1. Akhenaten – Akhenaten tried to bring about a departure from traditional religion, yet in the end it would not be accepted. After his death, his name was not to be included in the king lists. DNA analysis has determined that the man buried in KV55 is the father of King Tutankhamun, but its identification as Akhenaten has been questioned. The future Akhenaten was a younger son of Amenhotep III and Chief Queen Tiye. There is much controversy around whether Amenhotep IV succeeded to the throne on the death of his father Amenhotep III or whether there was a coregency. In February 2014, the Egyptian Ministry for Antiquities announced what it called conclusive evidence that Akhenaten shared power with his father for at least 8 years. The evidence came from the inscriptions found in the Luxor tomb of Vizier Amenhotep-Huy. A team of Spanish archeologists have been working at this tomb. There he started a program. He decorated the southern entrance to the precincts of the temple of Amun-Re with scenes of his worshiping Re-Harakhti. He soon decreed the construction of a temple dedicated to the Aten in Eastern Karnak. This Temple of Amenhotep IV was called the Gempaaten. The Gempaaten consisted of a series including a structure called the Hwt Benben, dedicated to Queen Nefertiti. Aten temples constructed during this time include the Rud-menu and the Teni-menu which may have been constructed near the Ninth Pylon. The king appears as Amenhotep IV in the tombs of some of the nobles in Thebes: the tomb of Parennefer.Akhenaten – Statue of Akhenaten in the early Amarna style.
2. Atenism – Atenism, or the Amarna heresy, refers to the religious changes associated with the eighteenth dynasty Pharaoh Amenhotep IV, better known under his adopted name, Akhenaten. The Aten -- the god of Atenism -- first appears in texts dating in the Story of Sinuhe. Here during the Middle Kingdom, the Aten "as the disk... was merely one aspect of the sun god Re." The Aten, hence, was a relatively obscure god; without the Atenist period, it would barely have figured in Egyptian history. There is no evidence however that Amenhotep III attempted to promote the Aten as an exclusive deity. To emphasise the change, Aten's name was written in the cartouche form normally reserved for an innovation of Atenism. Year 5 is believed to mark the beginning of Amenhotep IV's construction of Akhetaten, at the site known today as Amarna. Evidence of this appears on three of the stelae used to mark the boundaries of this new capital. At this time, Amenhotep IV officially changed his name as evidence of his new worship. The date given for the event has been estimated to fall around January 2 of that year. In shifting his court from the ceremonial centres Akhenaten was signalling a dramatic transformation in the focus of religious and political power. It may also have coincided with the end of the coregency. Aten was addressed in prayers, such as the Great Hymn to the Aten: "O Sole God beside whom there is none". Aten's name is also written differently after Year 9, to emphasise the radicalism of the new regime. Instead it is spelled phonetically.Atenism – Pharaoh Akhenaten and his family adoring the Aten
3. Hatshepsut – Hatshepsut was the fifth pharaoh of the Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt. She was the second historically confirmed female pharaoh, the first being Sobekneferu. Hatshepsut came to the throne of Egypt in 1478 BC. Officially, she ruled jointly with Thutmose III, who had ascended to the throne the previous year as a child of about two years old. Hatshepsut was the chief wife of Thutmose II, Thutmose III’s father. She is generally regarded by Egyptologists as one of the most successful pharaohs, reigning longer than any other woman of an indigenous Egyptian dynasty. According to Egyptologist James Henry Breasted she is also known as "the first great woman in history of whom we are informed." Hatshepsut was the daughter and only child of Thutmose I and his primary wife Ahmose. Hatshepsut and Thutmose II had a daughter named Neferure. Thutmose II fathered Thutmose III with Iset, a secondary wife. Today Egyptologists generally agree that Hatshepsut assumed the position of pharaoh. Hatshepsut was described as having a reign of about 22 years by ancient authors. Josephus and Julius Africanus both quote Manetho's king list, mentioning a woman called Amessis or Amensis, identified as Hatshepsut. In Josephus' work, her reign is described as lasting 21 years and nine months, while Africanus stated it was twenty-two years. Dating the beginning of her reign is more difficult, however.Hatshepsut – Statue of Hatshepsut on display at the Metropolitan Museum of Art
4. Neferneferuaten – For other individuals named Neferneferuaten, see Neferneferuaten. Ankhkheperure-mery-Neferkheperure / - mery-Waenre / - mery-Aten Neferneferuaten was a name used to refer to either more likely Queen Nefertiti. The archaeological evidence relates to a woman who reigned during the Eighteenth Dynasty. Her gender is confirmed by the epithet Akhet-en-hyes, incorporated into one version of her second cartouche. She is to be distinguished from the king who used the name Ankhkheperure Smenkhkare-Djeser Kheperu but without epithets appearing in either cartouche. With dated evidence to fix their reigns with any certainty, the order depends on how the evidence is interpreted. Some still conflate Smenkhkare with Neferneferuaten. The period from the 13th year of Akhenaten's reign to the ascension of Tutankhaten is very murky. The reigns of Smenkhkare and Neferneferuaten left little monumental or inscriptional evidence to draw a clear picture of political events. Adding to this, Neferneferuaten shares her prenomen, or name, with Smenkhkare, her nomen with Queen Nefertiti/Nefertiti-Neferneferuaten making identification very difficult at times. The Egyptians themselves tried to hide the evidence of the Amarna kings' reigns from us. Manetho was a priest in the time of the Ptolemies in the Third Century B.C.E. His "Egyptian History" divided the rulers into dynasties which forms the basis of the modern system of dating Ancient Egypt. His work is known only in fragmentary form from later writers quoting his work. As a result of the suppression of the Amarna kings, Manetho is the ancient record available.Neferneferuaten – Inscription from Carter 001k, a box from Tutankhamun's tomb.
5. Smenkhkare – Ankhkheperure Smenkhkare Djeser Kheperu was a short-lived pharaoh in the late 18th dynasty. His names translate as'Living are the Forms of Re' and'Vigorous is the Soul of Re – Holy of Forms'. His reign was during the Amarna Period, a time when Akhenaten sought to impose new religious views. He is to be distinguished from his immediate predecessor, the female ruler Ankhkheperure Neferneferuaten. Unlike Neferneferuaten, Smenkhkare did not use epithets in his royal name or cartouche. Very little is known of Smenkhkare for certain because later kings, beginning with Horemheb, sought to erase the entire Amarna Period from history. For the complete historiography regarding the names, see Neferneferuaten Smenkhkare was known back from the tomb of Meryre II. There he and Meritaten, bearing the title Great Royal Wife, are shown rewarding the tomb's owner. The names of the king have since been cut out but had been recorded by Lepsius circa 1850. Later, a different set of names emerged using the same throne name: "Ankhkheperure mery Neferkheperure Neferneferuaten mery Wa en Re ". This led to a great deal of confusion since throne names tended to be unique. Indeed, Petrie makes exactly that distinction in his excavation notes of 1894. By the 1970s, feminine traces in some versions of the name and more often in the epithets led to various theories. Among them, that Nefertiti was masquerading as Smenkhkare before changing her name again to Neferneferuaten. When considered with various stela depicting Akhenaten with another king in familiar, if not intimate poses, the theory that Akhenaten and Smenkhkare were homosexual arose.Smenkhkare – Line drawing from Meryre II. The lost names had been recorded previously (inset) as Smenkhkare and Meritaten.
6. Tutankhamun – Tutankhamun was an Egyptian pharaoh of the 18th dynasty, during the period of Egyptian history known as the New Kingdom or sometimes the New Empire Period. He has since his discovery been colloquially referred to as King Tut. His original name, Tutankhaten, means "Living Image of Aten", while Tutankhamun means "Living Image of Amun". The 1922 discovery by Howard Carter and Lord Carnarvon of Tutankhamun's nearly intact tomb received worldwide press coverage. It sparked a renewed public interest in ancient Egypt, for which Tutankhamun's mask, now in the Egyptian Museum, remains the popular symbol. Exhibits of artifacts from his tomb have toured the world. In February 2010, the results of DNA tests confirmed that he was the son of Akhenaten. His mother was Akhenaten's sister and wife, whose name is unknown but whose remains are positively identified as "The Younger Lady" mummy found in KV35. The "mysterious" deaths of a few of those who excavated Tutankhamun's tomb has been popularly attributed to the curse of the pharaohs. Tutankhamun was the son of Akhenaten and one of Akhenaten's sisters, or possibly one of his cousins. As a prince, he was known as Tutankhaten. He ascended at the age of ten, taking the Nebkheperure. His wet nurse was a woman called Maia, known from her tomb at Saqqara. His teacher was most likely Sennedjem. When he became king, he married his half-sister, Ankhesenpaaten, who later changed her name to Ankhesenamun.Tutankhamun – Mask of Tutankhamun's mummy, the popular icon for ancient Egypt at The Egyptian Museum.