Category:French people of the French Wars of Religion
Pages in category "French people of the French Wars of Religion"
The following 55 pages are in this category, out of 55 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 55 pages are in this category, out of 55 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Francis, Duke of Anjou – Francis, Duke of Anjou and Alençon was the youngest son of Henry II of France and Catherine de' Medici. He changed his name in honour of his late brother Francis II of France when he was confirmed. In 1576, he was made Duke of Anjou, Touraine, Berry. In 1576, he negotiated the Edict of Beaulieu during the French Wars of Religion. In 1579, he was invited by William the Silent to become hereditary sovereign to the United Provinces. During the night of 15 September 1575, Alençon ran after being alienated by his brother King Henry III. Both Henry III and Catherine de' Medici feared he would join the Protestant rebels. These fears proved well founded, Francis joined his forces in the south. By ` secret treaties' that formed part of this settlement, many on the Protestant side were rewarded with land and titles. Francis thus became the Duke of Anjou. In 1579, arrangements began to be made for marrying him to Elizabeth I of England. Alençon, now Duke of Anjou, was in fact the only one of Elizabeth's foreign suitors to court her in person. Elizabeth was 46. Despite the gap, the two soon became very close, Elizabeth dubbing him her "frog". Queen Elizabeth often used unflattering slang names for Robert Cecil, short of stature and humped from spinal scoliosis.Francis, Duke of Anjou – Francis
2. Antoine Escalin des Aimars – Polin was noticed during the Italian Wars in the Piedmont. Polin succeeded ambassador Antoine de Rincon in Constantinople. Polin in vain. The execution of the alliance would most notably lead in 1543. Polin went to see king Francis I of France to obtain troops, which led in August 1543. Polin supervised the wintering of the Ottomans at Toulon. Then, in 1544, five French galleys including the superb Réale, accompanied Barbarossa's fleet, on a diplomatic mission to Suleiman. A priest of Antibes who accompanied Polin and the Ottoman fleet in 1544, wrote a detailed account in Itinéraire d'Antibes à Constantinople. They arrived in Constantinople on 10 August 1544 to give him an account of the campaign. Polin was back to Toulon on 2 October 1544. In 1545, Polin was on his way to fight in the area of Boulogne. While in Marseilles in 1545, Polin was involved as a leader in the massacre of the Protestant Waldensians. Outside the Piedmont the Waldenses joined the Protestant churches in Bohemia, France and Germany. Several villages were devastated. After these deeds, Polin participated to the French invasion of the Isle of Wight that same year.Antoine Escalin des Aimars – Antoine Escalin des Aimars (1498?-1578)
3. Georges d'Armagnac – Georges d'Armagnac was a French humanist, patron of arts, Cardinal and diplomat deeply embroiled in the Italian Wars and in the French Wars of Religion. In his youth he was the protégé of his kinsman Cardinal Georges d'Amboise. His uncle Charles, duc d'Alençon introduced him to Francis I. Armgnac's brief was to secure Venetian neutrality in the north Italian military conflicts between Francis I and Charles V, an episode of the Italian Wars. The emperor's failure to take Avignon led him to retreat from the south of France. He participated in the conclave that elected his friend, patron Pope Julius III. Armagnac's library was constantly growing. In 1543 he commissioned an illuminated book of meditations in the best humanistic hand from Franc. Wydon and was pleased enough with it to commission a pontifical from Wydon in 1557. Wherever he was, the Cardinal sought out the company of men of experience, often befriended them. Gilles' Antiquities of Constantinople were dedicated to the Cardinal. In 1552 he was appointed lieutenant-general of the king together with the bishop of Cahors. On 6 January 1554, in the chapel of the château of Pau, he baptized Henry of future king of France. In 1560 he was raised to Rome. In 1565, Pope Pius IV appointed him vice-legate at Avignon, together with the Cardinal de Bourbon.Georges d'Armagnac – Georges d'Armagnac and his secretary Guillaume Philandrier by Titian (Louvre Museum)
4. Charles, Duke of Aumale – Charles of Guise, duc d'Aumale was the son of Claude, Duke of Aumale and Louise de Brézé. One of the leaders of the Catholic League, he was at Grand Veneur of France. He led a rebellion in 1587 a prelude to open war between the House of Guise and Henry III of France. He was defeated at the Battle of Senlis on 17 May 1589 by the allied forces of Navarre. Captured at the Battle of Ivry, he died in exile. He married Marie of Lorraine, Louise de Rieux. The princess was known as Mademoiselle d'Elbeuf, derived from her fathers title.Charles, Duke of Aumale – Coat of Arms of the Dukes of Aumale
5. Armand de Gontaut, baron de Biron – Armand de Gontaut, baron de Biron was a celebrated French soldier of the 16th century. As a page of Queen Marguerite de Navarre, Biron attracted the notice of the marshal de Brissac, with whom he saw active service in Italy. A wound he received in his early years made him gave him the nickname Armand Le Boiteux. But he held a command in Guise's regiment of light horse in 1557. In the French Wars of Religion he repeatedly distinguished himself. Four years later was made a marshal of France. From 1576 to 1588 he was almost continuously employed in high command. He dissuaded Henry from going into England. He distinguished himself against the Catholic League. Gontaud was killed on July 26, 1592. In 1585 he was chosen a godfather for future cardinal Richelieu. He was a man of literary attainments, used to carry a pocketbook, in which he noted everything that appeared remarkable. Some of his letters are preserved in the British Museum; these include a treatise on the art of war. Charles de Gontaut, duc de Biron, also became Marshal of France in 1594. A grandson of Henry, was Charles-Armand de Gontaut, another Marshal of France.Armand de Gontaut, baron de Biron – Portrait Armand de Gontaut-Biron
6. Charles de Gontaut, duc de Biron – He was born in Saint-Blancard. His efforts won him the name “Thunderbolt of France”. Henry IV made him admiral of France in 1592, marshal in 1594. As governor of Burgundy in 1595, he took the towns of Beaune, Autun, Auxonne and Dijon, distinguished himself at the battle of Fontaine-Française. After the peace of Vervins, he discharged a mission at Brussels in 1598. Notwithstanding these intrigues, he directed the expedition sent against the duke of Savoy. He fulfilled diplomatic missions for Henry in Switzerland and England, the latter mission being to announce the marriage of Henry to Maria de' Medici. While engaged in these duties, he was accused and convicted in his absence of high treason by the French Parlement. He was induced to come to Paris, where he was apprehended and then beheaded in the Bastille on 31 July 1602. He was the inspiration behind the character Berowne in William Shakespeare's Love's Labour's Lost, written during his lifetime. After his death, his tragic fate was dramatised by George Chapman in The Conspiracy and Tragedy of Charles, Duke of Byron. Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Biron, Armand de Gontaut, Baron de, s.v. Charles de Gontaut". Encyclopædia Britannica.Charles de Gontaut, duc de Biron – Engraved portrait from Atrium heroicum Caesarum..., (Augsburg) 1600-02
7. Charles de Bourbon (cardinal) – Charles de Bourbon was a French cardinal. The Catholic League considered the rightful King of France after the death of Henry III of France in 1589. He was born in what is now the department of Seine-et-Marne, the eighth child of Charles IV de Bourbon, duke of Vendôme. His mother was Françoise d'Alençon. Charles made a rapid career in the Roman Catholic hierarchy. He was bishop of Nevers, bishop of Saintes, archbishop of Rouen, bishop of Nantes, bishop of Beauvais. In 1551 he was made Lieutenant-General of Ile de France. On December 1578 he was made the first commander in the Order of the Holy Spirit. However, Henry III of Navarre, was a Protestant. Party to the French Wars of Religion, excluded all Protestants from the succession, which made Charles de Bourbon their champion. Henry III had Charles imprisoned in the castle of Blois on 23 December 1588. He was transferred from one castle to another, presumably to prevent escape. On Henry III's death in 1589, the League proclaimed Charles king, while he was still a prisoner and in the castle of Chinon. He was recognized by the parliament of Paris on 21 November 1589. His prison was considered too close to Catholic territory, so he was again transferred, this time to Fontenay-le-Comte.Charles de Bourbon (cardinal) – Portrait of Charles de Bourbon by an anonymous artist, 16th century.
8. Catherine de' Medici – For a time, she ruled France as its regent. At the age of fourteen, Caterina married Queen Claude of France. Henry's death thrust Catherine into the political arena as mother of the frail fifteen-year-old King Francis II. When he died in 1560, she became regent on behalf of her ten-year-old son King Charles IX and was granted sweeping powers. After Charles died in 1574, Catherine played a key role in the reign of her third son, Henry III. He dispensed with her advice only in the last months of her life. Catherine's three sons reigned in an age of almost constant civil and religious war in France. At first, Catherine compromised and made concessions to the rebelling Protestants, or Huguenots, as they became known. She failed, however, to grasp the theological issues that drove their movement. Later she resorted, in frustration and anger, to hard-line policies against them. Some historians have excused Catherine from blame for the worst decisions of the crown, though evidence for her ruthlessness can be found in her letters. In practice, her authority was always limited by the effects of the civil wars. Without Catherine, it is unlikely that her sons would have remained in power. The years in which they reigned have been called "the age of Catherine de' Medici". According to Mark Strage, one of her biographers, Catherine was the most powerful woman in sixteenth-century Europe.Catherine de' Medici – Painting attributed to François Clouet, c. 1555
9. Charles IX of France – Charles IX was a monarch of the House of Valois who ruled as King of France from 1560 until his death. He ascended the throne of France upon the death of his brother Francis II. After decades of tension, war broke out between Protestants and Catholics after the massacre of Vassy in 1562. This event, known as the St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre, was a significant blow to the Huguenot movement, though religious civil warfare soon began anew. Charles sought to take advantage of the disarray of the Huguenots by ordering the Siege of La Rochelle, but was unable to take the Protestant stronghold. He died without legitimate male issue in 1574 and was succeeded by his brother Henry III. He was born Charles Maximilian, third son of King Henry II of France and Catherine de' Medici, in the royal chateau of Saint-Germain-en-Laye. On 14 May 1564, Charles was presented the Order of the Garter by Henry Carey. His father died in 1559, followed on 5 December 1560 by his elder brother, King Francis II. The ten-year-old Charles was immediately proclaimed king and, on 15 May 1561, consecrated in the cathedral at Reims. Antoine of Bourbon, himself in line to the French throne and husband to Queen Joan III of Navarre, was appointed Lieutenant-General of France. Charles' reign was dominated by the French Wars of Religion, which pitted various factions against each other. Queen Catherine, though nominally a Catholic, initially tried to steer a middle course between the two factions, attempting to keep the peace and augment royal power. In return, the monarchy revoked the concessions given to the Huguenots. After this victory, Charles declared his legal majority in August 1563, formally ending the regency.Charles IX of France – Charles IX around 1572, painted by François Clouet.
11. Henri Cleutin – Henri was one of five children of Pierre Cleutin, or Clutin, grandson of Henri, both were Councillors to the French Parliament. The editor of Castelnau's memoirs, surmises the family had its origins in a cloth merchant who supplied Charles VI of France. Henri was made its lord in 1552. Henri may have been destined for the church but fled the country. He had a pardon in 1538. On the basis of this incident the historian Marie-Noëlle Baudouin-Matuszek revised his date to 1515. Cleutin was much a follower of the House of Guise who were gaining political powers in France. When Cleutin arrived in Scotland there was an interlude of peace with England resulting from the Treaty of Ardres. However peace between the Holy Roman Empire was not completely concluded. The Imperial ambassador in London François van der Delft became aware of Henri Cleutin, who he called "Oysif," in Scotland in December 1546. Cleutin remained in Scotland after the war with England was concluded in 1550. While waiting for the Marquis he visited Dunbar Castle, Tantallon Castle. D'Oisel wrote from Dunglass remarking that there was nothing there except what they brought themselves. The countryside could hardly provide for their horses. Not the Duke of Châtelherault, was left in charge of Scotland when Mary of Guise the Queen Dowager visited France in 1550.Henri Cleutin – In January 1560 Henri Cleutin had to dismantle a church to cross the River Devon at Tullibody
12. Gaspard II de Coligny – Coligny came of a noble family of Burgundy. His family traced their descent from the 11th century, in the reign of Louis XI, were in the service of the King of France. The present British Royal Family also directly descends from him. Every monarchy in Europe currently has Coligny's blood embodied on its throne. Born at Châtillon-sur-Loing in 1519, Gaspard came to court at the age of 22 and began a friendship with François of Guise. In the campaign of 1543 Coligny distinguished himself, was wounded at the sieges of Montmédy and Bains. That year he married Charlotte de Laval. He was made admiral on the death of Claude d'Annebaut. In 1557 he was entrusted with the defence of Saint-Quentin. In the siege he displayed great courage, resolution, strength of character; but the place was taken, he was imprisoned in the stronghold of L'Ecluse. On payment of a ransom of 50,000 crowns he recovered his liberty. The Coligny brothers were the aristocratic supporters of Protestantism in sixteenth-century France. By this time he had become a Huguenot, through the influence of his brother, d'Andelot. The known letter which John Calvin addressed to him is dated September 1558. Gaspard de Coligny secretly focused on protecting his co-religionists, by attempting to establish colonies abroad in which Huguenots could find a refuge.Gaspard II de Coligny – Gaspard II de Coligny
13. Louise de Coligny – Louise de Coligny was the daughter of Gaspard II de Coligny and Charlotte de Laval and the fourth and last spouse of William the Silent. Louise was born at Châtillon-sur-Loing. Her parents saw to it that she received a humanist education. When she was seventeen, she married Charles de Teligny. Both her father were murdered at the St. Bartholomew's Day massacre. Like her murdered father, after the massacre, she spent ten years in the Swiss Confederacy. She then married April 1583. She became the mother of Frederick Henry in 1584, future prince of Orange. It is said that she warned her husband about Balthasar Gérard, because she thought him sinister. Gérard murdered William in 1584. After her husband was murdered, she raised both her son and his six daughters to Charlotte of Bourbon. She died at Fontainebleau. Couchman, Jane and Crabb, Ann. Women's letters across Europe, 1400-1700: form and persuasion. Ashgate Published Unlimited.Louise de Coligny – Louise de Coligny
14. Odet de Coligny – Odet de Coligny was a French aristocrat, cardinal, Bishop-elect of Beauvais, Peer of France, member of the French Royal Council. From 1534 he was usually referred to as the Cardinal of Châtillon. He was son of Gaspard I de Coligny and Louise de Montmorency, brother of Pierre, Gaspard, François, Seigneur d'Andelot. His birth at Châtillon-Coligny on 10 July 1517, his parents' second son, was recorded in his mother's book of hours. He and his brothers were home schooled, under the direction of Nicolas Bérauld of Orleans, a friend of Erasmus. He occupied high church offices during this initial part of his career. He became prior of Saint-Étienne in Beaume in 1530. Soon afterwards he became Abbot of the royal abbey of Nôtre-Dame de Vauluisant. In 1534 he became a Canon of La Sainte-Chapelle in Paris. The Cardinal required a dispensation for the archbishopric, since he was only sixteen, far below the minimum canonical age. The dispensation was granted by Pope Clement on 28 August 1534. On September 1534, on 13 he was ordained Deacon. At the age of seventeen, he participated in the papal conclave of 11–12 October 1534, in which Cardinal Alessandro Farnese was elected Pope Paul III. Meanwhile, on 20 October 1535, his nomination to the See of Beauvais was approved in Consistory by Pope Paul III. He held the Administratorship of Beauvais until he was deprived of all his offices and benefices by Pope Pius IV in 1563.Odet de Coligny – Odet de Coligny
15. Jacques Dalbon, Seigneur de Saint Andre – Jacques d'Albon, Seigneur de Saint-André was a French soldier and favorite of Henry II of France. He was made marshal of France, ambassador in England. He served in 1552. Their aim was to limit the influence of the queen-mother, Catherine de' Medici. Saint-André died at the battle of Dreux. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, ed.. "name needed". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press.Jacques Dalbon, Seigneur de Saint Andre – Portrait of Jacques d'Albon c. 1562 (musée national du château et des Trianons, Versailles)
16. Francis, Duke of Guise – Francis de Lorraine II, Prince of Joinville, Duke of Guise, Duke of Aumale, was a French soldier and politician. By religion, he practised Catholicism, at a time when France was being polarized between the Catholics and Huguenots. Born at Bar-le-Duc, Guise was the son of Claude, his wife Antoinette de Bourbon. Mary of Guise, was the wife of James V of Scotland and mother of Mary, Queen of Scots. His younger brother was Charles, Cardinal of Lorraine. In 1545, he recovered. He was struck through the bars of his helmet. 15 cm of the shaft were snapped off by the violence of the blow. In 1551, he was created Grand Chamberlain of France. His brother, Charles, Cardinal of Lorraine were supreme in the royal council. Occasionally he signed public acts with his baptismal name only. The plot was violently suppressed, initiating a series of assassinations and counter-assassinations in an increasingly toxic atmosphere. The power of the Guises was supreme. The king, however, 5 December 1560 -- a year full of calamity for the Guises both in Scotland and France. Within a few months their influence waned.Francis, Duke of Guise – Francis, Duke of Guise, by François Clouet
17. Henry I, Duke of Guise – His maternal grandparents were Ercole II d'Este, Renée of France. Through his maternal grandfather, he was a descendant of Pope Alexander VI. In 1576 he founded the Catholic League to prevent King Henry of Navarre, head of the Huguenot movement, from succeeding to the French throne. A key figure in the French Wars of Religion, he was one of the namesakes of the War of the Three Henrys. A powerful opponent of Catherine de' Medici, he was assassinated by the bodyguards of her son, King Henry III. He succeeded his father as Duke of Guise and Grand Maître de France. He fought at the Battle of Saint-Denis in 1567, Battle of Jarnac, fought at the Battle of Moncontour. This was quickly followed by the St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre which took place to the Huguenot, Henry of Navarre. Henry was thereafter known, like his father, as "Le Balafré". With a brilliant public reputation, he rose to heroic stature among the Catholic population of France as an opponent of the Huguenots. In 1576 he formed the Catholic League to keep Henry of Navarre, off the throne. The dash of Guise contrasted favorably with the vacillation and weakness of Henry III. He was said to cast eyes on the throne. This led to the stage of the Wars of Religion known as the War of the Three Henries. However, at the death in 1584 of Francis, Duke of the king's brother, Guise concluded the Treaty of Joinville with Philip II of Spain.Henry I, Duke of Guise – Henry I, Duke of Guise
18. Louis II, Cardinal of Guise – Louis II, Cardinal of Guise, was the third son of Francis, Duke of Guise, Anna d'Este. His maternal grandparents were Ercole d'Este II, Renée of France. He was elected archbishop of Reims in 1574, succeeding Charles of Guise. On February 1578, he was created cardinal; he took the title of Cardinal of Guise, succeeding his uncle, Louis I, Cardinal of Guise. He was later made by Henry III of France a knight of the Order of Saint Esprit. His dedication to the cause of his brother Henry I, intransigence to the royal power provoked the hostility of Henry III. At the royal command, the Cardinal was assassinated by the King's bodyguard known as "the Forty-five", the day after his brother. An illegitimate son, Louis bâtard de Guise, born with Aimerie de Lescheraine, dame de Grimaucourt, was legitimised in 1610, after his father's death. Louis become prince of Lexin and married Henriette de Lorraine, Duke of Lorraine. House of GuiseLouis II, Cardinal of Guise – Louis II
19. Nicolas de Neufville, seigneur de Villeroy – Nicolas IV de Neufville, seigneur de Villeroy was a secretary of state under four kings of France: Charles IX, Henry III, Henry IV, Louis XIII. Despite faithfully serving Henry III, Villeroy found himself sacked without explanation in 1588 along with all the king's ministers. He became more important than ever before. He remained in office during the reign of Louis XIII. In order to manage, she formed around her a core of trusted ministers, including Villeroy. At the age of twenty-four, Villeroy became a secretary of state in succession to his father-in-law, Claude II de l'Aubespine. His Madeleine de l'Aubespine, whom he probably married in 1561, was not only beautiful but learned enough to translate the epistles of Ovid. Only one son, named Charles after the king, survived. Villeroy had another son, Nicolas, who entered religion, becoming the Abbot of Chaise-Dieu. He was also abbé commendataire of Mozac, from 1571 - 1610. Villeroy soon became a favourite with the young Charles IX. He was also loved by Henry III until that king became detached and distant towards the end of his reign. Villeroy often found himself responsible for the negotiation of peace treaties. Villeroy formed a strong relationship with Catherine de' Medici. Their letters to each other show mutual respect.Nicolas de Neufville, seigneur de Villeroy – Nicolas de Neufville, seigneur de Villeroy
20. Henry III of France – He was the last French monarch of the Valois dynasty. As the fourth son of King Henry II of France and Catherine de' Medici, Henry was not expected to assume the throne of France. Henry's rule over Poland was brief, but notable. The Henrician Articles he signed into law accepting the Polish throne established Poland as an elective monarchy subject to free election by the Polish nobility. Of his three older brothers, two would live long enough to ascend the French throne, but both died young and without a legitimate male heir. He abandoned Poland upon receiving word that he had inherited the throne of France at the age of 22. Henry III was himself a politique, arguing that a strong and religiously tolerant monarchy would save France from collapse. Henry III's legitimate heir was his distant cousin Henry, King of Navarre, a Protestant. His older brothers were Francis II of France, Charles IX of France, Louis of Valois. He was made Duke of Angoulême and Duke of Orléans in 1560, then Duke of Anjou in 1566. He was his mother's favourite; she called him chers yeux and lavished fondness and affection upon him for most of his life. His elder brother, Charles, grew to detest him, partially because he resented his better health. In his youth, Henry was considered the best of the sons of Catherine de' Medici and Henry II. Unlike his father and elder brothers, he had little interest in the traditional Valois pastimes of hunting and physical exercise. Although he was both fond of fencing and skilled in it, he preferred to indulge his tastes for the arts and reading.Henry III of France – Henry III when Duke of Anjou by François Clouet
21. Henry IV of France – Henry IV, also known by the epithet "Good King Henry", was King of Navarre from 1572 to 1610 and King of France from 1589 to 1610. Henry was the French monarch of the House of a branch of the Capetian dynasty. Henry, as Head of the House of Bourbon, was a male-line descendant of "first prince of the blood". Upon distant cousin Henry III of France in 1589, he was called by the Salic law. He initially kept the Protestant faith and had to fight against the Catholic League, which denied that he could wear France's crown as a Protestant. To obtain mastery over his kingdom, after four years of stalemate, he found it prudent to abjure the Calvinist faith. As a pragmatic politician, he displayed an unusual religious tolerance for the era. Notably, he promulgated the Edict of Nantes, which guaranteed religious liberties to Protestants, thereby effectively ending the Wars of Religion. He was assassinated by a fanatical Catholic, was succeeded by his son Louis XIII. Considered a usurper by some Catholics and a traitor by some Protestants, Henry became target of at least 12 assassination attempts. The "Good King Henry" was remembered for his geniality and his great concern about the welfare of his subjects. He was celebrated in the popular song Vive le roi Henri and in Voltaire's Henriade. Henry was born in Pau, the capital of the joint Kingdom of Navarre with the sovereign principality of Béarn. His parents were her consort, Antoine de Bourbon, King of Navarre. Although baptised as a Roman Catholic, he was raised by his mother, who had declared the religion of Navarre.Henry IV of France – Henry IV
22. Honorat II of Savoy – Honorat de Savoie, marquis of Villars was a marshal of France and admiral of France. He was a son of René of Savoy and Anne of Lascaris. He was wounded at battle of Saint-Quentin on 10 August 1557, though this did not stop him relieving Corbie from its Spanish siege. He accompanied Charles IX of France in 1567 assisted at the Assemblée Grands de France held at Moulins. He fought zealously against the Huguenots, fighting at Saint-Denis and Moncontour. In 1565, his fiefdom of Villars was promoted to a marquisate dependent on the House of Savoy. In 1570, he succeeded Blaise de Monluc as lieutenant of Guyenne, where he repressed the Huguenots in 1573. He was dismissed in favour of duc de Mayenne. He was appointed to the Order of the Holy Spirit on 1 January 1579. Saint-esprit TO&CHonorat II of Savoy – Honorat II de Savoie, marquis de Villars, amiral de France en 1569, musée historique de Versailles in 1834.
23. Anne de Joyeuse – Anne de Batarnay de Joyeuse, Baron d'Arques, Vicomte then Duke of Joyeuse was a royal favourite and active participant in the French Wars of Religion. Anne was born in the château de Joyeuse. He was the eldest son of Guillaume, 8th Vicomte de Joyeuse, future Marshal of France. Cardinal François de Joyeuse was his younger brother. He attended the Collège de Navarre, starting in August 1572. From 1577 onward, Anne accompanied his father to Languedoc and Auvergne. In 1579, he was soon appointed governor of Mont Saint-Michel. In 1580, he took part in the siege of Fère-en-Tardenois. The King arranged Joyeuse's marriage to Marguerite, daughter of Nicholas, Duke of Mercœur. The nuptials were celebrated on 18 September 1581 with unprecedented magnificence. King Henry used the marriage for elevating his favourite to the dignity of Duc de Joyeuse. He was given precedence with the exception of princes of the blood. In addition to more than 000 écus in dowry, he was given the seigneury of Limours. In the next year, the 21-year-old mignon was made commander in the Order of the Holy Spirit, the kingdom's highest. He was appointed governor of Normandy in 1584.Anne de Joyeuse – Anne de Joyeuse (1561-87), Admiral of France, a portrait in the collection of the Palace on the Water in Warsaw.
24. Charles, Duke of Mayenne – For information on the regent of the Netherlands, see Charles of Lorraine. In 1596, when he made peace with Henri of Navarre, the wars were essentially at an end. In 1577 Mayenne gained conspicuous successes in Poitou. As governor of Burgundy Mayenne raised his province in 1585. The assassination on 23 -- 24 December 1588, left him at the head of the Catholic party. He immediately made preparations for marching on Paris. Paris had been roused to fury by the news of the murder. When Mayenne entered the city in February 1589 Mayenne found it dominated by representatives of the sixteen quarters of all staunch supporters of the League. Mayenne formed a general to direct the affairs of the city and to maintain relations with the other towns faithful to the League. Mayenne added representatives of the various trades and professions of Paris in order to counterbalance this revolutionary element. Mayenne constituted himself "lieutenant-general of the crown of France," taking his oath before the parlement of Paris. In April Mayenne advanced on Tours. He was out-marched by Henry IV, who moved on Paris, but retreated before Mayenne's forces. In 1590 he took the field again, only to suffer complete defeat at Ivry. His difficulties were increased by the death of the Cardinal, the "king of the league."Charles, Duke of Mayenne – Charles of Lorraine
25. Gabriel, comte de Montgomery – Gabriel, comte de Montgomery, seigneur de Lorges, a French nobleman, was a captain of the Scots Guards of King Henry II of France. He became a leader of the Huguenots. , finding himself disgraced, Montgomery retreated to his estates in Normandy. There he converted to Protestantism, making him an enemy of the state. In 1562, Montgomery allied himself with Louis I de Bourbon, prince de Condé. He took control during September and October defended Rouen from the Royal Army. He managed to escape to England. Elizabeth refused. Montgomery returned with a fleet in an attempt to relieve the Siege of La Rochelle in 1573. He attempted an insurrection in Normandy, but was captured, taken to Paris, sentenced to death. A freely adapted version of Montgomery's life is told in The Two Dianas. Suzanne de Montgomery Elisabeth de Montgomery Claude de Montgomery Roberte de Montgomery, wife of Gawen Champernowne of Dartington in Devon, by whom she had issue. In 1582 she divorced him in 1595 remarried to Thomas Horner of Cloford. Landurant, Alain. Montgommery le régicide.Gabriel, comte de Montgomery – Gabriel de Lorges comte de Montgomery (1530-1574), by Feron Eloi Firmin.
26. Anne de Montmorency – Anne, duc de Montmorency, Honorary Knight of the Garter was a French soldier, statesman and diplomat. Montmorency became Marshal of France. He was born to the ancient Montmorency family. Guillaume, had a senior status in the household of the king Francis I. They became close. In 1512, aged 19, he fought at the Battle of Ravenna. In 1514 his sister Louise de Montmorency married Gaspard I de Coligny. Their children included Gaspard II de Coligny, Admiral of François. Gaspard II had a Louise who married William the Silent. When King Francis I acceded in January 1515, he became an influential member of his court. When the king reasserted the French claim to the same year, he followed his king into Italy and distinguished himself at Marignano. He became governor of Novara. In 1518 Montmorency was one of the hostages in England for Francis I's debt to Henry VIII for the city of Tournai. Montmorency returned to France to attend the Holy Roman Empire in May 1519. In August 1521, he helped to command the defence of Mézières against the Imperial German army.Anne de Montmorency – Anne de Montmorency, by Jean Clouet, 1530
27. Henri I de Montmorency – Henri I de Montmorency, Marshal of France, Constable of France, seigneur of Damville, served as Governor of Languedoc from 1563 to 1614. They accused him of being in league with Protestants like his cousin Admiral Coligny. Damville responded by sending them to Paris with charges of slander. Damville also placed a procureur-général on the Parlement of Toulouse, suspected of Protestantism. He became Duke of Montmorency on his brother's death in 1579. As a leader of the party called the Politiques he took a prominent part in the French Wars of Religion. With his second wife, he had two children: Charlotte Marguerite de Montmorency; Henri II de Montmorency. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, ed.. "article name needed". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press.Henri I de Montmorency – Henri-Damville.jpg
28. Jean de Poltrot – Jean de Poltrot, sieur de Méré or Mérey, was a nobleman of Angoumois, who murdered Francis, Duke of Guise. Having been converted to the Huguenot cause, he determined to kill Francis, Duke of Guise. Pretending to be a deserter, he gained admission to the camp of the Catholic army, besieging Orléans. Following torture and a trial, he was sentenced to be drawn and quartered. The punishment, carried out on 18 March 1563, was botched; the horses having failed to rend his limbs, swords were used to finish the job. During his torture, he had made contradictory statements, some of which implicated Admiral Coligny. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, ed.. "Jean de". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press. This work in turn cites: Mémoires du prince de Condé T. A. D'Aubigné, Histoire universelle A. de Ruble, L'Assassinat du duc François de LorraineJean de Poltrot – Jean de Poltrot
29. Antoine de Roquelaure – He was made marshal of France by Louis XIII. The existence of lords of Roquelaure is documented to at least the twelfth century. The Roquelaure family held the fief in conjunction from whom they received it. Antoine de Roquelaure was the third son of Géraud, Catherine de Bezolles. At eighteen, Henry soon appreciated the loyalty and devotion of his brilliant companion. Roquelaure eventually came into the full possession of the fief in the Wars of Religion. He participated in the siege of Eauze in 1579. As a Catholic, Roquelaure played an important role in convincing Henry to adopt that faith to strengthen his hold on the French crown. His service gained many charges and benefices which turned him into one of the most important persons of the kingdom. On 16 Roquelaure was with the king in the carriage in which he was murdered by François Ravaillac. He died at the age of 81 years. In 1581 he married Catherine d'Ornesan, who died in 1601. He had no male descendants at the time of the death of his son Jean-Louis in 1610. He remarried in 1611 with whom he had twelve children, among them Gaston-Jean-Baptiste de Roquelaure, his main heir. Gaston was created the first duke of Roquelaure and peer of France in 1652 and was appointed governor of Guyenne in 1679.Antoine de Roquelaure – Antoine de Roquelaure
30. Corbeyran de Cardaillac Sarlabous – Sarlabous was usually called Captain Sarlabous of his time. A French writer calls him the "sieur de Sarlaboz." He is a place in the Hautes-Pyrénées where Corbeyran held lands. Born around 1515 in Gascony, his father was Odet de Cardaillac, his mother, Jeanne de Binos, heiress of Bize or Vize. Captain Sarlabous arrived under Paul de Thermes to resist the English in the war of the Rough Wooing. He was posted first at Dumbarton Castle, then made Captain of Dunbar in 1553. The appointment was at the recommendation of the Duke of Guise. In August 1554 he joined the Earl of Argyll at Dunstaffnage Castle in an unsuccessful expedition against James McConill, McClane, their whole "folkis." In 1558 Sarlabous served the Duke of Guise at the siege of Thionville. Sarlabous returned to Scotland to resist the Scottish Reformation. After Cleutin moved to Linlithgow, a spy for England reported that Sarlabous had 1,200 troops at Stirling under 5'ensigns.' They met with 400 more troops on 7 January 1560 who had sailed from Leith. According to Cleutin, they were attacked by 1,500 Protestants. Between 400 and 500 were killed. The young Earl of Arran reported this battle differently as a skirmish although the Earl of Sutherland was shot in the arm.Corbeyran de Cardaillac Sarlabous – The French garrison of Dunbar Castle guarded a strategic port
31. Gaspard de Saulx – Gaspard de Saulx, sieur de Tavannes was a French Roman Catholic military leader during the Italian Wars and the French Wars of Religion. He was born in Dijon. As a page of King Francis I, he was made prisoner in the Battle of Pavia. Later he distinguished himself in Battle of Ceresole of 1544. In 1552 he had an important role in the French victory at the Battle of Renty. After the conquest of Calais in 1558, he was appointed as Governor General of Burgundy. In this role, he was accused against the Protestants, a trait he also displayed in the Huguenot Wars. In the course of the latter he was victorious at the battles of Jarnac and Moncontour. As a reward for his deeds, he was made Marshal of France on November 1570. Saulx had also a role in the St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre on August 1572. In the October of the same year he was appointed as Admiral of the Levant. He was buried in the Sainte Chapelle of Dijon. His memoirs are an primary source for the period. Oman, Charles. A History of the Art of War in the Sixteenth Century.Gaspard de Saulx – Gaspard de Saulx
32. Henri de La Tour d'Auvergne, Duke of Bouillon – Henri de La Tour d'Auvergne was a member of the powerful House of La Tour d'Auvergne, Prince of Sedan and a marshal of France. The vicomte de Turenne was born in Auvergne. His parents were François de La Tour d'Auvergne, Viscount of eldest daughter of Anne, 1st Duc de Montmorency. After the St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre in 1572 he subsequently re-converted to Protestantism. Compromised in 1574, he joined the party of the Malcontents headed by François, Duke of Alençon in 1575. In 1576 he joined the Protestant party of Henry of Navarre, negotiating the Peace of Nérac between Protestants and Catholics in 1579. In 1591 Henry IV married him to the duchy of Bouillon and of the Principality of Sedan. In 1592 Henry IV made Marshal of France. After the death of his wife in 1594, he married Elisabeth of a daughter of William the Silent, by his third wife Charlotte de Bourbon. He died in 1623. Children by Adèle Corret, mistress; Henri Corret, ancestor of Théophile Corret de La Tour d'Auvergne.Henri de La Tour d'Auvergne, Duke of Bouillon – Henri