Category:Great Masters of the Order of the Bath
Pages in category "Great Masters of the Order of the Bath"
The following 9 pages are in this category, out of 9 total, this list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 9 pages are in this category, out of 9 total, this list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Order of the Bath – The Most Honourable Order of the Bath is a British order of chivalry founded by George I on 18 May 1725. The name derives from the medieval ceremony for appointing a knight. The knights so created were known as Knights of the Bath, George I erected the Knights of the Bath into a regular Military Order. Prior to 1815, the order had only a class, Knight Companion. Recipients of the Order are now usually senior officers or senior civil servants. Commonwealth citizens who are not subjects of the Queen and foreign nationals may be made Honorary Members, in the Middle Ages, knighthood was often conferred with elaborate ceremonies. These usually involved the taking a bath during which he was instructed in the duties of knighthood by more senior knights. He was then put to bed to dry, clothed in a special robe, he was led with music to the chapel where he spent the night in a vigil. At dawn he made confession and attended Mass, then retired to his bed to sleep until it was fully daylight, in the early medieval period the difference seems to have been that the full ceremonies were used for men from more prominent families. Knights Bachelor continued to be created with the form of ceremony. The last occasion on which Knights of the Bath were created was the coronation of Charles II in 1661. From at least 1625, and possibly from the reign of James I, Knights of the Bath were using the motto Tria iuncta in uno, and wearing as a badge three crowns within a plain gold oval. These were both adopted by the Order of the Bath, a similar design of badge is still worn by members of the Civil Division. Their symbolism however is not entirely clear, the three joined in one may be a reference to the kingdoms of England, Scotland and either France or Ireland, which were held by English and, later, British monarchs. This would correspond to the three crowns in the badge, another explanation of the motto is that it refers to the Holy Trinity. The prime mover in the establishment of the Order of the Bath was John Anstis, Garter King of Arms, the Court remained the centre of the political world. The King was limited in that he had to choose Ministers who could command a majority in Parliament, the leader of an administration still had to command the Kings personal confidence and approval. A strong following in Parliament depended on being able to supply places, pensions, the attraction of the new Order for Walpole was that it would provide a source of such favours to strengthen his political positionOrder of the Bath – Most Honourable Order of the Bath
2. Albert, Prince Consort – Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha was the husband of Queen Victoria. He was born in the Saxon duchy of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld to a family connected to many of Europes ruling monarchs, at the age of 20, he married his first cousin, Queen Victoria, they had nine children. He was heavily involved with the organisation of the Great Exhibition of 1851, the Queen came to depend more and more on his support and guidance. Albert died at the young age of 42, plunging the Queen into deep mourning for the rest of her life. Upon Queen Victorias death in 1901, their eldest son succeeded as Edward VII, Albert was born at Schloss Rosenau, near Coburg, Germany, the second son of Ernest III, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, and his first wife, Louise of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg. Alberts future wife, Victoria, was earlier in the same year with the assistance of the same midwife. Albert was baptised into the Lutheran Evangelical Church on 19 September 1819 in the Marble Hall at Schloss Rosenau with water taken from the local river, in 1825, Alberts great-uncle, Frederick IV, Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg, died. His death led to a realignment of Saxon duchies the following year and Alberts father became the first reigning duke of Saxe-Coburg, Albert and his elder brother, Ernest, spent their youth in a close companionship marred by their parents turbulent marriage and eventual separation and divorce. After their mother was exiled from court in 1824, she married her lover, Alexander von Hanstein, Count of Polzig and she presumably never saw her children again, and died of cancer at the age of 30 in 1831. The brothers were educated privately at home by Christoph Florschütz and later studied in Brussels, like many other German princes, Albert attended the University of Bonn, where he studied law, political economics, philosophy and the history of art. He played music and excelled at sport, especially fencing and riding and his tutors at Bonn included the philosopher Fichte and the poet Schlegel. By 1836, the idea of marriage between Albert and his cousin, Victoria, had arisen in the mind of their ambitious uncle Leopold, at this time, Victoria was the heiress presumptive to the British throne. Her father, Edward Augustus, Duke of Kent, the son of King George III, had died when she was a baby. Her mother the Duchess of Kent, was the sister of both Alberts father—the Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha—and King Leopold. Leopold arranged for his sister, Victorias mother, to invite the Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, William IV, however, disapproved of any match with the Coburgs, and instead favoured the suit of Prince Alexander, second son of the Prince of Orange. Victoria was well aware of the matrimonial plans and critically appraised a parade of eligible princes. Alexander, on the hand, she described as very plain. Victoria wrote to her uncle Leopold to thank him for the prospect of great happiness you have contributed to give me and he possesses every quality that could be desired to render me perfectly happyAlbert, Prince Consort – Portrait by Winterhalter, 1859
3. Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn – Upon graduation, he was commissioned as a lieutenant in the British Army, where he served for some 40 years, seeing service in various parts of the British Empire. During this time he was created a royal duke, becoming the Duke of Connaught and Strathearn. In 1911, he was appointed as Governor General of Canada and he occupied this post until being succeeded by the Duke of Devonshire in 1916. After the end of his tenure, Arthur returned to the United Kingdom and there, as well as in India, performed various royal duties. Though he retired from life in 1928, he continued to make his presence known in the army well into the Second World War. He was Queen Victorias last surviving son, Arthur was born at Buckingham Palace on 1 May 1850, the seventh child and third son of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert. The prince was baptised by the Archbishop of Canterbury, John Bird Sumner, as with his older brothers, Arthur received his early education from private tutors. It was reported that he became the Queens favourite child, following his arrival at Halifax, Arthur toured the country for eight weeks and made a visit in January 1870 to Washington, D. C. where he met with President Ulysses S. Grant. Arthur made an impression on many in Canada, as he became the 51st chief on the council, his appointment broke the centuries-old tradition that there should only be 50 chiefs of the Six Nations. Arthur was promoted to the rank of colonel on 14 June 1871, substantive lieutenant-colonel in 1876, colonel on 29 May 1880 and. He gained military experience as Commander-in-Chief of the Bombay Army from December 1886 to March 1890 and he went on to be General Officer Commanding Southern District, at Portsmouth, from September 1890 to 1893. The Prince had hoped to succeed his first cousin once-removed, the elderly Prince George, Duke of Cambridge, as Commander-in-chief of the British Army, upon the latters forced retirement in 1895. But this desire was denied to Arthur, and instead he was given, between 1893 and 1898, command of the Aldershot District Command, the regiment had recently been converted to the infantry role from the 2nd Battalion, 5th British Columbia Regiment of Canadian Artillery. With the Princes agreement the unit was renamed 6th Regiment, Duke of Connaughts Own Rifles on 1 May 1900 and he was subsequently appointed colonel-in-chief of the regiment, then known as The British Columbia Regiment, in 1923. He held that appointment until his death, on his mothers birthday in 1874, Arthur was created a royal peer, being titled as the Duke of Connaught and Strathearn and Earl of Sussex. Through his childrens marriages, Arthur became the father-in-law of Crown Prince Gustaf Adolf of Sweden, Princess Alexandra, Duchess of Fife, arthurs first two children predeceased him, Margaret while pregnant with his sixth grandchild. For many years, Arthur maintained a liaison with Leonie, Lady Leslie, sister of Jennie Churchill, alongside his military career, he continued to undertake royal duties beyond, or vaguely associated with, the army. On the return from a posting in India, he again and he also toured Canada in 1906Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn – Prince Arthur in 1915
4. Charles, Prince of Wales – Charles, Prince of Wales is the eldest child and heir apparent of Queen Elizabeth II. Known alternatively in South West England as Duke of Cornwall and in Scotland as Duke of Rothesay, he is the heir apparent in British history. He is also the oldest person to be next in line to the throne since Sophia of Hanover, Charles was born at Buckingham Palace as the first grandchild of King George VI and Queen Elizabeth. After earning a bachelor of degree from Trinity College, Cambridge. In 1981, he married Lady Diana Spencer and they had two sons, Prince William later to become Duke of Cambridge, and Prince Harry, in 1996, the couple divorced, following well-publicised extramarital affairs. Diana died in a car crash in Paris the following year, in 2005, Charles married Camilla Parker Bowles. Charles has sought to raise awareness of the dangers facing the natural environment. As an environmentalist, he has received awards and recognition from environmental groups around the world. His support for alternative medicine, including homeopathy, has been criticised by some in the medical community and he has been outspoken on the role of architecture in society and the conservation of historic buildings. Subsequently, Charles created Poundbury, a new town based on his theories. He has authored a number of books, including A Vision of Britain, A Personal View of Architecture in 1989 and he was baptised in the palaces Music Room by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Geoffrey Fisher, on 15 December 1948. When Prince Charles was aged three his mothers accession as Queen Elizabeth II made him her heir apparent. As the monarchs eldest son, he took the titles Duke of Cornwall, Duke of Rothesay, Earl of Carrick, Baron of Renfrew, Lord of the Isles and Prince. Charles attended his mothers coronation at Westminster Abbey on 2 June 1953, seated alongside his grandmother, as was customary for upper-class children at the time, a governess, Catherine Peebles, was appointed and undertook his education between the ages of five and eight. Buckingham Palace announced in 1955 that Charles would attend school rather than have a private tutor, Charles then attended two of his fathers former schools, Cheam Preparatory School in Berkshire, England, followed by Gordonstoun in the north-east of Scotland. He reportedly despised the school, which he described as Colditz in kilts. Upon his return to Gordonstoun, Charles emulated his father in becoming Head Boy and he left in 1967, with six GCE O-levels and two A-levels in history and French, at grades B and C, respectively. Tradition was broken again when Charles proceeded straight from school into universityCharles, Prince of Wales – The Prince of Wales in Jersey, July 2012
5. Edward VII – Edward VII was King of the United Kingdom and the British Dominions and Emperor of India from 22 January 1901 until his death in 1910. The eldest son of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, before his accession to the throne, he served as heir apparent and held the title of Prince of Wales for longer than any of his predecessors. During the long reign of his mother, he was excluded from political power. He travelled throughout Britain performing ceremonial duties, and represented Britain on visits abroad. His tours of North America in 1860 and the Indian subcontinent in 1875 were popular successes, as king, Edward played a role in the modernisation of the British Home Fleet and the reorganisation of the British Army after the Second Boer War. He reinstituted traditional ceremonies as public displays and broadened the range of people with whom royalty socialised and he died in 1910 in the midst of a constitutional crisis that was resolved the following year by the Parliament Act 1911, which restricted the power of the unelected House of Lords. Edward was born at 10,48 in the morning on 9 November 1841 in Buckingham Palace and he was the eldest son and second child of Queen Victoria and her husband Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. He was christened Albert Edward at St Georges Chapel, Windsor Castle and he was named Albert after his father and Edward after his maternal grandfather Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn. He was known as Bertie to the family throughout his life. As the eldest son of the British sovereign, he was automatically Duke of Cornwall, as a son of Prince Albert, he also held the titles of Prince of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha and Duke of Saxony. He was created Prince of Wales and Earl of Chester on 8 December 1841, Earl of Dublin on 17 January 1850, a Knight of the Garter on 9 November 1858, and a Knight of the Thistle on 24 May 1867. In 1863, he renounced his rights to the Duchy of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha in favour of his younger brother. Queen Victoria and Prince Albert were determined that their eldest son should have an education that would prepare him to be a constitutional monarch. At age seven, Edward embarked on an educational programme devised by Prince Albert. Unlike his elder sister Victoria, Edward did not excel in his studies and he tried to meet the expectations of his parents, but to no avail. Although Edward was not a diligent student—his true talents were those of charm, sociability and tact—Benjamin Disraeli described him as informed, intelligent, after the completion of his secondary-level studies, his tutor was replaced by a personal governor, Robert Bruce. After an educational trip to Rome, undertaken in the first few months of 1859, he spent the summer of that year studying at the University of Edinburgh under, among others, in October, he matriculated as an undergraduate at Christ Church, Oxford. Now released from the strictures imposed by his parents, he enjoyed studying for the first timeEdward VII – Coronation portrait by Sir Luke Fildes
6. Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany – The Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany KG GMB GCH, a member of the House of Hanover, was the second son and child of King George III, King of Great Britain and Ireland and Elector of Hanover. However, he died before his brother, Prince Frederick Augustus, or the Duke of York as he became in later life, belonged to the House of Hanover. He was born on 16 August 1763, at St. Jamess Palace and his father was the reigning British monarch, King George III. On 27 February 1764, when Prince Frederick was six months old and he received this title because his father, as Elector of Hanover, was entitled to select every other holder of this. He was invested as Knight of the Most Honourable Order of the Bath on 30 December 1767, George III decided that his second son would pursue an army career and had him gazetted colonel on 4 November 1780. From 1781 to 1787, Prince Frederick lived in Hanover, where he studied at the University of Göttingen and he was appointed colonel of the 2nd Horse Grenadier Guards on 26 March 1782 before being promoted to major-general on 20 November 1782. Promoted to lieutenant general on 27 October 1784, he was appointed colonel of the Coldstream Guards on 28 October 1784 and he was created Duke of York and Albany and Earl of Ulster on 27 November 1784 and became a member of the Privy Council. He retained the bishopric of Osnabrück until 1803, when, in the course of the preceding the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire. On 26 May 1789 he took part in a duel with Colonel Charles Lennox, who had insulted him, Lennox missed, on 12 April 1793 Frederick was promoted to full general. That year, he was sent to Flanders in command of the British contingent of Coburgs army destined for the invasion of France, Frederick and his command fought in the Flanders Campaign under extremely trying conditions. He won several engagements, such as the Siege of Valenciennes in July 1793. In the 1794 campaign he was successful at the Battle of Willems in May but was defeated at the Battle of Tourcoing later that month, the British army was evacuated through Bremen in April 1795. After his return to Britain, his father George III promoted him to the rank of field marshal on 18 February 1795, on 3 April 1795, George appointed him effective Commander-in-Chief in succession to Lord Amherst although the title was not confirmed until three years later. He was also colonel of the 60th Regiment of Foot from 19 August 1797 and his second field command was with the army sent for the Anglo-Russian invasion of Holland in August 1799. On 7 September 1799, he was given the title of Captain-General. Sir Ralph Abercromby and Admiral Sir Charles Mitchell, in charge of the vanguard, had succeeded in capturing some Dutch warships in Den Helder. However, following the Dukes arrival with the body of the army. On 17 October 1799, the Duke signed the Convention of Alkmaar,1799 also saw Fort Frederick in South Africa named after himPrince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany – The Duke of York, painted by Sir Joshua Reynolds in the robes of the Order of the Garter, 1788.
7. Prince Henry, Duke of Gloucester – Prince Henry, Duke of Gloucester, KG, KT, KP, GCB, GCMG, GCVO, PC was a soldier and third son of King George V and Queen Mary. He also served as the eleventh Governor-General of Australia from 1945 to 1947, the Duke served as a soldier for most of his life. At his death in 1974, he was the last surviving knight of the Order of St. Patrick, as well as the last surviving child of King George V, Prince Henry was born on 31 March 1900, at York Cottage, on the Sandringham Estate. His father was the Duke of York, the eldest surviving son of the Prince of Wales and his mother was Mary of Teck, the only daughter of Prince Francis, Duke of Teck and Princess Mary Adelaide of Cambridge. At the time of his birth, he was fifth in the line of succession to the throne, behind his grandfather, father and he was informally known to his family as Harry. As a young boy, Prince Henry suffered from ill health very much like his older brother Albert and he also had knocked knees and had to wear painful leg splints. He was a nervous child, and was often victim to spontaneous fits of crying or giggling. On top of this, Henry also had a nasal lisp, by 1909, Henry’s poor health had become a serious concern for his parents. He was very small for his age and was prone to get very aggressive colds, “You must remember that he is rather fragile and must be treated differently to his two elder brothers who are more robust, ” wrote Prince George to Henry’s tutor, Henry Peter Hansell. On 6 May 1910, Prince George became king and Henry, the King was persuaded by Mr. Hansell that it would be good for Henry’s character to attend school, where he could interact with boys his age. The King, having previously rejected this proposition for his two sons, agreed on the basis that it would help him “behave like a boy. Prince Henry became the first son of a British monarch to attend school. After three days at St Peters Court in Broadstairs, as a day boy, Mr. Hansell, noticing he liked it, asked the King to send him as a boarder, Henry spent three years at St Peters Court. Academically, he was not very bright, although he did show a particular aptitude in mathematics, Henry’s sole interest became sports, particularly cricket and football. “All you write about is your everlasting football of which I am heartily sick, ” wrote his mother, in September 1913 Henry started at Eton College and during the First World War, a member of his house was Crown Prince Leopold of Belgium, later King Leopold III. His studies did not improve but his nerves and disposition did and he made friends through his enthusiasm for sports, and his masters were very pleased with him, noting in his report that he was “thoroughly willing, cheerful, modest & obedient”. To his father, these values were the most important, having no time or interest in what he called “intellectuals”. By the time he went to Cambridge in 1919 with his brother Albert, unlike his brothers, Prince Henry joined the Army instead of the Royal NavyPrince Henry, Duke of Gloucester – Photographic portrait as Governor-General of Australia
8. John Montagu, 2nd Duke of Montagu – John Montagu, 2nd Duke of Montagu, KG GMB PC, styled Viscount Monthermer until 1705 and Marquess of Monthermer between 1705 and 1709, was a British peer. He was a son of Ralph Montagu, 1st Duke of Montagu and his maternal grandparents were Thomas Wriothesley, 4th Earl of Southampton and Lady Elizabeth Leigh. He went on the tour with Pierre Sylvestre. On 17 March 1705, John was married to Lady Mary Churchill, daughter of John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough and Sarah Churchill, on 23 October 1717, he was admitted a fellow of the Royal College of Physicians. He was made a Knight of the Garter in 1719, and was made Order of the Bath, a fellow of the Royal Society in 1725, and a Grand Master of the Premier Grand Lodge of England. On 22 June 1722, George I appointed him governor of the islands of Saint Lucia and he in turn appointed Nathaniel Uring, a merchant sea captain and adventurer, as deputy-governor. Uring went to the islands with a group of seven ships, unable to get enough support from British warships, he and the new colonists were quickly run off by the French. In 1739, the countrys first home for abandoned children, the Foundling Hospital was created in London, Montagu was a supporter of this effort and was one of the charitys founding governors. He also financed the education of two notable Black British figures of the age, Ignatius Sancho and Francis Williams, sending the latter to Cambridge University. In 1745, he raised a regiment known as Montagus Carabineers. He is said to have once dunked the political philosopher Montesquieu in a tub of water as a joke. The dukes country place, Boughton House, Northamptonshire, was out by him as a miniature Versailles. Montagu and his wife Lady Mary Churchill were parents to five children, married first William Montagu, 2nd Duke of Manchester and second Edward Hussey-Montagu, 1st Earl of Beaulieu. Married George Brudenell, 4th Earl of Cardigan, Edward As none of Montagus sons survived him, his titles became extinct upon his death in 1749. His estates were inherited by his daughter Mary, whose husband, George Brudenell, 4th Earl of Cardigan assumed the name and arms of Montagu, and in 1766 was created 1st Duke of Montagu. In 1790 this second creation dukedom of Montagu also became extinct, his only son and his daughter Elizabeth married Henry Scott, 3rd Duke of Buccleuch, 5th Duke of Queensberry who thus acquired all the unentailed property of the Dukes of Montagu. Attribution This article incorporates text from a now in the public domain, Chichester. Montagu, John, second duke of Montagu, John Montague, 2nd Duke of Montagu presenting the Roll of Constitutions and the compasses to Philip, Duke of WhartonJohn Montagu, 2nd Duke of Montagu – The 2nd Duke of Montagu, Godfrey Kneller, 1709
9. Prince Augustus Frederick, Duke of Sussex – Prince Augustus Frederick, Duke of Sussex, KG, KT, GCB, GCH, PRS, FRSA was the 6th son and 9th child of King George III and his consort Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz. He was the surviving son of George III who did not pursue an army or navy career. Augustus Frederick was born at Buckingham House, London and he was the 9th child and 6th son of George III and Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz. He was christened in the Great Council Chamber at St. Jamess Palace, on 25 February 1773 and his godparents were the Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg, Duke George Augustus of Mecklenburg and Princess Charles of Hesse-Cassel. He was tutored at home before being sent to the University of Göttingen in Germany in the summer of 1786, along with his brothers Prince Ernest, Prince Augustus, who suffered from asthma, did not join his brothers in receiving military training in Hanover. He briefly considered becoming a cleric in the Church of England, in 1805, during the Napoleonic War, he served at home in Britain as Lieutenant-Colonel Commandant of the Loyal North Britons Volunteers regiment. While travelling in Italy, the prince met Lady Augusta Murray, the couple secretly married in Rome on 4 April 1793. The Kings minister of Hanover affairs Ernst zu Münster was sent to Italy to escort him back to London, the couple married again without revealing their full identities at St Georges, Hanover Square, Westminster, on 5 December 1793. Both marriages took place without the knowledge or the consent of the King, in August 1794, the Prerogative Court annulled the princes first marriage on the grounds that it contravened the Royal Marriages Act 1772, not having been approved by the King. However, Prince Augustus Frederick continued to live with Lady Augusta until 1801, when he received a grant of £12,000. Lady Augusta retained custody of their children and received maintenance of £4,000 a year and their two children were named Augustus Frederick dEste and Augusta Emma dEste, both parents being descended from the royal House of Este. In 1806, their mother, Lady Augusta, was given licence to use the surname de Ameland instead of Murray. The King created him Duke of Sussex, Earl of Inverness, and Baron Arklow in the Peerage of the United Kingdom, since he had no legitimate issue, the title became extinct on his death in 1843. In 1815 The Duke became a Patron of the Jews Hospital and Orphan Asylum, Royal patronage continued, with Queen Elizabeth II eventually becoming Norwood’s patron. A known mistress is Mrs. Bugge, on 27 December 1813 the United Grand Lodge of England was constituted at Freemasons Hall, London with Prince Augustus as Grand Master. George Olivers Signs and Symbols Illustrated and Explained in a Course of Twelve Lectures on Freemasonry was dedicated to Prince Augustus Frederick, even allowing for the irregularity of these marriages, this second marriage would not have been bigamous since Lady Augusta DAmeland had died the year before. On the same day, Lady Cecilia assumed by Royal Licence the surname Underwood and she was never titled or recognized as the Duchess of Sussex. However, she was created Duchess of Inverness in her own right in 1840, william IV appointed his younger brother Chief Ranger and Keeper of St. Jamess and Hyde Parks on 29 January 1831, and Queen Victoria appointed her uncle Governor of Windsor Castle in 1842Prince Augustus Frederick, Duke of Sussex – Portrait by Guy Head
10. William IV of the United Kingdom – William IV was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and King of Hanover from 26 June 1830 until his death. The third son of George III and younger brother and successor to George IV, he was the last king, William served in the Royal Navy in his youth and was, both during his reign and afterwards, nicknamed the Sailor King. He served in North America and the Caribbean, in 1789, he was created Duke of Clarence and St Andrews. Since his two brothers died without leaving legitimate issue, he inherited the throne when he was 64 years old. Although William did not engage in politics as much as his brother or his father, through his brother, the Viceroy of Hanover, he granted his German kingdom a short-lived liberal constitution. William was succeeded in the United Kingdom by his niece, Victoria, William was born in the early hours of the morning on 21 August 1765 at Buckingham House, the third child and son of King George III and Queen Charlotte. He had two brothers, George and Frederick, and was not expected to inherit the Crown. He was baptised in the Great Council Chamber of St Jamess Palace on 20 September 1765 and his godparents were his paternal uncles, the Duke of Gloucester and Prince Henry, and his paternal aunt, Princess Augusta, then hereditary duchess of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel. He spent most of his life in Richmond and at Kew Palace. At the age of thirteen, he joined the Royal Navy as a midshipman and his experiences in the navy seem to have been little different from those of other midshipmen, though in contrast to other sailors he was accompanied on board ships by a tutor. He did his share of the cooking and got arrested with his shipmates after a brawl in Gibraltar. He served in New York during the American War of Independence, I am fully persuaded, that it is unnecessary to caution you against offering insult or indignity to the persons of the Prince or Admiral. The plot did not come to fruition, the British heard of it and assigned guards to William and he became a lieutenant in 1785 and captain of HMS Pegasus the following year. The two were friends, and dined together almost nightly. At Nelsons wedding, William insisted on giving the bride away and he was given command of the frigate HMS Andromeda in 1788, and was promoted to rear-admiral in command of HMS Valiant the following year. William sought to be made a duke like his brothers, and to receive a similar parliamentary grant. To put pressure on him, William threatened to stand for the House of Commons for the constituency of Totnes in Devon, Williams political record was inconsistent and, like many politicians of the time, cannot be certainly ascribed to a single party. William ceased his active service in the Royal Navy in 1790, the following year he spoke in favour of the war, expecting a command after his change of heart, none cameWilliam IV of the United Kingdom – Portrait by Sir Martin Archer Shee, 1833