indigenous scientists, although primarily an explorer, he was also the first to unearth the ruins of ancient Buddhist cities in Chinese Central Asia. However, as his main interest in archaeology was finding ancient cities, Hedin, in addition to Nikolai Przhevalsky, Sir Francis Younghusband, and Sir Aurel Stein, was an active player in the British-Russian struggle for influence in Central Asia, known as the Great Game. Their travels were supported because they filled in the spaces in contemporary maps. President Theodore Roosevelt 1915 and subsequently by Hindenburg 1929 and 1935 by Chiang Kai-shek 1935,1939,1940 by Adolf Hitler, Hedin was and remained a figure of the 19th century who clung to its visions and methods also in the 20th century. This prevented him from discerning the fundamental social and political upheavals of the 20th century and aligning his thinking, concerned about the security of Scandinavia, he favored the construction of the battleship Sverige. In World War I he specifically allied himself in his publications with the German monarchy and he instead traveled through Mongolia by car and through Siberia aboard the Trans-Siberian Railway. He also concluded a contract which guaranteed freedom of travel for this expedition which, because of its arms,300 camels, however, the financing remained Hedins private responsibility. Nevertheless, the expedition was a scientific success, the archaeological artifacts which had been sent to Sweden were scientifically assessed for three years, after which they were returned to China under the terms of the contract. When he ran out of money to pay printing costs, he pawned his extensive and valuable library and this destroyed his reputation and put him into social and scientific isolationSven Hedin – Sven Hedin circa 1910
18. Gunnar Jarring – Gunnar Valfrid Jarring was a Swedish diplomat and Turkologist. Jarring was born in Brunnby, Höganäs Municipality, Skåne County and he earned a Ph. D. from Lund University in 1933 with his dissertation Studien zu einer osttürkischen Lautlehre. He taught Turkic languages at the university for the rest of the 1930s, Jarring entered the Swedish diplomatic service and worked for the Swedish foreign service as attaché at their embassy in Ankara in 1940. He later held positions in Teheran, Baghdad, and Addis Ababa, and was appointed Swedish minister to India in 1948. After several other missions, he was Swedens Permanent Representative to the United Nations from 1956 to 1958. He was ambassador to the United States from 1958 to 1964, in that capacity he signed on behalf of his country on the Outer Space Treaty in January 1967. Jarrings methods of negotiation were used unsuccessfully until the 1973 Arab-Israeli War, gunnar Jarring continued to publish studies on Eastern Turkic languages throughout his diplomatic career and after retirement. He is one of the few people to ever be mentioned by name in a United Nations Security Council Resolution, on The Distribution Of Turk Tribes In Afghanistan, An Attempt At A Preliminary Classification. Uzbek texts from Afghan Turkestan, with glossary, the Jarring Mission - A Study of the UN Peace Effort in the Middle East, 1967-1971 Hulda Kjeang Mørk, University of Oslo,2007. The Jarring Collection – Manuscripts from Eastern TurkestanGunnar Jarring – Gunnar Jarring, 1933.
19. Nikolai Korzhenevskiy – Nikolai Leopoldovich Korzhenevskiy, born in Zaverezhye, Vitebsk Governorate, Russian Empire, died in Tashkent, Uzbekistan. Korzhenevskiy was a famous Russian and Soviet geographer, glaciologist, and his exploration of the Pamirs began in 1903, with support from the military command in the region. Between 1903 and 1928, Korzhenevskiy organized eleven expeditions to parts of the Pamirs. In August 1910 he discovered one of the highest peaks in the Pamir Mountains, alternative transliterations of Korzhenevskiys name include Korzhenevskii, Korzhenevski, Korzhenevsky, and Korzhenievsky. Korzhenevskiy, A Name on the Map of Pamir, Ferghana. ru,2007, in Russian Korzhenevskiy, Nikolai Leopoldovich, Big Soviet Encyclopedia, on-line edition, in RussianNikolai Korzhenevskiy – References 
20. Pyotr Kozlov – Pyotr Kuzmich Kozlov was a Russian and Soviet traveler and explorer who continued the studies of Nikolai Przhevalsky in Mongolia and Tibet. Although prepared by his parents for a career, Kozlov chose to join Nikolai Przhevalskys expedition. After his mentors death, Kozlov continued traveling in Asia with his successors, Pevtsov, in 1895, he took general command of the expedition from ailing Roborovsky. From 1899 to 1901, he explored and later described in a book the upper reaches of the Yellow River, Yangtze, and Mekong rivers, for which he received the Constantine Medal in 1902. During the first decade of the 20th century, when the Great Game reached its peak, Kozlov rivaled Sven Hedin, although he was on good terms with Hedin and other foreign explorers, the British government, as represented by George Macartney, monitored his movements across Central Asia. Kozlovs 1905 visit to the Dalai Lama in Urga gave the British War Office a fright, during his expedition of 1907–1909, Kozlov explored the Gobi Desert and discovered the ruins of Khara-Khoto, a Tangut city destroyed by the Ming Chinese in 1372. It took him years to excavate the site and bring to St. Petersburg no less than 2,000 books in the Tangut language he uncovered there. Kozlov described his findings in a volume entitled Mongolia and Amdo. He was awarded the 1911 Royal Geographical Societys Founders Gold Medal for his explorations and his last expedition to Mongolia and Tibet resulted in the discovery of an unprecedented number of Xiongnu royal burials at Noin-Ula. After bringing to Petrograd some amazing samples of 2000-year-old Bactrian textiles, Kozlov retired from scientific work, media related to Pyotr Kuzmich Kozlov at Wikimedia Commons Kozlovs biographyPyotr Kozlov – Additional Reading 
21. Henry Lansdell – Henry Lansdell was a nineteenth-century British priest in the Church of England. He was also an explorer and author. Born in Tenterden, Kent, Lansdell was the son of a schoolmaster and home schooled before attending St Johns College in Highbury and he then studied at the London College of Divinity before his ordination as a deacon in 1868 and his assignment as a curate in Greenwich. He subsequently became secretary to the Irish Church Missions and founder and he established the Clergymans Magazine in 1875, which he edited until 1883. After spending holidays in Europe, Lansdell began long and often journeys to little-known parts of Asia. He distributed multi-lingual religious tracts and bibles provided by London missionary societies wherever he went, most notably in prisons and hospitals in Siberia, Lansdells journey from Hotan to Yarkand in present-day Xinjiang across deserts abominable was probably the first by any Englishman. He was the author of a number of books including Chinese Central Asia, A Ride to Little Tibet, which ran to five editions in English and was translated into German, Danish. The two volumes recorded part of Lansdells 5, 000-mile journey through Europe and Africa to Asia. He travelled from Lake Balkash through Kashgar to Little Tibet by horse and yak at heights of up to 18,000 feet, in the process crossing the entire mountain systems of Central Asia. Lansdells objective was to deliver a letter from the Archbishop of Canterbury to the Dalai Lama, in the end he was unable to obtain the requisite permission and had to make do with purchasing items from a trader who had been to Tibet. Lansdell was a member of the Royal Asiatic Society, the Royal Geographical Society, and he died on 4 October 1919 at home in Blackheath, London, and is buried in St Mary’s Church, Greenwich at his own request. In 1922, Lansdells wife Mary bequeathed a collection of items he had collected on his travels to Canterbury Museum as a memorial to my late husband. Russian Central Asia, Including Kuldja, Bokhara, Khiva and Merv, London, S. Low, Marston, Searle, and Rivington. Chinese Central Asia – a Ride to Little Tibet, London, S. Low, Marston, & Co. Henry Lansdell. The Sacred Tenth, Or, Studies in Tithe-giving, Ancient and Modern … With Portraits, Maps, Illustrations and Appendices, Containing a Bibliography on Tithe-giving, works by or about Henry Lansdell at Internet Archive Items donated by Lansdell to Canterbury MuseumHenry Lansdell – Lansdell in Kokand armour with saddle cloth presented by the Emir of Bukhara
22. Albert von Le Coq – Albert von Le Coq was a German brewery owner and wine merchant, who at the age of 40 began to study archaeology. Von Le Coq was heir to a fortune derived from breweries and wineries scattered throughout Central and Eastern Europe, thus allowing him the luxury of travel. The business he owned survives today as the A, Le Coq brewery in Tartu, Estonia. Aided by his wealth, von Le Coq became a famous archaeologist, von Le Coq was convinced that the influence of Ancient Greece could be found as far in the east as China. However, organising expeditions to Central Asia and China was beyond his means, wilhelm was obsessed with Greek culture and supported one of the expeditions with 32,000 German gold marks. Von Le Coq was associated with the Museum für Völkerkunde in Berlin, when Grünwedel fell ill before the departure of the second expedition, Le Coq was assigned to lead it. His account of the second and third German Turpan expeditions was published in English in 1928 as Buried Treasures of Chinese Turkestan, the expeditions found extensive networks of Buddhist and Manichaean cave temples in the Xinjiang region of Northwest China. Although many of the found in the cave were destroyed during the excavation, von Le Coq speculated that he had discovered a major Manichaean library. Some of the paintings also led him to believe that he had evidence of an Aryan culture. With the help of his assistants, Theodor Bartus, Le Coq carved and sawed away over 360 kilograms of artifacts, wall-carvings, and precious icons, which were subsequently shipped to the museum. Le Coq defends these borrowings as a matter of necessity, citing the turbulent nature of Chinese Turkestan at the time of the expeditions, Chinese consider this seizure a colonial rapacity comparable to the taking of the Elgin Marbles or the Koh-i-Noor diamond. The artifacts were put on display at the museum and were open to the public until 1944 when the relics were destroyed in a British bombing raid during World War II and we connect these people with the Aryan language found in these parts in so many manuscripts. These red haired people wear suspenders from their beltsAlbert von Le Coq – Albert von Le Coq
23. Vladimir Obruchev – Vladimir Afanasyevich Obruchev was a Russian and Soviet geologist who specialized in the study of Siberia and Central Asia. He was also one of the first Russian science fiction authors, vladimir Obruchev graduated from the Petersburg Mining Institute in 1886. His early work involved the study of gold-mining, which led him to come up with a theory explaining the origin of gold deposits in Siberia and he also gave advice on construction of the Central Asian and Trans-Siberian Railways and consulted Sven Hedin on his projected journey to Siberia. While working for the railway, Obruchev explored the Karakum Desert, the shores of the Amu Darya River, and he also worked as a geologist on Lake Baikal, on the Lena River, and in gold fields near the Vitim. Between 1892 and 1894, Obruchev was a member of the Grigory Potanins expedition into, mongolia, to the mountains of Nan Shan and Northern China. He also explored the Transbaikal area, Dzhungaria, and Altai, largely as a result of his participation in this expedition he became interested inloess and made considerable contributions to the study of loess deposits. In 1929, Obruchev was elected to the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, many of his works deal with the origins of loess in Central Asia and Siberia, ice formation and permafrost in Siberia, problems of Siberian tectonics, and Siberian goldfields. He also authored many scientific works, such as Formation of Mountains and Ore Deposits, Fundamentals of Geology, Field Geology, Ore Deposits. In his native country Obruchev is best known as the author of two popular science fiction novels, Plutonia and Sannikov Land. In Plutonia, dinosaurs and other Jurassic species are found in an underground area north of Alaska. The descriptive passages are more credible by Obruchevs extensive knowledge of paleontology. Sannikov Land is named for an island of the Arctic Ocean. During the Soviet period, Obruchev attempted to emulate Edwardian models of boys adventure stories in his novels Golddiggers in the Desert, hero of Socialist Labor Obruchevite, a mineral. Vladimir Obruchev – oil and gas research vessel, built at Kirov yard, Khabarovsk, two of his sons also became notable scientists, Sergei Obruchev, a geologist, discovered the Chersky Range in Siberia. Dmitry Obruchev, a paleontologist, was an authority on early vertebrates. Fundamentals Of Geology, Foreign Languages Publishing House, MoscowVladimir Obruchev – Vladimir Afanasyevich Obruchev
24. Ole Olufsen – Ole Olufsen was a Danish military officer and explorer. He made several expeditions in the 1890s to the Emirate of Bukhara. He also served as Secretary of the Royal Danish Geographical Society, during his 1898-99 expeditions to the Pamirs, Olufsen was accompanied by Danish botanist Ove Paulsen. O. Olufsen, Den danske Pamir-Expedition O. Olufsen, Den anden danske Pamir-Expedition O. Olufsen, Den anden danske Pamir-Expedition, rejse igennem Roshan, Darvas og Karategin O. Olufsen, Pamir. Rejse igennem Roshan, Darvas og Karategin Ole Olufsen, Gennem Pamir Ole Olufsen, kosakkernes, Kabardinernes og Osseternes Land Ole Olufsen, Indtryk fra mine Rejser i Terekdistriktet og Nord-Kaukasus. Ole Olufsen, The Emir of Bokhara and his Country, Ole Olufsen, Amu Darja og Usboi Ole Olufsen, Marokko Ole Olufsen, Prinse-Øerne Ole Olufsen, Persiske Byer. Ole Olufsen, Mindre Meddelelser Ole Olufsen, Sir Ernest Shackleton Ole Olufsen, M. Alfred Grandidier Ole Olufsen, Julius von HannOle Olufsen – Ole Olufsen
25. Paul Pelliot – Paul Eugène Pelliot was a French sinologist and Orientalist best known for his explorations of Central Asia and his discovery of many important Chinese texts among the Dunhuang manuscripts. Paul Pelliot was born on 28 May 1878 in Paris, France, accordingly, he studied English as a secondary school student at La Sorbonne, then studied Mandarin Chinese at the École des Langues Orientales Vivantes. Pelliot was a student, and completed the schools three-year Mandarin course in only two years. Chavannes also introduced Pelliot to the Collèges Sanskrit chair, Sylvain Lévi, Pelliot began studying under the two men, who encouraged him to pursue a scholarly career instead of a diplomatic one. In early 1900 Pelliot moved to Hanoi to take up a position as a scholar at the École Française dExtrême-Orient. In February of that year, Pelliot was sent to Peking to locate, between July and August, Pelliot was caught up in the siege of the foreign legations during the Boxer Rebellion. For his conduct during the siege, as well as for capturing a flag during the fighting. In 1901, when only 23 years old, Pelliot was made a professor of Chinese at the EFEO, Pelliot stayed in Hanoi until 1904, when he returned to France in preparation for representing the EFEO at the 1905 International Conference of Orientalists in Algiers. While in France, Pelliot was chosen to direct an archaeological mission to Chinese Turkestan. The group departed in June 1906 and spent several years in the field, Pelliots expedition left Paris on 17 June 1906. His three-man team included Dr. Louis Vaillant, an Army medical officer, and Charles Nouette, aboard the train in Samarkand, the Frenchmen met Baron Gustaf Mannerheim, a colonel in the Russian Imperial Army and the last Tsarist agent in the Great Game. Pelliot had agreed to allow the officer, disguised as an ethnographic collector. Mannerheim was actually carrying out a mission for Tsar Nicholas II to collect intelligence on the reform. The Tsar was assessing the possibility of a Russian invasion of Western China, Pelliot fully endorsed Mannerheims participation, and even offered himself as an informant to the Russian General Staff. In return, the Frenchman demanded free passage on the Trans-Caspian Railway, a personal and confidential payment of ten thousand francs and these were granted, and the payment even doubled. The expedition traveled to Chinese Turkestan by rail through Moscow and Tashkent to Andijan, from here, they travelled across the Alai Mountains of southern Kyrgyzstan over the Taldyk Pass and Irkeshtam Pass to China. Near the town of Gulcha, the expedition met Kurmanjan Datka, Mannerheim and Pelliot did not get along, and parted ways two days after leaving Irkeshtam Pass. The French team arrived in Kashgar at the end of August, Pelliot amazed the local Chinese officials with his fluent ChinesePaul Pelliot – Paul Pelliot
26. Nikolai Petrovsky – Nikolay Fyodorovich Petrovsky was the Russian consul-general in Kashgar from 1882 until 1902. Petrovskys main adversary during his time in Central Asia was George McCartney, the competition between their two countries for influence in Central Asia is known as the Great Game. Between 1899 and June 1902 the two did not speak to other, although both were on friendly terms with visiting travellers such as Sven Hedin. Petrovsky was very interested in collecting materials on the history of Xinjiang, by the end of the 19th century, Petrovskys personal collection included some texts in the then-unknown Tocharian languages, among other obscure dialects. The bulk of his collection was donated by Petrovsky to the Asiatic Museum in St. Petersburg, mikhail Nikolayevich Muravyov Pyotr Kuzmich Kozlov Hopkirk, Peter. Foreign Devils on the Silk Road, The Search for the Lost Cities and Treasures of Chinese Central Asia, amherst, The University of Massachusetts Press. Meyer, Karl E. and Shareen Blair Brysac, tournament of Shadows, the Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia ISBN 0-465-04576-6 Red Vs. Blue, Going GlobalNikolai Petrovsky – Nikolai Petrovsky
27. Marco Polo – He learned the mercantile trade from his father and uncle, Niccolò and Maffeo, who travelled through Asia and met Kublai Khan. In 1269, they returned to Venice to meet Marco for the first time, the three of them embarked on an epic journey to Asia, returning after 24 years to find Venice at war with Genoa, Marco was imprisoned and dictated his stories to a cellmate. He was released in 1299, became a merchant, married. He died in 1324 and was buried in the church of San Lorenzo in Venice, Marco Polo was not the first European to reach China, but he was the first to leave a detailed chronicle of his experience. This book inspired Christopher Columbus and many other travellers, there is a substantial literature based on Polos writings, he also influenced European cartography, leading to the introduction of the Fra Mauro map. Marco Polo was born in 1254 in Venice Republic and his exact date and place of birth are archivally unknown. Some historians mentioned that he was born on September 15 but that date is not endorsed by mainstream scholarship, Marco Polos birthplace is generally considered Venice, but also varies between Constantinople, and the island of Korčula. There is dispute as to whether the Polo family is of Venetian origin, the first recorded Polo is Venetian Domenico Polo who was mentioned in 971 regarding the prohibition of trade with the Arabs. Later other Polos were also mentioned in the service of the realm, whether they were related with the family of Marco Polo is uncertain, but this could indicate that his ancestors travelled between Venice and Dalmatia. Some of the first indications of where his family originated and were resident come from Venetian documents and manuscripts. Some scholars argued that this account could go along with the note from Il Milione that his father and uncle, Niccolò and Maffeo Polo, the non-Venetian i. e. Sanuto also mentioned a captain from Korčula, Antonio di Polo. Moule cited two early 17th century Venetian manuscripts questi ueneno de dalmatia, Polo questi uene de Dalmatia, scholars etymologically argued that his family name derives from Latin Paulus, the name of a certain bird species, or like Albert tSerstevens considered - from Eastern origin. However, the habitat of the shorebird is non-existent on Korčula, the surname Polo seems related with other widespread Dalmatian surnames. The lack of evidence makes the Korčula theory as a specific birthplace strongly disputed, in 1168, his great-uncle, Marco Polo, borrowed money and commanded a ship in Constantinople. His grandfather, Andrea Polo of the parish of San Felice, had three sons, Maffeo, yet another Marco, and the travellers father Niccolò and this genealogy, described by Ramusio, is not universally accepted as there is no additional evidence to support it. His father, Niccolò Polo, a merchant, traded with the Near East, becoming wealthy, Niccolò and his brother Maffeo set off on a trading voyage before Marcos birth. In 1260, Niccolò and Maffeo, while residing in Constantinople, then the capital of the Latin Empire, foresaw a political change, they liquidated their assets into jewels and moved away. According to The Travels of Marco Polo, they passed through much of Asia, and met with Kublai Khan and their decision to leave Constantinople proved timelyMarco Polo – Polo wearing a Tatar outfit, date of print unknown
28. Grigory Potanin – This article is about Grigory Potanin. Grigory Nikolayevich Potanin was a Russian ethnographer and natural historian and he was a Victorian-era explorer of Inner Asia, and was the first to catalogue many of the areas native plants. On home soil, Potanin was an author and a political activist who aligned himself with the Siberian separatist movement, Potanin attended a Page Corps in Omsk, a military school for children from wealthy families. Potanin initially travelled to Siberia while serving with a Cossack division in Altaj in the 1850s and he returned to Saint Petersburg in 1858 to study Mathematical Physics. He was arrested for his participation in student demonstrations in 1861, after spending three months in Petropavlovskaya fortress, he returned to Siberia. After leaving prison, he travelled to Siberia with Nikolai M. Yadrintsev, due to his support for regionality and rights for Siberian peoples, he was arrested on charges of supporting separatism for Siberia in 1867. Convicted, he was sentenced to three years in prison and fifteen of hard labour and his hard labour was reduced to five years, and during those five years he wrote a book on the history of Siberia. In 1876, Potanin led an expedition into Mongolia, the expedition spent the winter of 1876-1877 in Kobdo, with bitter cold and few provisions. While there, the expedition collected various biological specimens and conducted ethnological research, the expedition split into two parts upon leaving the city in the middle of March,1877. Some members went to Han-Chai, while Potanin and some left for Hami. Potanin journeyed to northern China from 1884 to 1886 with Augustus Ivonovitch Skassi and his expedition departed Peking on May 13,1884. The expedition travelled first over the U-tai-shan mountains, arriving in Hohhot, the expedition left Hohhot and travelled across the Yellow River into the Ordos Desert. They travelled to the ruins of Borobalgassun and from there on to Lang-chau and he encountered a Turkic people called the Salars, and Potanin recorded information about their language. He then spent time recording the cultural practices of the Amdos Mongols, the party then travelled to Si-ning and met its governor, who authorised their travel into eastern Tibet. They departed Si-ning and went to Ming-chau, crossing the high altitude Tibetan Plateau, there, the expedition visited Gui-dui, Bóunan, Labrang and Josi before reaching Ming-chau. The expedition ran out of supplies in Sung-pang-ting, and turned back towards Lang-chau, stopping in Lung-an-fu, Ven-hsien, Tse-chau, Hung-chang-fu and they spent the winter of 1885 in the Kumbum Monastery, before returning to Russia. The book also contains a glossary for the Salar language. In 1889, Potanin led the group formed the first University in Russian Asia, Tomsk State UniversityGrigory Potanin – Grigory Nikolayaevich Potanin
29. Nikolay Przhevalsky – Nikolay Mikhaylovich Przhevalsky was a Russian geographer and a renowned explorer of Central and East Asia. Although he never reached his goal, the holy city of Lhasa in Tibet, he traveled through regions then unknown to the West, such as northern Tibet, Amdo. He contributed significantly to European knowledge of Central Asia and was the first known European to describe the only extant species of wild horse, Przhevalsky was born in Smolensk into a noble polonized Belarusian family, and studied there and at the military academy in St. Petersburg. In 1864, he became a teacher at the military school in Warsaw. In 1867, Przhevalsky successfully petitioned the Russian Geographical Society to be dispatched to Irkutsk and his intention was to explore the basin of the Ussuri River, a major tributary of the Amur on the Russian-Chinese frontier. This was his first expedition of importance and it lasted two years, after which Przhevalsky published a diary of the expedition under the title, Travels in the Ussuri Region, 1867-69. In the following years he made four journeys to Central Asia, 1870–1873 from Kyakhta he crossed the Gobi Desert to Beijing then explored the upper Yangtze, and in 1872 crossed into Tibet. He surveyed over 7,000 sq mi, collected and brought back with him 5000 plants,1000 birds and 3000 insect species, as well as 70 reptiles, during his expedition, the Dungan Revolt was raging in China. The Russian newspaper Golos Prikazchika called the one of the most daring of our time. 1876–1877 traveling through East Turkestan through the Tian Shan, he visited what he believed to be Qinghai Lake, which had reportedly not been visited by any European since Marco Polo. The expedition consisted of ten men, twenty-four camels, four horses, three tonnes of baggage and a budget of 25,000 rubles, but the expedition was beset by disease, 1879–1880 via Hami and through the Qaidam Basin to Qinghai Lake. The expedition then returned to Qinghai Lake and moved westwards to Hotan, among other things, he reported on the wild population of Bactrian camels as well as the Przewalskis horse and Przewalskis gazelle, named after him. The Royal Geographical Society awarded him their Founders Gold Medal in 1879 for his work, Przhevalsky died of typhus not long before the beginning of his fifth journey, at Karakol on the shore of Issyk Kul in present-day Kyrgyzstan. He contracted typhoid from the Chu River, which was acknowledged as being infected with the disease, the Tsar immediately changed the name of the town to Przhevalsk. There are monuments to him, and a museum about his life and work, there, less than a year after his premature death, Mikhail Pevtsov succeeded Przhevalsky at the head of his expedition into the depths of Central Asia. Przhevalskys work was continued by his young disciple Pyotr Kozlov. There is another named after Przhevalsky, he had lived in a small village called Sloboda, Smolensk Oblast, Russia from 1881-7. The village was renamed after him in 1964 and is now called Przhevalskoye, there is a memorial complex there that includes the old and new houses of Nikolay Przhevalsky, his bust, pond, garden, birch alleys, and khatkaNikolay Przhevalsky – Nikolay Przhevalsky
30. Pundit (explorer) – The term pundit or pandit was used in the second half of the 19th century to denote indigenous surveyors who explored regions to the north of India for the British. One of the greatest projects of 19th century geography was the Great Trigonometric Survey of India, the British also wanted geographical information on the lands further north. Thus, the Russians and the British both tried to extend their influence in Asia, knowledge of geography of the region was of course of utmost importance in this so-called Great Game. However, in some regions these surveys seemed impossible, some of the Indian border countries, in particular Tibet, would not allow westerners to enter their country, let alone a British surveying team. These would raise less suspicion than Europeans, and might be able to make observations disguised as a trader or a lama and these native surveyors are called pundits. A number of tricks were developed to enable the pundits to make their observations without being found out and they were trained to make exactly 2,000 paces to the mile. To count them, they used what looked like a Buddhist rosary, called a mala, every 100 paces a bead was dropped. A prayer wheel did not hold the common Buddhist mantra om mani padme hum, usually this would be enough to stop others from addressing him. Another way of keeping their observations was to turn them into a poem, the pundits were given extensive training in surveying, They learned to use the sextant, determine height by measuring the temperature of boiling water, and make astronomical observations. Despite the precautions and tricks, some of them were sent back, but with their travels they managed to map the Himalaya, Tibet and surrounding areas with remarkable precision. Hari Ram Kinthup Krishna Singh Rawat Mani Singh Rawat Nain Singh Rawat The training of a pundit is described in Rudyard Kiplings novel Kim. The Great Game Pandit The original version of this page was copied from http, //www. win. tue. nl/~engels/discovery/pundit. html, with permissionPundit (explorer) – Kinthup a Sikkimese pundit explored Tibet in the late 19th century
31. Vasily Radlov – Vasily Vasilievich Radlov or Friedrich Wilhelm Radloff was a German-born Russian founder of Turkology, a scientific study of Turkic peoples. Working as a schoolteacher in Barnaul, Radlov became interested in the peoples of Siberia. From 1866 to 1907, he translated and released a number of monuments of Turkic folklore, most importantly, he was the first to publish the Orhon inscriptions. Four volumes of his dictionary of Turkic languages followed in 1893 to 1911. Radlov helped establish the Russian Museum of Ethnography and was in charge of the Asiatic Museum in St. Petersburg from 1884 to 1894, during the Stalinist repressions of the late 1930s, the NKVD and state science apparatus accused the late Radloff of Panturkism. A perceived connection with the long-dead Radloff was treated as incriminating evidence against Orientalists and Turkologists, some of whom - including Alexander Samoylovich, Radloff W. Aus Sibirien, Leipzig, T. O. Weigel Aus Siberien, vol.1 Aus Siberien, vol.2 Atlas der Alterthümer der Mongolei, Suvarṇaprabhāsa, aus dem Uigurischen ins Deutsche übersetzt, Leningrad, Akad. Radlov, Vasilij V. Suvarṇaprabhāsa, tekst ujgurskoj redakcij, Sanktpeterburg, lose Blätter aus meinem Tagebuche Tisastvustik, ein in türkischer Sprache bearbeitetes buddhistisches Sutra. Transcription und Übersetzung von W. Radloff, bemerkungen zu den Brahmiglossen des Tisastvustik-Manuscripts von Baron A. von Stäel-Holstein Laut, Jens Peter, Radloff, Friedrich Wilhelm, in, Neue Deutsche Biographie 21, S. 96-97 Temir, Ahmet. Leben und Schaffen von Friedrich Wilhelm Radloff, Ein Beitrag zur Geschichte der Türkologie, Oriens 8, 51-93 Russian biography Online conference Radloff 2012Vasily Radlov – Vasily Radlov 1917
32. Johan Gustaf Renat – Johan Gustaf Renat was a Swedish soldier and cartographer. He is mainly known for his role in bringing detailed maps of Central Asia to Europe after several years in captivity, Renat was the son of Dutch Jewish immigrants to Sweden, who took Swedish nationality in 1681, the year before his birth. During the Great Northern War against Russia, he served in the army of Charles XII as a warrant officer in the artillery and he was taken prisoner after the Battle of Poltava in 1709. In 1711 Renat was sent to Tobolsk where many Swedish officers were kept as prisoners of war and he entered Russian service on the condition of not fighting against Sweden. Renat helped produce maps of Siberia for the Russian government, in 1716 Renat and other Swedish prisoners-of-war took part in Ivan Buchholzs expedition to explore the gold deposits around Lake Yamysh on the Irtysh River. The expedition was ambushed by a Dzungar force, and Renat spent the following seventeen years in Dzungar captivity, in Dzungaria, Renat helped the khans Tsewang Rabtan and Galdan Tseren to organize their campaigns against Qing rule in Central Asia. Among other things, he organized a regiment and helped the Dzungars to cast cannons. Renat also met a Swedish woman who was also a Dzungar captive and this was Brigitta Scherzenfeldt, who hailed from Scania. Twice widowed, she had married a German prisoner who had taken Russian service and their convoy was seized by Dzungar raiders in 1716, who killed her husband. In 1733, Renat and his wife were allowed to leave and they returned the following year to Stockholm, accompanied with four Dzungar female servants, who were baptized when they arrived in Sweden. Renats family bought a house in Gamla stan where they settled down, in 1739, Renat was promoted to the rank of captain in the Swedish army. Renat brought two detailed maps of Central Asia back to Sweden, but these maps were left in relative obscurity for many years. In 1878, copies of the maps were discovered by the Swedish author August Strindberg and he sponsored their republication in Russia in 1881. A decade later the originals were discovered in the library of Uppsala University, Strindberg remained interested in the maps for many years. Philip Johan von Strahlenberg Baddeley, John F. Russia, Mongolia, 1-2, London, Macmillan and Company,1919. Reprinted New York, Burt Franklin, 196-, China Marches West, The Qing Conquest of Central Eurasia. Cambridge, MA, Belknap Press of Harvard University Press,2005, carte de la Dzoungarie, dressée par le suédois Renat pendant sa captivité chez les kalmouks de 1716-1733. St. Petersburg, Societé Impériale Russe de Géographie,1881, Russian Maps at the Royal LibraryJohan Gustaf Renat – One of Renat's maps of Dzungaria
33. Riccoldo da Monte di Croce – Riccoldo da Monte di Croce or Ricoldo of Monte Croce, c.1243 –1320, was an Italian Dominican monk, travel writer, missionary, and Christian apologist. Riccoldo was born in Florence, and his name originated from a small castle just above Pontassieve. After studying in various major European schools, he became a Dominican in 1267 and he was a professor in several convents of Tuscany, including St Catherine in Pisa. With a papal commission to preach he departed for Acre in 1286 or 1287 and made a pilgrimage to the Holy Land and he arrived in Mossul in 1289, equipped with a Papal bull. He failed to convince the Nestorian Christian mayor of the city to convert to Catholicism. He was a missionary to the court of the Mongol Il-Khan ruler Arghun, of whom he wrote that he was a man given to the worst of villainy, moving to Baghdad, Riccoldo entered in conflict with the local Nestorian Christians, preaching against them in their own cathedral. He was allowed nonetheless by Mongol authorities to build his own church, Riccoldo brought the matter to the Nestorian patriarch Mar Yaballaha, who agreed with him that the doctrine of Nestorius, namely the duality of Christ was heretical. Mar Yaballaha was however disavowed by his own followers and he returned to Florence before 1302, and was chosen to high offices in his order. He died in Florence on 31 October 1320 and his Liber Peregrinacionis or Itinerarius was intended as a guide-book for missionaries, and is a description of the Oriental countries he visited. In 1288 or 1289 he began to keep a record of his experiences in the Levant, entering Syria at Acre, he crossed Galilee to the Sea of Tiberias, thence returning to Acre he seems to have travelled down the coast to Jaffa, and so up to Jerusalem. After visiting the Jordan River and the Dead Sea he left Palestine by the coast road, retracing his steps to Acre and passing on by Tripoli, from the Cilician port of Lajazzo he started on the great high road to Tabriz in north Persia. Crossing the Taurus he travelled on by Sivas of Cappadocia to Erzerum, in and near Tabriz he preached for several months, after which he proceeded to Baghdad via Mosul and Tikrit. In Baghdad he stayed several years, as a traveller and observer his merits are conspicuous. His account of the Tatars and his sketch of Islamic religion, in spite of strong prejudice, he shows remarkable breadth of view and appreciation of merit in systems the most hostile to his own. The Epistolæ de Perditione Acconis are five letters in the form of lamentations over the fall of Acre, during his stay in Baghdad, Riccoldo studied the Quran and other works of Islamic theology, for controversial purposes, arguing with Nestorian Christians, and writing. In 1300–1301 Riccoldo again appeared in Florence, about 1300 in Florence he wrote Contra legem Sarracenorum and Ad nationes orientales. This work was translated into German by Martin Luther in 1542, there are translations into English by Thomas C. Pfotenhauer, and Londini Ensis, under the title, Refutation of the Koran, much of this works contents derive from those sections of the Liber Peregrinacionis devoted to Muslim beliefs and related topicsRiccoldo da Monte di Croce – Riccoldo da Monte di Croce and Pope Nicolas IV
34. Susanna Carson Rijnhart – Susanna Susie Carson Rijnhart, was a Canadian medical doctor, Protestant missionary, and Tibetan explorer. She was the second Western woman known to have visited Tibet, Susie Carson was born in 1868 in Chatham, Ontario. At the age of twenty she graduated from Trinity College in Toronto as a medical doctor and she was in private practice for six years in Ontario. In 1894 she met Petrus Rijnhart, a Dutch-born former missionary with the China Inland Mission, Rijnhart had worked in the Netherlands for the Salvation Army but was sent to Canada in 1886 to avoid charges of sexual assault. He eventually made it to China and worked for three years with the CIM and he was dismissed by CIM in 1893 as an ‘imposter” after stirring up “Rijnhart’s hornet’s nest. A charismatic speaker, he was lecturing in Canada and soliciting financial support to return to China, the couple was married in September 1894 and before the end of the year departed Canada for China. Unlike most missionaries, they were independent, not representatives of any missionary organization, apparently, however, the funds they had raised in Canada were adequate for their expenses. Independent missionaries were often criticized as loose cannons, more likely to cause trouble than to achieve progress in the goal of making China a Christian country, Kumbum was home to about 3,600 monks. Ferguson parted ways with the Rijnharts after a few months and their nearest Western neighbors were missionaries in Xining, the immediate objective of the Rijnharts was to learn Tibetan and work among the Tibetans. Their ultimate ambition was to reach Lhasa, the remote and forbidden capital of Tibet, in 1896, a revolt broke out among the Muslim population and Kumbum was in danger of being overrun. Susie and her husband were invited by the monastery to tend to the wounded and sick, Petreus became a friend and confidant of the abbot of the monastery, according to Susie. In late-summer 1896, the Rijnharts moved to the town of Tankar, about 24 miles from Kumbum. The British traveler, Montagu Sinclair Wellby, passed through Tankar in October 1896 and gave a view of the Rijnharts. They lived a life dependent upon the small sums they charged for medical services at their dispensary. Petreus left Susie alone in Tankar for several months while he acted as a guide, in November Susie was visited by explorer Sven Hedin who passed through Tankar. Shortly after Petreus returned, the couple had a son, Charles Carson, the Rijnharts, baby Charles, and three local hired men, two Chinese and one Muslim, left Tankar on horseback, May 20,1898. Their destination was Lhasa, eight hundred miles away as the crow flies and they carried with them food and other supplies sufficient for two years as well as several hundred bibles translated into Tibetan. Following a known route to Lhasa, they skirted the Tsaidam and proceeded southwestSusanna Carson Rijnhart – Dr. Susie Rijnhart in Tibetan dress.
35. Robert Schlagintweit – Robert Schlagintweit was a German explorer of Central Asia who also wrote about travels in America. For the next three years they travelled through the Deccan, then up into the Himalayas, Karakoram, Hermann and Robert were the first Europeans to cross the Kunlun. Subsequently Robert returned to Europe, and became a professor of geography at the university of Giessen in 1863 and he made several trips to America between 1867 and 1870. Starting in Boston with the Lowell Institute with a series of lectures on Orography and Physical Geography of High Asia. He also explored the Pacific coast and he wrote several books on American subjects, including Die Pacificeisenbahnen in Nordamerika, Kalifornien, Die Mormonen, and Die Prärien des amerikanischen Westens. Attribution This article incorporates text from a now in the public domain, Chisholm, Hugh. Wilson, James Grant, Fiske, John, eds, Die Geschichte der Brüder Schlagintweit A detailed story of the adventures of the three brothers Hermann, Adolf and Robert in India and the HimalayasRobert Schlagintweit – Robert Schlagintweit
36. Pyotr Semyonov-Tyan-Shansky – Pyotr Petrovich Semyonov-Tyan-Shansky was a Russian geographer and statistician who managed the Russian Geographical Society for more than 40 years. Pyotr Semenov was born into a family and studied at Saint Petersburg University. Together with Fyodor Dostoyevsky, Semenov attended secret meetings of the Petrashevsky Circle, during the 1850s he studied geography and geology in Berlin under Alexander Humboldt and Carl Ritter, whose writings he translated into Russian. On Humboldts suggestion, Semenov determined to explore the unknown mountains of the Tian Shan. In 1856, he set off from Barnaul on his first expedition, passing through the Altay Mountains, in 1857, he returned to the Tian Shan, exploring the interior of this hitherto unknown mountain range. Semenov was the first European to see the panorama of the Tengri Tag, and its most beautiful peak. One of his most interesting discoveries was to disprove Humboldts earlier claims about Tian Shans supposed volcanic origins, Semenov found no evidence of volcanic activity anywhere in the mountains. The next year, he published the first systematic description of the Tian Shan, the reputation of this monograph was such that half a century later Nicholas II of Russia authorized him to add the epithet Tian-Shansky to his last name. Semenov also became interested in statistics and did his best to advance this discipline in Russia and it was largely due to his efforts that the first census of the Russian Empire was held in 1897. The same year, he was made a member of the State Council of Imperial Russia and his insect collection consisted of ca.700,000 specimens, while more than a hundred new species were named after him. Semenovs memoirs were published after his death in four volumes, several of his descendants, including a son, Andrey Semyonov-Tyan-Shansky, continued his work and became scientists of note. Trans. by Liudmila Gilmour, Colin Thomas and Marcus Wheeler, edited and annotated by Colin Thomas. Information about donation to the HermitagePyotr Semyonov-Tyan-Shansky – Pyotr Semyonov-Tyan-Shansky, 1870s.
37. Nikolai Severtzov – Nikolai Alekseevich Severtzov was a Russian explorer and naturalist. Severtzov studied at the Moscow University and at the age of eighteen he came into contact with G. S. Karelin, in 1857 he joined a mission to Syr-Darya. On the expedition to the Syr Darya, he was captured by bandits, in 1865-68, he explored the Tian Shan mountains and Lake Issyk Kul. In 1877-78, he explored the Pamir Mountains, following a close to the current Pamir Highway as far as Lake Yashil Kul on the Ghunt River. Severtzov wrote the Vertical and Horizontal Distribution of Turkestan Wildlife, which included the first description of a number of animals, among them is a subspecies of argali later named after him, Ovis ammon severtzovi. He also described new species and subspecies of birds. The Spotted Great Rosefinch Carpodacus severtzovi is among those named after him, Severtzov began to assemble a collection of birds in the estate of Petrovskoe. On 8 February 1885 he was returning home in a carriage along the frozen Ikorts river that feeds into the Don, the carriage broke the ice and plunged. While everyone extricated themselves and attempted to find a place nearby, he delayed by searching for his portfolio. The Institute of Ecology and Evolution of the Russian Academy of Sciences in Moscow is named after his son Alexey Severtzov, robert Middleton and Huw Thomas, Tajikistan and the High Pamirs,2008Nikolai Severtzov – Nikolai Severtzov
38. Robert Barkley Shaw – Robert Barkley Shaw was a British explorer and diplomat. He was a visitor by an English traveller to Kashgar in Central Asia. He became a diplomat in northern India and in Mandalay and he was born in Upper Clapton, London, and was educated at schools on the continent, at Marlborough College, and at Trinity College, Cambridge. Unable to recover his health after an attack of fever, he gave up the idea of entering the army, and in 1859 he went to Kangra in the Himalayas. In September 1868 Shaw agreed to meet a rival another Englishman George Hayward around the camp-fires in the mountains between Lashgar and Yarkand, Shaws mission was not military in character but primarily commercial. But both men recognised the value of mapping the territory of the Pamir Mountains. Shaw went on ahead while his colleague descended into the gorges of the Karakoram. Shaw sent gifts ahead to Yakub Beg, hoping to meet him first and he reached Yarkand where he was cordially received on 8 December. Hayward had also arrived, and they continued living in separate accommodations and they could see the snow-capped Pamirs and the Taklamakan Desert sands beyond. They were the first Englishmen to visit these places, in a detailed diary account Shaw described the other-worldly experience of this assemblage of thousands. Shaw spoke a little Persian, but still managed to convey the purpose of his visit, to open up a trade route, particularly of Indian tea. Suitably impressed by the wares on offer, Yakub Beg declared enjoy yourself a few days, both Hayward and Shaw found themselves under house arrest, but in secrecy they made contacts outside the walls of Kashgar. One such correspondent called simply Mirza may have been a double agent and it emerged unbeknown to Shaw that Mirza was a Pundit in the Indian Army, who had been despatched across the border to take a fix in the stars on the roof of the world. For three months, Shaw heard nothing from the indian, who caused fear in St Petersburg where the Russians believed he was sent to start a revolt in Central Asia. Unknown to Shaw, Yakub Beg had long sought diplomatic recognition from St Petersburg, but when he met the King again in April 5,1869, he was greeted with, I declare you, my brother. Yakub Beg sought an alliance with The Queen of England and the Lord Sahib, Shaw returned by the Karakoram Pass to India. The verdict was that the expedition took daring and adventurous spirit, securing new friendships on the Silk Road at a critical stage helped keep the Silk Road open to East to West traders. On the obverse Yakub Beg was targeted by the Russians for assassination, gladstone believed in a buffer state policy to protect British India from invasion, built on a network of diplomatic alliance and friendshipsRobert Barkley Shaw – Map of present-day China showing the location of Kashgar
39. Ferdinand Stoliczka – Ferdinand Stoliczka was a Moravian palaeontologist who worked in India on paleontology, geology and various aspects of zoology, including ornithology, Malacology and herpetology. He died of altitude sickness during an expedition across the Himalayas. Stoliczka was born at the lodge Zámeček near Kroměříž in Moravia, Stoliczka, whose father was a forester who took care of the estate of the Archbishop of Olomouc, studied at a German Secondary school in Kromeriz. Although Stoliczka published 79 articles from 1859–1875, he never wrote anything in Czech and it is believed that he spoke German at home. In his Calcutta years he was an important figure in the German-speaking community there, Stoliczka studied geology and palaeontology at Prague and the University of Vienna under Professor Eduard Suess and Dr Rudolf Hoernes. He graduated with a Ph D from the University of Tübingen on 14 November 1861 and his early works were studies on some freshwater mollusca from the Cretaceous rocks of the north-eastern Alps about which he wrote to the Vienna Academy in 1859. His scientific career started in the Austrian Geological Survey, which he joined in 1861. In 1862 Stoliczka joined the Geological Survey of India under the British Government in India after being recruited by Dr Thomas Oldham, in Calcutta he was assigned the job of documenting the Cretaceous fossils of southern India and published them in the Palaeontologia indica, along with William Thomas Blanford. By May 1873 this work was completed with four volumes totalling nearly 1500 quarto size pages with 178 plates, among these works was the osteological description of Oxyglossus pusillus, a fossil frog from the Deccan Traps of Bombay. He studied the geology of the western Himalayas and Tibet, and he was also briefly the joint curator of the Indian Museum and also the Natural History Secretary of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. He was involved in editing the Societys journal and he visited Burma, Malaya and Singapore, and made two trips to the Andaman and Nicobar Islands and the Rann of Kutch. His first Himalayan trip was in 1864 with F. R. Mallet of the GSI, in 1865 he visited again with an artist friend and a dog to the Ladakh Valley. He visited Kutch in 1871–1872 but noted that his work kept him from making many observations. He noted wild cheetahs from the region and also what is now Stoliczkas bushchat, in 1873 he joined an expedition organized by Hume along with Valentine Ball to the Andaman and Nicobar islands. His third and last expedition was the most important expedition during the height of the Great Game, eastern Turkestan was a buffer state of prime importance. The British launched an official diplomatic enterprise—the Second Yarkand Mission led by Thomas Douglas Forsyth and to Yakub Beg, the mission included 350 support staff and 550 animals. The expedition also needed 6476 porters and 1621 horses and it is said that the Ladakh economy took four years to recover from the losses incurred. The seven sahibs on the mission, in addition to Forsyth and Stoliczka, were Thomas E. Gordon, John Biddulph, Henry Bellew, Henry Trotter, the mission set out from Rawalpindi to Leh via MurreeFerdinand Stoliczka – Ferdinand Stoliczka
40. Boris L. Tageev – Boris Leonidovich Tageev was a Russian Orientalist, explorer, and writer. Boris Leonidovich Tageev was born in St. Petersburg to a family of the lawyer, as a young man Tageev entered the Russian Imperial Army and applied his Persian and Uzbek language skills by volunteering in 1892 for the 1st line Turkestan Battalion as an ensign. From 1892-1895 he was stationed in the Pamir Mountains during the division of region by Russia, Afghanistan and he also traveled through Afghan Turkestan, where he collected information on the Afghan military and local peoples. In 1901 he left military as a lieutenant, in 1903 he went to Bulgaria and fought in the Ilinden–Preobrazhenie Uprising against the Turks in the band of general Ivan Tsonchev - the leader of the Supreme Macedonian-Adrianople Committee. In 1904 he was assigned to the Russian Supreme Headquarters in the Far East and was captured by the Japanese during the Russo-Japanese War of 1904-1905. He was released by the Japanese after the war and travel to Harbin, Japan, the Philippines, Australia, during WWI he volunteered for military service in the British Armed Forces and was commissioned as a lieutenant-colonel. During the war he worked as a correspondent for the Daily Express. When the war ended he returned to the United States and continued work as a journalist, in 1922 he went to China and worked as an editor and later he returned to the Soviet Union to work as a consultant in the studios of Soyuzdetfilm. In his writings published after he immigrated to the United States, on October 19,1937 Tageev was arrested and given the death sentence for treason, organizing counter-revolutionary actions and complicity in terrorist activities. He was shot in 1938, but was later rehabilitated, izd. avtora,1908 Korenʹ zla, t︠s︡arskīe oprichniki na Dalʹnem Vostoki︠e︡, Tip. Aerial Russia, the romance of the giant aeroplane, works by or about Boris L. Tageev at Internet ArchiveBoris L. Tageev – Foreign correspondents Alfred Hales and Boris Tageev in Ivan Tsonchev 's band during the Ilinden–Preobrazhenie Uprising, 1903. Tsonchev is holding the flag, Hales is kissing it, Tageev is under the flag
41. Bill Tilman – Major Harold William Bill Tilman, CBE, DSO, MC and Bar, was an English mountaineer and explorer, renowned for his Himalayan climbs and sailing voyages. Tilman was born on 14 February 1898 in Wallasey in Cheshire and he was educated at Berkhamsted Boys school. At the age of 18, Tilman was commissioned into the Royal Field Artillery and fought in the First World War, including the Battle of the Somme, and was twice awarded the Military Cross for bravery. His climbing career, however, began with his acquaintance with Eric Shipton in Kenya, East Africa, when it came time to leave Africa, Tilman was not content with merely flying home but rode a bicycle across the continent to the West Coast where he embarked for England. He later volunteered for service in the Second World War, seeing action in North Africa, Tilman was involved in two of the 1930s Mount Everest expeditions - participating in the 1935 Reconnaissance Expedition, and reaching 27,200 feet without oxygen as the expedition leader in 1938. He penetrated the Nanda Devi sanctuary with Eric Shipton in 1934, Tilman later described their arrival on the summit, Odell had brought a thermometer, and no doubt sighed for the hypsometer. From it we found that the air temperature was 20 °F, dhaulagiri,1, 000ft higher, and 200 miles away in Nepal, was our nearest rival. I believe we so far forgot ourselves as to shake hands on it, in 1939, Tilman was the first man to attempt climbing in the remote and unexplored Assam Himalaya, exploring the Southern approaches of Gori Chen,6538 metres, before his team succumbed to malaria. In 1947 he attempted Rakaposhi, then made his way to Kashgar to join up with Eric Shipton in an attempt on Muztagh Ata,7546 metres. On his way back to India, he detoured through Afghanistans Wakhan Corridor to see the source of the river Oxus and he was awarded in 1952 the Royal Geographical Societys Founders Gold Medal for his achievements. Following his military career behind enemy lines in the Second World War, on his last voyage in 1977, in his eightieth year, Tilman was invited to ship as crew in En Avant with mountaineers sailing to the South Atlantic to climb Smith Island. The expedition was led, and the boat skippered, by the youthful Simon Richardson and he and his crew aboard the old, converted steel tug made it successfully and without incident to Rio de Janeiro. Thereafter, en route to the Falkland Islands, they disappeared without trace - it was presumed the ship had foundered with all hands,1929, Tilman is introduced to rock climbing in the Lake District of England. 1930, He ascends Mawenzi and almost ascends Kibo on Kilimanjaro,1930, He makes first ascent of West Ridge of Batian, and traverses to Nelion, with Shipton. 1932, Tilman ascends Mounts Speke, Baker, and Stanley in the Ruwenzori Range,1932, In April, he is involved in an accident in the Lake District which leads to the death of J. S. Brogdon. 1932, Later that year, he makes various climbs in the Alps,1934, Tilman and Shipton, with three others, make the first recorded entrance into the Nanda Devi Sanctuary. They also explore the nearby Badrinath Range,1935, Tilman unable to acclimatise on the Mount Everest Reconnaissance Expedition led by Eric Shipton, but climbs various 20,000 ft. peaks in the Everest region. 1936, Tilman attempts various peaks and passes, including the Zemu Gap, in Sikkim, Later, he leads the first ascent of Nanda DeviBill Tilman – Bill Tilman by Sandy Lee
42. Joseph Wolff – Joseph Wolff, a Jewish Christian missionary, was born at Weilersbach, near Bamberg, Germany. He travelled widely, and was known as “the missionary to the world” and he published several journals of his expeditions, especially Travels and Adventures of Joseph Wolff. He was converted to Christianity through reading the books of Johann Michael von Sailer, bishop of Regensburg, go home and read the fifty-third chapter of Isaiah, and you will be convinced that Jesus Christ is the Son of God. ”Conviction at once fastened upon him. He went home and read the scripture, wondering to see how perfectly it had fulfilled in Jesus of Nazareth. Were the words of the Christian true, the boy asked of his father an explanation of the prophecy, but was met with a silence so stern that he never again dared to refer to the subject. This however only increased his desire to more of the Christian religion. In 1821 he began his missions work in the East by visiting Egypt, the Sinai Peninsula, Jerusalem, Aleppo, Mesopotamia, Persia, Georgia and he returned to England in 1826. He visited Madras, Pondicherry, Tinnevelly, Goa and Bombay, travelling home by Egypt, trinity College Dublin awarded him an honorary Doctorate of Laws. He was ordained priest in 1838 by Richard Mant, Bishop of Down, in the same year he was given the rectory of Linthwaite in Yorkshire. In his travels in Bukhara he found the doctrine of the Lords soon coming held by a remote and isolated people. The Arabs of Yemen, he says, are in possession of a book called Seera, which gives notice of the coming of Christ and His reign in glory, in Yemen I spent six days with the Rechabites. They drink no wine, plant no vineyards, sow no seed, live in tents, and remember the words of Jonadab, with them were the children of Israel of the tribe of Dan. Who expect, in common with the children of Rechab, the arrival of the Messiah in the clouds of heaven. In 1843 Wolff went to Bukhara to seek two British officers, Lieutenant Colonel Charles Stoddart and Captain Arthur Conolly who had captured by the Emir. They had in fact executed, and as Wolff later described. His Narrative of this went through seven editions between 1845 and 1852. This trip was retraced in 1938 by Fitzroy Maclean, then a junior diplomat travelling incognito and he wrote of Wolff in his memoir Eastern Approaches and almost fifty years later contributed a foreword to a biography of the missionary. In 1845 he was presented to the vicarage of Isle Brewers, after the death of his first wife on 16 January 1859, in May 1861 he married Louisa Decima, daughter of James King, rector of St. Peter-le-Poer, LondonJoseph Wolff – Joseph Wolff
43. Xuanzang – 602–664, was a Chinese Buddhist monk, scholar, traveller, and translator who described the interaction between China and India in the early Tang dynasty. Born in what is now Henan province around 602, from boyhood he took to reading books, including the Chinese classics. While residing in the city of Luoyang, Xuanzang was ordained as a śrāmaṇera at the age of thirteen. Due to the political and social unrest caused by the fall of the Sui dynasty, he went to Chengdu in Sichuan and he later travelled throughout China in search of sacred books of Buddhism. At length, he came to Changan, then under the rule of Emperor Taizong of Tang. He knew about Faxians visit to India and, like him, was concerned about the incomplete, hsüan, Hüan, Huan and Chuang are also found. Another form of his style was Yuanzang, written 元奘. Tang Monk is also transliterated /Thang Seng/, another of Xuanzangs standard aliases is Sanzang Fashi, 法 being a Chinese translation for Sanskrit Dharma or Pali/Pakrit Dhamma, the implied meaning being Buddhism. Sanzang is the Chinese term for the Buddhist canon, or Tripiṭaka, in some sources Xuanzangs is said to have been born Chen Hui or Chen Yig. Xuanzang was born Chen Hui around 602 in Chenhe Village, Goushi Town, Luozhou and his family was noted for its erudition for generations, and Xuanzang was the youngest of four children. His ancestor was Chen Shi, a minister of the Eastern Han dynasty and his great-grandfather Chen Qin served as the prefect of Shangdang during the Eastern Wei, his grandfather Chen Kang was a professor in the Taixue during the Northern Qi. According to traditional biographies, Xuanzang displayed a superb intelligence and earnestness, although his household was essentially Confucian, at a young age, Xuanzang expressed interest in becoming a Buddhist monk like one of his elder brothers. After the death of his father in 611, he lived with his older brother Chén Sù for five years at Jingtu Monastery in Luoyang, during this time he studied Mahayana as well as various early Buddhist schools, preferring the former. In 618, the Sui Dynasty collapsed and Xuanzang and his brother fled to Changan, which had proclaimed as the capital of the Tang dynasty. Here the two spent two or three years in further study in the monastery of Kong Hui, including the Abhidharma-kośa Śāstra. When Xuanzang requested to take Buddhist orders at the age of thirteen, Xuanzang was fully ordained as a monk in 622, at the age of twenty. The myriad contradictions and discrepancies in the texts at that time prompted Xuanzang to decide to go to India and he subsequently left his brother and returned to Changan to study foreign languages and to continue his study of Buddhism. He began his mastery of Sanskrit in 626, and probably also studied Tocharian, during this time, Xuanzang also became interested in the metaphysical Yogacara school of BuddhismXuanzang – A portrait of Xuanzang
44. Nikolai Yadrintsev – Nikolai Mikhailovich Yadrintsev was a Russian public figure, explorer, archaeologist, and turkologist. His discoveries include the Orkhon script, Genghis Khans capital, Karakorum and Ordu-Baliq and he was also one of the founding figures of Siberian separatism. Nikolai Yadrintsev was born into the family of an Omsk merchant, after Tomsk gymnasium, he matriculated at Petersburg University. There he began his public work. In 1860, together with his friend and soul-mate G. N. Potanin, Yadrintsev organized a group of Siberian students with members S. S. Shashkov, N. I. Naumov, I. V. Omulevsky, I. A. Khudyakov, Ch. Valihanov and others, future outstanding writers, the social movement of the 1860s captivated the members of the Siberian countrymen. They established connections with democratic revolutionaries, read forbidden literature, and participated in student revolts, during those years, the journal Spark, a clone of Contemporary, printed its first indicting feuilletons of N. Yadrintsev. In the 1860s Yadrintsev became a committed democrat, the movement started by N. Yadrintsev and G. N. Potanin received a name Siberian patriotism or Siberian separatism and they believed that only Siberians can protect the interests of Siberia, the purpose and obligation of all Siberians they saw only in the service to their land. They raised the inevitability of separation of Siberia from Russia, and in their leaflet they called on the fellow countrymen to rise, in 1862-1863 the members of the Siberian community, interrupting their studies, departed to the Siberian cities to advance their ideas. A number of articles, feuilletons, and speeches of N. Yadrintsev with sharp condemnation of the defects of the local possessor class and functionaries of administration belongs to that time. N. Yadrintsev passionately appealed to open a university in Siberia, and started a campaign gathering donations for the university, in 1880 in Tomsk was initiated, and in 1888 opened the first Russian university in Siberia. The Siberian separatists alarmed the government, they were arrested in 1865, during investigation, N. Yadrintsev spent three years in prison in his native Omsk. In 1868 the Siberian separatists N. Yadrintsev, G. N. Potanin and other Siberian patriots were sentenced to forced labor and exile. N. There, he acquainted with the writings of Karl Marx and, though he did not become a Marxist. He was publishing essays, articles and feuilletons in Business, Domestic Notes, Week, in Shenkursk in 1872 he authored his first monograph Russian community in prison and exile, which brought wide popularity to the author and his progressive ideological and scientific positions. In 1873 Yadrintsevs sentence was most mercifully commuted by the Czar, and Yadrintsev left for Saint Petersburg, and then to Omsk, in Omsk Yadrintsev collected contemporary records on various scientific and social problems of the aliens, peasants, and migrants. These materials were published by the Moscow Archaeological Society, for the results of his scientific travel, N. Yadrintsev was awarded a gold medal by the Russian Geographical SocietyNikolai Yadrintsev – Nikolai Yadrintsev
45. Francis Younghusband – Lieutenant Colonel Sir Francis Edward Younghusband, KCSI KCIE was a British Army officer, explorer, and spiritual writer. He is remembered for his travels in the Far East and Central Asia, especially the 1904 British expedition to Tibet, led by him, Younghusband held positions including British commissioner to Tibet and President of the Royal Geographical Society. Claras brother, Robert Shaw, was an explorer of Central Asia. His uncle Lieutenant-General Charles Younghusband CB FRS, was a British Army officer, as an infant, Francis was taken to live in England by his mother. When Clara returned to India in 1867 she left her son in the care of two austere and strictly religious aunts, in 1870 his mother and father returned to England and reunited the family. In 1876 at age thirteen, Francis entered Clifton College, Bristol, in 1881 he entered the Royal Military College, Sandhurst, and was commissioned as a subaltern in the 1st Kings Dragoon Guards in 1882. Having read General MacGregors book Defence of India he could have called himself an expert on the Great Game of espionage that was unfolding on the Steppes of Asia. In 1886-1887, on leave from his regiment, Younghusband made on an expedition across Asia, but he was still a young officer. Departing Peking with a colleague, Henry E. M. On arrival he was granted three months leave by the C-in-C FM Lord Roberts, the results of which travail would prove vital information to the RGS. Younghusband had carried out numerous scientific observation, while Fulford was providing the travelers with a language and he would cross the most inhospitable terrain in the world to the Himalayas before being ordered to make his way home. Parting with his British companions, Younghusband then crossed the Taklamakan Desert to the Chinese Turkestan, and pioneered a route from Kashgar to India through the uncharted Mustagh Pass. He was to report to the Viceroy, Lord Dufferin himself crossing through the Karakoram Range, the Hindu Kush, Pamirs where the range converged with the Himalayas, in 1880s the region of the Upper Oxus was still largely unmapped. For this achievement, aged still only 24 he was elected the youngest member of the Royal Geographical Society, Grombchevsky impressed Younghusband with the horsemanship skills of his Cossack escort, and Younghusband impressed Grombchevsky with the rifle drill of his Gurkhas. After their meeting in this frontier region, Grombchevsky resumed his expedition in the direction of Tibet. Younghusband received a telegram from Simla, to attend the Intelligence Department to be interviewed by Foreign Secretary and he served as a political officer on secondment from the British Army. Younghusband was accompanied by a Gurkha escort, celebrated for their ferocity in combat, the Forward policy was circumscribed by a legal offer to all travellers of a peaceable security crossing borders. Colonel Durand from Gilgit joined him, Younghusband probed the villages to gauge the reception, calculating it was a den of thieves, they ascended the steep ravineFrancis Younghusband – Francis Younghusband c. 1905