Category:Forms of Latin
Pages in category "Forms of Latin"
The following 18 pages are in this category, out of 18 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 18 pages are in this category, out of 18 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Latin – Latin is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. The Latin alphabet is derived from Greek alphabets. Latin was originally spoken in the Italian Peninsula. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the dominant language, initially in Italy and subsequently throughout the Roman Empire. Vulgar Latin developed such as Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, French, Romanian. Latin, Italian and French have contributed many words to the English language. Ancient Greek roots are used in theology, biology, medicine. By the late Roman Republic, Old Latin had been standardised into Classical Latin. Vulgar Latin was the colloquial form attested in inscriptions and the works of comic playwrights like Plautus and Terence. Later, Early Modern Latin and Modern Latin evolved. Latin was used until well into the 18th century, when it began to be supplanted by vernaculars. Ecclesiastical Latin remains the Roman Rite of the Catholic Church. Many students, scholars and members of the Catholic clergy speak Latin fluently. It is taught around the world. The language has been passed down through various forms.Latin – Latin inscription, in the Colosseum
2. Old Latin – The use of "old", "early" and "archaic" has been standard in publications of Old Latin writings since at least the 18th century. This article presents some of the major differences. The concept of Old Latin is as old as the concept of Classical Latin, both dating to at least early as the late Roman Republic. Viri prisci, "old-time men," were the population of Latium before the founding of Rome. In the Late Latin period, when Classical Latin was behind them, the Latin - and Greek-speaking grammarians were faced within the language. Isidore of Seville reports a scheme that had come into existence in or before his time: "the four Latins". The scheme persisted after Isidore. Although the differences can be easily identified by Latin readers, they are not such as to cause a language barrier. Thus, the Carmen Saliare, probably written under Numa Pompilius, was not entirely. The end of the republic was too late a termination for compilers after Wordsworth; Charles Edwin Bennett said, "'Early Latin' is necessarily a somewhat vague term... Bell, De locativi in prisca Latinitate vi et usu, Breslau, 1889, sets the later limit at 75 BC. A definite date is really impossible, since archaic Latin continues even down to imperial times." Over the 377 years from 452 to 75 BC, Old Latin evolved from being partially comprehensible by classicists with study to being easily read by scholars. Old Latin authored works began in the 3rd BC. These are nearly complete works under their own name surviving as manuscripts copied from other manuscripts in whatever script was current at the time.Old Latin – The playwright Titus Maccius Plautus wrote using Old Latin.
3. Late Latin – Late Latin is the scholarly name for the written Latin of Late Antiquity. This somewhat ambiguously defined period fits between Medieval Latin. Being a written language, Late Latin is not identical with Vulgar Latin. The latter during those centuries served as a reconstructed ancestor of the Romance languages. Some are more classical, some more inclined to the vernacular. Nor is Late Latin identical to Christian or patristic Latin, the theological writings of the early Christian fathers. While Christian writings are considered a subset of Late Latin, pagans wrote especially in the early part of the period. "Serving as some sort of lingua franca to a large empire, Latin tended to become simpler, to keep above all what it had of the ordinary...." Neither Late Latin nor Late Antiquity are modern terms or concepts; their origin remains obscure. Instances of English use of the term may also be found from the 18th century. Pre-medieval had currency in English well before then. Imperial Latin went on into English literature; Fowler's History of Roman Literature mentions it in 1903. There are, however, insoluble problems with the end of Imperial Latin. Yet the style can not be bundled with either the Silver Age or with Late Latin. Moreover, in 6th century Italy, the Roman Empire longer existed; the rule of Gothic kings prevailed.Late Latin – Augustine of Hippo (354 – 430), Late Latin author
4. Medieval Latin – Despite the clerical origin of many of its authors, medieval Latin should not be confused with Ecclesiastical Latin. There is no real consensus on the exact boundary where Late Latin medieval Latin begins. Medieval Latin had an enlarged vocabulary, which freely borrowed from other sources. Greek provided much of the technical vocabulary of Christianity. The Germanic languages spoken by the Germanic tribes, who invaded southern Europe, were also major sources of new words. Other more ordinary words were replaced by coinages from Vulgar Latin or Germanic sources because the classical words had fallen into disuse. Latin was also spread to areas such as Ireland and Germany, where Romance languages had never known Roman rule. English words like their cognates in other European languages generally have the meanings given to them in medieval Latin. On the other hand, strictly speaking there was no single form of "medieval Latin". The infinitive construction in classical Latin was often replaced by a subordinate clause introduced by quod or quia. This is almost identical in similar constructions in French. However the use of quod to introduce subordinate clauses is found at all levels. That resulted compared with Classical Latin. First, many authors attempted to "show off" their knowledge of Classical Latin by using archaic constructions, sometimes anachronistically. Second, many lesser scholars were increasingly influenced by Vulgar Latin, mutating into the Romance languages.Medieval Latin – Carmina Cantabrigiensia, Medieval Latin manuscript
5. Richard Rolle – Richard Rolle was an English hermit, mystic, religious writer. In his works, Rolle provides explicit evidence about his early life and education. While there, he is said to have been more interested than philosophy and secular studies. He left Oxford at age nineteen - dropping out before he received his MA - to become a hermit. Leaving the home, he first went to Pickering, housed with a squire, John Dalton, for perhaps three years. It was probably while still living after becoming a hermit, Rolle had his first mystical experience. Around a year later, he began to take less interest in all things temporal. It is unclear where Rolle lived until his death in 1349. One theory is that Rolle spent the early 1320s at the renowned Sorbonne, perhaps being ordained there. Scholars, however, are divided on the authenticity of this material. Rolle died in Michaelmas 1349 at Hampole. Because of his time spent here, where he was director of the inmates, he is sometimes known as de Hampole. It is unclear what his function was there: he was not the nuns' official confessor, a Franciscan. However he wrote The Form of Living and Ego Dormio for a nun at Yedingham. There is no direct evidence for this.Richard Rolle – Richard Rolle, detail from “Religious Poems,” early 15th century (Cotton Ms. Faustina B. VI)
6. Renaissance Latin – They looked as the arbiters of Latin style. Some 16th-century Ciceronian humanists also sought to purge written Latin of medieval developments in its orthography. They insisted, for example, that ae be written out in full wherever it occurred in classical Latin; medieval scribes often wrote e instead of ae. Therefore, the first generations of humanists did not dedicate much care till the late sixteenth and seventeenth century. The humanist plan to remake Latin was largely successful, at least in education. Schools encouraged the study of the texts selected by the humanists, to the large exclusion of later Latin literature. 1359. Epistolæ familiares by Petrarch 1360. Genealogia deorum gentilium by Giovanni Boccaccio 1425. Hermaphroditus by Antonio Beccadelli 1441. De elegantiis Latinæ linguæ by Lorenzo Valla 1442. Historia Florentini populi by Leonardo Bruni 1444. Historia de duobus amantibus by Pope Pius II 1452. De re ædificatoria by Leone Battista Alberti 1471. Contra amores by Bartolomeo Platina 1479.Renaissance Latin – Mural of Dante in the Uffizi Gallery, by Andrea del Castagno, c. 1450.
7. New Latin – New Latin was a revival in the use of Latin in original, scholarly, scientific works between c. 1375 and c. 1900. Modern technical nomenclature, such as in zoological and botanical taxonomy and international scientific vocabulary, draws extensively from New Latin vocabulary. In such use, New Latin is often viewed as subject to new word formation. As a language for full expression in poetry, however, it is often distinguished from Contemporary Latin as a predecessor. Neo-Latin also describes the use of the Latin language for any purpose, literary, during and after the Renaissance. The term "New Latin" came among linguists and scientists. Russia's acquisition of Kiev in the later 17th century introduced the study of Latin to Russia. Though Latin and New Latin are considered extinct, large parts of their vocabulary have seeped into several Germanic languages. New Latin was inaugurated by the triumph of the humanist reform of Latin education, led as Erasmus, More, Colet. Medieval Latin had been the practical working language of the Roman Catholic Church, refined in the medieval universities. It was a flexible language, full of neologisms and often composed to the grammar or style of classical authors. Attempts at reforming Latin use occurred sporadically throughout the period, becoming most successful in the 19th century. The Protestant Reformation, though it removed Latin from the liturgies of the churches of Northern Europe, may have advanced the cause of the new secular Latin. Classic works such as Newton's Principia Mathematica were written in the language.New Latin – Linnaeus, 10th edition of Systema Naturae is a famous New Latin text.
8. Classical Latin – In some later periods, it was regarded with later versions being viewed as debased or corrupt. The Latin is now taken by default as meaning "Classical Latin", so that, for example, modern Latin textbooks describe classical Latin. Latinitas was spoken well as written. Moreover, it was the language taught by the schools. Where a special subject was concerned, such as poetry or rhetoric, additional rules applied. No authors are noted for the type of rigidity evidenced except possibly the repetitious abbreviations and stock phrases of inscriptions. Good Latin in philology is "classical" Latin literature. The term classicus was devised by the Romans themselves to "select", referring to authors who wrote in Greek that were considered model. The word is a transliteration of Greek κλῆσις "calling", used to rank army draftees from first to fifth class. Classicus is "first class", such as the authors of the polished works of Latinitas, or sermo urbanus. It had nuances of the authentic: testis classicus, "reliable witness." This possibly innovated at this time, to classical applied to authors by virtue of the authentic language of their works. Aulus Gellius includes many authors, such as Plautus, who are currently considered writers of Old Latin and not strictly in the period of classical Latin. The classical Romans distinguished Old Latin as not sermo vulgaris. The lists of classical authors were far as the Roman grammarians went in developing a philology.Classical Latin – Latin inscription in the Colosseum
9. British Latin – British Latin or British Vulgar Latin was the Vulgar Latin spoken in Great Britain in the Roman and sub-Roman periods. However, it never substantially replaced the Brittonic language of the indigenous Britons, especially in the less Romanized west. In recent years, scholars have debated the extent to which British Latin was distinguishable from its continental counterparts, which developed into the Romance languages. It survived until about 700 when it was replaced by the local Brittonic languages. At the inception of Roman rule in AD 43, Great Britain was inhabited by the indigenous Britons, who spoke the Celtic language known as Brittonic. Brittonic remained the language of the peasantry, the bulk of the population; the rural elite were probably bilingual. In the highland zone, Brittonic always remained the dominant language. From Late Antiquity, the Vulgar Latin of everyday speech developed into locally distinctive varieties which ultimately became the Romance languages. But following the end of Roman rule in the early 5th century, Vulgar Latin died out as an everyday spoken language. An inherent difficulty in evidencing Vulgar Latin is that, as an extinct spoken form, no source provides a direct account of it. There is, therefore, reliance on indirect sources of evidence such as "errors" in regional inscriptions. These are held to be reflective of the spoken language. Of particular linguistic value in this regard are private inscriptions made by ordinary people, such as epitaphs and votive offerings, "curse tablets". Jackson drew conclusions from examining Latin loan-words which had passed into the British Celtic languages. From the 1970s John Mann, others used what Mann called "the sub-literary tradition" in inscriptions to identify spoken British Latin usage.British Latin – Relative degrees of Romanisation, based on archaeology. Romanisation was greatest in the southeast, extending west and north in lesser degrees. West of a line from the Humber to the Severn, and including Cornwall and Devon, Roman acculturation was minimal or non-existent.
10. Contemporary Latin – Contemporary Latin is the form of the Latin language used from the end of the 19th century through to the present. Various kinds of contemporary Latin can be distinguished. This is normally found in the form of mere phrases used in the general context of other languages. On the other hand, there is the use of Latin as a language in its own right as full-fledged means of expression. Spoken Latin, being the most specific development of Latin in the contemporary context, is the primary subject of this article. Similarly current sterling coins are minted with the Latin inscription ELIZABETH · II · D · G · REG · F · D. The official motto of the European Union, adopted recently as 2000, is the Latin In varietate concordia. Similarly to the multi-lingual European Union, the motto on the Canadian Victoria Cross is in Latin due to Canada's bilingual status. Some common phrases that are still in use in many languages have remained fixed like the well-known dramatis personæ or habeas corpus. However, modern astronomers are not easily convinced to use such a system. Latin continues to be used to form classical compounds. In fact, more than 56% of the vocabulary still used in English today derives ultimately from Latin, either directly or through French. The Catholic Church has continued to use Latin, as in preceding centuries. Two main areas can be distinguished. One is its use for the official version of all documents issued by Vatican City, which has remained intact to the present.Contemporary Latin – A contemporary Latin inscription at Salamanca University commemorating the visit of the then-Prince Akihito and Princess Michiko of Japan in, as the inscription states, 1985 (MCMLXXXV).
11. Ecclesiastical Latin – Ecclesiastical Latin is the form of the Latin language used in the Roman Rite of the Catholic Church for liturgical and other purposes. It is distinguished from Classical Latin by some lexical variations, Italianate pronunciation. Ecclesiastical Latin is the only surviving sociolect of spoken Latin. During the Late Republic and Early Empire periods, educated Roman citizens were generally fluent in Greek, although business was conducted in Latin. The Holy See, in theory, could change its practice. As Latin is longer in common use, the meaning of words is less likely to change radically from century to century. Since Latin is spoken by no modern community, the language is considered a universal, internally consistent means of communication without regional bias. As early as 1913, the Catholic Encyclopedia commented that Latin was starting to be replaced by vernacular languages. However, the Church still produces its liturgical texts in Latin, which provide a single clear point of reference for translations into all other languages. For example, it appeared first in that language in 1992. But five years later, when the Latin text appeared in 1997, the French text underwent correction to stay with the Latin version. The Latin department of the Vatican Secretariat of State is charged with the preparation in Latin of papal and curial documents. The written Latin of today, as used for Church purposes, does not differ radically from classical Latin. Study of the language of Cicero and Virgil suffices adequately for understanding Church Latin. Before these letters and the letter "I", the letters "C" and "G" are pronounced / t͡ʃ / and / d͡ʒ /, respectively.Ecclesiastical Latin – The spread of Christianity to 600 AD — the dark pockets represent initial enclaves
12. Botanical Latin – Botanical Latin is a technical language based on New Latin, used for descriptions of botanical taxa. Until 2012, International Code of Botanical Nomenclature mandated Botanical Latin to be used for the descriptions of most new taxa. It is still the only language other than English accepted for descriptions. The names of organisms governed by the Code also have forms based on Latin. Botanical Latin is primarily a written language. Consequently there is no single consistent pronunciation system. There are at least two pronunciation systems used by English speakers. All of these systems, however, will inevitably be unsustainable across the spectrum of botanical names. Some informal derivatives are used as common names. For example, the -idae ending of subclass names is changed to -ids; the subfamily ending -oideae is changed to -oids. More extensive modifications to the pronunciation are routinely used in some other languages. French organism names are usually gallicized. For example: Chlorophyceae becomes Chlorophycées; Portulacineae becomes Portulacinées. This 26-letter alphabet is used for taxon names in Botanical Latin. A dieresis is considered an optional mark that does not affect spelling.Botanical Latin – Linnaeus, 10th edition of Systema Naturae is a famous New Latin text.
13. Vulgar Latin – Vulgar Latin or Sermo Vulgaris is a generic term for the nonstandard sociolects of the Latin language from which the Romance languages developed. Works written during classical times used Classical Latin rather than Vulgar Latin, with very few exceptions. Because of its nonstandard nature, Vulgar Latin had no official orthography. Vulgar Latin is sometimes also called Latin, or Common Romance. In Renaissance Latin, Vulgar Latin was called vulgare Latinum or Latinum vulgare. The term "speech", which later became "Vulgar Latin", was used by inhabitants of the Roman Empire. Traces of their language appear in some inscriptions, such as advertisements. The educated population mainly responsible for Classical Latin might also have spoken Vulgar Latin in certain contexts depending on their socioeconomic background. The term was first used improperly by the pioneers of Romance-language philology: François Juste Marie Raynouard and Friedrich Christian Diez. These names in turn are at the end of a tradition extending to the Roman republic. In addition was a variety known as sermo vulgaris, sermo vulgi, sermo plebeius and sermo quotidianus. These modifiers inform post-classical readers that a conversational Latin existed, perceived as lower-class. These vocabulary items manifest no opposition to the written language. Family Latin in sermo familiaris and very rarely literature might be termed sermo nobilis. The supposed "sermo classicus" is a scholarly fiction unattested in the dictionary.Vulgar Latin – Extract of the Oaths of Strasbourg, the earliest French text.