1. First Triumvirate – Julius Caesar was a prominent politician. Pompey was considered the greatest military commander of his time. This gave great prestige and popularity. Crassus was a property speculator, the richest man in Rome. Pompey and Crassus had extensive patronage networks. The three men formed an alliance with which they could gather popular support to counter the stranglehold the Roman Senate had over Roman politics. The senate had thwarted some bills these men had sponsored. With this alliance they aimed to have them passed. The alliance had been kept secret until Pompey and Crassus publicly supported a law proposed by Caesar in 58 BC. In the background of the formation of this alliance were the frictions between two political factions of the Late Republic, optimates. The former drew support from the plebeians. It also challenged the power the nobiles exerted through the senate, the body that represented its interests. The Optimes were a conservative faction that favoured the nobiles. They opposed reforms. This faction also wanted to strengthen the power of the senate.First Triumvirate – From left to right: Julius Caesar, Crassus, and Pompey the Great
2. Curia of Pompey – The Curia of Pompey, sometimes referred to as the Curia Pompeia, was one of several named meeting halls from Republican Rome of historic significance. A curia was a designated structure for meetings of the senate well as a tribal assembly. The Curia of Pompey was located to the Theater of Pompey. While the main house was being moved from the Curia Cornelia to a new Curia Julia, the senate would meet in this smaller building. It is best known as where the Roman Senate murdered Gaius Julius Caesar. It was a Roman exedra, with a curved back wall and several levels of seating. Richardson cited Suetonius that it was later made into a latrine, as stated by Cassius Dio. In 55 BC, Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus dedicated the opening of the largest theatre in the ancient world before its full completion. That would be copied later by the Roman emperors when they created their imperial forums. While the complex stood for centuries, the curia lasted for only about a decade. In 44 BC, Caesar was murdered by a conspiracy of senators. Afterward, the structure was said to have been set on fire; a latrine put in its place some years later. The structure is located in an area, now called Largo di Torre Argentina. The site was excavated by order of the dictator Benito Mussolini in the 1930s. It was also later announced that the underground excavations of the curia would be opened to the public in 2013.Curia of Pompey – Curia of Pompey
3. Julius Caesar – Gaius Julius Caesar, known as Julius Caesar, was a Roman politician, general, notable author of Latin prose. Caesar played a critical role in the events that led to the rise of the Roman Empire. In 60 BC, Caesar, Crassus, Pompey formed a political alliance that dominated Roman politics for several years. Caesar's victories in the Gallic Wars, completed by 51 BC, extended Rome's territory to the Rhine. He became the first Roman general to cross both when he conducted the first invasion of Britain. With the Gallic Wars concluded, the Senate ordered Caesar to return to Rome. Caesar's victory in the war put him in an unrivalled position of power and influence. After assuming control of government, he began a programme of governmental reforms, including the creation of the Julian calendar. He centralised the bureaucracy of the Republic and was eventually proclaimed "dictator in perpetuity", giving him additional authority. The constitutional government of the Republic was never fully restored. Caesar's adopted Octavian, later known as Augustus, rose to sole power after defeating his opponents in the civil war. The era of the Roman Empire began. The later biographies of Caesar by Suetonius and Plutarch are also major sources. He is considered by many historians to be one of the greatest military commanders in history. The cognomen "Caesar" originated, according to Pliny the Elder, with an ancestor, born by Caesarean section.Julius Caesar – The Tusculum portrait, perhaps the only surviving statue created during Caesar's lifetime.
4. Marcus Licinius Crassus – Marcus Licinius Crassus was a Roman general and politician who played a key role in the transformation of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire. Amassing an enormous fortune during his life, Crassus is, exempting Augustus Caesar, considered the wealthiest man in Roman history. Crassus began his public career under Lucius Cornelius Sulla during his civil war. Following Sulla's assumption of the dictatorship, Crassus amassed an enormous fortune through real speculation. Crassus rose to political prominence following his victory over the revolt led by Spartacus, sharing the Consulship with his rival Pompey the Great. A financial patron of Julius Caesar, Crassus joined Caesar and Pompey in the unofficial political alliance known as the First Triumvirate. Together the three men dominated the political system. The alliance would not last indefinitely due to the ambitions, jealousies of the three men. While Caesar and Crassus were lifelong allies, Crassus and Pompey disliked each Pompey grew increasingly envious of Caesar's spectacular successes in the Gallic Wars. The alliance was re-stabilized in 56 BC, after which Crassus and Pompey again served jointly as Consuls. Following his second Consulship, Crassus was appointed as the Governor of Roman Syria. Crassus used Syria against the Parthian Empire, Rome's long-time Eastern enemy. Crassus' campaign was a disastrous failure, resulting at the Battle of Carrhae. Crassus' death permanently unraveled the alliance between Caesar and Pompey. Within four years of Crassus' death, Caesar would begin a civil war against Pompey and the optimates.Marcus Licinius Crassus – Bust of Marcus Licinius Crassus from the Louvre, Paris.
5. Pompey – Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus, usually known in English as Pompey /ˈpɒmpiː/ or Pompey the Great, was a military and political leader of the late Roman Republic. His father had been the first to establish the family among the Roman nobility. Pompey's immense success as a general while very young enabled him to advance directly to his first consulship without meeting the normal requirements for office. His success as a military commander in Sulla's Second Civil War resulted in Sulla bestowing the Magnus, "the Great", upon him. Pompey celebrated three triumphs. After the deaths of Julia and Crassus, he sided with the conservative faction of the Roman Senate. Pompey and Caesar then contended for the leadership of the Roman state, leading to a civil war. When Pompey was defeated in 48 BC, Pompey sought refuge in Egypt, where he was assassinated. His defeat are significant in Rome's subsequent transformation from Republic to Empire. Pompey's family first gained the position of Consul in 141 BC. Gnaeus Pompeius Strabo, was a wealthy equestrian from Picenum. Pompey was a novus homo. Pompey fought Social War against Rome's Italian allies. Pompey supported Sulla, who belonged against Marius, who belonged to the populares, in Sulla's first civil war. Pompey struck by lightning.Pompey – Pompey the Great in middle age, marble bust in the Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek, Copenhagen, Denmark.
6. Portico of Pompey – The Porticus of Pompey was a large quadriporticus located directly behind the scaenae frons of the Theatre of Pompey. It enclosed a popular public garden in the ancient city of Rome. The porticus was finished in 62 BC. and has a history spanning hundreds of years. The colonnades contained gallaries that displayed sculptures and paintings collected from years of war campaigns of its patron and builder, Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus. Over time the site became rows of shops that occupied what were the arcades. Citizens would stroll under these colonnades, shaded from the sun and rain. The most popular of these gardens was located in the quadriporticus that Pompey built to adjoin the theatre that also bore his name. The entrance to the complex was tightly controlled at either side of the Curia of Pompey. This sightline was permanently disprupted in 32 BC when Augustus had a scaena built.Portico of Pompey