Pages in category "Extremaduran conquistadors"
The following 36 pages are in this category, out of 36 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 36 pages are in this category, out of 36 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Francisco de Aguirre (conquistador) – Francisco de Aguirre was a Spanish conquistador who participated in the conquest of Peru, Bolivia, Chile and Argentina. Francisco de Aguirre was the son of Hernando la Rúa and of Constanza de Meneses. He joined the army of Carlos I, participating in 1527. He moved to Peru with a large retinue that included slaves and servants. He was chosen for this task since he had already demonstrated a strong hand in their resulting punishment. On August 1549, Aguirre refounded the city, constructing a fort for its defense. He then led his troops out in persecution of the Indians. The north of Chile would remain free of danger from then on, although somewhat deficient in labor. There, after a series of exploratory expeditions, he founded the city of Santiago Estero del Nuevo Maestrazgo on July 25, 1553. When Valdivia died in the Battle of Tucapel, his will was found to designate Aguirre in the absence of Jerónimo de Alderete. Apprised of the situation in La Serena, he immediately returned there, where he was welcomed as Captain General and Governor of Chile. The Cabildo of Santiago, however, refused disarming the contingent of troops under Aguirre's brother Hernando, sent to deliver it. If the term expired, Villagra would be the governor, in command of the army of the south. His forces were too small to match Villagra's if there was a confrontation, so he accepted it bitterly. In 1557 the viceroy's son García Hurtado de Mendoza arrived as the newly designated governor.Francisco de Aguirre (conquistador) – Francisco de Aguirre
2. Pedro de Alvarado – Pedro de Alvarado y Contreras was a Spanish conquistador and governor of Guatemala. He is considered the conquistador of much including Guatemala, Honduras and El Salvador. Historiography portrays that indigenous people, both Nahuatl-speakers and speakers of other languages, called him Tonatiuh, meaning "sun" in the Nahuatl language. Yet he was also called "Red Sun" in Nahuatl, which allows a variety of interpretations. Whether this epithet refers to Alvarado's red hair, some esoteric quality attributed to both, is disputed. Pedro de Alvarado was both a brilliant military commander and a cruel, hardened man. His beard were blond, which earned him the name of Tonatiuh from the Aztecs, the name of one of their sun gods. He was handsome, was volatile and quick to anger. He was ruthless in his dealings with the indigenous peoples he set out to conquer. His Spanish contemporaries denounced his extreme brutality during his lifetime. He was a poor governor of territories he had conquered, restlessly sought out new adventures. His tactical brutality, such as the massacre in the Great Temple of Tenochtitlan, often undermined strategic considerations. He was also accused of cruelty against fellow Spaniards. Alvarado was little suited to govern; when he held governing positions, he did little to establish stable foundations for colonial rule. He only discussed exploration and war.Pedro de Alvarado – Pedro de Alvarado in a contemporaneous rendition.
3. Francisco de Orellana – Francisco de Orellana was a Spanish explorer and conquistador. He completed the known navigation of the entire length of the Amazon River, which initially was named "Rio de Orellana." He also founded the city of Guayaquil in what is now Ecuador. Orellana died on the Amazon. Born in Trujillo, Orellana was a close friend, possibly a relative of the Trujillo-born conquistador of Peru. He traveled to the New World. Orellana served until joining Pizarro's army in Peru in 1533, where he supported Pizarro in his conflict with Diego de Almagro. Orellana was one of Gonzalo Pizarro's lieutenants into the South American interior. Pizarro left Quito in February 1541 just before Orellana arrived with his 23 horses. Orellana hurried after the main expedition, eventually making contact in March. However, by the time the expedition had left the mountains, 140 Spanish had either died or deserted. On reaching the River Coca, the San Pedro, was constructed to ferry the sick and supplies. Gonzalo Pizarro ordered him to return when the river ended. When they arrived with the Napo River, his men threatened to mutiny if they did not continue. On December 1541 he agreed to be elected chief of the new expedition and to conquer new lands in name of the king.Francisco de Orellana – Bronze head of Orellana in Guayaquil, Ecuador
4. Francisco Pizarro – Francisco Pizarro González was a Spanish conquistador who led an expedition that conquered the Inca Empire. He claimed the lands for Spain. Francisco Pizarro was born in modern-day Extremadura, Spain. He was a woman of poor means. It is believed to be sometime in the 1470s, probably 1474. He grew up illiterate. His father was a colonel of infantry who served under Córdoba. Through his father, Francisco was a second cousin, once removed, of Hernán Cortés. On 10 Pizarro sailed from Spain to the New World with Alonso de Ojeda on an expedition to Gulf of Urabá in Tierra Firme. Pizarro became a participant in Ojeda's failed colony, commanding the remnants until he abandoned it with the survivors. He joined the fleet of Martín Fernández de Enciso in 1513. In 1513, Pizarro accompanied Vasco Núñez de Balboa to the Pacific coast. Pedrarias Dávila became the newly appointed governor of Castilla de Oro and succeeded Balboa. During the next five years, Pizarro became the governor assigned him a repartimiento of natives and cattle. When Dávila decided to get rid of Balboa out of distrust, he instructed Pizarro to bring him to stand trial.Francisco Pizarro – Spanish colonization of the Americas
5. Gonzalo Pizarro – Gonzalo Pizarro y Alonso was a Spanish conquistador and younger paternal half-brother of Francisco Pizarro, the conqueror of the Inca Empire. He was the full brother of Juan Pizarro. Born in Trujillo, Spain, Gonzalo Pizarro accompanied his eldest brother, Francisco Pizarro, in his third expedition in 1530. Gonzalo was also the brother of Juan Pizarro. His brother Juan, were made regidores of the city on 24 March 1534. These two signed a new article of agreement on 12 June 1535. Particularly egregious was the conduct of Juan and Gonzalo Pizarro towards the Inca Emperor, Manco Inca Yupanqui. Manco was angered towards Incan women especially after Gonzalo raped his favorite wife. The Spaniards corrupt rule and treatment towards Manco Inca Yupanqui led to large-scale rebellion. The Incas temporarily captured Cuzco on May 6, 1536. The Incas were later defeated by the heavily armed Spanish soldiers led by Gonzalo and Juan. Smallpox was also spread among many perished. When Almagro returned from Chile disappointed in not finding any gold, he imprisoned Gonzalo and Hernándo on 8 April 1537. Gonzalo managed to re-join Francisco Pizarro, while Almagro was on his way to Lima to negotiate with Francisco on who would control Cuzco. These negotiations led to Hernándo's release.Gonzalo Pizarro – Gonzalo Pizarro
6. Gonzalo de Sandoval – Gonzalo de Sandoval was a Spanish conquistador in New Spain and briefly co-governor of the colony while Hernán Cortés was away from the capital. Sandoval was the youngest of the lieutenants of Cortés. They arrived together in New Spain in 1519. After the subjugation of Moctezuma, Cortés placed him as alguacil mayor. He seized the messengers of Pánfilo de Narváez, who sent them as prisoners to Cortés. In the ensuing battle, it was Sandoval who captured Narváez. Afterwards, Gonzalo led attacks against the towns of Cacatami and Xalacingo. He stayed there until the brigantines were built by water on the capital, when he went to Tlaxcala to direct their transportation overland. During the Siege of Tenochtitlan, he escorted the timber needed for the sloops, to Texcoco. Gonzalo also led three battles in March 1521. Gonzalo commanded one of four forces under Cortes. Sandoval was wounded twice during one of the battles on the causeways. Sandoval was sent by Cortes to counter a threat by Guatemoc's allies in the Spanish rear, returning with two captured Matlazingo chieftains as prisoner. Along the way he was ordered to conquer a town the Spanish had named morisco in Calpulalpa or Sultepec. The population fled at the approach of the Spanish.Gonzalo de Sandoval – Gonzalo de Sandoval, Conquistador
8. Hernando de Soto – De Soto's North American expedition ranged throughout a passage to China. De Soto died in what is now Guachoya, Arkansas or Ferriday, Louisiana. He was born in Jerez de los Caballeros, in the current province of Badajoz. However, three towns—Badajoz, Barcarrota and Jerez de los Caballeros—claim to be his birthplace. The age of the Conquerors came on the heels of the Spanish reconquest of the Iberian peninsula from Islamic forces. Spain and Portugal were filled with young men seeking a chance for military fame after the Moors were defeated. With discovery of new lands to the west, they were attracted to whispers of glory and wealth. De Soto sailed to the New World with the first Governor of Panama, Pedrarias Dávila. In 1524, he participated under Francisco Hernandez de Cordoba. There he acquired an encomienda and a public office in Leon, Nicaragua. He gained fame as tactician. In 1530, de Soto became a regidor of León, Nicaragua. Failing that, without means to explore further, de Soto, upon Pedro Arias Dávila's death, left his estates in Nicaragua. Pizarro quickly made de Soto one of his captains. When Pizarro's men attacked the next day, de Soto led one of the three groups of mounted soldiers.Hernando de Soto – Hernando de Soto
9. Alonso de Sotomayor – Alonso de Sotomayor y Valmediano was a Spanish conquistador from Extremadura, a Royal Governor of Chile. He was born in the province of Extremadura, the son of Gutiérrez de Sotomayor e Hinojosa and Beatriz de Valmediano. At the age of 15 he joined the army, serving first until 1567, then moving to Flanders. In 1580 he was called back by his official duties. King Philip II, seeing his military record, sent him on a campaign against Portugal. However, reinforcements were needed. The king subsequently decided to send him there with a large contingent of soldiers to resolve the situation. Sotomayor was forced to imprison Gamboa in the government house at Santiago, from which he was released only after providing a bond. However, Sotomayor freed him entirely. Instead he launched a number of campaigns against the resisting Mapuche Indians. He succeeded in capturing Alonso Díaz, a resistance leader for many years. Sotomayor also put in action his plan of fortifications with the few men that he had. In 1584, he founded the fort of San Fabián de Conueo in Coelemu. In 1585 he ordered the construction of the fort Santo Arbol la Cruz where the Guaqui River enters the Bio Bio River. The Mapuche Toquis Nongoniel, Cadeguala and Guanoalca opposed the establishment of these forts, eventually forcing the abandonment of Purén in 1586.Alonso de Sotomayor – Don Alonso de Sotomayor Caballero de Santiago
10. Pedro de Valdivia – Pedro Gutiérrez de Valdivia or Valdiva was a Spanish conquistador and the first royal governor of Chile. In 1540 Valdivia led an expedition of 150 Spaniards into Chile, where he founded Santiago in 1541. Valdivia extended Spanish rule south to the Bío-Bío River in 1546, returned to Chile as governor in 1549. Valdivia founded Concepción in 1550. Valdivia was killed in a campaign against the Araucanian Indians. The city of Valdivia in Chile is named after him. Pedro de Valdivia is believed to have been born in Villanueva de la Serena in Extremadura, Spain to an impoverished hidalgo family. Valdivia reached America in 1535, then moved on to Peru in 1537. Afterwards Valdivia accompanied Hernando and Gonzalo Pizarro to conquer both the province of Collao and las Charcas in High Peru. As compensation for his help in conquering these lands, Valdivia became a wealthy man. After the failure of the expedition of Diego de Almagro in 1536, the lands to the south of Peru had remained unexplored. He asked governor Francisco Pizarro for permission to complete the conquest of that territory. Valdivia was appointed only Lieutenant Governor, not Governor as he had wanted. The expedition was fraught with problems from the beginning. He had to sell the mine, assigned to him in order to finance the expedition.Pedro de Valdivia – Posthumous portrait by Federico de Madrazo