Category:French military personnel of the Nine Years' War
Pages in category "French military personnel of the Nine Years' War"
The following 32 pages are in this category, out of 32 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 32 pages are in this category, out of 32 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Jean Bart – Jean Bart was a French naval commander and privateer. Jean Bart was born in Dunkirk in 1650 to a seafaring family and he almost certainly spoke Flemish, at that time the native language in the region, and his birth name was Jan Baert. When he was young, Bart served in the Dutch navy under Admiral Michiel de Ruyter, when war broke out between France and the United Provinces in 1672, he entered the French service. Since persons not of noble birth in those days couldnt obtain the rank of officer in the navy, in this capacity he displayed astonishing bravery, so that Louis XIV sent him on a special mission to the Mediterranean, where he gained great distinction. Unable to receive a command in the due to his low birth, he held an irregular sort of commission, but he had such success, however. He became a terror to the Dutch navy and a menace to the commerce of Holland. On one occasion, with six vessels, he broke through a fleet, shattered a number of the enemys ships. He rose rapidly to the rank of captain and then to that of admiral and he achieved his greatest successes during the Nine Years War. In 1689, in the beginning of war he was captured by the English, together with Claude de Forbin. But 3 days later, they succeeded in escaping to Brittany in a rowboat, in 1691 he slipped through the blockade of Dunkirk, terrorizing the allied merchant fleet and burning a Scottish castle and four villages. In 1694 he achieved his greatest success in the Action of 29 June 1694, Jean Bart was raised into the nobility on 4 August 1694 with a peerage. In 1696 he struck another blow against the Dutch in the Battle of Dogger Bank, the Peace of Ryswick put a close to his active service. He married the 16-year-old Nicole Gontier on 3 February 1676 and they had four children before Nicole died in 1682. Their oldest son, François-Cornil, became vice-admiral, then he married Jacoba Tugghe on 13 October 1689. He signed his contract, which is still on file in Dunkirk. Jean Bart died of pleurisy and is buried in the Eglise Saint-Eloi in Dunkirk, many anecdotes tell of the courage and bluntness of the 2.04 m tall, uncultivated sailor, who became a popular hero of the French Navy. He captured a total of 386 ships and also sank or burned a number more. The town of Dunkirk has honoured his memory by erecting a statue, in World War II, 70% of Dunkirk was destroyed, but the statue survivedJean Bart – Portrait by Mathieu Elias
2. Henri de Massue, Earl of Galway – He was the son of the 1st Marquis de Rouvigny, a distinguished French diplomat, and a nephew of Rachel, the wife of William Russell, Lord Russell. He was a soldier and served in the French army under Turenne and he succeeded his father as general of the Huguenots, and refused Louiss offer, at the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes, to retain him in that office. In 1690, having gone into exile with his fellow Huguenots, he entered the service of William III of England as a major-general, in July 1691 he distinguished himself at the Battle of Aughrim, and in 1692 he was for a time commander-in-chief in Ireland. In November of that year he was created Viscount Galway and Baron Portarlington, the title had previously belonged to Ulick Burke, 1st Viscount Galway, a Jacobite officer who had been killed at Aughrim. In 1693 he fought at Neerwinden and was wounded, in 1695 Savoy changed sides, the Italian peninsula was neutralised, and Galways force was withdrawn to the Netherlands. From 1697 to 1701, a period of Irish history. His aide de camp was Hector Francois Chataigner de Cramahé, son in law of Jacques de Belrieu, Galway scraped together a fresh army, and, although infirm, was reappointed to his command by the home government. He took part in one campaign, and distinguished himself by his personal bravery in action. Marquis de Bay defeated him at the Battle of La Gudina, after this, he retired from active life. His last service was rendered in 1715, when he was sent as one of the justices to Ireland during the Jacobite insurrection. As most of his property in Ireland had been restored to its former owners, the Irish peerage died with him, but not the French marquisate. The French Hospital was incorporated under the Great Seal in 1718 and this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain, Chisholm, Hugh, ed. article name neededHenri de Massue, Earl of Galway – Henri de Massue, Marquis de Rouvigny, 1st Earl of Galway
3. Jean-Baptiste Hertel de Rouville – Jean-Baptiste Hertel de Rouville was a colonial military officer of New France in the Compagnies Franches de la Marine. He is best known in North America for leading the raid on Deerfield, a dedicated soldier, he was widely reviled by the settlers of New England for his tactics of raiding poorly defended settlements. During Queen Annes War he also participated in operations against the English in Newfoundland. Hertel de Rouville was born into a family in Trois-Rivières, in the colony of Canada. During King Williams War, Hertel was among the defenders during the 1690 Battle of Quebec and he was granted the seignory of Rouville at Mont Saint-Hilaire in 1694. During Queen Annes War, Hertel led his first significant independent expedition, the raiders achieved surprise, killing 54 settlers and taking more than 100 prisoners. The prisoners, including women and children, were taken on the overland trek to Quebec. Hertel de Rouville was sent to Newfoundland later in 1704, where he participated in operations against St. Johns. In 1708 he was at the head of an expedition with ambitious goals that was reduced to a raid on Haverhill. After Queen Annes War ended in 1713, Hertel de Rouville was sent to Île-Royale to scout sites for new French settlements, based on his recommendations, Fort Dauphin was selected for an initial settlement, and Hertel de Rouville oversaw its construction. He was awarded the Order of Saint Louis in 1721, and he had two sons who distinguished themselves in military service to New FranceJean-Baptiste Hertel de Rouville – Jean-Baptiste Hertel de Rouville
4. Louis XIV of France – Louis XIV, known as Louis the Great or the Sun King, was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who ruled as King of France and Navarre from 1643 until his death in 1715. His reign of 72 years and 110 days is the longest of any monarch of a country in European history. In the age of absolutism in Europe, Louis XIVs France was a leader in the centralization of power. Louis began his rule of France in 1661, after the death of his chief minister. By these means he became one of the most powerful French monarchs, under his rule, the Edict of Nantes, which granted rights to Huguenots, was abolished. The revocation effectively forced Huguenots to emigrate or convert in a wave of dragonnades, which managed to virtually destroy the French Protestant minority. During Louis reign, France was the leading European power, and it fought three wars, the Franco-Dutch War, the War of the League of Augsburg. There were also two lesser conflicts, the War of Devolution and the War of the Reunions, warfare defined Louis XIVs foreign policies, and his personality shaped his approach. Impelled by a mix of commerce, revenge, and pique, in peacetime he concentrated on preparing for the next war. He taught his diplomats their job was to create tactical and strategic advantages for the French military, Louis XIV was born on 5 September 1638 in the Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye, to Louis XIII and Anne of Austria. He was named Louis Dieudonné and bore the title of French heirs apparent. At the time of his birth, his parents had married for 23 years. His mother had experienced four stillbirths between 1619 and 1631, leading contemporaries thus regarded him as a divine gift and his birth a miracle of God. Sensing imminent death, Louis XIII decided to put his affairs in order in the spring of 1643, in defiance of custom, which would have made Queen Anne the sole Regent of France, the king decreed that a regency council would rule on his sons behalf. His lack of faith in Queen Annes political abilities was his primary rationale and he did, however, make the concession of appointing her head of the council. Louis relationship with his mother was uncommonly affectionate for the time, contemporaries and eyewitnesses claimed that the Queen would spend all her time with Louis. Both were greatly interested in food and theatre, and it is likely that Louis developed these interests through his close relationship with his mother. This long-lasting and loving relationship can be evidenced by excerpts in Louis journal entries, such as, but attachments formed later by shared qualities of the spirit are far more difficult to break than those formed merely by bloodLouis XIV of France – Louis XIV by Hyacinthe Rigaud (1701)
5. Ferdinand de Marsin – Ferdinand, comte de Marsin was a French general and diplomat, who was Marshal of France. He was born in Liège as the son of John Gaspar Ferdinand de Marchin, Comte de Granville, Marsin served in Flanders, and was wounded at the Battle of Fleurus. He took part in the Battle of Neerwinden and the siege of Charleroi, in 1701–1702 he was French ambassador in Spain. In the War of the Spanish Succession, he was present at the Battle of Luzzara and he became marshal in 1703, after the battle of Speyerbach. In 1704 he was defeated at the Battle of Blenheim, together with Tallard, imprisoned in the same city, he died a few days later. Biography of Ferdinand comte de MarchinFerdinand de Marsin – Bust of Ferdinand, comte de Marsin in the Galerie des Batailles, Palace of Versailles
6. Jacques Testard de Montigny – Jacques Testard de Montigny was an officer in the colonial troupes de la marine of New France. Born in Montreal into a merchant family, Montigny first saw action as a volunteer on the expedition against Schenectady in 1690. In 1696 Montigny was on expedition against Pemaquid, an English fort on the northern frontier with Acadia. Montigny was given an independent command by dIberville, in which he traveled along the coast, destroying settlements, despite the destructive nature of the expedition, it had no long-lasting implications, as the English quickly returned, rebuilding and fortifying some of the settlements. Montigny was promoted to lieutenant in 1700, in 1704 he was sent back to Acadia, where he helped orchestrate raids against English settlements, and worked to convince the Abenakis to resettle closer to French settlements. In the winter of 1704/5 he brought a band of Abenakis to Newfoundland and they once again destroyed a number of English settlements, but were unable to capture St. Johns, the English capital. In 1706 Montigny went to France with Escumbuit, where they were received by King Louis XIV and he was a member of an expedition sent in 1709 to dispute a possible English advance on Lake Champlain. The English never reached beyond the end of the lake. By 1726 he had returned to Montreal, and in 1730 he was commandant of Fort Michilimackinac. He died in Montreal in 1737 and he was twice married, and had seven children. Casimir-Amable Testard de Montigny, his great-grandson Portraits of Jacques Testard de Montigny, his wife, son and daughter-in-law Military history of Nova Scotia Dechêne, LouiseJacques Testard de Montigny – Jacques Testard de Montigny (1663-1737)
7. Anne Jules de Noailles – Son of Anne de Noailles and his wife, Louise Boyer, he acceded to the title of duc de Noailles on his fathers death in 1678. He was married to Marie-Françoise de Bournonville, with whom he had children, adrien-Maurice, his eldest surviving son, succeeded him upon his death. One of his daughters, Marie Victoire, married one of King Louis XIVs illegitimate sons, battle of the river Ter Oettinger, Eduard Maria, Kesselmeyer, Karl August. Attribution, This article incorporates text from a now in the public domain, Chisholm, HughAnne Jules de Noailles – Anne-Jules de Noailles. Portrait by Hyacinthe Rigaud
8. Philippe Pastour de Costebelle – Philippe Pastour de Costebelle was a naval officer and Governor of Newfoundland, born Languedoc died Louisbourg. Costebelle served in the French Navy as early as 1683, and in 1692 served as lieutenant to an infantry company sent to Plaisance, the principal French settlement on Newfoundland. There he was involved in defending the port from English naval assaults in the ongoing King Williams War. Costebelle distinguished himself, and was promoted to captain in 1694 and that year he was ordered to improve the fortifications and establish contact with the English colonists in St. Marys Bay. In 1696 Costebelle was sent to France, and thus did not participate in Pierre LeMoyne dIbervilles celebrated, monic was frequently absent from the colony, so Costebelle spent a significant time during Monics tenure in actual command of the colony. In 1702, while awaiting Subercases arrival, Costebelle rallied the provinces defences against Captain John Leakes raiding expedition that brought Queen Annes War to Newfoundland, subercase arrived to take command in 1703, and adopted a vigorous strategy against the English. In 1705 he led an expedition against English outposts that sought to repeat dIbervilles successes in 1696. Costebelle went on the expedition, but was injured in an accident en route, Subercases expedition was partly successful, destroying many English settlements, but he was unable to take St. Johns. Subercase was rewarded with the governorship of Acadia, and Costebelle was finally appointed governor of Plaisance in 1706, in June 1708 he was awarded the Order of Saint Louis. In December 1708 Costebelle organized an attack on the British at St. Johns. Although he captured the town and its fortress, he did not have the resources to hold it, by the Treaty of Utrecht of 1713 Newfoundland was handed over to Britain and the king of France ordered Costebelle to evacuate the colony in the spring of 1714. Costebelle oversaw the evacuation of French subjects from Newfoundland to Cape Breton Island, Costebelle became its first governor, and oversaw the establishment of Louisbourg. Costebelle returned to France briefly in 1717, and died at Fort Dauphin not long after his return in October 1717, Costebelle was twice married, and had two daughtersPhilippe Pastour de Costebelle – Philippe de Pastour de Costebelle
9. Camille d'Hostun, duc de Tallard – Camille dHostun de la Baume, duc de Tallard was a French noble, diplomat and military commander, who became Marshal of France. Tallard was granted a commission in the French army at the age of 15 and he later served under the prince de Condé in the Netherlands, and from 1674, under Turenne in Alsace. He was promoted maréchal de camp in 1678, and served in the Nine Years War and his friendship with King Louis XIV ensured a position of authority. After the war he served for two years as ambassador to the Court of St. Jamess, where his knowledge of European political affairs proved highly valuable. When King James II died in September 1701, King Louis recognised James’s son as his successor to the throne of England, consequently, King William III expelled Tallard from London in 1702. Tallard’s military career reached its height during the War of the Spanish Succession, on 7 September 1703 the duc de Burgundy and Tallard took the town of Breisach. Tallard proceeded to invest Landau in mid October, a relief force under the Prince of Hesse-Kassel was roundly defeated by Tallard’s force at the Battle of Speyerbach on 15 November. As a result, Landau fell two days later, shortly after, Tallard was created Marshal of France. Tallard was placed in command of the combined Franco-Bavarian army. Decisively beaten, he was captured and taken back to England, the writer Daniel Defoe reported that his small, but beautiful parterre, after the French fashion was one of the beauties of Nottingham. On his release in 1711 he returned to France, despite the calamity of Blenheim, Louis appeared to bear the Marshal no ill will. Tallard was made a duke in 1712 and became a Peer of France in 1715, in King Louis XIVs testament, Tallard was appointed to the Council of Regency but the duc dOrléans had the testament nullified. He was elected president of the Académie des Sciences in 1724 and, in 1726, the couple had no children, Marie Isabelle was the Governess to the children of Louis XV from 1735-1754. Chandler, David G. Marlborough as Military Commander, Marlborough, His Life and Times, Bk. The Wars of Louis XIV, 1667–1714, Blenheim 1704, The Duke of Marlboroughs Masterpiece. ISBN 1-84176-771-9 Tallard in Nottingham Free scores by Camille dHostun, duc de Tallard at the International Music Score Library ProjectCamille d'Hostun, duc de Tallard – Camille d'Hostun de la Baume, Duc de Tallard (1652–1728)
10. Anne Hilarion de Tourville – Anne Hilarion de Costentin, comte de Tourville was a French naval commander who served under King Louis XIV. He was made Marshal of France in 1693, at age 17, as a Knight of Malta, he fought his first naval battle on a frigate of the Order of Malta. He served under Abraham Duquesne during the campaigns of 1676, and he put his flag on the Soleil-Royal, where it would stay until the battle of La Hougue in 1692. At the Battle of Beachy Head,1690, he defeated an Anglo-Dutch fleet, sinking or capturing 15 enemy ships. On 29 May 1692, at the battle of the Battles of Barfleur and La Hogue, with only 45 ships, he inflicted heavy damage on an English and Dutch fleet 97 ships strong. He himself suffered heavy losses after the battle when fire ships attacked the French ships of the line immobilised for repairs in port at Cherbourg. On 27 June 1693, he defeated a convoy of 59 English ships commanded by George Rooke at Cape St. Vincent near Lagos Bay in Portugal, Tourville retired after the 1697 Peace of Ryswick and died in Paris on 23 May 1701, regarded as a national hero. A number of French naval vessels from the 18th through 20th centuries were named in Tourvilles honour, attribution Chisholm, Hugh, ed. Tourville, Anne-Hilarion de Cotentin, Comte de. Encyclopedia. com information about Anne Hilarion de TourvilleAnne Hilarion de Tourville – Amiral Anne-Hilarion de Costentin, comte de Tourville, Musée de la Marine.
11. Claude Louis Hector de Villars – Villars was born at Moulins in a noble but poor family — his father was the diplomat Pierre de Villars. He entered the French army through the corps of pages in 1671, the next promotion would take time in spite of a long record of service under Turenne, The Great Condé and Luxembourg, and of his aristocratic birth. The reason was that he had incurred the enmity of the powerful Louvois, he was finally made maréchal de camp in 1687. He returned to France in 1690 and was given a command in the cavalry of the army in Flanders and it was Villars part in the next war, beginning with Friedlingen and Hochstadt and ending with Denain, that has made him most famous. For his part in the battle of Friedlingen he received the marshalate, and for the pacification of the insurgent Cévennes he received the Saint-Esprit order, Friedlingen and Hochstadt were barren victories, and the campaigns of which they formed were characterized by lost opportunities. Villars glory thus begins with the year 1709 when France, apparently helpless, was roused to an effort of self-defence by the stringent demands of the Coalition. In that year he was called to command the main army opposing Prince Eugène of Savoy, during the famine of the winter he shared the soldiers miserable rations. Villars, named for Marshal Villars, was built in Moulins, the 18th century historical monument was used as a cavalry barracks. It was partially destroyed during World War II and was restored by François Voinchet and he took the field for the last time in the War of the Polish Succession, with the title marshal-general of the kings armies, that Turenne had held before him. But he was eighty years old at this point. Villarss memoirs show us a fanfaron plein dhonneur, as Voltaire calls him and he was indeed boastful, and also covetous of honours and wealth. But he was described as an honourable man of high courage, moral and physical. He was famous for his love for men as wrote the Duchess of Orleans in her letters. The memoirs, part of which was published in 1734 and afterwards several times republished in untrustworthy versions, were for the first time completely edited by the Marquis de Vogüé in 1884–92, Marshal Villars and the War of the Spanish Succession, University of Kentucky PressClaude Louis Hector de Villars – Marshal General Claude Louis Hector de Villars