Category:Forms of Latin
Pages in category "Forms of Latin"
The following 17 pages are in this category, out of 17 total, this list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 17 pages are in this category, out of 17 total, this list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Latin – Latin is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. The Latin alphabet is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets, Latin was originally spoken in Latium, in the Italian Peninsula. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the dominant language, Vulgar Latin developed into the Romance languages, such as Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, French, and Romanian. Latin, Italian and French have contributed many words to the English language, Latin and Ancient Greek roots are used in theology, biology, and medicine. By the late Roman Republic, Old Latin had been standardised into Classical Latin, Vulgar Latin was the colloquial form spoken during the same time and attested in inscriptions and the works of comic playwrights like Plautus and Terence. Late Latin is the language from the 3rd century. Later, Early Modern Latin and Modern Latin evolved, Latin was used as the language of international communication, scholarship, and science until well into the 18th century, when it began to be supplanted by vernaculars. Ecclesiastical Latin remains the language of the Holy See and the Roman Rite of the Catholic Church. Today, many students, scholars and members of the Catholic clergy speak Latin fluently and it is taught in primary, secondary and postsecondary educational institutions around the world. The language has been passed down through various forms, some inscriptions have been published in an internationally agreed, monumental, multivolume series, the Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum. Authors and publishers vary, but the format is about the same, volumes detailing inscriptions with a critical apparatus stating the provenance, the reading and interpretation of these inscriptions is the subject matter of the field of epigraphy. The works of several hundred ancient authors who wrote in Latin have survived in whole or in part and they are in part the subject matter of the field of classics. The Cat in the Hat, and a book of fairy tales, additional resources include phrasebooks and resources for rendering everyday phrases and concepts into Latin, such as Meissners Latin Phrasebook. The Latin influence in English has been significant at all stages of its insular development. From the 16th to the 18th centuries, English writers cobbled together huge numbers of new words from Latin and Greek words, dubbed inkhorn terms, as if they had spilled from a pot of ink. Many of these words were used once by the author and then forgotten, many of the most common polysyllabic English words are of Latin origin through the medium of Old French. Romance words make respectively 59%, 20% and 14% of English, German and those figures can rise dramatically when only non-compound and non-derived words are included. Accordingly, Romance words make roughly 35% of the vocabulary of Dutch, Roman engineering had the same effect on scientific terminology as a wholeLatin – Latin inscription, in the Colosseum
2. Old Latin – Old Latin, also known as Early Latin or Archaic Latin, refers to the Latin language in the period before 75 BC, before the age of Classical Latin. In New and Contemporary Latin, it is called prisca Latinitas rather than vetus Latina, the use of old, early and archaic has been standard in publications of Old Latin writings since at least the 18th century. The definition is not arbitrary, but the terms refer to writings with spelling conventions and this article presents some of the major differences. The earliest known specimen of the Latin language is from the Praeneste fibula, a new analysis performed in 2011 declared it to be genuine beyond any reasonable doubt and dating from the Orientalizing period, in the first half of the seventh century BC. The concept of Old Latin is as old as the concept of Classical Latin, viri prisci, old-time men, were the population of Latium before the founding of Rome. In the Late Latin period, when Classical Latin was behind them, Isidore of Seville reports a classification scheme that had come into existence in or before his time, the four Latins. The scheme persisted with little change for some years after Isidore. Although the differences are striking and can be identified by Latin readers. Latin speakers of the empire had no reported trouble understanding Old Latin, except for the few texts that must date from the time of the kings, mainly songs. Thus, the laws of the Twelve Tables from the early Republic were comprehensible, there is no sharp distinction between Old Latin, as it was spoken for most of the Republic, and Classical Latin, but the earlier grades into the later. The end of the republic was too late a termination for compilers after Wordsworth, Charles Edwin Bennett said, bell, De locativi in prisca Latinitate vi et usu, Breslau,1889, sets the later limit at 75 BC. A definite date is impossible, since archaic Latin does not terminate abruptly. Bennetts own date of 100 BC did not prevail but rather Bells 75 BC became the standard as expressed in the four-volume Loeb Library and other major compendia. Over the 377 years from 452 to 75 BC, Old Latin evolved from being partially comprehensible by classicists with study to being read by scholars. Old Latin authored works began in the 3rd century BC and these are complete or nearly complete works under their own name surviving as manuscripts copied from other manuscripts in whatever script was current at the time. In addition are fragments of works quoted in other authors, numerous inscriptions placed by various methods on their original media survive just as they were except for the ravages of time. Some of these were copied from other inscriptions, no inscription can be earlier than the introduction of the Greek alphabet into Italy but none survive from that early date. The imprecision of archaeological dating makes it impossible to assign a year to any one inscription, some texts, however, that survive as fragments in the works of classical authors, had to have been composed earlier than the republic, in the time of the monarchyOld Latin – The playwright Titus Maccius Plautus wrote using Old Latin.
3. Late Latin – Late Latin is the scholarly name for the written Latin of Late Antiquity. The English dictionary definition of Late Latin dates this period from the 3rd to the 6th centuries AD and this somewhat ambiguously defined period fits between Classical Latin and Medieval Latin. Although there is no consensus about exactly when Classical Latin should end, nor exactly when Medieval Latin should begin. Being a written language, Late Latin is not identical with Vulgar Latin, the latter during those centuries served as proto-Romance, a reconstructed ancestor of the Romance languages. Although Late Latin reflects an upsurge of the use of Vulgar Latin vocabulary and constructs, it remains to a large extent classical in overall features, some are more literary and classical, some more inclined to the vernacular. Nor is Late Latin identical to Christian or patristic Latin, the writings of the early Christian fathers. While Christian writings are considered a subset of Late Latin, pagans wrote much Late Latin, serving as some sort of lingua franca to a large empire, Latin tended to become simpler, to keep above all what it had of the ordinary. Neither Late Latin nor Late Antiquity are modern terms or concepts, instances of English vernacular use of the term may also be found from the 18th century. The term Late Antiquity meaning post-classical and pre-medieval had currency in English well before then, Imperial Latin went on into English literature, Fowlers History of Roman Literature mentions it in 1903. There are, however, insoluble problems with the beginning and end of Imperial Latin, politically the excluded Augustan Period is the paradigm of imperiality, and yet the style cannot be bundled with either the Silver Age or with Late Latin. Moreover, in 6th century Italy, the Roman Empire no longer existed, subsequently the term Imperial Latin was dropped by historians of Latin literature, although it may be seen in marginal works. The Silver Age was extended a century and the four centuries represent Late Latin. Low Latin is a vague and often pejorative term that might refer to any post-classical Latin from Late Latin through Renaissance Latin depending on the author. Its origins are obscure but the Latin expression media et infima Latinitas sprang into public notice in 1678 in the title of a Glossary by Charles du Fresne, the multi-volume set had many editions and expansions by other authors subsequently. The title varies somewhat, most commonly used was Glossarium Mediae et Infimae Latinitatis and it has been translated by expressions of widely different meanings. The uncertainty is understanding what media, middle, and infima, low, the media is securely connected to Medieval Latin by Canges own terminology expounded in the Praefatio, such as scriptores mediae aetatis, writers of the middle age. Canges Glossary takes words from authors ranging from the Christian period to the Renaissance, in the former case the infimae appears extraneous, it recognizes the corruptio of the corrupta Latinitas Cange said his Glossary covered. The two-period case postulates a second unity of style, infima Latinitas, Cange in the glossarial part of his Glossary identifies some words as being used by purioris Latinitatis scriptores, such as CiceroLate Latin – Augustine of Hippo (354 – 430), Late Latin author
4. Medieval Latin – Despite the clerical origin of many of its authors, medieval Latin should not be confused with Ecclesiastical Latin. There is no consensus on the exact boundary where Late Latin ends. Medieval Latin had a vocabulary, which freely borrowed from other sources. Greek provided much of the vocabulary of Christianity. The various Germanic languages spoken by the Germanic tribes, who invaded southern Europe, were major sources of new words. Germanic leaders became the rulers of parts of the Roman Empire that they conquered, other more ordinary words were replaced by coinages from Vulgar Latin or Germanic sources because the classical words had fallen into disuse. Latin was also spread to such as Ireland and Germany. Works written in the lands, where Latin was a language with no relation to the local vernacular, also influenced the vocabulary. English words like abstract, subject, communicate, matter, probable, the high point of the development of medieval Latin as a literary language came with the Carolingian renaissance, a rebirth of learning kindled under the patronage of Charlemagne, king of the Franks. On the other hand, strictly speaking there was no form of medieval Latin. Every Latin author in the period spoke Latin as a second language, with varying degrees of fluency, and syntax, grammar. For instance, rather than following the classical Latin practice of placing the verb at the end. Unlike classical Latin, where esse was the auxiliary verb, medieval Latin writers might use habere as an auxiliary, similar to constructions in Germanic. The accusative and infinitive construction in classical Latin was often replaced by a clause introduced by quod or quia. This is almost identical, for example, to the use of que in similar constructions in French. In every age from the late 8th century onwards, there were learned writers who were familiar enough with classical syntax to be aware that these forms and usages were wrong, however the use of quod to introduce subordinate clauses was especially pervasive and is found at all levels. That resulted in two features of Medieval Latin compared with Classical Latin. First, many attempted to show off their knowledge of Classical Latin by using rare or archaic constructionsMedieval Latin – Carmina Cantabrigiensia, Medieval Latin manuscript
5. Richard Rolle – Richard Rolle was an English hermit, mystic, and religious writer. In his works, Rolle provides little evidence about his early life. Most, if not all, of our information about him comes from the Office of Lessons and Antiphons that was composed in the 1380s in preparation for his canonisation, although this never came about. Born into a farming family and brought up at Thornton-le-Dale near Pickering, he studied at the University of Oxford, where he was sponsored by Thomas de Neville. While there, he is said to have been interested in theology and biblical studies than philosophy. He left Oxford at age eighteen or nineteen - dropping out before he received his MA - to become a hermit, leaving the family home, he first went to Pickering, and housed with a squire, John Dalton, for perhaps three years. It was probably still living with Dalton, two years and eight months after becoming a hermit, Rolle had his first mystical experience. Around a year later, he felt similarly after listening to a choir, Dalton himself was arrested and his lands confiscated in 1322, the lack of mention of this fact in accounts of Rolles life makes it likely that he was no longer living with Dalton by this point. It is unclear where Rolle lived from 1321/2 until his death in 1349, one theory is that Rolle spent the early 1320s at the renowned Sorbonne, becoming well-trained in theology, and perhaps being ordained there. Scholars, however, are divided on the authenticity of this material, around 1348, Rolle knew the Yorkshire anchoress Margaret Kirkby, who was his principal disciple and the recipient of much of his writings and would be important in establishing his later reputation. Rolle died in Michaelmas 1349 at the Cistercian nunnery at Hampole, because of his time spent here, where he was director of the inmates, he is sometimes known as Richard Rolle of Hampole, or de Hampole. It is unclear what his function was there, he was not the nuns official confessor, however he wrote The Form of Living and his English Psalter for a nun there, Margaret Kirkby, and Ego Dormio for a nun at Yedingham. It is possible that he died of the Black Death, and he was buried first in the nuns cemetery at Hampole. Later records of people making offerings of candles at his show that he was moved first to the chancel. Rolle probably began writing in the early 1330s, and continued until his death - and he wrote in both Latin and English, with his English works apparently all dating from after c1340. The precise dating of Rolle’s works is a matter of much modern dispute, the dates set out by Hope Emily Allen in 1927 have been widely used by later writers, but in 1991 Nicholas Watson set out a rather different vision of the chronology of Rolle’s writing. The book was read in the Middle Ages, and described the four purgative stages that one had to go through to become closer to God, described as open door, heat, song. His last work was probably the English The Form of Living and it is addressed to Margaret Kirkby, who entered her enclosure as a recluse on 12 December 1348, and is a vernacular guide for her life as an anchoriteRichard Rolle – Richard Rolle, detail from “Religious Poems,” early 15th century (Cotton Ms. Faustina B. VI)
6. Renaissance Latin – They looked to golden age Latin literature, and especially to Cicero in prose and Virgil in poetry, as the arbiters of Latin style. They abandoned the use of the sequence and other forms of metre. The humanists condemned the large body of medieval Latin literature as Gothic—for them, some 16th-century Ciceronian humanists also sought to purge written Latin of medieval developments in its orthography. They insisted, for example, that ae be written out in full wherever it occurred in classical Latin, therefore, the first generations of humanists did not dedicate much care to the orthography till the late sixteenth and seventeenth century. The humanist plan to remake Latin was largely successful, at least in education, schools taught the humanistic spellings, and encouraged the study of the texts selected by the humanists, to the large exclusion of later Latin literature. Genealogia deorum gentilium by Giovanni Boccaccio 1425, de elegantiis Latinæ linguæ by Lorenzo Valla 1442. Historia Florentini populi by Leonardo Bruni 1444, historia de duobus amantibus by Æneas Sylvius Piccolomini, Pope Pius II1452. De re ædificatoria by Leone Battista Alberti 1471, contra amores by Bartolomeo Platina 1479. De inventione dialectica by Rodolphus Agricola 1481, introductiones Latinæ by Antonio de Nebrija 1486. De hominis dignitate by Giovanni Pico della Mirandola 1491, nutricia by Poliziano Theologia Platonica de immortalitate animæ by Marsilio Ficino Francesco Filelfo An Analytic Bibliography of On-line Neo-Latin Titles. René Hoven, Lexique de la prose latine de la Renaissance, dictionary of Renaissance Latin from prose sources, with the collaboration of Laurent Grailet, Leiden, Brill,2006,683 p. The Centre for Neo-Latin Studies, focusing on Irish Renaissance LatinRenaissance Latin – Mural of Dante in the Uffizi Gallery, by Andrea del Castagno, c. 1450.
7. New Latin – New Latin was a revival in the use of Latin in original, scholarly, and scientific works between c.1375 and c. Modern scholarly and technical nomenclature, such as in zoological and botanical taxonomy and international scientific vocabulary, in such use, New Latin is often viewed as still existing and subject to new word formation. As a language for full expression in prose or poetry, however, classicists use the term Neo-Latin to describe the Latin that developed in Renaissance Italy as a result of renewed interest in classical civilization in the 14th and 15th centuries. Neo-Latin also describes the use of the Latin language for any purpose, scientific or literary, during, the term New Latin came into widespread use towards the end of the 1890s among linguists and scientists. New Latin was, at least in its days, an international language used throughout Catholic and Protestant Europe. Russias acquisition of Kiev in the later 17th century introduced the study of Latin to Russia, though Latin and New Latin are considered extinct, large parts of their vocabulary have seeped into English and several Germanic languages. New Latin was inaugurated by the triumph of the humanist reform of Latin education, led by writers as Erasmus, More. Medieval Latin had been the working language of the Roman Catholic Church, taught throughout Europe to aspiring clerics. It was a language, full of neologisms and often composed without reference to the grammar or style of classical authors. Attempts at reforming Latin use occurred sporadically throughout the period, becoming most successful in the mid-to-late 19th century, the Protestant Reformation, though it removed Latin from the liturgies of the churches of Northern Europe, may have advanced the cause of the new secular Latin. Classic works such as Newtons Principia Mathematica were written in the language, throughout this period, Latin was a universal school subject, and indeed, the pre-eminent subject for elementary education in most of Europe and other places of the world that shared its culture. All universities required Latin proficiency to obtain admittance as a student, Latin was an official language of Poland—recognised and widely used between the 9th and 18th centuries, commonly used in foreign relations and popular as a second language among some of the nobility. As an auxiliary language to the local vernaculars, New Latin appeared in a variety of documents, ecclesiastical, legal, diplomatic, academic. As late as the 1720s, Latin was still used conversationally, for instance, the Hanoverian king George I of Great Britain, who had no command of spoken English, communicated in Latin with his Prime Minister Robert Walpole, who knew neither German nor French. By about 1700, the movement for the use of national languages had reached academia, and an example of the transition is Newtons writing career. A much earlier example is Galileo c,1600, some of whose scientific writings were in Latin, some in Italian, the latter to reach a wider audience. Likewise, in the early 18th century, French replaced Latin as a diplomatic language, at the same time, some were dismissing Latin as a useless accomplishment, unfit for a man of practical affairs. The last international treaty to be written in Latin was the Treaty of Vienna in 1738, a diminishing audience combined with diminishing production of Latin texts pushed Latin into a declining spiral from which it has not recoveredNew Latin – Linnaeus, 10th edition of Systema Naturae is a famous New Latin text.
8. Classical Latin – Classical Latin is the modern term used to describe the form of the Latin language recognized as standard by writers of the late Roman Republic and the Roman Empire. In some later periods, it was regarded as good Latin, the word Latin is now taken by default as meaning Classical Latin, so that, for example, modern Latin textbooks describe classical Latin. Latinitas was spoken as well as written, moreover, it was the language taught by the schools. Prescriptive rules therefore applied to it, and where a subject was concerned, such as poetry or rhetoric. No authors are noted for the type of rigidity evidenced by stylized art, except possibly the repetitious abbreviations, good Latin in philology is classical Latin literature. The term classicus was devised by the Romans themselves to translate Greek ἐγκριθέντες, select, before then, classis, in addition to being a naval fleet, was a social class in one of the diachronic divisions of Roman society according to property ownership by the Roman constitution. The word is a transliteration of Greek κλῆσις calling, used to rank army draftees by property from first to fifth class, classicus is anything primae classis, first class, such as the authors of the polished works of Latinitas, or sermo urbanus. It had nuances of the certified and the authentic, testis classicus and it was in this sense that Marcus Cornelius Fronto in the 2nd century AD used scriptores classici, first-class or reliable authors whose works could be relied upon as model of good Latin. This is the first known reference, possibly innovated at this time, aulus Gellius includes many authors, such as Plautus, who are currently considered writers of Old Latin and not strictly in the period of classical Latin. The classical Romans distinguished Old Latin as prisca Latinitas and not sermo vulgaris, each author in the Roman lists was considered equivalent to one in the Greek, for example Ennius was the Latin Homer, the Aeneid was a new Iliad, and so on. The lists of authors were as far as the Roman grammarians went in developing a philology. The Renaissance brought a revival of interest in restoring as much of Roman culture as could be restored and with it the return of the concept of classic, the best. Thomas Sébillet in 1548 referred to les bons et classiques poètes françois, meaning Jean de Meun and Alain Chartier, according to Merriam Websters Collegiate Dictionary, the term classical, from classicus, entered modern English in 1599, some 50 years after its re-introduction on the continent. In 1715 Laurence Echards Classical Geographical Dictionary was published, in 1736 Robert Ainsworths Thesaurus Linguae Latinae Compendarius turned English words and expressions into proper and classical Latin. In 1768 David Ruhnken recast the mold of the view of the classical by applying the word canon to the pinakes of orators, Ruhnken had a kind of secular catechism in mind. The practice and Teuffels classification, with modifications, are still in use and his work was translated into English as soon as published in German by Wilhelm Wagner, who corresponded with Teuffel. Wagner published the English translation in 1873, Teuffel divides the chronology of classical Latin authors into several periods according to political events, rather than by style. Regarding the style of the literary Latin of those periods he had, Teuffel was to go on with other editions of his history, but meanwhile it had come out in English almost as soon as it did in German and found immediate favorable receptionClassical Latin – Latin inscription in the Colosseum
9. British Latin – British Latin or British Vulgar Latin was the Vulgar Latin spoken in Great Britain in the Roman and sub-Roman periods. While Britain formed part of the Roman Empire, Latin became the language of the elite, especially in the more Romanized south. However, it never replaced the Brittonic language of the indigenous Britons, especially in the less Romanized north. In recent years, scholars have debated the extent to which British Latin was distinguishable from its continental counterparts, which developed into the Romance languages. With the end of Roman rule, Latin was displaced as a language by Old English in most of what became England during the Anglo-Saxon settlement of the fifth and sixth centuries. It survived in the remaining Celtic regions of western Britain until about 700, at the inception of Roman rule in AD43, Great Britain was inhabited by the indigenous Britons, who spoke the Celtic language known as Brittonic. Particularly in the zone, Latin became the language of most of the townspeople, of administration and the ruling class, the army and, following the introduction of Christianity. Brittonic remained the language of the peasantry, which was the bulk of the population, in the highland zone, there was only limited attempts at Romanization, and Brittonic always remained the dominant language. Throughout much of western Europe, from Late Antiquity, the Vulgar Latin of everyday speech developed into locally distinctive varieties which ultimately became the Romance languages. But in Britain, following the end of Roman rule in the early 5th century, Vulgar Latin died out as an everyday spoken language. The time by which Vulgar Latin died out as a vernacular in Britain, an inherent difficulty in evidencing Vulgar Latin is that, as an extinct spoken language form, no source provides a direct account of it. There is, therefore, reliance on sources of evidence such as errors in written texts. These are held to be reflective of the spoken language. Of particular linguistic value in this regard are private inscriptions made by people, such as epitaphs and votive offerings. In relation to Vulgar Latin specifically as it was spoken in Britain, Kenneth H. Jackson put forward in the 1950s what became the established view, Jackson drew conclusions about the nature of British Latin from examining Latin loan-words which had passed into the British Celtic languages. From the 1970s John Mann, Eric P. Hamp and others used what Mann called the sub-literary tradition in inscriptions to identify spoken British Latin usage, Kenneth Jackson argued for a form of British Vulgar Latin, distinctive from continental Vulgar Latin. In fact, he identified two forms of British Latin, a variety of the language not significantly different from continental Vulgar Latin. This latter variety, Jackson believed, could be distinguished from continental Vulgar Latin by 12 distinct criteria, in particular, he characterised it as a conservative, hypercorrect school Latin with a sound-system was very archaic by ordinary Continental standardsBritish Latin – Relative degrees of Romanisation, based on archaeology. Romanisation was greatest in the southeast, extending west and north in lesser degrees. West of a line from the Humber to the Severn, and including Cornwall and Devon, Roman acculturation was minimal or non-existent.
10. Contemporary Latin – Contemporary Latin is the form of the Latin language used from the end of the 19th century through to the present. Various kinds of contemporary Latin can be distinguished, on the one hand there is its symbolic survival in areas like taxonomy and others as the result of the widespread presence of the language in the New Latin era. This is normally found in the form of words or phrases used in the general context of other languages. On the other hand, there is the use of Latin as a language in its own right as full-fledged means of expression, Living or Spoken Latin, being the most specific development of Latin in the contemporary context, is the primary subject of this article. The official use of Latin in previous eras has survived at a level in many mottos that are still being used. Old mottoes like E pluribus unum found in 1776 on the Seal of the United States, along with Annuit cœptis and Novus ordo seclorum, similarly current pound sterling coins are minted with the Latin inscription ELIZABETH·II·D·G·REG·F·D. The official motto of the European Union, adopted as recently as 2000, is the Latin In varietate concordia, similarly to the multi-lingual European Union, the motto on the Canadian Victoria Cross is in Latin due to Canadas bilingual status. Some common phrases that are still in use in many languages have remained fixed in Latin, like the well-known dramatis personæ or habeas corpus. These names follow the nomenclature system and thus consist of a first part, identifying the galaxy. However, modern astronomers are not easily convinced to use such a system, symbols for many of those chemical elements of the periodic table known in ancient times reflect and echo their Latin names, like Au for aurum and Fe for ferrum. Latin has also contributed a vocabulary for specialised fields such as anatomy, Latin continues to be used to form international scientific vocabulary and classical compounds. In fact, more than 56% of the still used in English today derives ultimately from Latin. The Catholic Church has continued to use Latin, as in preceding centuries, two main areas can be distinguished. One is its use for the version of all documents issued by Vatican City. Although documents are first drafted in various vernaculars, the version is written in Latin by the specific Latin Letters Office. The other is its use for the liturgy, which has been diminished after the Second Vatican Council of 1962-65, most recently a Latin edition of the 1979 USA Anglican Book of Common Prayer has appeared. Latin has also survived to some extent in the context of classical scholarship, some classical periodicals, like Mnemosyne or the German Hermes, to this day accept articles in Latin for publication. Harvard and Princeton also have Latin Salutatory commencement addresses every year, the Charles University in Prague and many other universities around the world conduct the awarding of their doctoral degrees in LatinContemporary Latin – A contemporary Latin inscription at Salamanca University commemorating the visit of the then-Prince Akihito and Princess Michiko of Japan in, as the inscription states, 1985 (MCMLXXXV).
11. Ecclesiastical Latin – Ecclesiastical Latin is the form of the Latin language used in the Roman Rite of the Latin Church of the Catholic Church for liturgical and other purposes. It is distinguished from Classical Latin by some variations, a simplified syntax. Ecclesiastical Latin is the language of the Holy See and the only surviving sociolect of spoken Latin. During the Late Republic and Early Empire periods, educated Roman citizens were generally fluent in Greek, the Holy See has no obligation to use Latin as its official language and, in theory, could change its practice. As Latin is no longer in use, the meaning of words is less likely to change radically from century to century. Since Latin is spoken as a language by no modern community. Especially since the Second Vatican Council of 1962–1965, the Church no longer uses Latin as the language of the Roman and Ambrosian liturgies of the Latin rites of the Catholic Church. As early as 1913, the Catholic Encyclopedia commented that Latin was starting to be replaced by vernacular languages, however, the Church still produces its official liturgical texts in Latin, which provide a single clear point of reference for translations into all other languages. For example, the writers of the Catechism of the Catholic Church drafted it in French, but five years later, when the Latin text appeared in 1997, the French text underwent correction to stay in line with the Latin version. The Latin language department of the Vatican Secretariat of State is charged with the preparation in Latin of papal and curial documents. Occasionally, the texts are published in a modern language, including such well-known texts as the motu proprio Tra le sollecitudini by Pope Pius X. The written Latin of today, as used for Church purposes, does not differ radically from classical Latin, Study of the language of Cicero and Virgil suffices adequately for understanding Church Latin. AE and OE coalesce with E, and before these letters and the letter I, TI followed by a vowel is generally pronounced /tsi/. Such speakers pronounce consonantal V as in English, and double consonants are pronounced as such, the distinction in Classical Latin between long and short vowels is abandoned, and instead of the macron, a horizontal line marking the long vowel, an acute accent is used for stress. The first syllable of words is stressed, in longer words. Ecclesiastics in some countries follow different traditions. The complete text of the Bible in Latin appears at Nova Vulgata - Bibliorum Sacrorum Editio, another site gives the entire Bible, in the Douay version, verse by verse, accompanied by the Vulgate Latin of each verse. In 1976 the Latinitas Foundation was established by Pope Paul VI to promote the study and its headquarters are in Vatican CityEcclesiastical Latin – The spread of Christianity to 600 AD — the dark pockets represent initial enclaves
12. Botanical Latin – Botanical Latin is a technical language based on New Latin, used for descriptions of botanical taxa. Until 2012, International Code of Botanical Nomenclature mandated Botanical Latin to be used for the descriptions of most new taxa and it is still the only language other than English accepted for descriptions. The names of organisms governed by the Code also have forms based on Latin, Botanical Latin is primarily a written language. It includes taxon names derived from any language or even arbitrarily derived, there are at least two pronunciation systems used for Latin by English speakers. All of these systems, however, will inevitably be unsustainable across the spectrum of botanical names, de Candolle estimated that to learn Botanical Latin would take three months work for an English speaker not already familiar with any language of Latin origin, and one month for an Italian. These include many thousands of plants unknown to the Greeks and Romans of classical times, Latin names of organisms are generally used in English without alteration, but some informal derivatives are used as common names. For example, the ending of subclass names is changed to -ids. More extensive modifications to the spelling and pronunciation are routinely used in other languages. French organism names are usually gallicized, for example, Chlorophyceae becomes Chlorophycées, Portulacineae becomes Portulacinées. The Classical Latin alphabet consisted of 21 letters, to which w, y, and z were later added, and this 26-letter alphabet is used for taxon names in Botanical Latin. Diacritics are not used in names, and a dieresis is considered a mark that does not affect spelling. Some English speakers, and some speakers of languages, use the reconstructed pronunciation guide for Classical Latin when speaking Botanical Latin. Latin names pronounced by gardeners and English botanists usually follow a system close to English and it differs greatly from Classical pronunciation, and also from Ecclesiastical Latin pronunciation. Every vowel is pronounced, except diphthongs, which are treated as long vowels. In classical Latin words of several syllables the stress falls on the next to the last one when this syllable is long. E. g. for-mō-sus, or when two consonants separate the two last vowels, e. g. cru-ěn-tus, on the last syllable but two when the last but one is short, e. g. flō-ri-dus. These rules cannot satisfactorily be applied to all names and specific epithets commemorating persons. About 80 per cent of generic names and 30 per cent of specific epithets come from other than LatinBotanical Latin – Linnaeus, 10th edition of Systema Naturae is a famous New Latin text.
13. Vulgar Latin – Vulgar Latin or Sermo Vulgaris is a generic term for the nonstandard sociolects of Latin from which the Romance languages developed. Works written in Latin during classical times used Classical Latin rather than Vulgar Latin, because of its nonstandard nature, Vulgar Latin had no official orthography. Vulgar Latin is sometimes also called colloquial Latin, or Common Romance, in Renaissance Latin, Vulgar Latin was called vulgare Latinum or Latinum vulgare. The term common speech, which later became Vulgar Latin, was used by inhabitants of the Roman Empire, traces of their language appear in some inscriptions, such as graffiti or advertisements. The educated population mainly responsible for Classical Latin might also have spoken Vulgar Latin in certain contexts depending on their socioeconomic background, the term was first used improperly in that sense by the pioneers of Romance-language philology, François Juste Marie Raynouard and Friedrich Christian Diez. These terms, as he points out later in the work, are a translation into German of Dantes vulgare latinum and Latinum vulgare, and these names in turn are at the end of a tradition extending to the Roman republic. Latin could be sermo Latinus, but in addition was a variety known as sermo vulgaris, sermo vulgi, sermo plebeius and these modifiers inform post-classical readers that a conversational Latin existed, which was used by the masses in daily speaking and was perceived as lower-class. These vocabulary items manifest no opposition to the written language, there was an opposition to higher-class, or family Latin in sermo familiaris and very rarely literature might be termed sermo nobilis. The supposed sermo classicus is a scholarly fiction unattested in the dictionary, all kinds of sermo were spoken only, not written. If one wanted to refer to what in post-classical times was called classical Latin one resorted to the concept of latinitas or latine. If one spoke in the lingua or sermo Latinus one merely spoke Latin, but if one spoke latine or latinius one spoke good Latin, and formal Latin had latinitas, the original opposition was between formal or implied good Latin and informal or Vulgar Latin. The spoken/written dichotomy is entirely philological, although making it clear that sermo vulgaris existed, the ancients said very little about it. Because it was not transcribed, it can only be studied indirectly, knowledge comes from these chief sources, Solecisms, especially in Late Latin texts. Mention of it by ancient grammarians, including prescriptive grammar texts from the Late Latin period condemning linguistic errors that represent spoken Latin, the comparative method, which reconstructs Proto-Romance, a hypothetical vernacular proto-language from which the Romance languages descended. The original written Latin language was adapted from the spoken language of the Latins, with some minor modifications. As with many languages, over time the spoken language diverged from the written language with the written language remaining somewhat static. Nevertheless, during the period spoken Latin still remained largely common across the Empire. The collapse of the Western Roman Empire rapidly began to change this, the former western provinces became increasingly isolated from the Eastern Roman Empire leading to a rapid divergence in the Latin spoken on either sideVulgar Latin – Extract of the Oaths of Strasbourg, the earliest French text.