Category:French people of the French Wars of Religion
Pages in category "French people of the French Wars of Religion"
The following 57 pages are in this category, out of 57 total, this list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 57 pages are in this category, out of 57 total, this list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Francis, Duke of Anjou – Francis, Duke of Anjou and Alençon was the youngest son of Henry II of France and Catherine de Medici. An attractive child, he was scarred by smallpox at age eight and he changed his name to Francis in honour of his late brother Francis II of France when he was confirmed. In 1574, following the death of his brother Charles IX of France, in 1576, he was made Duke of Anjou, Touraine, and Berry. In 1576, he negotiated the Edict of Beaulieu during the French Wars of Religion, in 1579, he was invited by William the Silent to become hereditary sovereign to the United Provinces. On 29 September 1580, the Dutch States General signed the Treaty of Plessis-les-Tours with the Duke, during the night of 15 September 1575, Alençon ran from the French court after being alienated by his brother King Henry III. Both Henry III and Catherine de Medici feared he would join the Protestant rebels and these fears proved well founded, Francis joined the prince of Condé and his forces in the south. By ‘secret treaties’ that formed part of this settlement, many on the Protestant side were rewarded with land. Francis was awarded the Duchy of Anjou and thus became the Duke of Anjou, at the same time, in 1579, arrangements began to be made for marrying him to Elizabeth I of England. Alençon, now Duke of Anjou, was in fact the one of Elizabeths foreign suitors to court her in person. He was 24 and Elizabeth was 46, despite the age gap, the two soon became very close, Elizabeth dubbing him her frog. Queen Elizabeth often used unflattering slang names for her favourites such as pygmy for Robert Cecil who was short of stature, thus, her use of the slang name frog was consistent with her habits. Whether or not Elizabeth truly planned marrying Anjou is a debated topic. It is obvious that she was fond of him, knowing that he was probably going to be her last suitor. There are many anecdotes about their flirting, the match was controversial in the English public, English Protestants warned the Queen that the hearts will be galled when they shall see you take to husband a Frenchman, and a Papist. The very common people well know this, that he is the son of the Jezebel of our age, referring to the Dukes mother, Catherine de Medici. Of her Privy Council, only William Cecil, Lord Burghley, most notable councillors, foremost among them Robert Dudley, 1st Earl of Leicester, and Sir Francis Walsingham, were strongly opposed, even warning the Queen of the hazards of childbirth at her age. In these years Walsingham became friends with the diplomat of Henry of Navarre in England and he returned to England without an agreement. Personally, Walsingham opposed the marriage, perhaps to the point of encouraging public opposition, Alençon was a Catholic, and as his elder brother, Henry III, was childless, he was heir to the French throneFrancis, Duke of Anjou – Francis
2. Antoine Escalin des Aimars – Antoine Escalin des Aimars, also known as Captain Polin or Captain Paulin, later Baron de La Garde, was French ambassador to the Ottoman Empire from 1541 to 1547, and Général des Galères from 1544. Polin was noticed by Guillaume du Bellay as a officer of the French Army during the Italian Wars in the Piedmont. Polin succeeded ambassador Antoine de Rincon in Constantinople, Polin tried to convince Venice to join the alliance, but in vain. The execution of the alliance would most notably lead to the Franco-Ottoman Siege of Nice in 1543, Polin went to see king Francis I of France to obtain troops, which led to the Siege of Nice in August 1543. Polin supervised the wintering of the Ottomans at Toulon, then, in 1544, five French galleys under Polin, including the superb Réale, accompanied Barbarossas fleet, on a diplomatic mission to Suleiman. Jerôme Maurand, a priest of Antibes who accompanied Polin and the Ottoman fleet in 1544 and they arrived in Constantinople on 10 August 1544 to meet with Suleiman and give him an account of the campaign. Polin was back to Toulon on 2 October 1544, in 1545, Polin was on his way to fight against the English in the area of Boulogne. While in Marseilles in 1545, Polin was involved as a leader in the massacre of the Protestant Waldensians, outside the Piedmont the Waldenses joined the local Protestant churches in Bohemia, France and Germany. Deaths ranged from hundreds to thousands, depending on the estimates, after these deeds, Polin participated to the French invasion of the Isle of Wight that same year. He was succeeded as ambassador to the Porte by Gabriel de Luetz in 1547, in 1553, Polin again cooperated with the Ottoman fleet in the Mediterranean, in the events surrounding the Invasion of Corsica. In 1571, Polin was involved in the conflict against the Huguenots in La Rochelle as a commander in the French Navy fleet which was making a blocus of the city, together with Filippo di Piero StrozziAntoine Escalin des Aimars – Antoine Escalin des Aimars (1498?-1578)
3. Georges d'Armagnac – Georges dArmagnac was a French humanist, patron of arts, Cardinal and diplomat deeply embroiled in the Italian Wars and in the French Wars of Religion. In his youth he was the protégé of his kinsman Cardinal Georges dAmboise and his uncle Charles, duc dAlençon introduced him to Francis I. Armgnacs brief was to secure Venetian neutrality in the north Italian military conflicts between Francis I and Charles V, an episode of the Italian Wars, the emperors failure to take Avignon led him to retreat from the south of France. With the temporary truce of 1539 the king sent him as ambassador to the Holy See and he participated in the conclave that elected his friend, the worldly humanist and patron Pope Julius III. In 1543 he commissioned a book of meditations in the best Italian humanistic hand from Franc. Wydon and was pleased enough with it to commission a pontifical from Wydon in 1557, wherever he was, the Cardinal sought out the company of men of learning and experience, and often befriended them. Gilles posthumous Antiquities of Constantinople were dedicated to the Cardinal, in 1552 he was appointed lieutenant-general of the king at Toulouse, together with the bishop of Cahors. On 6 January 1554, in the chapel of the château of Pau, in 1560 he was raised to the Archbishopric of Toulouse, the cultural capital of the Languedoc, the occasion for another visit to Rome. In 1565, Pope Pius IV appointed him vice-legate at Avignon, Charles IX appointed his cousin Charles of Burgundy legate, but the man on the site was Armagnac, solidly of the Catholic party. The pope showed his approval of dArmagnacs administration by promoting him to the Archbishopric of Avignon and he was a friend and correspondent of the leading literary figures of his time in France and Italy. Catholic Encyclopedia 1908, Georges dArmagnac Illuminated manuscripts prepared for Georges dAmboise Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church Lemerle, les Annotations de Guillaume Philandrier sur le De Architectura de VitruveGeorges d'Armagnac – Georges d'Armagnac and his secretary Guillaume Philandrier by Titian (Louvre Museum)
4. Charles, Duke of Aumale – Charles of Guise, duc dAumale was the son of Claude, Duke of Aumale and Louise de Brézé. One of the leaders of the Catholic League, he was at times governor of Picardy and he led a rebellion in Picardy in 1587, a prelude to open war between the House of Guise and Henry III of France. He was defeated at the Battle of Senlis on 17 May 1589 by the forces of Henry III. Captured by Henry of Navarre at the Battle of Ivry, he died in exile and he married Marie of Lorraine, daughter of René, Marquis of Elbeuf and Louise de Rieux. The princess was known as Mademoiselle dElbeuf, derived from her fathers titleCharles, Duke of Aumale – Coat of Arms of the Dukes of Aumale
5. Armand de Gontaut, baron de Biron – Armand de Gontaut, baron de Biron was a celebrated French soldier of the 16th century. As a page of Queen Marguerite de Navarre, Biron attracted the notice of the marshal de Brissac, a wound he received in his early years made him lame for life, and gave him the nickname Armand Le Boiteux. But he did not withdraw from the career, and he held a command in Guises regiment of light horse in 1557. A little later he became chief of a regiment. He commanded the forces at the siege of La Rochelle in 1572. From 1576 to 1588 he was almost continuously employed in high command, after the assassination of Henry III in 1589, he was among the first to support the cause of Henry of Navarre, but he was suspected of prolonging the civil wars in his own interest. He brought a part of Normandy under subjection, and dissuaded Henry from going into England and he distinguished himself in the battles of Arques and Ivry against the Catholic League. Gontaud was killed by a cannonball at the siege of Épernay on July 26,1592, in 1585 he was chosen a godfather for Armand-Jean du Plessis, future cardinal Richelieu. He was a man of considerable attainments, and used to carry a pocketbook. Some of his letters are preserved in the Bibliothèque nationale and in the British Museum and his son, Charles de Gontaut, duc de Biron, also became Marshal of France in 1594. A grandson of his son, Henry, was Charles-Armand de Gontaut. Thurston, H. T. Colby, F. M. edsArmand de Gontaut, baron de Biron – Portrait Armand de Gontaut-Biron
6. Charles de Gontaut, duc de Biron – Charles de Gontaut, duc de Biron was a French soldier whose military achievements were accompanied by plotting to dismember France and set himself up as ruler of an independent Burgundy. He was the son of Armand de Gontaut, baron de Biron and his efforts won him the name “Thunderbolt of France”. Henry IV made him admiral of France in 1592, and marshal in 1594, as governor of Burgundy in 1595, he took the towns of Beaune, Autun, Auxonne and Dijon, and distinguished himself at the battle of Fontaine-Française. In 1596 he was sent to fight the Spaniards in Flanders, Picardy, Artois, after the peace of Vervins, he discharged a mission at Brussels in 1598. Notwithstanding these intrigues, he directed the expedition sent against the duke of Savoy and he fulfilled diplomatic missions for Henry in Switzerland and England, the latter mission being to announce the marriage of Henry to Maria de Medici. While engaged in duties, he was accused and convicted in his absence of high treason by the French Parlement. He was induced to come to Paris, where he was apprehended and he was the inspiration behind the character Berowne in William Shakespeares Loves Labours Lost, which was written during his lifetime. After his death, his fate was dramatised by George Chapman in The Conspiracy and Tragedy of Charles. Chisholm, Hugh, ed. Biron, Armand de Gontaut, Baron de, thurston, H. T. Colby, F. M. eds. Biron, Charles de Gontault, Duke deCharles de Gontaut, duc de Biron – Engraved portrait from Atrium heroicum Caesarum..., (Augsburg) 1600-02
7. Charles de Bourbon (cardinal) – Charles de Bourbon was a French cardinal. The Catholic League considered him the rightful King of France after the death of Henry III of France in 1589 and he was born at La Ferté-sous-Jouarre, in what is now the department of Seine-et-Marne, the eighth child of Charles IV de Bourbon, duke of Vendôme. Charles made a career in the Roman Catholic hierarchy. He was bishop of Nevers, bishop of Saintes, archbishop of Rouen, bishop of Nantes, Papal legate in Avignon, in 1551 he was made Lieutenant-General of Paris and Ile de France. On 31 December 1578 he was made the first commander in the Order of the Holy Spirit, however, the senior member of the family, Henry III of Navarre, was a Protestant. The Catholic League, party to the French Wars of Religion, excluded all Protestants from the succession, in the secret Treaty of Joinville of 31 December 1584 he was anointed by the leaders of the league and a representative of Philip II of Spain. Henry III had Charles imprisoned in the castle of Blois on 23 December 1588 and he was transferred from one castle to another, presumably to prevent escape. On Henry IIIs death in 1589, the League proclaimed Charles king, while he was still a prisoner and he was recognized as Charles X by the parliament of Paris on 21 November 1589. His prison was considered too close to Catholic territory, so he was again transferred, the Catholic League issued coins in his name from 2 August 1589 to his death from 15 Mints, including Paris. Charles, however, renounced the title and recognized his nephew Henry IV. He died in the castle of Fontenay-le-Comte, when the Comte dArtois ascended the French throne in 1824, choosing to believe that Charles de Bourbon had never been King, he styled himself Charles X of FranceCharles de Bourbon (cardinal) – Portrait of Charles de Bourbon by an anonymous artist, 16th century.
8. Catherine de' Medici – Catherine de Medici, daughter of Lorenzo II de Medici and of Madeleine de La Tour dAuvergne, was an Italian noblewoman who was Queen of France from 1547 until 1559, as the wife of King Henry II. As the mother of three sons who became kings of France during her lifetime, she had extensive, if at times varying, for a time, she ruled France as its regent. In 1533, at the age of fourteen, Caterina married Henry, second son of King Francis I, under the gallicised version of her name, Catherine de Médicis, she was Queen consort of France as the wife of King Henry II of France from 1547 to 1559. Throughout his reign, Henry excluded Catherine from participating in state affairs and instead showered favours on his mistress, Diane de Poitiers. Henrys death thrust Catherine into the arena as mother of the frail fifteen-year-old King Francis II. When he died in 1560, she became regent on behalf of her ten-year-old son King Charles IX and was granted sweeping powers, after Charles died in 1574, Catherine played a key role in the reign of her third son, Henry III. He dispensed with her only in the last months of her life. Catherines three sons reigned in an age of almost constant civil and religious war in France, the problems facing the monarchy were complex and daunting but Catherine was able to keep the monarchy and the state institutions functioning even at a minimum level. At first, Catherine compromised and made concessions to the rebelling Protestants, or Huguenots and she failed, however, to grasp the theological issues that drove their movement. Later she resorted, in frustration and anger, to hard-line policies against them, some historians have excused Catherine from blame for the worst decisions of the crown, though evidence for her ruthlessness can be found in her letters. In practice, her authority was limited by the effects of the civil wars. Without Catherine, it is unlikely that her sons would have remained in power, the years in which they reigned have been called the age of Catherine de Medici. According to Mark Strage, one of her biographers, Catherine was the most powerful woman in sixteenth-century Europe. Catherine was born on 13 April 1519 in Florence, Republic of Florence, the child of Lorenzo de Medici, Duke of Urbino, and his wife, Madeleine de la Tour dAuvergne. The young couple had married the year before at Amboise as part of the alliance between King Francis I of France and Lorenzos uncle Pope Leo X against the Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I. According to a chronicler, when Catherine was born, her parents were as pleased as if it had been a boy. King Francis wanted Catherine to be raised at the French court, Catherine was first cared for by her paternal grandmother, Alfonsina Orsini. After Alfonsinas death in 1520, Catherine joined her cousins and was raised by her aunt, the death of Pope Leo in 1521 interrupted Medici power briefly, until Cardinal Giulio de Medici was elected Pope Clement VII in 1523Catherine de' Medici – Painting attributed to François Clouet, c. 1555
9. Charles IX of France – Charles IX was a monarch of the House of Valois who ruled as King of France from 1560 until his death. He ascended the throne of France upon the death of his brother Francis II, after decades of tension, war broke out between Protestants and Catholics after the massacre of Vassy in 1562. This event, known as the St. Bartholomews Day Massacre, was a significant blow to the Huguenot movement, Charles sought to take advantage of the disarray of the Huguenots by ordering the Siege of La Rochelle, but was unable to take the Protestant stronghold. He died without male issue in 1574 and was succeeded by his brother Henry III. He was born Charles Maximilian, third son of King Henry II of France and Catherine de Medici, in the royal chateau of Saint-Germain-en-Laye. Styled since birth as Duke of Angoulême, he was created Duke of Orléans after the death of his older brother Louis, his parents second son, on 14 May 1564, Charles was presented the Order of the Garter by Henry Carey. His father died in 1559, and was succeeded by his elder brother, after Franciss short rule, the ten-year-old Charles was immediately proclaimed king on 5 December 1560. When Francis II died, the Privy Council appointed his mother, Catherine de Medici, as governor of France, with sweeping powers, on 15 May 1561, Charles was consecrated in the cathedral at Reims. Antoine of Bourbon, himself in line to the French throne, Charles reign was dominated by the French Wars of Religion, which pitted various factions against each other. Queen Catherine, though nominally a Catholic, initially tried to steer a course between the two factions, attempting to keep the peace and augment royal power. The regent Catherine tried to foster reconciliation at the Colloquy at Poissy and, after that failed, made several concessions to the Huguenots in the Edict of Saint-Germain in January 1562. Nonetheless, war broke out when some retainers of the House of Guise, hoping to avenge the attempt of Amboise, in return, the monarchy revoked the concessions given to the Huguenots. After the military leaders of both sides were killed or captured in battles at Rouen, Dreux, and Orléans. The war was followed by four years of an armed peace. After this victory, Charles declared his legal majority in August 1563, however, Catherine would continue to play a principal role in politics and often dominated her son. In March 1564, the King and his mother set out from Fontainebleau on a tour of France. Their tour spanned two years and brought them through Bar, Lyon, Salon-de-Provence, Carcassonne, Toulouse, Bayonne, La Rochelle, during this trip, Charles IX issued the Edict of Roussillon, which standardised 1 January as the first day of the year throughout France. War again broke out in 1567 after reports of iconoclasm in Flanders prompted Charles to support Catholics thereCharles IX of France – Charles IX around 1572, painted by François Clouet.
10. Henri Cleutin – Henri was one of five children of Pierre Cleutin, or Clutin, mayor of Paris, and grandson of Henri, both were Councillors to the French Parliament. Labourier, the editor of Castelnaus memoirs, surmises the family had its origins in a merchant who supplied Charles VI of France. Pierre Cleutin acquired the lands of Villeparisis and built a castle, Henri may have been destined for the church but was involved in a murder in Paris in 1535 and fled the country. On the basis of this incident the historian Marie-Noëlle Baudouin-Matuszek revised his birth date to 1515, Cleutin was very much a follower of the House of Guise who were gaining political powers in France. When Cleutin arrived in Scotland there was an interlude of peace with England resulting from the Treaty of Ardres, however peace between Scotland and the Holy Roman Empire was not completely concluded. The Imperial ambassador in London François van der Delft became aware of Henri Cleutin, DOysel then went to France, returning after a long discussion with Mary of Guises brother, Francis, Le Balafré, Duc de Aumale, on 23 January 1548 at Savigny-le-Temple. When Ferniehirst Castle was recovered from the English in February 1549, dOysel was one of the first at the walls, Cleutin remained in Scotland after the war with England was concluded in 1550. In May he travelled to the border to meet the brother of Mary of Guise, the Marquis de Mayenne, while waiting for the Marquis he visited Dunbar Castle, Fast Castle and Tantallon Castle. DOisel wrote to Mary of Guise from Dunglass remarking that there was nothing there except what they brought themselves, the countryside could hardly provide for their horses. DOisel, not the Duke of Châtelherault, was left in charge of Scotland when Mary of Guise the Queen Dowager visited France in 1550, dOisel and Regent Arran travelled to Jedburgh with Camillo Marini, an Italian military engineer to plan new fortifications on the border. Unlike other French administrators employed by the Scottish court, such as Yves de Rubarye, even an English observer, Sir Thomas Wharton observed of Guise and dOisel, all in Scotland obey and lyketh them. Later Scottish Protestant chronicle writers George Buchanan and Robert Lyndsay of Pitscottie agree on his ability, Buchanan describes him as, hasty and passionate, otherwise a good man, skilled in the arts both of peace and war. James Maitland of Lauderdale, a writer of a generation, mentions some imperfections of his nature, such as, his sudden. Youre making a big mistake to by putting yourself under their care, after visiting France he returned to England en route to Scotland in July, but did not visit the English court. The papers included dOisels accounts for the French garrisons in Scotland and she noted that dOisel used the title Lieutenant-General of the Kings Army in France and Superintendent of the Kings three fortresses, which were Eyemouth, Dunbar Castle, and Inchkeith. He was paymaster of 400 Gascon, Norman, and Breton troops, Mary of Guise feared Châtelheraults powers might be increased. She and dOisel would dissemble their concerns for the time being and this memorandum continued on the subject of the arrest in Scotland of an Irishman, George Paris, who carried letters from France and England. Pariss trunk of letters had been seized by the Provost of Edinburgh, Mary of Hungary gave Thomas Gresham copies of this paper and secret instructions made for a French ambassador, Louis de Salazar, Sieur dAsnois, in January 1549Henri Cleutin – In January 1560 Henri Cleutin had to dismantle a church to cross the River Devon at Tullibody
11. Gaspard II de Coligny – Coligny came of a noble family of Burgundy. His family traced their descent from the 11th century, and in the reign of Louis XI, were in the service of the King of France. His father, Gaspard I de Coligny, known as the Marshal of Châtillon, served in the Italian Wars from 1494 to 1516, married in 1514, and was created Marshal of France in 1516. By his wife, Louise de Montmorency, sister of the constable, he had three sons, all of whom played an important part in the first period of the Wars of Religion, Odet, Gaspard. Born at Châtillon-sur-Loing in 1519, Gaspard came to court at the age of 22, in the campaign of 1543 Coligny distinguished himself, and was wounded at the sieges of Montmédy and Bains. In 1544 he served in the Italian campaigns under the Count of Enghien, King Charles VIII, King Louis XII, King Francis I and was knighted on the Field of Ceresole. Returning to France, he took part in different military operations and that year he married Charlotte de Laval. He was made admiral on the death of Claude dAnnebaut, in 1557 he was entrusted with the defence of Saint-Quentin. In the siege he displayed courage, resolution, and strength of character, but the place was taken. On payment of a ransom of 50,000 crowns he recovered his liberty, the Coligny brothers were the most zealous and consistent aristocratic supporters of Protestantism in sixteenth-century France. By this time he had become a Huguenot, through the influence of his brother, the first known letter which John Calvin addressed to him is dated 4 September 1558. Gaspard de Coligny secretly focused on protecting his co-religionists, by attempting to establish colonies abroad in which Huguenots could find a refuge and they were afterwards expelled by the Portuguese, in 1567. Coligny also was the patron for the failed French colony of Fort Caroline in Spanish Florida led by Jean Ribault in 1562. In 1566 and 1570, Francisque and André dAlbaigne submitted to Coligny projects for establishing relations with the Austral lands, although he gave favourable consideration to these initiatives, they came to naught when Coligny was killed in 1572 during the St. Bartholomews Day massacres. Following the death of Henry II he placed himself with Louis, Prince of Condé, at the forefront of the Huguenot party, in 1560, at the Assembly of Notables at Fontainebleau, the hostility between Coligny and François of Guise broke forth violently. When the civil wars began in 1562, Coligny decided to take arms only after long hesitation and he was blamed by the Guise faction for the assassination of Francis, Duke of Guise at Orléans in 1563. In the third war of 1569 the defeat and death of the Prince of Condé at the Battle of Jarnac left Coligny the sole leader of the Protestant armies. Victorious at the Battle of La Roche-lAbeille, but defeated in the Battle of Moncontour on 3 October, he entered into the negotiations for what became the Peace of Saint-GermainGaspard II de Coligny – Gaspard II de Coligny
12. Louise de Coligny – Louise de Coligny was a Princess consort of Orange as the fourth and last spouse of William the Silent. She was the daughter of Gaspard II de Coligny and Charlotte de Laval and her parents saw to it that she received a humanist education. When she was seventeen, she married Charles de Teligny, both he and her father were murdered at the St. Bartholomews Day massacre. Like her murdered father, she was a French Huguenot and after the massacre and she then married William the Silent on 24 April 1583. She became the mother of Frederick Henry in 1584, Williams fourth legitimate son and it is said that she warned her husband about Balthasar Gérard, because she thought him sinister. After her husband was murdered, she raised both her son and his six daughters from his marriage to Charlotte of Bourbon. Womens letters across Europe, 1400-1700, form and persuasion, cS1 maint, Uses authors parameter Willem van Oranje, Biografie last accessed April 10,2007Louise de Coligny – Louise de Coligny
13. Odet de Coligny – Odet de Coligny was a French aristocrat, cardinal, Bishop-elect of Beauvais, Peer of France, and member of the French Royal Council. From 1534 he was referred to as the Cardinal of Châtillon. He was son of Gaspard I de Coligny and Louise de Montmorency, and brother of Pierre, Gaspard and his birth at Châtillon-Coligny on 10 July 1517, his parents second son, was recorded in his mothers book of hours. He and his brothers were home schooled, under the direction of Nicolas Bérauld of Orleans and he occupied high church offices during this initial part of his career. He became prior of Saint-Étienne in Beaume in 1530, on 10 October 1531 he was nominated by the King to be Abbot of St. Euvertius in Orleans, for which he obtained the necessary papal bulls on 13 April 1533, he resigned the benefice in 1537. At the papal consistory of 7 November 1533 Odet de Coligny was created cardinal deacon, receiving the red hat, soon afterwards he became Abbot of the royal abbey of Nôtre-Dame de Vauluisant. In 1534 he became a Canon of La Sainte-Chapelle in Paris, on 29 April 1534 Cardinal de Colignys nomination to the metropolitan see of Toulouse by King Francis I was approved in Consistory by Pope Clement VII, despite his never having been ordained a priest. The Cardinal required a dispensation for the archbishopric, since he was only sixteen, the dispensation was granted by Pope Clement on 28 August 1534. On 6 September 1534, Odet de Coligny was ordained Subdeacon, Châtillon held the post of Administrator of the diocese of Toulouse, never having been consecrated a bishop, until his resignation from that role on 20 October 1550. At the age of seventeen, he participated in the conclave of 11–12 October 1534. Meanwhile, on 20 October 1535, his nomination to the See of Beauvais was approved in Consistory by Pope Paul III and he held the Administratorship of Beauvais until he was deprived of all his offices and benefices by Pope Pius IV in 1563. The Cardinal was named Abbot of Saint-Lucien de Beauvais by the King in 1537 and he was still holding the benefice in 1553, though it is not known whether he continued to hold it until his deposition on 31 March 1563. Cardinal de Châtillon took part in the Ninth Session of the Ecumenical Council of Trent, as a Peer of France, Cardinal de Châtillon attended the funeral of Francis I in Saint Denis, and the Coronation of Henri II at Rheims on 26 July. Cardinal de Châtillon participated in the conclave of 29 November 1549 –7 February 1550. He arrived late, however, on 12 December, along with Cardinals de Guise, du Bellay, Vendome, ridolfi had been greatly favored by King Henri II of France. He opted for the deaconry of S. Adriano on 25 February 1549, Cardinal de Châtillon obtained from Pope Julius III the necessary bulls for his confirmation as Abbot of Fontainejean, in the diocese of Sens, shortly after the new Popes election. The monastery was burned and the monks slaughtered in 1562, the Cardinal de Châtillon, who had apostasized in favor of Calvinism, was deprived of all of his benefices by Pope Pius IV on 31 March 1563. The Cardinal did not stay long in Italy after the papal Coronation, on 20 October 1550 Cardinal Odet de Châtillon was appointed Abbot Commendatory of Saint Jean de SensOdet de Coligny – Odet de Coligny
14. Jacques Dalbon, Seigneur de Saint Andre – Jacques dAlbon, Seigneur de Saint-André was a French soldier and favorite of Henry II of France. He was made marshal of France, governor of Lyonnais and ambassador in England and he served with great bravery against the emperor Charles V in 1552. In 1557 he was prisoner at the battle of Saint Quentin, but was released the following year. In April 1561, three months after the death of Francis II, he formed an alliance with the Constable of France Anne de Montmorency and Francis, duke of Guise and their aim was to combat Protestantism and limit the influence of the queen-mother, Catherine de Medici. Saint-André died at the battle of Dreux and this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain, Chisholm, Hugh, ed. Saint André, Jacques dAlbon, Seigneur deJacques Dalbon, Seigneur de Saint Andre – Portrait of Jacques d'Albon c. 1562 (musée national du château et des Trianons, Versailles)
15. Francis, Duke of Guise – Francis de Lorraine II, Prince of Joinville, Duke of Guise, Duke of Aumale, was a French soldier and politician. By religion, he practised Catholicism, at a time when France was being polarized between the Catholics and Huguenots, born at Bar-le-Duc, Guise was the son of Claude, Duke of Guise, and his wife Antoinette de Bourbon. His sister, Mary of Guise, was the wife of James V of Scotland and mother of Mary and his younger brother was Charles, Cardinal of Lorraine. In 1545, he was wounded at the Second Siege of Boulogne. He was struck with a lance through the bars of his helmet, the steel head pierced both cheeks, and 15 cm of the shaft were snapped off by the violence of the blow. In 1548 he was wedded to Anna dEste, daughter of the Duke of Ferrara, Ercole II dEste, and French princess, Renée. In 1551, he was created Grand Chamberlain of France and he led an army into Italy in 1557 to aid Pope Paul IV, but was recalled to France and made Lieutenant-General of France after the defeat of the Constable de Montmorency at the Battle of St. Quentin. The Duke of Guise and his brother, Charles, Cardinal of Lorraine were supreme in the royal council, occasionally he signed public acts in the royal manner, with his baptismal name only. The plot was discovered and violently suppressed, initiating a series of assassinations and counter-assassinations in a toxic atmosphere. In the immediate aftermath Condé was obliged to flee the court, the king, however, died,5 December 1560—a year full of calamity for the Guises both in Scotland and France. Within a few months their influence waxed great and waned, after the accession of Charles IX, the Duke of Guise lived in retirement on his estates. The regent, Catherine de Medici, was at first inclined to favour the Protestants, M. Sutherland has observed in describing the lead-up to his assassination. About July,1561, Guise wrote to this effect to the Duke of Württemberg, the Colloquy at Poissy between theologians of the two confessions was fruitless, and the conciliation policy of Catherine de Medici was defeated. From 15 to 18 February 1562, Guise visited the Duke of Württemberg at Saverne, and convinced him that if the conference at Poissy had failed, as Guise passed through Wassy-sur-Blaise on his way to Paris, a massacre of Protestants took place. It is not known to what extent he was responsible for this and it was not the first plot against his life. Guises unexpected death temporarily interrupted open hostilities, in his testimony, Poltrot implicated Coligny and the Protestant pastor Théodore de Bèze. Guise married Anna dEste, daughter of Ercole II dEste, Duke of Ferrara and they had seven children, Henry I, Duke of Guise, who succeeded him as Duke of GuiseFrancis, Duke of Guise – Francis, Duke of Guise, by François Clouet
16. Henry I, Duke of Guise – Henry I, Prince of Joinville, Duke of Guise, Count of Eu, sometimes called Le Balafré, was the eldest son of Francis, Duke of Guise, and Anna dEste. His maternal grandparents were Ercole II dEste, Duke of Ferrara, through his maternal grandfather, he was a descendant of Lucrezia Borgia and Pope Alexander VI. In 1576 he founded the Catholic League to prevent the heir, King Henry of Navarre, head of the Huguenot movement, a key figure in the French Wars of Religion, he was one of the namesakes of the War of the Three Henrys. A powerful opponent of the Queen Mother, Catherine de Medici, he was assassinated by the bodyguards of her son and he succeeded his father in 1563 as Duke of Guise and Grand Maître de France. He fought the Turks in Hungary in 1565, and on his return and he fought at the Battle of Saint-Denis in 1567, Battle of Jarnac, successfully defended Poitiers during a siege and fought at the Battle of Moncontour. His love affair with Margaret of Valois in 1570 offended her brother, Charles IX of France and the Queen Mother, Catherine de Medici, but his marriage to Catherine of Cleves restored his fortunes. Considering the Huguenot leader Admiral Coligny the architect of his fathers assassination during the siege of Orléans in 1563 and this was quickly followed by the St. Bartholomews Day Massacre which took place on the occasion of Margarets marriage to the Huguenot, Henry of Navarre. Henry was wounded at the Battle of Dormans on 10 October 1575, with a charismatic and brilliant public reputation, he rose to heroic stature among the Catholic population of France as an opponent of the Huguenots. In 1576 he formed the Catholic League to keep the new heir, Henry of Navarre, the talent and dash of Guise contrasted favorably with the vacillation and weakness of Henry III. He was said to have claimed a Carolingian descent and cast eyes on the throne and this led to the stage of the Wars of Religion known as the War of the Three Henries. However, at the death in 1584 of Francis, Duke of Anjou and this compact declared that the Cardinal de Bourbon should succeed Henry III, in preference to Henry of Navarre. Henry III now sided with the Catholic League, which war with great success on the Protestants. Guise sent his cousin Charles, Duke of Aumale, to lead a rising in Picardy, the League now controlled France, the king was forced to accede to its demands and created Guise Lieutenant-General of France. But Henry III refused to be treated as a cipher by the League. The following morning at the Château de Blois, Guise was summoned to attend the king, and was at once assassinated by the Forty-five, guises brother, Louis II, Cardinal of Guise, was likewise assassinated the next day. The deed aroused such outrage among the relatives and allies of Guise that Henry III was forced to take refuge with Henry of Navarre. Henry III was assassinated the year by Jacques Clément, an agent of the Catholic League. When deeds fail him, he resorts to words, there is no wedding he does not enliven, no baptism at which he is not godfather, no funeral he does not attendHenry I, Duke of Guise – Henry I, Duke of Guise
17. Henry III of France – Henry III was a monarch of the House of Valois who was elected the monarch of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth from 1573 to 1575 and ruled as King of France from 1574 until his death. He was the last French monarch of the Valois dynasty, as the fourth son of King Henry II of France and Catherine de Medici, Henry was not expected to assume the throne of France. He was thus a candidate for the vacant Commonwealth throne. Henrys rule over Commonwealth was brief, but notable, the Henrician Articles he signed into law accepting the Commonwealth throne established Poland as an elective monarchy subject to free election by the Polish nobility. Of his three brothers, two would live long enough to ascend the French throne, but both died young and without a legitimate male heir. He abandoned Commonwealth upon receiving word that he had inherited the throne of France at the age of 22, Henry III was himself a politique, arguing that a strong and religiously tolerant monarchy would save France from collapse. Henry IIIs legitimate heir was his distant cousin Henry, King of Navarre, the Catholic League, led by Henry I, Duke of Guise, sought to exclude Protestants from the succession and championed the Catholic Charles, Cardinal of Bourbon, as Henry IIIs heir. Henry was born at the royal Château de Fontainebleau, the son of King Henry II and Catherine de Medici and grandson of Francis I of France. His older brothers were Francis II of France, Charles IX of France and he was made Duke of Angoulême and Duke of Orléans in 1560, then Duke of Anjou in 1566. He was his mothers favourite, she called him chers yeux and lavished fondness and his elder brother, Charles, grew to detest him, partially because he resented his better health. In his youth, Henry was considered the best of the sons of Catherine de Medici, unlike his father and elder brothers, he had little interest in the traditional Valois pastimes of hunting and physical exercise. Although he was fond of fencing and skilled in it, he preferred to indulge his tastes for the arts. These predilections were attributed to his Italian mother, at one point in his youth he showed a tendency towards Protestantism as a means of rebelling. At the age of nine, calling himself a little Huguenot, he refused to attend Mass, sang Protestant psalms to his sister Margaret and his mother firmly cautioned her children against such behaviour, and he would never again show any Protestant tendencies. Instead, he became nominally Roman Catholic, reports that Henry engaged in same sex relations with his court favourites, known as the mignons, date back to his own time. Certainly he enjoyed relationships with them. The scholar Louis Crompton provides substantial contemporary evidence of Henry IIIs homosexuality, and it is difficult, he writes, to reconcile the king whose use of favourites is so logically strategic with the man who goes to pieces when one of them dies. In 1570, discussions commenced to arrange for Henry to court Queen Elizabeth I of England, Elizabeth, almost 37, was expected by many parties in her country to marry and produce an heirHenry III of France – Henry III when Duke of Anjou by François Clouet
18. Henry IV of France – Henry IV, also known by the epithet Good King Henry, was King of Navarre from 1572 to 1610 and King of France from 1589 to 1610. He was the first French monarch of the House of Bourbon, baptised as a Catholic but raised in the Protestant faith by his mother Jeanne dAlbret, Queen of Navarre, he inherited the throne of Navarre in 1572 on the death of his mother. As a Huguenot, Henry was involved in the French Wars of Religion, barely escaping assassination in the St. Bartholomews Day massacre, and later led Protestant forces against the royal army. Henry, as Head of the House of Bourbon, was a direct descendant of Louis IX of France. Upon the death of his brother-in-law and distant cousin Henry III of France in 1589 and he initially kept the Protestant faith and had to fight against the Catholic League, which denied that he could wear Frances crown as a Protestant. To obtain mastery over his kingdom, after four years of stalemate, as a pragmatic politician, he displayed an unusual religious tolerance for the era. Notably, he promulgated the Edict of Nantes, which guaranteed religious liberties to Protestants and he was assassinated in 1610 by François Ravaillac, a fanatical Catholic, and was succeeded by his son Louis XIII. Considered a usurper by some Catholics and a traitor by some Protestants, an unpopular king immediately after his accession, Henrys popularity greatly improved after his death, in light of repeated victories over his enemies and his conversion to Catholicism. The Good King Henry was remembered for his geniality and his concern about the welfare of his subjects. He was celebrated in the popular song Vive le roi Henri, Henry was born in Pau, the capital of the joint Kingdom of Navarre with the sovereign principality of Béarn. His parents were Queen Joan III of Navarre and her consort, Antoine de Bourbon, Duke of Vendôme, although baptised as a Roman Catholic, Henry was raised as a Protestant by his mother, who had declared Calvinism the religion of Navarre. As a teenager, Henry joined the Huguenot forces in the French Wars of Religion, on 9 June 1572, upon his mothers death, he became King of Navarre. At Queen Joans death, it was arranged for Henry to marry Margaret of Valois, daughter of Henry II, the wedding took place in Paris on 18 August 1572 on the parvis of Notre Dame Cathedral. On 24 August, the Saint Bartholomews Day Massacre began in Paris, several thousand Protestants who had come to Paris for Henrys wedding were killed, as well as thousands more throughout the country in the days that followed. Henry narrowly escaped death thanks to the help of his wife and he was made to live at the court of France, but he escaped in early 1576. On 5 February of that year, he formally abjured Catholicism at Tours and he named his 16-year-old sister, Catherine de Bourbon, regent of Béarn. Catherine held the regency for nearly thirty years, Henry became heir presumptive to the French throne in 1584 upon the death of Francis, Duke of Anjou, brother and heir to the Catholic Henry III, who had succeeded Charles IX in 1574. Because Henry of Navarre was the senior agnatic descendant of King Louis IX, King Henry III had no choiceHenry IV of France – Henry IV
19. Honorat II of Savoy – Honorat de Savoie, marquis of Villars was a marshal of France and admiral of France. He was a son of René of Savoy and Anne of Lascaris and he accompanied Henry II of France on his 1552 trip to Lorraine and in 1553 relieved the town of Hesdin from its siege by the prince of Piedmont. He was wounded at battle of Saint-Quentin on 10 August 1557 and he accompanied Charles IX of France on his grand tour of France and in 1567 assisted at the Assemblée des Grands de France held at Moulins. He fought zealously against the Huguenots, fighting at Saint-Denis and Moncontour, in 1540 he married Jeanne Françoise de Foix, viscountess of Castillon, with whom he only had one child, Henriette de Savoie-Villars, who married Charles, Duke of Mayenne. In 1565, his fiefdom of Villars was promoted to a dependent on the House of Savoy. In 1570, he succeeded Blaise de Monluc as lieutenant of Guyenne, the king rewarded him by making him marshal of France in 1571 and admiral of France and of the Levant Seas in 1572 after the death of Gaspard II de Coligny. He was dismissed as admiral in 1578 in favour of his relation Charles de Lorraine and he was appointed to the Order of the Holy Spirit on 1 January 1579Honorat II of Savoy – Honorat II de Savoie, marquis de Villars, amiral de France en 1569, musée historique de Versailles in 1834.
20. Anne de Joyeuse – Anne de Batarnay de Joyeuse, Baron dArques, Vicomte then Duke of Joyeuse was a royal favourite and active participant in the French Wars of Religion. Anne was born in 1560 in the château de Joyeuse and he was the eldest son of Guillaume, 8th Vicomte de Joyeuse, the owner of the rights to the Bishopric of Alet and future Marshal of France. Cardinal François de Joyeuse was his younger brother and he was reared in Toulouse and attended the Collège de Navarre, starting in August 1572. From 1577 onward, Anne accompanied his father in the expeditions against the Huguenots to Languedoc. In 1579, he was put in charge of a compagnie dordonnance and was appointed governor of Mont Saint-Michel. In 1580, he took part in the siege of Fère-en-Tardenois, the King arranged Joyeuses marriage to his sister-in-law, Marguerite, daughter of Nicholas, Duke of Mercœur. The nuptials were celebrated on 18 September 1581 with unprecedented magnificence, King Henry used the marriage as a pretext for elevating his favourite to the dignity of Duc de Joyeuse. He was given precedence over all other dukes and peers of France, in addition to more than 300000 écus in dowry, he was given the seigneury of Limours. In the next year, the 21-year-old mignon was made Grand-admiral de France and commander in the Order of the Holy Spirit and he was appointed governor of Normandy in 1583 and Le Havre in 1584. After the death of Duke François the Joyeuse brothers were allowed to govern the duchies of Anjou and his massacre of 800 Huguenots during a campaign in Poitou incurred the displeasure of the King. He was received coldly at court and, anxious to be restored to Henrys favour, led troops against the kings arch-enemy. He suffered a defeat at the hands of the Huguenots in the Battle of Coutras and was taken prisoner. Although he offered a ransom of 100,000 écus, Joyeuse was killed in revenge for the massacre of Saint-Eloi, as was his 18-year-old brother Claude and he was childless and was succeeded as Duke of Joyeuse by another brother, François. Pierre de Vaissière, Messieurs de Joyeuse, Paris, Albin Michel,1926,352 p. François Puaux, Histoire de la Réformation française, tome II, Paris, Lévy,1859Anne de Joyeuse – Anne de Joyeuse (1561-87), Admiral of France, a portrait in the collection of the Palace on the Water in Warsaw.
21. Louis II, Cardinal of Guise – Louis II, Cardinal of Guise, was the third son of Francis, Duke of Guise, and Anna dEste. His maternal grandparents were Ercole dEste II, Duke of Ferrara and he was elected archbishop of Reims in 1574, succeeding his uncle, Charles of Guise. On 21 February 1578, he was created cardinal, he took the title of Cardinal of Guise, succeeding his uncle, Louis I and he was later named papal legate to Avignon, and made by Henry III of France a knight of the Order of Saint Esprit. His dedication to the cause of his brother Henry I, Duke of Guise, at the royal command, the Cardinal was assassinated at the Château de Blois by the Kings bodyguard known as the Forty-five, the day after his brother. An illegitimate son, Louis bâtard de Guise, born of his liaison with Aimerie de Lescheraine, dame de Grimaucourt, was legitimised in 1610, Louis become prince of Lexin and married Henriette de Lorraine, daughter of Francis II, Duke of LorraineLouis II, Cardinal of Guise – Louis II
22. Charles, Duke of Mayenne – For information on the regent of the Netherlands, see Charles of Lorraine. In 1596, when he made peace with Henri of Navarre and he was the second son of Francis of Lorraine, Duke of Guise and Anna dEste, the daughter of Ercole dEste II, Duke of Ferrara and Renée of France. Charles was absent from France at the time of the massacre of St Bartholomew, but took part in the siege of La Rochelle in the following year, when he was created duke and peer of France. He went with Henry of Valois, Duke of Anjou, on his election as king of Poland, in 1577 he gained conspicuous successes over the Huguenot forces in Poitou. As governor of Burgundy he raised his province in the cause of the Catholic League in 1585, the assassination of his brothers at Blois, on 23–24 December 1588, left him at the head of the Catholic party. The ambassador of the Republic of Venice, Giovanni Mocenigo, states that Mayenne had warned Henry III that there was a plot afoot to seize his person and to send him by force to Paris. At the time of the murder he was at Lyon, where he received a letter from the saying that he had acted on his warning. Mayenne professed obedience, but immediately made preparations for marching on Paris, after a vain attempt to recover those of his relatives who had been arrested at Blois, he proceeded to recruit troops in his government of Burgundy and in Champagne. Paris was devoted to the house of Guise and had been roused to fury by the news of the murder, when Mayenne entered the city in February 1589 he found it dominated by representatives of the sixteen quarters of Paris, all staunch supporters of the League. He formed a general to direct the affairs of the city. Each quarter sent four representatives, and Mayenne added representatives of the various trades and he constituted himself lieutenant-general of the state and crown of France, taking his oath before the parlement of Paris. In April he advanced on Tours and he was defeated and out-marched by Henry IV, who moved on Paris, but retreated before Mayennes forces. In 1590 Mayenne received additions to his army from the Spanish Netherlands, Mayenne feared with reason the designs of Philip II, and his difficulties were increased by the death of the Cardinal, the king of the league. He returned to Paris and executed four of the chief malcontents, the power of the Sixteen diminished from that time, and with it the strength of the League. He demanded that Henri IV complete his conversion to Catholicism before he was recognized by the adherents of the League and he also desired the continuation to himself of the high offices which had accumulated in his family and the reservation of their provinces to his relatives among the Leaguers. In 1593 he summoned the States-General to Paris and placed before them the claims of the Infanta, Mayenne signed a truce at La Villette on 31 July 1593. The internal dissensions of the continued to increase, and the principal chiefs submitted. Mayenne finally made his only in October 1595Charles, Duke of Mayenne – Charles of Lorraine
23. Gabriel, comte de Montgomery – Gabriel, comte de Montgomery, seigneur de Lorges, a French nobleman, was a captain of the Scots Guards of King Henry II of France. He is remembered for mortally injuring King Henry II in an accident and subsequently converting to Protestantism. He became a leader of the Huguenots, from his deathbed Henry absolved Montgomery of any blame, but, finding himself disgraced, Montgomery retreated to his estates in Normandy. There he studied theology and converted to Protestantism, making him an enemy of the state, in 1562, Montgomery allied himself with another Protestant convert, Louis I de Bourbon, prince de Condé. He was one of the few refugees to survive the St. Bartholomews Day massacre after a wounded Huguenot swam across the Seine to warn him that rioting had begun and he took control of Bourges and during September and October defended Rouen from the Royal Army. A price was put on his head, but he managed to escape to England, the queen mother, Catherine de Medici, asked Queen Elizabeth I for his extradition, but Elizabeth refused. Montgomery returned to France with a fleet in an attempt to relieve the Siege of La Rochelle in 1573, the following year he attempted an insurrection in Normandy, but was captured, taken to Paris, and sentenced to death. On 26 June 1574, as he was about to be beheaded, Montgomery was informed that a royal edict had proclaimed that his property would be confiscated, a freely adapted version of Montgomerys life is told in Alexandre Dumas novel The Two Dianas. Suzanne de Montgomery Elisabeth de Montgomery Claude de Montgomery Roberte de Montgomery, wife of Gawen Champernowne of Dartington in Devon, in 1582 she divorced him for adultery and in 1595 remarried to Thomas Horner of Cloford. Http, //familytreemaker. genealogy. com/users/t/h/o/Connie-S-Thompson/WEBSITE-0001/UHP-0250. html Further information on the life of Gabriel, compte de Montgomery and the siege of DomfrontGabriel, comte de Montgomery – Gabriel de Lorges comte de Montgomery (1530-1574), by Feron Eloi Firmin.
24. Anne de Montmorency – Anne, Duke of Montmorency, Honorary Knight of the Garter was a French soldier, statesman and diplomat. He became Marshal of France and Constable of France, Montmorency was born at Chantilly to the ancient Montmorency family. His father, Guillaume, had a status in the household of Francis. He was raised beside Francis and they close, fighting together in 1512 at the Battle of Ravenna. In 1514 his sister Louise de Montmorency married Gaspard I de Coligny and their children included Gaspard II de Coligny who was Admiral of France, Odet, cardinal de Châtillon and François. Gaspard II had a daughter Louise who married William the Silent, when Francis acceded to the throne in January 1515, Montmorency became an influential member of his court. When the king reasserted the French claim to Milan the same year, Montmorency followed his king into Italy, Montmorency was named captain of the Bastille in 1516 and became governor of Novara. In 1518 he was one of the hostages in England for Francis Is debt to Henry VIII for the city of Tournai and he returned to France to attend a short and unsuccessful peace conference between the French and the Holy Roman Empire in May 1519. The following year he was present at the Field of the Cloth of Gold, in August 1521, Montmorency helped to command the defence of Mézières against the Imperial German army. In the same year he commanded the Swiss in Italy and his troops were defeated in the Battle of La Bicocca on 27 April 1522, but he was made Marshal of France in recognition of his courage. Montmorency spent the three years defending northern France against the English invasion of 1523. By that time England had allied with the Holy Roman Empire, in 1524 he again joined Francis I in a campaign to retake Milan. On 24 February 1525, an army of Italians, Spanish and Germans defeated the French at the Battle of Pavia, both were sent to Spain but Montmorency was released soon afterwards. He was one of the negotiators of the Treaty of Madrid in 1526, in 1530 he returned the kings sons to France. On 23 March 1526, Anne de Montmorency was named Grand Master of France charged with supervision of the royal household, in 1527 he married Madeleine, the daughter of René of Savoy. He supported the efforts to form an alliance against Charles V. He worked with Cardinal Wolsey to form an alliance between Francis I and Henry VIII in 1527 and this led to a new war against the Holy Roman Empire that ended with the Peace of Cambrai. In 1536, Francis I invaded the Duchy of Savoy, against the advice of Montmorency, staking claim to the lands of the duchy, Charles V invaded Provence from Northern Italy in retaliationAnne de Montmorency – Anne de Montmorency, by Jean Clouet, 1530
25. Henri I de Montmorency – Henri I de Montmorency, Marshal of France, and Constable of France, seigneur of Damville, served as Governor of Languedoc from 1563 to 1614. They accused him of being betraying the city and being in league with Protestants like his cousin Admiral Coligny, Damville responded by arresting four bourgeois and sending them to Paris with charges of slander. Damville also placed a procureur-général on the Parlement of Toulouse who was suspected of Protestantism, when Damville went into revolt in October 1574 he was deprived of his office by the Parlement of Toulouse, and arrests were made of his associates charged with conspiracy against the king. He became Duke of Montmorency on his brothers death in 1579, as a leader of the party called the Politiques he took a prominent part in the French Wars of Religion. In 1593 he was constable of France, but Henry IV showed some anxiety to keep him away from Languedoc. With his second wife, he had two children, Charlotte Marguerite de Montmorency, Henri II de Montmorency and this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain, Chisholm, Hugh, ed. article name neededHenri I de Montmorency – Henri-Damville.jpg
26. Nicolas de Neufville, seigneur de Villeroy – Nicolas IV de Neufville, seigneur de Villeroy was a secretary of state under four kings of France, Charles IX, Henry III, Henry IV, and Louis XIII. Despite faithfully serving Henry III, Villeroy found himself sacked by him without explanation in 1588 and he was reinstated by Henry IV in 1594 and became more important than ever before. He remained in office until his death in 1617 during the reign of Louis XIII, Villeroy grew up at court and entered government service at a young age, following in the footsteps of his father Nicolas III de Neufville, and both grandfathers. In 1559, at the age of sixteen, he became a secretary and was soon employed by Catherine de Medici, the widow of Henry II. Because those kings were either too young, too ill, or, in Henry IIIs case, too irresponsible to attend to the details of administration, in order to manage, she formed around her a core of trusted ministers, including Villeroy. In 1567, at the age of twenty-four, Villeroy became a secretary of state in succession to his father-in-law and his wife, Madeleine de l’Aubespine, whom he probably married in 1561, was not only beautiful but learned enough to translate the epistles of Ovid. Villeroy and Madelaine had two sons and a daughter, but only one son, named Charles after the king, Villeroy remarried after his wifes death in 1596 and had another son, Nicolas, who entered religion, becoming the Abbot of Chaise-Dieu. He was also abbé commendataire of Mozac, from 1571 -1610, Villeroy soon became a favourite with the young Charles IX. He was also loved by Catherine de Medici, and by Henry III until that became detached. Villeroy often found himself responsible for the negotiation of peace treaties, Villeroy formed a strong relationship with Catherine de Medici. Their letters to each other show mutual trust and respect and you are so wise, Catherine wrote to him concerning the difficulties posed by the behaviour of her son François, Duke of Anjou, that you do not need any further advice about that or any other matter. For example, he wrote to Villeroy, While I am with the Capuchins if there are any urgent and important things. you should, all of you and you can excuse yourself from one but not from the other. Sackcloth you wear only when you choose, but the crown is always upon your head, Henry also began to shower offices and privileges on his favourites, particularly Jean Louis de Nogaret de La Valette, first duke of Épernon. The incident shook Villeroy so badly that he remained in his room for two days, too distressed and afraid to return to his work, Villeroy then asked the king if he could leave the court, but the king refused his request. Above all, Villeroy was concerned about his spotless reputation, Catherine de Medici was shocked at the secretarys treatment and supported Villeroy vigorously, saying she had not been so upset about any matter for a long time. Henry III managed to capture, but later that year faced a meeting of the Estates of Blois. On 8 September, at Blois, Villeroy received a note from the king dismissing him from his job, Henry dismissed the rest of his chief ministers at the same time. Henry offered Villeroy and his colleagues neither explanation nor compensation, no definitive motive for the kings decision has been established by historiansNicolas de Neufville, seigneur de Villeroy – Nicolas de Neufville, seigneur de Villeroy
27. Jean de Poltrot – Jean de Poltrot, sieur de Méré or Mérey, was a nobleman of Angoumois, who murdered Francis, Duke of Guise. Having been converted to the Huguenot cause, he determined to kill Francis, pretending to be a deserter, he gained admission to the camp of the Catholic army that was besieging Orléans. In the evening of 18 February 1563, he hid by the side of a road along which he knew the Duke would pass, fired a pistol at him, and fled. He was captured the day, and following torture and a trial, he was sentenced to be drawn. The punishment, carried out on 18 March 1563, was botched, during his torture, he had made several contradictory statements, some of which implicated Admiral Coligny. Coligny protested emphatically against the accusation, but nevertheless the assassination led to a vendetta between Coligny and Franciss sons, Henry I, Duke of Guise and Louis II, Cardinal of Guise. This article incorporates text from a now in the public domain, Chisholm, Hugh, ed. Poltrot. This work in turn cites, Mémoires du prince de Condé T. A. DAubigné, Histoire universelle A. de Ruble, LAssassinat du duc François de LorraineJean de Poltrot – Jean de Poltrot
28. Antoine de Roquelaure – He was made marshal of France in 1614 by Louis XIII. The existence of lords of Roquelaure is documented to at least the twelfth century, the Roquelaure family held the fief in conjunction with the lords from whom they received it. Antoine de Roquelaure was the son of Géraud, lord of Roquelaure, Gaudoux, Montbert and Le Longard. At eighteen, Antoine de Roquelare was still young, and Henry soon appreciated the loyalty, Roquelaure eventually came into the full possession of the fief after the death of his two elder brothers, Jean-Bernard and Bernard in the Wars of Religion. He formed part of the group of confidants who counseled the king at his court at Nérac, after Henry became the legitimate heir to the throne of France in 1589, Roquelaure followed him in all his battles to secure the crown, Coutras, Arques and Ivry. As a Catholic, Roquelaure played an important role in convincing Henry to adopt that faith to strengthen his hold on the French crown and his service gained him many charges and benefices which turned him into one of the most important persons of the kingdom. On 16 May 1610, Roquelaure was with the king in the carriage in which he was murdered by François Ravaillac and he resigned the post of governor of Guyenne in 1613 and only kept the office of governor of Lectoure, which allowed him to return to his domains. He died in Lectoure in 1625 at the age of 81 years, in 1581 he married Catherine dOrnesan, who died in 1601. They had six children, but he had no male descendants at the time of the death of his son Jean-Louis in 1610 and he remarried in 1611 with Susanne de Bassabat, with whom he had twelve children, among them Gaston-Jean-Baptiste de Roquelaure, his main heir. A celebrated wit, Gaston was created the first duke of Roquelaure, gastons son, Antoine Gaston de Roquelaure, carried on the family reputation for wit. At a young age served in the Franco-Dutch War and later in the Nine Years War and he was made governor of Languedoc in 1706 and received the marshals bâton in 1724. The second duke of Roquelaure also gave his name to the roquelaure or roquelaire, a knee-length cloak. His daughter, Françoise, married Louis Bretagne de Rohan-Chabot in 1708 and as a result the duchy of Roquelaure passed to this family, the king sold it to Guillaume Dubarry in 1772. A marquisate of Roquelaure was created in 1766 in favor of Charles de Roquelaure, lord of Saint-Aubin and this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain, Chisholm, Hugh, ed. article name needed. Dictionnaire géographique, historique et politique de Gaules et de la France, la Chesnaye des Bois, Alexandre Aubert de. Dictionnaire de la noblesse, contenant les généalogies, histoire de la ville dAuch depuis le romains jusquen 1789Antoine de Roquelaure – Antoine de Roquelaure
29. Corbeyran de Cardaillac Sarlabous – Corbeyran de Cardaillac de Sarlabous was a 16th-century French soldier who served in Scotland as Captain of Dunbar Castle, and was Governor of Le Havre for twenty years. He was usually called Captain Sarlabous in Scottish and English letters of his time, a contemporary French writer calls him the sieur de Sarlaboz. Sarlabous is a place in the Hautes-Pyrénées where Corbeyran held lands, born around 1515 in Gascony, his father was Odet de Cardaillac, seigneur de Sarlabous, and his mother, Jeanne de Binos, heiress of Bize or Vize. Captain Sarlabous arrived in Scotland in 1549 under Paul de Thermes to resist the English in the war of the Rough Wooing and he was posted first at Dumbarton Castle, then made Captain of Dunbar in 1553. Henri Cleutin wrote to Mary of Guise saying he did not know Sarlabous personally, in August 1554 Sarlabous joined the Earl of Argyll at Dunstaffnage Castle in an unsuccessful expedition to Mull against James McConill, McClane, and their whole folkis. On his return to France, in 1558 he served the Duke of Guise at the siege of Thionville and he returned to Scotland to resist the Scottish Reformation. John Knox and the Protestant Lords of the Congregation sent letters from Perth to Serra La Burse and other French soldiers on 22 May 1559, after Cleutin moved to Linlithgow, a spy for England reported that Sarlabous had 1,200 troops at Stirling under 5 ensigns. They marched into Fife and met with 400 more troops on 7 January 1560 who had sailed from Leith, according to Cleutin, they were attacked by 1,500 Protestants. A French cavalry charge won the day, and between 400 and 500 were killed, the young Earl of Arran reported this battle at Kinghorn differently as a skirmish, although the Earl of Sutherland was shot in the arm. John Knox adds that the French landing was at Pettycur Bay, Knox wrote there were few casualties as Lord Ruthven arrived with cavalry. A Protestant Dutchman and a French boy were captured and hung from Kinghorn steeple, Sarlabous and his soldiers were attacked again on 30 January. Sarlabous was once again Captain of Dunbar, but joined in the defence of Leith, a Captain Charlebois the younger was killed at the siege of Leith in April. On 8 May, Corbeyran got a messenger from the Lords of the Congregation to carry a message in code from Leith back to a lady-in-waiting of Mary of Guise, at Dunbar on 5 June, he welcomed back a Captain Vigneau who had brought letters from France. The townspeople of Dunbar reported to the Scottish council that Sarlabous hindered the work and had refurbished a cave used for storage within the area scheduled for demolition. Sarlabous was also seen at night on 17 August 1560 with four companions close to Berwick upon Tweed, the commander Francis Leek heard that he had obtained a plan of the town. Sarlebous offered a refuge to the fugitive Lord Semple within the castle, meanwhile, Castle Semple was besieged by the Earl of Arran. Sarlabous told the Scottish Captain Forbes who came for Semple that he doubted Elizabeth I of England would marry Arran and this marriage plan had been supported by the Scottish Reformation Parliament. He thought she would marry the King of Sweden and Arran would be allowed to marry Lady Catherine, Sarlabous laid a bet with Forbes of a horse worth 100 crowns that this rumour was trueCorbeyran de Cardaillac Sarlabous – The French garrison of Dunbar Castle guarded a strategic port
30. Gaspard de Saulx – Gaspard de Saulx, sieur de Tavannes was a French Roman Catholic military leader during the Italian Wars and the French Wars of Religion. As a page of King Francis I, he was prisoner by the Imperials in the Battle of Pavia. Later he distinguished himself in the War of Provence and in Battle of Ceresole of 1544, in 1552 he conquered Metz and had an important role in the French victory at the Battle of Renty. After the conquest of Calais in 1558, he was appointed as Governor General of Burgundy, in this role, he was accused of excessive persecutions against the Protestants, a trait he also displayed in the Huguenot Wars. In the course of the latter he was victorious at the battles of Jarnac, as a reward for his deeds, he was made Marshal of France on November 28,1570. Saulx had also a role in the St. Bartholomews Day Massacre on August 24,1572, in the October of the same year he was appointed as governor of Provence and Admiral of the Levant. He died in his castle at Sully, and was buried in the Sainte Chapelle of Dijon and his memoirs, edited and published by his son around 1620, are an important primary source for the period. Saulx is featured as a character and the main antagonist in the 1966 Doctor Who serial The Massacre of St Bartholomews Eve. House of Saulx-Tavanes, Versailles and Burgundy, 1700–1830, knecht, R. J. Catherine de Medici. A History of the Art of War in the Sixteenth Century, Saulx, Jean de, vicomte de TavannesGaspard de Saulx – Gaspard de Saulx
31. Henri de La Tour d'Auvergne, Duke of Bouillon – Henri de La Tour dAuvergne was a member of the powerful House of La Tour dAuvergne, Prince of Sedan and a marshal of France. The vicomte de Turenne was born at the castle of Joze-en-Auvergne and his parents were François de La Tour dAuvergne, Viscount of Turenne and Eléonore de Montmorency, eldest daughter of Anne, 1st Duc de Montmorency. After the St. Bartholomews Day Massacre in 1572 he participated in the Siege of La Rochelle, compromised in the conspiracy of La Mole and Coconnat in 1574, he joined the party of the Malcontents headed by François, Duke of Alençon in 1575. In 1576 he joined the Protestant party of Henry of Navarre, in 1591 Henry IV married him to Charlotte de La Marck, heiress to the duchy of Bouillon and of the Principality of Sedan. In 1592 Henry IV made him Marshal of France, after the death of his wife in 1594, he married Elisabeth of Orange-Nassau, a daughter of William the Silent, by his third wife Charlotte de Bourbon. Defeated at Doullens, Picardy in 1595 by Fuentes, governor of the Spanish Low Countries, compromised in the conspiracy of Biron in 1602, he fled to Geneva the following year and had to accept a French protectorate over his duchy of Bouillon in 1606. He died in Sedan in 1623 and his only child by Charlotte de La Marck, suo jure Duchess of Bouillon, whom he married on 19 November 1591, was a son who was born and died on 8 May 1594. Children by Adèle Corret, mistress, Henri Corret, ancestor of Théophile Corret de La Tour dAuvergneHenri de La Tour d'Auvergne, Duke of Bouillon – Henri