Category:Explorers of Central Asia
Pages in category "Explorers of Central Asia"
The following 76 pages are in this category, out of 76 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 76 pages are in this category, out of 76 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Ban Chao – Ban Chao, courtesy name Zhongsheng, was a Chinese general, explorer and diplomat of the Eastern Han Dynasty. He was born in Fufeng, now Xianyang, Shaanxi. As a Han cavalry commander, Ban Chao was in charge of administrating the "Western Regions" while he was in service. He also led Han forces over the Tarim Basin region. He was awarded the title "Protector General of the Western Regions" by the Han government for his efforts in governing the regions. He skillfully played on the divisions among his opponents. The kingdoms of Khotan and Kashgar came by A.D. 74. "Pan Ch ` made the Wusun of the Ili his allies.". Ban Chao ultimately brought the whole of the Tarim Basin under Chinese control. The Yuezhi paid tribute to the Chinese Empire.. . In 91 CE, Ban Chao finally was awarded the title of Protector General and stationed at Qiuci. In 94 CE, Chao proceeded to again defeat Yanqi. Subsequently, more than fifty kingdoms submitted to the Interior. In 97 CE Ban Chao sent Gan Ying, who reached the Persian Gulf and left the first recorded Chinese account of Europe.Ban Chao – Statue of Ban Chao in Kashgar
2. Edmund Barrow – General Sir Edmund George Barrow GCB KCMG was a senior British Army officer who went on to be Military Secretary to the India Office. Barrow was commissioned in 1871. Having joined the Indian Army in 1877, he served in the Anglo-Egyptian War of 1882. He was a member of the Anglo-Siamese Boundary Commission in 1889. He was appointed General Officer Commanding the Southern Army in India in 1908. He served in World War I as Military Secretary from 1914. He was retired in 1919.Edmund Barrow – Barrow in 1916
3. Gabriel Bonvalot – Pierre Gabriel Édouard Bonvalot was a French explorer of Central Asia and Tibet. He was born in the Aube department in north-central France. Bonvalot was the son of Louise-Félicie, née Congniasse des Jardins. Bonvalot attended schooling at Troyes. In 1880 -- 82 Bonvalot visited Russian returned to France via Bukhara, the Caspian sea, the Caucasus. His travels were financed by the Minister of Public Instruction. In 1886 Bonvalot set out with Guillaume Capus, a botanist, ethnographer, doctor of natural sciences, designer Albert Pépin. They traveled up to the border with Afghanistan. During the season, they remained in Samarkand and sought a way to cross the Pamir Mountains from north to south and reach China. In 1887 they crossed in the Alai Mountains. As a European, he used threats or force to obtain equipment, supplies, pack animals and porters. Bonvalot crossed the Karakoram, until he reached Kashmir. Bonvalot was rewarded by the Société de Géographie in Paris. In 1889 he was one of the first Europeans to visit the Tibetan plateau. The expedition was financed by his son, Prince Henri of Orléans.Gabriel Bonvalot – Gabriel Bonvalot photograph by Eugène Pirou.
4. Hamilton Bower – Major-General Sir Hamilton Bower KCB was a British Indian Army officer who wrote about his travels through Chinese Turkestan and Tibet. He was born the son of Admiral J. Paterson Bower. He was educated at the Royal Naval School, New Cross. He later had three daughters. Originally commissioned into the Duke of Edinburgh's Own Artillery Militia, he was appointed a Second Lieutenant in the Devonshire Regiment 23 October 1880. He was posted to the 17th Cavalry 15 September 1885. In 1889-1890 Lieutenant Hamilton Bower travelled through Chinese Turkestan, where in the city of Kucha he purchased a Sanskrit-language manuscript written in the Brahmi alphabet. In the 1890s Bower wrote a memoir of his experiences entitled Diary of a Journey across Tibet. In 1894 he received the Royal Geographical Society's Founder's's Gold Medal "for his remarkable journey across Tibet, to east". Served as D.A.Q.M.G 18 to 4 May 1895. Was rewarded with a Brevet of Major. Commanded the 1st Chinese Regiment at Wei-hei-Wei in 1898. Commanded the Legation Guard, 1 December 1901 to 24 November 1906. Appointed Brevet Colonel February 1904. 17th Cavalry 15 October 1906, promoted Lieutenant-Colonel 23 October 1906.Hamilton Bower – Sir Hamilton Bower
5. Alexander Burnes – Captain Sir Alexander Burnes, FRS was a Scottish traveller and explorer who took part in The Great Game. He was nicknamed Bokhara Burnes for his role in exploring Bukhara, which made his name. Travels into Bokhara, was a bestseller when it was first published in 1835. Burnes was born to the son of the local provost, first cousin to the poet Robert Burns. One of the most remote and impoverished kingdoms in the world, found itself sandwiched between the rival British and Russian empires. British control in India made the Russians suspect an intention to move northwards through Afghanistan; conversely, the British feared that India was sought by Russia. Sensing the two empires would collide in Afghanistan, the British Government dispatched Burnes to get it. In 1831, travelling in disguise, Burnes produced the first detailed accounts of Afghan politics. In the same year he arrived in Lahore from King William IV to Maharaja Ranjit Singh. In company with Mohan Lal, his travels continued through Afghanistan across the Hindu Kush to Bukhara and Persia. It was republished in 2012. He was also elected the same year. London's prestigious Athenaeum Club admitted him without ballot. On the restoration of Shah Shuja in 1839, Burnes became political agent at Kabul. An account of his later labours was published under the title of Cabool.Alexander Burnes – Sir Alexander Burnes in the Costume of Bokharra
6. George K. Cockerill – Brigadier General Sir George Kynaston Cockerill. CB was a Conservative Party politician. Cockerill was his wife Clara Sandys, daughter of Major-General Charles Pooley. He joined the Queen's Royal Regiment in 1888, served in the Hazara Expedition in 1891. He was a officer in the Second Boer War from 1900 to 1902, serving as deputy assistant adjutant general for communications from February 1900. In 1907 he retired from that post in 1910. At the December 1910 general election he stood unsuccessfully as the Conservative candidate in the Thornbury division of Gloucestershire. He was technical delegate at the Hague Conference in 1907. He received many honours including being made a Companion of the Order of the Bath in 1916. At the 1918 general election he was elected unopposed for the Reigate division of Surrey having stood as a Coalition Conservative. He was re-elected with large majorities in 1924 and 1929. He retired at the 1931 general election having been knighted in the King's Birthday Honours in 1926. Sir George Cockerill. “Pioneer Exploration in Hunza and Chitral.” The Himalayan Journal.George K. Cockerill – Sir George Cockerill in 1919, photographed by Walter Stoneman
7. Alexander Cunningham – He organized what later became the Archaeological Survey of India. He made massive collections of artefacts. Born to the Scottish poet Allan Cunningham and his wife Jean née Walker. Along with Joseph Cunningham, he received his early education at Christ's Hospital, London. Soon after arriving in India on 9 June 1833, he met James Prinsep. He became his intimate friend, confidant and pupil. Prinsep passed on to him his lifelong interest in Indian antiquity. He was ADC from 1836 to 1840. During this period he visited Kashmir, then not well explored. He finds mention in Up the Country by Emily Eden. On 30 he married Alicia Maria Whish, daughter of Martin Whish B.C.S.. He was appointed Colonel of the Royal Engineers in 1860. Cunningham retired in 1861, having attained the rank of Major General. Cunningham was made executive engineer in 1841. In 1842 he was called to serve the army in thwarting an uprising in Bundelkhand by the ruler of Jaipur.Alexander Cunningham – Alexander Cunningham
8. George Curzon, 1st Marquess Curzon of Kedleston – As Viceroy of India, he is noted for the creation of Eastern Bengal and Assam. As Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, he drew the Curzon Line as the proposed eastern frontier of Poland. He was passed over as Prime Minister in 1923 in favour of Stanley Baldwin. His character polarised opinion amongst his contemporaries, "sow gratitude and resentment along his path with equally lavish hands". His inflexibility made even more enemies. Critics have been negative in contrasting his enormous talents and energy on behalf of British imperialism with his mixed results and unrealized ambitions. He was born at Kedleston Hall, built on the site where his family, who were of Norman ancestry, had lived since the 12th century. His mother, worn out by childbirth, died when George was 16; her husband survived her by 41 years. Neither parent exerted a major influence on Curzon's life. Paraman periodically forced him through the village wearing liar, sneak, coward. Curzon later noted, "No children well-placed ever cried much and so justly." He was educated at Balliol College, Oxford. At Eton he was a favourite of Oscar Browning, an over-intimate relationship that led to his tutor's dismissal. While at Eton, he was a controversial figure, disliked by large numbers of masters and other boys. This strange talent for both attraction and repulsion stayed with him all his life: few people ever felt neutral about him.George Curzon, 1st Marquess Curzon of Kedleston – The Lord Curzon of Kedleston as Viceroy of India
9. Henry Hugh Peter Deasy – Henry Hugh Peter Deasy was an Irish army officer, founder of the Deasy Motor Car Company and a writer. He was born in only surviving son of Rickard Deasy and Monica O'Connor. He served between 1888 and 1897, when he retired. He had three children. Dolores was a sister of statesman Sir William Bernard Hickie. After his service he became one of the first westerners to write a detailed account of Tibet, covering his travels between 1897 and 1899. Consequently, he won the Royal Geographical Society's Founder's Medal in 1900 for surveying nearly 40,000 square miles of the Himalayas. He also provided photographs by Percy W. Church. Later, his interests turned to Motor Cars. In 1903 he helped promote the Rochet-Schneider Company by driving a car to Glasgow non-stop. He also drove a Martini car near Montreaux, Switzerland. At this time Co. was formed to import both Rochet-Schneider and Martini cars into the UK. In 1906 The Deasy Motor Co. took over the factory formerly used by the Iden Car Co. at Parkside, Coventry. Deasy became increasingly frustrated after clashes with resigned on 9 March 1908. Brief history of Armstrong Siddeley Motor Co.Henry Hugh Peter Deasy – Captain Deasy
10. Charles Murray, 7th Earl of Dunmore – Charles Adolphus Murray, 7th Earl of Dunmore VD, styled Viscount Fincastle from birth until 1845, was a Scottish peer and Conservative politician. Fincastle was the eldest son of Alexander Murray, his wife, Catherine. His maternal grandmother was daughter of the Russian ambassador to St James's, Semyon Romanovich Vorontsov. In 1874, he was appointed a Lord-in-Waiting in a post he held until 1880. In 1875, he was made Lord Lieutenant of Stirlingshire, which he remained until 1885. In 1882 he was appointed Lieutenant-Colonel of the 1st Inverness-shire Rifle Volunteers. He retired in 1896. In 1892 -- 93 he traveled to Kashgar. The matter is not clear. Lord Dunmore married third daughter of Thomas Coke, 2nd Earl of Leicester, on 5 April 1866. They had five children: Alexander Edward, styled Viscount Fincastle, later 8th Earl of Dunmore Lady Evelyn Cobbold, married John Dupuis Cobbold. Lady Muriel, married Harold Gore Browne. Married William James Barry, Esq.. Lady Victoria Alexandrina Lady Mildred, married Gilbert Follet, Sir John FitzGerald, 3rd Baronet. The Pamirs: Being a Narrative of a Year's Expedition on Horseback and on Foot Through Kashmir, Western Tibet, Chinese Tartary, Russian Central Asia.Charles Murray, 7th Earl of Dunmore – "Charlie". Caricature by Spy published in Vanity Fair in 1878.
11. Ney Elias – Ney Elias, CIE, was a British explorer, geographer, diplomat, most known for his extensive travels in Asia. Modern scholars speculate that he was a key agent for Britain during the Great Game. Elias travelled extensively in the Karakoram, Hindu Kush, Turkestan regions of High Asia. He born on 10 February 1844, was the second son of Ney Elias of Kensington. Educated in London, Paris, Dresden, he studied geography and surveying under the society's instructors. He said little about its hardships. It was accomplished at a time when the Chinese provinces traversed were overrun by the Tungani rebels. In 1876, Elias drew up a project for an expedition to Tibet; but, owing to misunderstandings, the scheme fell through. In 1877, he was attached to Robert B. The Indian government gave its sanction to this and subsequent journeys into Chinese Turkestan. In a letter to dated Kashgar, 10 July 1880, he gave an account of the reconquest of Eastern Turkestan by the Chinese. In January 1888, he never accepted the distinction. On December 1891 he was appointed agent to the governor-general at Meshed, consul-general for Khorasan and Seistan. In November 1896, he retired from the service. On 31 he died suddenly at his rooms in North Audley Street, London, from the effects of blood poisoning.Ney Elias – Ney Elias
12. Thomas Douglas Forsyth – Sir Thomas Douglas Forsyth KCSI CB FRGS was an Anglo-Indian administrator and diplomat. Forsyth was born in Birkenhead on 7 October 1827. He was the tenth child of a Liverpool merchant. He arrived at Calcutta in the following March. He was shortly afterwards appointed at Simla. While holding this post he married in daughter of Thomas Plumer of Canons Park, Edgware. He was next stationed at Kangra, where he remained till 1854, when an attack of fever obliged him to return for a time to England. He was here at the outbreak of the Indian Rebellion of 1857, reported them. For his services during the rebellion he received the Order of Companion of the Bath. On his return he instituted an annual fair in the Kangra valley, to which he invited traders from Xinjiang. The experiences which he gained in this way encouraged him in the idea of improving relations between the Indian government, the Russians. In this mission he succeeded in proving that the disputed districts obtained from the Russian government an acknowledgment to that effect. Forsyth returned in 1869. Forsyth was instructed to return with the envoy, for the purpose of acquiring information about the people and country. In 1872 resistance by the Namdhari sect of Ram Singh occurred at Malerkotla.Thomas Douglas Forsyth – Photo of Forsyth, circa 1870
13. German Turfan expeditions – The German Turfan expeditions were conducted between 1902 and 1914. Both expedition leaders. Le Coq, returned to Berlin with thousands of paintings and other art objects, as well as more than 40,000 fragments of text. Kaiser Wilhelm II helped finance the second expedition along with Krupp. The third was financed by means of the Ministry of Culture. The fourth expedition under Le Coq was finally cut short by the outbreak of World War I in 1914. Important finds were made, especially on the second expedition, at a number of sites along the ancient northern route around the Taklamakan desert. Turfan is in Xinjiang on the northern Silk Road. He could follow up the work in later years during his last expeditions between 1935. His collections of that period are in the Stockholm Ethnographical Museum. German expeditions from 1914 not only to Turfan but also other sites such as Kucha, Qarashahr and Tumshuq were most fruitful. The finds of the four expeditions were murals, about 40,000 pieces of texts. The four German expeditions covered Turfan but also Kucha, Qarashahr and Tumshuq. Kl. XXIV. Bd. München 1906.German Turfan expeditions – Expedition leaders Albert Grünwedel (left) and Albert von Le Coq (right)
14. Thomas Edward Gordon – Sir Thomas Edward Gordon was a Scottish soldier, diplomat, traveler. A British Army officer, he fought in India, travelled across the Pamirs. He is primarily remembered as an author of several books about the India, Persia, Central Asia of the 19th century. Gordon was a twin son of Captain William Gordon of the 2nd Queen's Royal Regiment. Alongside Sir John James Hood Gordon, Thomas entered the British Army, joining the 29th Regiment of Foot on 21 August 1849. He served in the Indian Mutiny campaign of 1857-1858. Later he became Military Attaché and Oriental Secretary in Tehran. In 1896 Persia Revisited, was published. In 1873-1874 he participated in the Second Yarkand Mission led by Thomas Douglas Forsyth. The main goal of the expedition was to meet the ruler of Chinese Turkestan. Gordon also joined a party that traveled west to the Pamirs and Wakhan. Gordon was accompanied by John Biddulph, Ferdinand Stoliczka, Henry Walter Bellew, Henry Trotter, R. A. Champman. In 1876 Gordon published his account of the expedition. Gordon died in 1914. He was also a painter, perhaps the first European to paint the landscapes of remote locations of the Pamirs.Thomas Edward Gordon – "Chinese Taifurchi s" (gunners) in Kashgar, T.E. Gordon's drawing in The Roof of the World
15. Bronislav Grombchevsky – Bronislav Grombchevsky was an ethnic Polish officer in the Imperial Russian Army and an explorer/spy, famed for his participation in The Great Game. Grombchevsky traveled extensively during the period 1888 -- 92. He is regarded to the British military-explorer Francis Younghusband. The two Great Game rivals famously met in 1889 when they were exploring the Raskam Valley for their respective governments. His name also appears in English as "Gromtchevsky" and "Gromchevsky". Grombchevsky was born in the family mansion in what is now the town of Kaunatava. Louis Grąbczewski, partook in the Polish uprising of 1863 and was sent to Siberia, while his estate and property were confiscated. Therefore, other relatives moved to Warsaw, where Grombchevsky entered a Russian classical school. He returned to the regiment with the rank of Praporshchik. There, Grombchevsky participated in the general's campaigns. During this time, he learned the Uzbek, Persian languages, which later helped him on his expeditions in Central Asia. In 1886, he led another in Naryn. For these expeditions, he was awarded a silver medal by the Russian Geographical Society. In 1888, he led an expedition through passages in the Pamirs along the Gilgit River. In 1889, he returned to the Raskemdarya basin.Bronislav Grombchevsky – Bronislav Grombchevsky
16. Johann Grueber – Johann Grueber was an Austrian Jesuit missionary and astronomer in China, noted explorer. In 1661 his superiors sent him, together with the Belgian Father Albert Dorville, to Rome in order to defend Schall's work on the Chinese calendar. This led to Grueber's memorable journey, which won fame as one of the most successful explorers of the seventeenth century. They first travelled to Sinning-fu, on the borders of Kan-su; thence, to Lhasa. This journey lasted 214 days. Dorville died at Agra, a victim of the hardships he had undergone. The value and significance of the Himalayan passes. Tonnier says: "It is due to Grueber's energy that Europe received the correct information concerning Thibet and its inhabitants". Although Oderico of Pordenone visited Lhasa, he had not written any account of this journey. Antonio de Andrada and Manuel Marquez had pushed their explorations far as Tsaparang on the northern Setledj. He was obliged to return. In the French edition of "China" is also incorporated a letter of Grueber written to the Duke of Tuscany. Collection of voyages, IV, 651sq George Bogle; Thomas Manning. Narratives of the Mission of George Bogle to Tibet, of the Journey of Thomas Manning to Lhasa, ed. by C.R. Markham. Von Richthofen, China, 761, the best monograph Tronnier, Die Durchquerung Tibets seitens der Jesuiten Joh.Johann Grueber – Statues of the Fifth Dalai Lama and (apparently) Güshi Khan seen by Grueber in the lobby of Dalai Lama's palace
17. Sven Hedin – Sven Anders Hedin, KNO1kl RVO, was a Swedish geographer, topographer, explorer, photographer, travel writer, illustrator of his own works. During four expeditions to Central Asia, he made the Transhimalaya known in the located sources of the Brahmaputra, Indus and Sutlej Rivers. He also mapped the remains of cities, grave sites and the Great Wall of China in the deserts of the Tarim Basin. Till pol Hedin describes a journey through Asia and Europe between the late 1880s and the early 1900s. While traveling, Hedin visited Constantinople, Caucasus, Tehran, Mesopotamia, lands of the Kyrgyz people, India, China, Japan. The posthumous publication of his Central Asia Atlas marked the conclusion of his life’s work. At 15 years of age, Hedin witnessed the triumphal return of the Arctic explorer Adolf Erik Nordenskiöld after his first navigation of the Northern Sea Route. From that moment on, young Sven aspired to become an explorer. Upon his return to Stockholm in 1909 he was received as Adolf Erik Nordenskiöld. In 1902, he was considered one of Sweden's most important personalities. As a member of two scientific academies, he had a voice in the selection of Nobel Prize winners for both literature. Hedin never had no children, rendering his family line now extinct. Hedin's expedition notes laid the foundations for a precise mapping of Central Asia. He was one of the first scientific explorers to employ indigenous scientists and research assistants on his expeditions. Although primarily an explorer, he was also the first to unearth the ruins of ancient Buddhist cities in Chinese Central Asia.Sven Hedin – Sven Hedin circa 1910
18. Gunnar Jarring – Gunnar Valfrid Jarring was a Swedish diplomat and Turkologist. Jarring was born in Brunnby, Höganäs Municipality, Sweden. He earned a Ph.D. with his dissertation Studien zu einer osttürkischen Lautlehre. He taught Turkic languages for the rest of the 1930s. Jarring worked for the Swedish foreign service as attaché at their embassy in Ankara in 1940. He later was appointed Swedish minister to India in 1948, then minister to Pakistan. He was ambassador to the Soviet Union from 1964 to 1973. In that capacity he signed on the Outer Space Treaty in January 1967. Jarring's methods of negotiation were used unsuccessfully until the 1973 Arab-Israeli War. Gunnar Jarring continued to publish studies on Eastern Turkic languages after retirement. He is one of the few people to ever be mentioned in a United Nations Security Council Resolution appearing in Resolution 331. Gunnar Jarring. On The Distribution Of Turk Tribes In Afghanistan: An Attempt At A Preliminary Classification. Lund: Hakan Ohlsson, 1939. Gunnar Jarring.Gunnar Jarring – Gunnar Jarring, 1933.
19. Nikolai Korzhenevskiy – Nikolai Leopol'dovich Korzhenevskiy, born in Zaverezhye, Vitebsk Governorate, Russian Empire, died in Tashkent, Uzbekistan. Korzhenevskiy was a famous Russian and Soviet geographer, glaciologist, explorer of the Pamir Mountains. His exploration of the Pamirs began in 1903, from the military command in the region. Between 1928, Korzhenevskiy organized eleven expeditions to various parts of the Pamirs. In August 1910 he discovered one of the highest peaks in the Pamir Mountains, which he named Peak Korzhenevskaya after Evgeniya Korzhenevskaya. Alternative transliterations of Korzhenevskiy's name include Korzhenievsky. Korzhenevskiy: A Name on the Map of Pamir, Ferghana.ru, 2007, in Russian "Korzhenevskiy, Nikolai Leopol'dovich", Big Soviet Encyclopedia, on-line edition, in RussianNikolai Korzhenevskiy – References 
20. Pyotr Kozlov – Pyotr Kuzmich Kozlov was a Russian and Soviet traveler and explorer who continued the studies of Nikolai Przhevalsky in Mongolia and Tibet. Although prepared for a military career, Kozlov chose to join Nikolai Przhevalsky's expedition. After his mentor's death, Kozlov continued traveling with his successors, Pevtsov and Roborovsky. In 1895, he took general command of the expedition from ailing Roborovsky. Although he was on good terms with other foreign explorers, the British government, as represented by George Macartney, monitored his movements across Central Asia. During his expedition of 1907 -- 1909, Kozlov discovered the ruins of Khara-Khoto, a Tangut city destroyed by the Ming Chinese in 1372. It took several years to excavate the site and bring to St. Petersburg no less than 2,000 books in the Tangut language he uncovered there. Kozlov described his findings in a large volume entitled the Dead City of Khara-Khoto. He was awarded the 1911 Royal Geographical Society's Founder's Medal for his explorations. His last expedition to Mongolia and Tibet resulted at Noin-Ula. After bringing to Petrograd some amazing samples of 2000-year-old Bactrian textiles, Kozlov settled in a village near Novgorod. General Media related to Pyotr Kuzmich Kozlov at Wikimedia Commons Kozlov's biographyPyotr Kozlov – Additional Reading 
21. Henry Lansdell – Henry Lansdell was a nineteenth-century British priest in the Church of England. He was also author. Born in Tenterden, Kent, Lansdell was the son of a home schooled before attending St John's College in Highbury, north London. He then studied at the London College of Divinity as a deacon in 1868 and his assignment as a curate in Greenwich. He subsequently became secretary to honorary secretary of the Homiletical Society. He established the Clergyman's Magazine in 1875, which he edited until 1883. After spending holidays in Europe, Lansdell often arduous journeys to little-known parts of Asia. He distributed religious tracts and bibles provided by London missionary societies wherever he went, most notably in prisons and hospitals in Siberia and central Asia. Lansdell's journey from Hotan to Yarkand in present-day Xinjiang "across deserts abominable" was probably the first by any Englishman. The two volumes recorded part of Lansdell's 5,000-mile journey to Asia. He is buried in St Mary's Church, Greenwich at his own request. Henry Lansdell. Through Siberia. New York: Arno Press. Henry Lansdell.Henry Lansdell – Lansdell in Kokand armour with saddle cloth presented by the Emir of Bukhara
22. Albert von Le Coq – Albert von Le Coq was a German brewery owner and wine merchant, who at the age of 40 began to study archaeology. The business he owned survives today as the A. Le Coq brewery in Tartu, Estonia. Aided by his wealth, von Le Coq became a famous explorer of Central Asia. Von Le Coq was convinced that the influence of Ancient Greece could be found far in the east as China. However, organising expeditions to Central Asia and China was beyond his means. Wilhelm was supported one of the expeditions with 32,000 German gold marks. Von Le Coq was associated with the Museum für Völkerkunde in Berlin. When Grünwedel fell ill before the departure of the second expedition, Le Coq was assigned to lead it. His account of third German Turpan expeditions was published in English in 1928 as Buried Treasures of Chinese Turkestan. The expeditions found extensive networks of Buddhist and Manichaean cave temples in the Xinjiang region of Northwest China. Although many of the manuscripts found in the cave were destroyed during the excavation, von Le Coq speculated that he had discovered a major Manichaean library. Some of the paintings also led him to believe that he had found evidence of an Aryan culture, related to the Franks. In Buried Treasures... Le Coq defends these "borrowings" as a matter of necessity, citing the turbulent nature of Chinese Turkestan at the time of the expeditions. Chinese consider a "colonial rapacity" comparable to the taking of the Elgin Marbles or the Koh-i-Noor diamond.Albert von Le Coq – Albert von Le Coq
23. Vladimir Obruchev – Vladimir Afanasyevich Obruchev was a Russian and Soviet geologist who specialized in the study of Siberia and Central Asia. He was also one of the Russian science fiction authors. Vladimir Obruchev graduated in 1886. His early work involved the study of gold-mining, which led him to come up with a theory explaining the origin of gold deposits in Siberia. He also consulted Sven Hedin on his projected journey to Siberia. While working for the railway, Obruchev explored the Karakum Desert, the old riverbeds of the Uzbois. He also worked as a geologist on the Lena River, in gold fields near the Vitim. Between 1892 and 1894, Obruchev "was a member of the Grigory Potanin's expedition into... Mongolia, to the mountains of Nan Shan and Northern China." He also explored the Transbaikal area, Altai. In 1929, Obruchev was elected to the Academy of Sciences of the USSR. He also authored Fundamentals of Geology, Field Geology, Ore Deposits, others. In his native country Obruchev is best known as the author of two perennially popular science fiction novels, Sannikov Land. In Plutonia, other Jurassic species are found in a fictional underground area north of Alaska. The descriptive passages are made more credible by Obruchev's extensive knowledge of paleontology.Vladimir Obruchev – Vladimir Afanasyevich Obruchev
24. Ole Olufsen – Ole Olufsen was a Danish military officer and explorer. He made several notable expeditions in the 1890s including the Pamir Mountains. He also served as Secretary of the Royal Danish Geographical Society. During his 1898-99 expeditions to the Pamirs, Olufsen was accompanied by Danish botanist Ove Paulsen. O. Olufsen: "Den danske Pamir-Expedition" O. Olufsen: "Den anden danske Pamir-Expedition" O. Olufsen: "Den anden danske Pamir-Expedition. Rejse igennem Roshan, Darvas og Karategin" O. Olufsen: "Pamir. Rejse igennem Roshan, Darvas og Karategin" Ole Olufsen: "Gennem Pamir" Ole Olufsen: "Indtryk fra mine Rejser i Terekdistriktet og Nord-Kaukasus. Kosakkernes, Kabardinernes og Osseternes Land" Ole Olufsen: "Indtryk fra mine Rejser i Terekdistriktet og Nord-Kaukasus. II. Ole Olufsen: "The Emir of Bokhara and his Country". Ole Olufsen: "Amu Darja og Usboi" Ole Olufsen: "Marokko" Ole Olufsen: "Prinse-Øerne" Ole Olufsen: "Persiske Byer." Ole Olufsen: "Mindre Meddelelser" Ole Olufsen: "Sir Ernest Shackleton" Ole Olufsen: "M. Alfred Grandidier" Ole Olufsen: "Julius von Hann. Død den 1. Olufs ens Sahara-Ekspedition 1922-23"Ole Olufsen – Ole Olufsen
25. Paul Pelliot – Paul Pelliot was born on 28 May 1878 in Paris, France, initially intended to pursue a career as a foreign diplomat. Accordingly, he studied English as a secondary school student at La Sorbonne, then studied Mandarin Chinese at the École des Langues Orientales Vivantes. Pelliot completed the school's Mandarin course in only two years. Chavannes also introduced Pelliot to the Collège's Sanskrit chair, Sylvain Lévi. Pelliot began studying under the two men, who encouraged him to pursue a scholarly career instead of a diplomatic one. In early 1900 Pelliot moved to Hanoi to take up a position as a research scholar at the École Française d'Extrême-Orient. In February of that year, Pelliot was sent to Peking to locate and buy Chinese books for the school's library. Between July and August, Pelliot was caught up in the siege of the foreign legations during the Boxer Rebellion. In 1901, when only 23 years old, Pelliot was made a professor of Chinese at the EFEO. Pelliot stayed until 1904 when he returned to France for representing the EFEO at the 1905 International Conference of Orientalists in Algiers. While in France, Pelliot was chosen to direct a government-sponsored archaeological mission to Chinese Turkestan. The group departed in June 1906 and spent several years in the field. Pelliot's expedition left Paris on 17 June 1906. His three-man team included Charles Nouette, a photographer. Pelliot had agreed to allow the army officer, disguised as an ethnographic collector, to travel with his expedition.Paul Pelliot – Paul Pelliot
26. Nikolai Petrovsky – Nikolay Fyodorovich Petrovsky was the Russian consul-general in Kashgar from 1882 until 1902. Petrovsky's main adversary during his time in Central Asia was his English counterpart. The competition between their two countries for influence in Central Asia is known as the Great Game. Between June 1902 the two did not speak to each other, although both were on friendly terms with visiting travellers such as Sven Hedin. Petrovsky was very interested in collecting materials on the history of Xinjiang. By the end of the 19th century, Petrovsky's personal collection included some texts among other obscure dialects. The bulk of his collection was donated to the Asiatic Museum in St. Petersburg. Mikhail Nikolayevich Muravyov Pyotr Kuzmich Kozlov Hopkirk, Peter. Foreign Devils on the Silk Road: The Search for the Lost Cities and Treasures of Chinese Central Asia. Amherst: The University of Massachusetts Press. ISBN 0-87023-435-8. Meyer, Karl E. and Shareen Blair Brysac. Tournament of Shadows: the Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia ISBN 0-465-04576-6 Red Vs. Blue: Going GlobalNikolai Petrovsky – Nikolai Petrovsky
27. Marco Polo – He learned the mercantile trade from Niccolò and Maffeo, who met Kublai Khan. In 1269, they returned to Venice to meet Marco for the first time. He was released in 1299, had three children. He died in 1324 and was buried in the church of San Lorenzo in Venice. Marco Polo was not the first European to reach China, but he was the first to leave a detailed chronicle of his experience. This book inspired other travellers. There is a substantial literature based on Polo's writings; he also influenced European cartography, leading to the introduction of the Fra Mauro map. Marco Polo was born in 1254 in Venice Republic. His exact date and place of birth are archivally unknown. Some historians mentioned that date is not endorsed by scholarship. Marco Polo's birthplace also varies between the island of Korčula. There is dispute as to whether the Polo family is as historical sources considered them to be of Dalmatian origin. The first recorded Polo is Venetian Domenico Polo, mentioned in 971 regarding the prohibition of trade with the Arabs. Later other Polos were also mentioned in the service of the realm. Whether they were related with the family of Marco Polo is uncertain, but this could indicate that his ancestors travelled between Venice and Dalmatia.Marco Polo – Polo wearing a Tatar outfit, date of print unknown
28. Grigory Potanin – This article is about Grigory Potanin. For other uses, see Potanin. Grigory Nikolayevich Potanin was natural historian. He was the first to catalogue many of the area's native plants. On soil, Potanin was an author and a political activist who aligned himself with the Siberian separatist movement. Potanin attended a Page Corps from wealthy families. Potanin initially travelled to Siberia while serving in Altaj in the 1850s. He returned to Saint Petersburg in 1858 to study Mathematical Physics. He was expelled from Saint Petersburg University. After spending three months in Petropavlovskaya fortress, he returned to Siberia. After leaving prison, he travelled with Nikolai M. Yadrintsev, where he began to work as a publisher. Due to rights for Siberian peoples, he was arrested on charges of supporting separatism for Siberia in 1867. Convicted, he was sentenced to fifteen of hard labour. During those five years he wrote a book on the history of Siberia. In 1876, Potanin led an expedition into Mongolia.Grigory Potanin – Grigory Nikolayaevich Potanin
29. Nikolay Przhevalsky – Nikolay Mikhaylovich Przhevalsky was a Russian geographer and a renowned explorer of Central and East Asia. Przhevalsky was born in Smolensk into a noble polonized Belarusian family, studied there and at the military academy in St. Petersburg. In 1864, he became a geography teacher at the military school in Warsaw. In 1867, Przhevalsky successfully petitioned the Russian Geographical Society to be dispatched to Irkutsk, in central Siberia. His intention was to explore the basin of the Ussuri River, a major tributary of the Amur on the Russian-Chinese frontier. This was his first expedition of importance. It lasted two years, after which Przhevalsky published a diary of the expedition under the title, Travels in the Ussuri Region, 1867-69. During his expedition, the Dungan Revolt was raging in China. The Russian newspaper Golos Prikazchika called the journey "one of the most daring of our time". 1879–1880 via Hami and through the Qaidam Basin to Qinghai Lake. The expedition then returned to Qinghai Lake and moved westwards to Hotan and Issyk Kul. Among other things, he reported on the wild population of Bactrian camels as well as the Przewalski's horse and Przewalski's gazelle, named after him. The Royal Geographical Society awarded him their Founder's Gold Medal in 1879 for his work. Przhevalsky died on the shore of Issyk Kul in present-day Kyrgyzstan. He contracted typhoid from the Chu River, acknowledged as being infected with the disease.Nikolay Przhevalsky – Nikolay Przhevalsky
30. Pundit (explorer) – One of the greatest projects of 19th geography was the Great Trigonometric Survey of India. The British also wanted geographical information on the lands further north. Thus, the British both tried to extend their influence in Asia. Knowledge of geography of the region was of course of utmost importance in this so-called'Great Game'. However, in some regions these surveys seemed impossible. Some in particular Tibet, would not allow westerners to enter their country, let alone a British surveying team. These might be able to make observations disguised as a trader or a lama. These native surveyors are called pundits. A number of tricks were developed to enable the pundits to make their observations without being found out. They were trained to make exactly 2,000 paces to the mile. A bead was dropped. A wheel did not hold the common Buddhist mantra om mani padme hum, but maps and notes. Usually this would be enough to stop others from addressing him. Another way of keeping their observations was to recite that during their travels. They also received medical training.Pundit (explorer) – Kinthup a Sikkimese pundit explored Tibet in the late 19th century
31. Vasily Radlov – Vasily Vasilievich Radlov or Friedrich Wilhelm Radloff was a German-born Russian founder of Turkology, a scientific study of Turkic peoples. Working as a schoolteacher in Barnaul, Radlov published his ethnographic findings From Siberia. From 1866 to 1907, he translated and released a number of monuments of Turkic folklore. Most importantly, he was the first to publish the Orhon inscriptions. Four volumes of his comparative dictionary of Turkic languages followed in 1893 to 1911. Radlov helped establish the Russian Museum of Ethnography and was in charge of the Asiatic Museum in St. Petersburg from 1884 to 1894. During the Stalinist repressions of the late 1930s, the NKVD and apparatus accused the late Radloff of Panturkism. Radloff W.. Aus Sibirien, Leipzig: T.O. Weigel Aus Siberien: vol.1 Aus Siberien: vol.2 Atlas der Alterthümer der Mongolei: vol.1 W. Radloff. Versuch eines Wörterbuch der Türk-Dialekte. Band I, 1. 1893 Band I, 2. 1893 Band II, 1. 1899 Band II, 2.Vasily Radlov – Vasily Radlov 1917
32. Riccoldo da Monte di Croce – Riccoldo da Monte di Croce or Ricoldo of Monte Croce, c. 1243 – 1320, was an Italian Dominican monk, travel writer, missionary, Christian apologist. His family name originated from a small castle just above Pontassieve. After studying in various European schools, Riccoldo became a Dominican in 1267, entering the house of Santa Maria Novella. Riccoldo was a professor in several convents of Tuscany, including St Catherine in Pisa. Riccoldo equipped with a Papal bull. Riccoldo failed to convince the Nestorian Christian mayor of the city to convert to Catholicism. Moving to Baghdad, he entered with the local Nestorian Christians preaching against them in their own cathedral. Riccoldo was allowed nonetheless by Mongol authorities to build his own church, with the interdiction to preach in public. He brought the matter to the Nestorian patriarch Mar Yaballaha, who agreed with him that the doctrine of Nestorius, namely the duality of Christ was heretical. Mar Yaballaha was however disavowed by his own followers. Riccoldo was chosen to high offices in his order. Riccoldo died in Florence on 31 October 1320. His Liber Peregrinacionis or Itinerarius was intended as a guide-book for missionaries, is a description of the Oriental countries he visited. From the Cilician port of Lajazzo Riccoldo started to Tabriz in north Persia. Crossing the Taurus Riccoldo travelled to Erzerum, the neighborhood of Ararat and Tabriz.Riccoldo da Monte di Croce – Riccoldo da Monte di Croce and Pope Nicolas IV
33. Susanna Carson Rijnhart – Susanna Carson Rijnhart, better known as Susie Rijnhart or "Doctor Susie," was a Canadian medical doctor, Protestant missionary, Tibetan explorer. She was the Western woman known to have visited Tibet, after Annie Royle Taylor. Susie Carson was born in Chatham, Ontario. At the age of twenty she graduated as a medical doctor. She was in private practice for six years in Ontario. In 1894 she met a Dutch-born former missionary with the China Inland Mission. Rijnhart was sent to Canada in 1886 to avoid charges of sexual assault. He eventually worked for three years with the CIM. He was dismissed as an ` imposter" after stirring up "Rijnhart's hornet's nest." He was lecturing in Canada and soliciting financial support to return to China and work in Tibet when he met Susie. The couple was married in September 1894 and before the end of the year departed Canada for China. Unlike most missionaries, they were independent, not representatives of any missionary organization. However, the funds they had raised in Canada were adequate for their expenses. Independent missionaries were often criticized as loose cannons, more likely to cause trouble than to achieve progress in the goal of making a Christian country. Kumbum was home to about 3,600 monks.Susanna Carson Rijnhart – Dr. Susie Rijnhart in Tibetan dress.
34. Robert Schlagintweit – Robert Schlagintweit was a German explorer of Central Asia who also wrote about travels in America. For the next three years they travelled through the Deccan, up into the Himalayas, Karakoram, Kunlun mountains. Hermann and Robert were the first Europeans to cross the Kunlun. Subsequently Robert became a professor of geography at the university of Giessen in 1863. He made several trips between 1867 and 1870. He also explored the Pacific coast. He wrote several books on American subjects, including Die Pacificeisenbahnen in Nordamerika, Kalifornien, Die Prärien des amerikanischen Westens. Attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, ed.. "Schlagintweit". Encyclopædia Britannica. 24. Cambridge University Press. P. 328. Wilson, James Grant; Fiske, John, eds.. "Schlagintweit, Robert von".Robert Schlagintweit – Robert Schlagintweit
35. Pyotr Semyonov-Tyan-Shansky – Pyotr Petrovich Semyonov-Tyan-Shansky was a Russian geographer and statistician who managed the Russian Geographical Society for more than 40 years. Pyotr Semenov was born into a noble family and studied at Saint Petersburg University. Together with Fyodor Dostoyevsky, Semenov attended secret meetings of the "Petrashevsky Circle". During the 1850s he studied geography and geology in Berlin under Alexander Humboldt and Carl Ritter, whose writings he translated into Russian. On Humboldt's suggestion, Semenov determined to explore the largely unknown mountains of the Tian Shan. In 1856, he set off from Barnaul on his first expedition, passing through the Altay Mountains and visiting Lake Issyk Kul on his way. In 1857, he returned to the Tian Shan, exploring the interior of this hitherto unknown mountain range. Semenov was the first European to see the scenic panorama of the Tengri Tag, its most beautiful peak, the colossal Khan Tengri. One of his most interesting discoveries was to disprove Humboldt's earlier claims about Tian Shan's supposed volcanic origins. Semenov found no evidence of volcanic activity anywhere in the mountains. The next year, he published the first systematic description of the Tian Shan. Semenov also became interested in statistics and did his best to advance this discipline in Russia. It was largely due to his efforts that the first census of the Russian Empire was held in 1897. The same year, he was made a member of the State Council of Imperial Russia. His insect collection consisted of ca. 700,000 specimens, while more than a hundred new species were named after him.Pyotr Semyonov-Tyan-Shansky – Pyotr Semyonov-Tyan-Shansky, 1870s.
36. Nikolai Severtzov – Nikolai Alekseevich Severtzov was a Russian explorer and naturalist. At the age of eighteen he took an interest in central Asia. In 1857 he joined a mission to Syr-Darya. On the expedition to the Syr Darya, he was captured by bandits and freed after a month. In 1865-68, he explored the Tian Shan mountains and Lake Issyk Kul. In 1877-78, he explored the Pamir Mountains, following far as Lake Yashil Kul on the Ghunt River. Severtzov wrote the Vertical and Horizontal Distribution of Turkestan Wildlife, which included the first description of a number of animals. Among them is a subspecies of argali later named after him: Ovis ammon severtzovi. He also described new subspecies of birds. The Spotted Great Rosefinch Carpodacus severtzovi is among those named after him. Severtzov began to assemble a collection of birds in the estate of Petrovskoe. On the 8th of February 1885 he was returning home in a carriage along the frozen Ikorts river that feeds into the Don. The carriage broke the ice and plunged. While everyone attempted to find a warm place nearby, he collapsed. His driver froze to death.Nikolai Severtzov – Nikolai Severtzov
37. Robert Barkley Shaw – Robert Barkley Shaw was a British explorer and diplomat. He became a diplomat in Mandalay. He was educated at schools on the continent, at Marlborough College, at Trinity College, Cambridge. In September 1868 Shaw agreed to meet another Englishman George Hayward around the camp-fires in the mountains between Lashgar and Yarkand. Shaw's mission was not primarily commercial. But both men recognised the value of mapping the uncharted territory of the Pamir Mountains. Shaw went on ahead while his colleague descended into the river gorges of the Karakoram. But competitive to the last, as the Victorians were, Shaw sent gifts ahead to Yakub Beg, hoping to meet him first. He reached Yarkand where he was cordially received on 8 December. Hayward had also arrived; and they continued living in separate accommodations. They could see the Taklamakan Desert sands beyond. He was the first Englishman to visit these places. In a detailed account Shaw described the other-worldly experience of "this assemblage of thousands." Shaw still managed to convey the purpose of his visit; to open up a trade route, particularly of Indian tea. Both Hayward and Shaw found themselves under arrest; but in secrecy they made contacts outside the walls of Kashgar.Robert Barkley Shaw – Map of present-day China showing the location of Kashgar
38. Ferdinand Stoliczka – Ferdinand Stoliczka was a Moravian palaeontologist who worked in India on paleontology, geology and various aspects of zoology, including ornithology, Malacology and herpetology. He died during an expedition across the Himalayas. Stoliczka was born in Moravia. Stoliczka, whose father was a forester who took care of the estate of the Archbishop of Olomouc, studied in Kromeriz. Although Stoliczka published 79 articles from 1859–1875, he never wrote anything in Czech. It is believed that he spoke German at home. In his Calcutta years he was an important figure in the German-speaking community there. Stoliczka studied geology and palaeontology under Professor Eduard Suess and Dr Rudolf Hoernes. He graduated with a Ph D on 14 November 1861. In 1862 Stoliczka joined the Geological Survey of India under the British Government after being recruited by Dr Thomas Oldham. By May 1873 this work was completed with four volumes totalling nearly 1500 quarto size pages with 178 plates. Among these works was the osteological description of Oxyglossus pusillus, a fossil frog from the Deccan Traps of Bombay. He published numerous papers on many subjects including Indian zoology. He was briefly the joint curator of the Indian Museum and also the Natural History Secretary of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. He was involved in editing the Society's journal.Ferdinand Stoliczka – Ferdinand Stoliczka
39. Boris L. Tageev – Boris Leonidovich Tageev was a Russian Orientalist, explorer, writer. Boris Leonidovich Tageev was born to a family of the lawyer. From 1892-1895 he was stationed in the Pamir Mountains by Russia, Afghanistan and the Qing Dynasty. He also traveled through Afghan Turkestan, where he collected information on the Afghan local peoples. In 1901 he left military as a lieutenant. In 1904 he was captured by the Japanese during the Russo-Japanese War of 1904-1905. During WWI he was commissioned as a lieutenant-colonel. During the war he also worked for the Daily Express. In 1920 he returned to Russia. In his writings published after he immigrated to the United States, Tageev occasionally published under the name Boris Rustam-Bek-Tageev. On October 1937 Tageev was arrested and given the death sentence for treason, organizing counter-revolutionary actions and complicity in terrorist activities. He was later rehabilitated. Panama Russkago flota. Izd. avtora, 1908 Korenʹ zla: t︠s︡arskīe oprichniki na Dalʹnem Vostoki︠e︡, Tip. I︠A︡. E. Kleĭdmana, 1909.Boris L. Tageev – Foreign correspondents Alfred Hales and Boris Tageev in Ivan Tsonchev 's band during the Ilinden–Preobrazhenie Uprising, 1903. Tsonchev is holding the flag, Hales is kissing it, Tageev is under the flag
40. Bill Tilman – Major Harold William "Bill" Tilman, CBE, DSO, MC and Bar, was an English mountaineer and explorer, renowned for his Himalayan climbs and sailing voyages. Tilman was born on 14 February 1898 in his wife Adeline Schwabe. He was educated at Berkhamsted Boys school. His career, however, began with Eric Shipton in Kenya, East Africa where they were both coffee growers. He later volunteered in the Second World War seeing action on the beaches at Dunkirk. He penetrated the Nanda Devi sanctuary with Eric Shipton in 1934, in 1936 he went on to lead an Anglo-American expedition to Nanda Devi. Tilman later described their arrival on the summit: Odell had brought a thermometer, no doubt sighed for the hypsometer. Dhaulagiri, 1,000ft higher, 200 miles away in Nepal, was our nearest rival. I believe we so far forgot ourselves as to shake hands on it. On his way back to India, he detoured through Afghanistan's Wakhan Corridor to see the source of the river Oxus. He was awarded in 1952 the Royal Geographical Society's Founder's Gold Medal for his achievements. Following his military career behind enemy lines in the Second World War, Tilman took up deep sea sailing. The expedition was led, the boat skippered, by the youthful Simon Richardson. His crew aboard the converted steel tug made it successfully and without incident to Rio de Janeiro. Thereafter, en route to the Falkland Islands, they disappeared without trace - it was presumed the ship had foundered with all hands.Bill Tilman – Bill Tilman by Sandy Lee
41. Joseph Wolff – Joseph Wolff, a Jewish Christian missionary, was born at Weilersbach, near Bamberg, Germany. He was known as "the missionary to the world". He published several journals of especially Travels and Adventures of Joseph Wolff. You will be convinced that Jesus Christ is the Son of God." Conviction at once fastened upon him. He read the scripture, wondering to see how perfectly it had been fulfilled in Jesus of Nazareth. Were the words of the Christian true? This however only increased his desire to know more of the Christian religion. In 1821 he began his missions work by visiting Egypt, the Sinai Peninsula, Jerusalem, Aleppo, Mesopotamia, Persia, Georgia and the Crimea. He returned in 1826. He visited travelling home by Egypt and Malta. Trinity College Dublin awarded an honorary Doctorate of Laws. He was ordained priest in 1838 by Bishop of Down and Connor. In the same year he was given the rectory of Linthwaite in Yorkshire. In his travels in Bukhara he found the doctrine of the Lord's soon coming held by a isolated people.Joseph Wolff – Joseph Wolff
42. Xuanzang – Xuanzang was a Chinese Buddhist monk, scholar, traveller, translator who described the interaction between China and India in the early Tang dynasty. While residing in the city of Luoyang, he was ordained as a śrāmaṇera at the age of thirteen. Xuanzang later travelled in search of sacred books of Buddhism. At length, Xuanzang came to Chang ` an, then under the peaceful rule of Emperor Taizong of Tang, where Xuanzang developed the desire to visit India. Xuanzang knew to India and, like him, was concerned about the incomplete and misinterpreted nature of the Buddhist texts that had reached China. Hsüan, Hüan, Huan and Chuang are also found. Tang Monk is also transliterated /Thang Seng/. Another of Xuanzang's standard aliases is Sanzang Fashi: 法 being a Chinese translation for Pali/Pakrit Dhamma, the implied meaning being "Buddhism". He was died on 5 February 664 in Yuhua Palace. Xuanzang was the youngest of four children. His ancestor was a minister of the Eastern Han dynasty. Although his household was essentially Confucian, at a young age, he expressed interest in becoming a Buddhist monk like one of his elder brothers. During this time Xuanzang studied Mahayana well as various early Buddhist schools, preferring the former. Here the two brothers spent two or three years in further study including the Abhidharma-kośa Śāstra. He was fully ordained at the age of twenty.Xuanzang – A portrait of Xuanzang
43. Nikolai Yadrintsev – Nikolai Mikhailovich Yadrintsev was a Russian public figure, explorer, archaeologist, turkologist. His discoveries include the Orkhon script, Genghis Khan's capital, the capital of the Uyghur Khaganate. He was also one of the founding figures of Siberian separatism. Nikolai Yadrintsev was born into the family of an Omsk merchant. After Tomsk gymnasium, he matriculated at Petersburg University. There he began his public work. In 1860, together with his friend and soul-mate G. N. Potanin, Yadrintsev organized a group of Siberian students with members S. S. Shashkov, N. I. Naumov, I. V. Omulevsky, I. A. Khudyakov, Ch. Valihanov and others, future outstanding writers and scientists. The social movement of the 1860s captivated the members of the Siberian countrymen. They established connections with democratic revolutionaries, participated in student revolts, which resulted in their arrest. During those years, a clone of "Contemporary", printed its first indicting feuilletons of N. Yadrintsev. In the 1860s Yadrintsev became a committed democrat. The movement started by N. Yadrintsev and G.N. Potanin received a name "Siberian patriotism" or "Siberian separatism". In 1862-1863 the members of the Siberian community, interrupting their studies, departed to the Siberian cities to advance their ideas.Nikolai Yadrintsev – Nikolai Yadrintsev
44. Francis Younghusband – Lieutenant Colonel Sir Francis Edward Younghusband, KCSI KCIE was a British Army officer, explorer, spiritual writer. Younghusband held positions including British commissioner of the Royal Geographical Society. Robert Shaw, was a noted explorer of Central Asia. Lieutenant-General Charles Younghusband CB FRS, was a British Army officer and meteorologist. As an infant, Francis was taken to live by his mother. When Clara returned in 1867 she left her son in the care of two austere and strictly religious aunts. In 1870 his father returned to England and reunited the family. In 1876 at thirteen, Francis entered Clifton College, Bristol. In 1881 he was commissioned as a subaltern in the 1st King's Dragoon Guards in 1882. On leave from his regiment, Younghusband made on an expedition across Asia. But he was still a young officer. Younghusband had carried out scientific observation, while Fulford was providing the travelers with a language and cultural expertise. He would cross the most inhospitable terrain in the world to the Himalayas before being ordered to make his home. In 1880s the region of the Upper Oxus was still largely unmapped. For this achievement, aged still only 24 he received the society's 1890 Patron's Gold Medal.Francis Younghusband – Francis Younghusband c. 1905