Category:History of the Gulf of California
Pages in category "History of the Gulf of California"
The following 17 pages are in this category, out of 17 total, this list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 17 pages are in this category, out of 17 total, this list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. First Battle of Topolobampo – The First Battle of Topolobampo was a bloodless engagement and one of the few naval battles of the Mexican Revolution. The small action occurred off Topolobampo, Mexico and involved three gunboats, two from the Mexican Navy and another which mutinied from the armada and joined the rebel Constitutionalists. It was fought on the morning of March 4,1914 and was the first battle of the campaign in the Gulf of California. Guaymas Mutiny On Sunday 22 February 1914, off Guaymas, Mexico a mutiny began at about 8,00 pm when the Mexican Navy gunboat Tampico was refitting for a cruise. Half of the officers and crew were still enjoying shore leave when Executive Officer Lieutenant Hilario Rodríguez Malpica, the mob of sailors then headed for their captain, whom they arrested with violence. Malpica, who had assumed command of the mutineers, informed Captain Manuel Azueta that he intended to sail Tampico to join the Constitutionalists, the Tampico started and intended to head westward. Just then the Huerista gunboat Guerrero, under Captain Navio Torres, was spotted in front of Tampico, Malpica steamed Tampico straight for Guerrero, hoping to ram and sink her. Unfortunately for Tampico, her steering gear malfunctioned and she was forced to turn around, the mutineers transferred Tampicos former captain to a merchant vessel, the SS Herrerias, which took him to Mazatlán, which was still in federal hands at the time. Tampico made it to Topolobampo, which became her home throughout the subsequent naval campaign. Because Tampico was short half of her crew, twenty-five Sinaloan insurgents were ordered to her to become sailors, Guerrero arrived on March 2, where she anchored outside the bar and waited for Morelos which would arrive the following day. Tampico was not in sight however, apparently she was conducting a mission against federal Mexican forces elsewhere, so the two gunboats waited in Topolobampo Bay until the next morning, on March 4, they sighted Tampico as she entered the channel. Guerrero was immediately ordered underway, Morelos followed along Guerrero astern, just seconds after lifting anchor, Guerrero opened fire from around 9,000 yards with her main gun battery. A running battle ensued, Tampico did not stop to fire until after passing Shell Point, once on the other side, Tampico had one other 6-pounder on board but only the one would be used in the battle. Upon receiving fire, Captain Torres, ordered his ship to maneuver into position for an attack with his six 4 inch guns, Guerrero fired. At this time Morelos was about 800 yards off Guerreros portside when she opened fire, a gunnery duel continued for sometime, ultimately no hits were made by either side who were firing at each other from a range of 8,000 to 9,000 yards away. Guerrero had a better armament than Tampico, Guerreros guns were in better condition which gave her a farther range than that of Tampico. This would become a factor in the coming battles which gave the federals a distinct advantage over the Constitutionalist gunboat. Eventually Tampico made for the protection of Topolobampos port, she entered past the bar, the gunboat Guerrero again anchored outside the bar, to initiate a naval blockade while Morelos left for Guaymas for coal and provisions, she would return a few days laterFirst Battle of Topolobampo – Tampico in 1908.
2. Second Battle of Topolobampo – The Second Battle of Topolobampo was a bloodless naval engagement during the Mexican Revolution. In March 1914, a rebel Constitutionalist gunboat attempted to break the blockade of Topolobampo, the attack forced federal gunboats to a further distance but failed to lift the blockade. On March 13,1914, at 8,50 am, Tampico was spotted sailing out past the bar and as fast as possible the two federal warships were underway in Tampicos direction. The Guerrero fired the first shots at 9,00 am with her gun battery of six 4 inch guns. Just like during the First Battle of Topolobampo, as soon as the Tampico cleared Shell Point and her first shot landed about twenty yards too short at a range of 9,000 to 10,000 yards, none of the others hit Morelos. The Guerrero and Morelos followed Tampico until stopping so Morelos could return Tampicos broadside with some of her own fire, Morelos fires and then turned about to retreat southwestward, none of her shots hit either. During the retreat, Tampico continued to fire on Morelos which put the USS New Orleans, realizing that he may hit a neutral vessel, Lieutenant Malpica shifted Tampicos fire to the Guerrero. Captain Torres in the Guerrero, receiving fire again, chose to do the same as Morelos by turning around and fleeing, the New Orleans, shifted berth as well, to a safer position in the battle area. Tampico steamed back to the side of the bar and the two federal gunboats anchored farther south than their prior anchorage. All the firing ceased by 9,12 am, the Guerrero fired a total of thirteen shells, the Morelos nine, the range varied between 9, 000-10,000 yards and no hits were made. This time the officers of USS New Orleans noted in their log that the gunnery of the Tampico was considerably better than that of the Guerrero or Morelos, Tampico won a tactical victory by forcing the federal gunboats away though the federal gunboats continued a naval blockade of Topolobambo. The Morelos left for Altata on March 30, a day before the Third Battle of Topolobampo, First Battle of Topolobampo Third Battle of Topolobampo Fourth Battle of Topolobampo http, //www. semar. gob. mx/informes/politicas_armada/parte_dos/capitulo_3. htm Stefoff, RebeccaSecond Battle of Topolobampo – A map of Topolobampo and Topolobampo Bay. Shell Point is visible, west of Topolobampo, sticking out into the Gulf of California.
3. Third Battle of Topolobampo – The Third Battle of Topolobampo was a single ship action during the Mexican Revolution. At the end of March 1914, a Constitutionalist gunboat attempted to break the blockade of Topolobampo, Sinaloa after failing in the First, Constitutionalist warship, Tampico, was sunk in a battle lasting a few hours by a Huertista gunboat. Despite the promotion, Captain Malpica still had the problem of fighting two gunboats, just outside Topolobampos harbor bar, the Morelos and Guerrero, under Captain Navio Torres on Guerrero, were conducting a naval blockade of the port. The Guerrero had blockaded Topolobampo continually since March 2,1914, Morelos arrived a couple days after Guerrero and occasionally left the blockade for provisioning and coal. On March 30, Morelos left again for supplies, leaving Guerrero alone and this gave Captain Malpica a chance to finally lift the blockade of his home port. At 4,32 pm on March 31,1914, the day after Morelos left, Tampico steamed out of the harbor and attacked Guerrero. At this time, Captain Navio Torres was returning an official call from the United States protected cruiser, USS New Orleans, Tampicos fire from two 4 inch guns and one 6-pounder failed to hit the target but were not far off. Guerrero returned with six 4 inch guns and quickly New Orleans turned towards the Huertista vessel and got under way immediately, the Guerrero took up a position off the channel with her broadside towards Tampico. At around 5,30 pm, Captain Malpica in Tampico reached a position abreast of Shell Point, there she opened fire on the Guerrero again at a range of 9,000 yards. Immediately she was answered by Guerreros broadsides, shots managed to hit the officers quarters twice, Tampico suffered four more hits to her bow, and one struck underneath the waterline. Five other shots struck Tampico at the waterline, one amidship, amazingly neither Captain Malpica or any of her sixty other officers and crew sustained injuries. All of the said hits reportedly occurred while Tampico made the first dash towards Guerrero, despite the damage, the ships continued to fire at this position until 6,00 pm came before turning around. After a few more moments Tampico got underway again and headed straight for the Guerrero, Tampico went right on over the bar and proceeded till grounding below the entrance of the harbor. By 6,15 pm, Tampico managed to free herself of the bar and headed northwest, again straight for the Guerrero and under wild fire as USS New Orleans reported. When almost 6,30 pm, because of the darkness, Captain Navio Torres, in the bridge of Guerrero. Guerrero was struck three times by the Tampico, one 4 inch armor-piercing shot, entered the starboard side of the berth deck but failed to detonate. Another landed on deck amid ship and also failed to explode, the third and final hit struck a stanchion outside the bridge, this one did explode. Because it struck above the top-side, the crew of Guerrero, none of Guerreros crew were killed but at least three were woundedThird Battle of Topolobampo – A map of Topolobampo and Topolobampo Bay. Shell Point is clearly visible, west of Topolobampo, sticking out into the Gulf of California.
4. Fourth Battle of Topolobampo – The Fourth Battle of Topolobampo was a single ship action fought during the Mexican Revolution and the last naval battle of the Topolobampo Campaign. In June 1914, a Huertista gunboat sank a Constitutionalist gunboat off Topolobampo, several United States Navy ships were in the area, observing the campaign. Flagship USS California, USS New Orleans, USS Preble and USS Perry were all present and were under the Pacific Fleet commander Rear Admiral Thomas B, USS Yorktown was also in the area. Much of the campaign is remembered by Rear Admiral Howards and his officers reports of the battles, on June 11,1914, the Tampico was sighted by Howard when off Mazatlán while commanding his flagship. On Sunday, June 14,1914, Howard received a report that Tampico was steaming away from Topolobampo to Altata and he ordered the destroyer USS Preble, under Lieutenant Junior Grade Vance Duncan Chapline, to find Tampico and follow her. Preble immediately got underway at about 3,30 pm, from Mazatlán, she steamed north toward Topolobampo. The destroyer Perry, which was off La Paz, was ordered to head for Topolobampo, Prebles commander, did not know what course or speed Tampico was making, so he slowly proceeded to Topolobampo, hoping to sight the ship at around daylight the next morning. At roughly 7,30 am on June 15, Tampico was sighted to the west at latitude 25°14 north, Preble approached to within two miles of Tampico and stopped. Tampicos crew spotted Preble and also stopped, a few moments later, a lifeboat was dropped and a Mexican officer named Rebatet boarded Preble and presented the compliments of Captain Malpica. Rebatet also told Lieutenant Chapline how Tampico had been underwater for two months as result of the action off Topolobampo. On June 14, Tampico left Topolobampo under one boiler and proceeded to sea en route to Altata, there Captain Malpica expected to retube Tampicos boilers and improve the quality of her machinery. From there, Malpicas mission would be to attack the Huerista gunboat Guerrero, after destroying the Guerrero, Tampico would begin a commerce raiding campaign against targets along the west coast of Mexico. Tampico had steamed only thirty miles when her one remaining boiler had burned out of action, repairs to the boiler were attempted, but proved fruitless, eventually Captain Malpica requested that the American destroyer tow Tampico into Altata, eighty miles away. By this time, USS Perry had arrived, so Lieutenant Chapline was forced to deny Malpicas request, the Mexicans then asked Chapline to send a radio message to Rear Admiral Howard. Captain Malpica also asked if Prebles commander would come to see him, Prebles radioman sent the message as requested. At about 5,30 pm, Chapline boarded Tampico, at the time, Malpicas leg was covered in bandages, a week or so earlier, he had accidentally fired his revolver into his foot and could barely walk during the final battle. The captain was happy to learn that a message had sent to Rear Admiral Howard. The U. S. Navy officers inspected the Mexican gunboat, the Tampico had a raised deck forward and aft, each of which mounted one of the 4 inch rapid-fire gunsFourth Battle of Topolobampo – Map of the Fourth Battle of Topolobampo, drawn by the U.S. Navy observers during the battle.
5. The Californias – The Californias, or Province of the Californias, or Spanish, Las Californias, Provincia de las Californias, was the northwestern-most area of the Viceroyalty of New Spain. There has been confusion about use of the plural The Californias by Spanish colonial authorities. Afterwards, when its peninsular character was ascertained, it was called simply California, when the expeditions for the settlement of San Diego and Monterey marched, it was understood that they were going, not out of California, but into a new part of it. The peninsula then began to be spoken of as Antigua or Old California. At the same time the old name of The Californias was revived. The first attempted Spanish occupation of California was by the Jesuit missionary Eusebio Kino and his Misión San Bruno failed, however, and it wasnt until 1697 that Misión de Nuestra Señora de Loreto Conchó was successfully established by another Jesuit, Juan María de Salvatierra. The mission became the nucleus of Loreto, first permanent settlement, the Jesuits went on to found a total of 18 missions in the lower two-thirds of the Baja California Peninsula. In 1767, the Jesuits were expelled from the missions, gaspar de Portolá was appointed governor to supervise the transition. At the same time, a new visitador, José de Gálvez, was dispatched from Spain with authority to organize and expand the fledgling province. The more ambitious name, Las Californias, was established by a joint dispatch to the King from Viceroy de Croix and visitador José de Gálvez. Gálvez sought to make a distinction between the Antigua area of established settlement and the Nueva unexplored areas to the north, the single province was divided in 1804, into Alta California province and Baja California province. By the time of the 1804 split, the Alta province had expanded to coastal areas as far north as what is now the San Francisco Bay Area in the U. S. state of California. Expansion came through exploration and colonization expeditions led by Portolá, his successor Pedro Fages, Juan Bautista de Anza, independent Mexico retained the division but demoted the former provinces to territories, due to populations too small for statehood. In 1836, the designation Las Californias was revived, reuniting Alta, the Seven Laws were repealed in 1847, during the Mexican-American War, and the split of the two Californias was restored. Following Mexicos defeat in the war, most of the former Alta California territory was ceded on 2 February 1848 to the United States, under the terms of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. The new Mexico-United States border was established slightly to the north of the previous Alta-Baja border, the areas in North America acquired by the U. S. were designated as unorganized territory under a military governor, pending reestablishment of civilian control and organization. California was the first section of the territory to achieve statehood, the Baja California Peninsula is bordered on three sides by water, the Pacific Ocean and Gulf of California, while Alta California had the Pacific Ocean on the west and deserts on the east. A northern boundary was established by the Adams-Onis Treaty of 1819 and that boundary line remains the northern boundary of the U. S. states of California, Nevada, and the western part of UtahThe Californias – A New Map of North America, produced following the 1763 Treaty of Paris, five years before the establishment of the Province of the Californias. Note that most interior geographical detail west of Louisiana was guesswork.
6. Thomas B. Howard – Admiral Thomas Benton Howard was an admiral in the United States Navy. He served as commander in chief of the US Pacific Fleet prior to United States entry into World War I, Admiral Howard came from strong fighting stock. Captain Howard and nineteen of his men perished in that disaster, Captain Legate moved to Galena, Illinois in 1828 as Superintendent of the lead mines. Admiral Howard was born in Galena, Illinois in 1854 and was reckoned one of the boys of his time. He was educated in the schools and in 1868, through President Ulysses S. Grant. Mrs. Grant and Mrs. Howard were fast friends in former days at St. Louis, and Captain Howard, Admiral Howards late father, had held in high esteem by President Grant. As a cadet in the academy, young Ben acquitted himself so nobly that President Grant frequently made him the subject of the most flattering comment. He was often, by invitation, a guest at the White House. Admiral Howard was graduated at the top of his class in 1873, was promoted ensign in 1874, during his career he served under George Dewey at the Battle of Manila Bay and successively commanded Chesapeake, Nevada, Olympia, Tennessee, and Ohio. As captain of Ohio, he sailed around the world with the Great White Fleet in 1908–1909, in January 1914, Howard was appointed commander in chief of the US Pacific Fleet. The same year, during the Mexican Revolution, Howard commanded a squadron of American vessels in the Gulf of California and their mission was to observe the Topolobampo naval campaign. Three of Howards warships were present at the Fourth Battle of Topolobampo, when the Marines established camp for the second time on San Diegos North Island, they named it Camp Howard, in his honor. Upon relinquishing command of the Pacific Fleet in September 1915, Howard reverted to his permanent rank of rear admiral, Howard retired on August 10,1916. He was Superintendent of the US Naval Observatory from March 31,1917 to March 4,1919 and he died in Annapolis, Maryland on November 10,1920. Admiral Howard is the father of Captain Douglas Legate Howard and great grandfather of Vice Admiral Henry Croskey Mustin, estes, Asama Gunkan, The Reappraisal of a War Scare, Journal of San Diego History,24 Hamersly, Lewis R. The Records of Living Officers of the U. S. Navy and Marine Corps, fifth edition, Philadelphia, L. RThomas B. Howard – Admiral Thomas Benton Howard
7. Island of California – One of the most famous cartographic errors in history, it was propagated on many maps during the 17th and 18th centuries, despite contradictory evidence from various explorers. The legend was initially infused with the idea that California was a terrestrial paradise and it is probable that this description prompted early explorers to misidentify the Baja California Peninsula as the island in these legends. In 1533, Fortún Ximénez, a mutineer on an expedition sent by Hernán Cortés, discovered the southern portion of Baja California. He was killed by natives but his men returned to New Spain, in 1535 Cortés arrived in the bay there and named the area Santa Cruz, he attempted to start a colony but abandoned his efforts after several years due to logistical problems. In 1539, Cortés sent the navigator Francisco de Ulloa northward along the Gulf, Ulloa reached the mouth of the Colorado River at the head of the Gulf, which seemed to prove that the region was a peninsula rather than an island. An expedition under Hernando de Alarcón ascended the lower Colorado River, maps published subsequently in Europe during the 16th century, including those by Gerardus Mercator and Abraham Ortelius, correctly showed Baja California as a peninsula. Despite this evidence, however, the depiction of California as an island revived in the early 17th century, one contributing factor may have been the second voyage of Juan de Fuca in 1592. Fuca claimed to have explored the western coast of North America, Fucas claim remains controversial because there is only one surviving written account of it found, his account as related to an Englishman, Michael Locke. Nonetheless, this account claims Fuca found a large strait, with an island at its mouth. It is possible that explorers and mapmakers in the 17th century could have confused the two, and in any further exploration was inevitable. Indeed, the famed British explorer James Cook narrowly missed the Strait of Juan de Fuca in March 1778, almost 200 years later. Cook even named Cape Flattery which is at the mouth of the strait and his account states we saw nothing like, nor is there the least probability that ever any such thing existed. A key role in changing ideas about California seems to have played by an overland expedition led by the founding governor of Santa Fe de Nuevo México. The expedition descended the Colorado River in 1604 and 1605, reports from Oñates expedition reached Antonio de la Ascención, a Carmelite friar who had participated in Sebastián Vizcaínos explorations of the west coast of California in 1602 and 1603. Ascención was a tireless propagandist in favor of Spanish settlement in California, the first known reappearance of the Island of California on a map dates to 1622 in a map by Michiel Colijn of Amsterdam. The image became the standard for many later maps throughout the 17th century, previous maps show the Gulf terminating in its correct location. On the stretch of the Gulf between its terminus and Juan de Fucas strait was written Mare Vermexo on later maps drawn from Spanish sources. The Jesuit missionary and cartographer Eusebio Francisco Kino revived the fact that Baja California was a peninsula, while studying in Europe, Kino had accepted the insularity of California, but when he reached Mexico he began to have doubtsIsland of California – Map of California, circa 1650; restored.
8. William John McGee – William John McGee, LL. D. was an American inventor, geologist, anthropologist, and ethnologist, born in Farley, Iowa. While largely self-taught, McGee attended a rural one-room schoolhouse north of Farley during the four months from about 1858 to 1867. He devoting his early years to reading law and to surveying and he invented and patented several improvements on agricultural implements. He subsequently turned his attention to geology, in 1877–1881, he executed a topographic and geological survey of 17,000 square miles in northeastern Iowa. He was appointed geologist for the United States Geological Survey in 1881, in 1884 McGee authored the article Map of the United States exhibiting the present status of knowledge relating to the areal distribution of geologic groups for the USGS Journal. While with the USGS, McGee travelled to Charleston, South Carolina, McGee was ethnologist in charge of the Bureau of American Ethnology from 1893 to 1903. In 1895, he explored the Isla del Tiburón, Gulf of California, home of the Seri IndiansWilliam John McGee – Washington, D.C. (1900)
9. USS New Orleans (CL-22) – USS New Orleans was a United States Navy protected cruiser of the New Orleans class. New Orleans sailed on 27 March 1898 to fit out at New York, New York and she left Norfolk, Virginia, on 17 May and joined the Flying Squadron off Santiago de Cuba on 30 May. The next afternoon, with Massachusetts and Iowa, she reconnoitered the harbor, exchanging fire with Spanish ships and shore batteries. Through the summer, New Orleans cruised on blockade between San Juan, Puerto Rico, and Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, capturing the French blockade runner Olinde Rodrigues on 17 July. She arrived at Philadelphia, on 20 October for the Peace Jubilee, then prepared at New York to launch her peacetime service with a visit to New Orleans, after summer exercises off the Atlantic seaboard, she sailed from New York on 21 October to join the Asiatic Fleet. She called at the Azores and Port Said, passed through the Suez Canal, for the next 5 years, as flagship of the Cruiser Squadron, U. S. Asiatic Fleet, she cruised the Philippines and the China coast. Relieved by Baltimore, she departed Cavite on 27 December 1904 for Mare Island Navy Yard, recommissioning on 15 November 1909, New Orleans returned to Asiatic duty at Yokohama on 25 April 1910. She cruised the Orient until returning to Bremerton, Washington, on 14 February 1912, again in full commission on 31 December 1913, New Orleans patrolled the west coast of Mexico during the tense spring of 1914. After the Topolobampo campaign, New Orleans trained the Washington Naval Militia through the summer of 1914, returning to Mexican waters in the fall. Upon American entry into World War I, she was overhauled at Puget Sound, and sailed for the Panama Canal, after repairs at Cavite, New Orleans returned to Vladivostok to resume her service for the Allied Expeditionary Force from 20 May to 27 September 1920. During further cruising with the Asiatic Fleet she was redesignated CL-22 on 8 August 1921 and she returned to Mare Island on 23 September, decommissioned there on 16 November 1922, and was struck from the Naval Vessel Register on 13 November 1929. On 1 April 1925 the 4. 7-inch gun No.5 was presented to Kane County and she was sold for scrapping on 11 February 1930. New Orleans was originally armed with six 6/50 caliber guns and four 4. 7/50 caliber guns and these were British-made export-model guns built by Elswick Ordnance Company, a subsidiary of Armstrong. These guns were unique in the US Navy to New Orleans and her sister Albany and their torpedo tubes were also removed in the 1903 refits. During World War I the 5-inch guns were reduced from ten to eight, two 4. 7-inch guns are preserved at the Kane County, Illinois Soldier and Sailor Monument at the former courthouse in Geneva, Illinois. This article incorporates text from the public domain Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships, the entry can be found here. Navy photographs of New Orleans Mare Island Navy Yard –1928, navSource Online, Cruiser Photo Archive USS NEW ORLEANSUSS New Orleans (CL-22) – USS New Orleans photographed during the Spanish-American War, 1898.
10. Samuel Francis Du Pont – Samuel Francis Du Pont was a Rear Admiral in the United States Navy, and a member of the prominent Du Pont family. In the Mexican–American War, Du Pont captured San Diego, and was commander of the California naval blockade. Through the 1850s, he promoted engineering studies at the United States Naval Academy, to more mobile. In the American Civil War, he played a role in making the Union blockade effective. Du Pont was born at Goodstay, his home at Bergen Point, New Jersey. His uncle was Eleuthère Irénée du Pont, the founder of E. I. du Pont de Nemours Company, which began as a gunpowder factory and today is a multinational chemical corporation. Du Pont spent his childhood at his fathers home, Louviers, across the Brandywine Creek from his uncles estate and gunpowder factory, Eleutherian Mills, just north of Wilmington and he was enrolled at Mount Airy Academy in Germantown, Pennsylvania, at age 9. However, his father was unable to fund his education because of his failing wool mill and he then served aboard the frigate Congress in the West Indies and off the coast of Brazil. After returning from the Ontario in June 1833, Du Pont married Sophie Madeleine du Pont, his first cousin as the daughter of his uncle, Eleuthère Irénée du Pont. As he never kept a journal, his voluminous correspondence with Sophie serves as the main documentation of his operations and observations throughout the rest of his naval career. From 1835 until 1838, he was the officer of the frigate Constellation. In 1838 he joined the ship Ohio in the Mediterranean until 1841, the following year he was promoted to Commander and set sail for China aboard the brig Perry, but was forced to return home and give up his command because of severe illness. Du Pont transported Major John Fremonts troops to San Diego, where they captured the city, Du Pont then continued operations along the Baja coast, including the capture of La Paz, and burnt two enemy gunboats in the harbor of Guaymas under heavy fire. He was given command of the California naval blockade in the last months of the war and, Du Pont served most of the next decade on shore assignment, and his efforts during this time are credited with helping to modernize the U. S. Navy. He studied the possibilities of steam power, and emphasized engineering and he was appointed superintendent of the Academy, but resigned after four months because he believed it was a post more appropriate for someone closer to retirement age. He was an advocate for a mobile and offensive Navy, rather than the harbor defense function that much of it was then relegated to. After being appointed to the board of the United States Lighthouse Service, in 1853, Du Pont was made general superintendent over what is typically considered the first Worlds Fair in the United States—the Exhibition of the Industry of All Nations, held in New York City. Despite international praise, low attendance caused the venture to go into heavy debt, Du Pont became an enthusiastic supporter of naval reform, writing in support of the 1855 congressional act to Promote the Efficiency of the NavySamuel Francis Du Pont – Samuel Francis Du Pont by Daniel Huntington, 1867–68, oil on canvas, National Portrait Gallery, Washington, D.C.
11. Juan de Ugarte – Juan de Ugarte, S. J. was a Jesuit missionary and explorer in Baja California Sur, New Spain, and the successor to Juan María de Salvatierra as head of the peninsulas missions. Ugarte was born in Tegucigalpa, then in the Kingdom of Guatemala, part of New Spain and he went to Mexico to enter the Society of Jesus in 1679. His younger brother, Pedro de Ugarte, was also a Jesuit missionary in Baja California, after his ordination, he was assigned to teach philosophy at the Colegio Máximo de San Pedro y San Pablo in Mexico City. Through conversing with them, Ugarte chose to commit his life to these misisons as well, Ugarte was initially the procurator for the newly established missions of California in 1697–1700. In 1701, Ugarte went to the peninsula as its missionary, following in the footsteps of Salvatierra. Stopping first at Mission Loreto, he proceeded to Mission San Francisco Javier which had abandoned the previous year due to threats from the native population. It was there that he established his home for the rest of his life, Ugarte was an able and energetic leader in the expansion and development of the mission system. He served as visitador or Visitator for the missions in Salvatierras absence, Ugarte led several expeditions of overland exploratio to seek out mission or visita sites in the region surrounding San Javier. More spectacularly, he oversaw the construction of a ship, El Triunfo de la Cruz, in September 1720, Ugarte sailed his new ship from Loreto to La Paz to help found a new mission there. In the following year, he sailed to the head of the Gulf of California and he died at Mission San Francisco Javier in 1730. Antigua California, Mission and Colony on the Peninsular Frontier, 1697–1768, university of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque. Testimonios sudcalifornianos, nueva entrada y establicimiento en el puerto de la Paz,1720, universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico City. Tres documentos sobre el descubrimiento y exploración de Baja California por Francisco María Píccolo, Juan de Ugarte, y Guillermo StratfordJuan de Ugarte – Juan de Ugarte, S.J.
12. Francisco de Ulloa – Francisco de Ulloa was a Spanish explorer who explored the west coast of present-day Mexico under the commission of Hernán Cortés. It is not known whether Ulloa accompanied Cortés on his first expedition to the New Spain, by the account of Bernal Díaz del Castillo, he came to Mexico later while transporting letters to Cortés from his wife. According to some historians, Ulloa was influential in helping subdue the Aztec capital Tenochtitlan by naval power. Lawrence, proving the existence of the Northwest Passage, the expedition left on July 8 sailing northwards along the coast and reaching the Gulf of California six weeks later. Ulloa named it the Sea of Cortés in honor of his patron, when one of his ships was lost in a storm Ulloa paused to repair the other two ships, and then resumed his voyage on September 12, eventually reaching the head of the Gulf. Unable to find the Strait of Anián, Ulloa turned south and sailed along the eastern coast of the Baja California Peninsula, landing at the Bay of La Paz. After taking on supplies of wood and water Ulloa rounded the tip of the peninsula with great difficulty, the progress of his small ships was hampered by the fierce winds and high seas he encountered, eventually forcing him to turn back to New Spain. The voyage eventually reached 28 degrees north near the Isla de Cedros, although his discoveries a peninsula, his reports were used to create maps depicting California as an island. According to Díaz del Castillo, Ulloa was stabbed to death in 1540, by other accounts, his ship was lost without a trace during the return voyage from Baja California. Supposedly his ship was swept inland with a tsunami, later becoming known as the Lost Ship of the Desert, catholic Encyclopedia Francisco de Ulloa AmericanJourneys. org Francisco de UlloaFrancisco de Ulloa – Route of the 1539 voyage by Francisco de Ulloa from (Acapulco) along the west coast of Mexico
13. USS Cyane (1837) – The second USS Cyane was a sloop-of-war in the United States Navy during the Mexican-American War. Cyane was launched 2 December 1837 by Boston Navy Yard and she was commissioned in May 1838, Commander John Percival in command. She sailed 24 June 1838 for duty in the Mediterranean, returning to Norfolk and she cleared 1 November 1841 for the Pacific Squadron, returning 1 October 1844. Sailing again for the Pacific 10 August 1845, Cyane served on the west coast during the Mexican War, on 26 July 1846 Lieutenant Colonel John C. Frémonts California Battalion boarded Cyane, now under the command of Commander Samuel Francis Du Pont, and she landed Marines at nearby La Playa, where they were warmly welcomed by the largely pro-American civilian population. The Marines took abandoned guns from Fort Guijarros and used them to lay siege to Old Town San Diego, a detachment of Marines and sailors from Cyane took possession of the town, raising the American flag. They were followed shortly by the Fremont volunteers and Cyanes detachment returned aboard to sail for San Blas where a landing party destroyed a Mexican battery 2 September, entering the Gulf of California, Cyane seized La Paz and burned the small fleet at Guaymas. Within a month, she cleared the Gulf of hostile ships, in company with Independence and Congress, she captured the town of Mazatlán, Mexico,11 November 1847. On 22 January 1848, she arrived off San José del Cabo to relieve the garrison there. She landed a force of about 100 men who fought the final engagement and she returned to Norfolk 9 October 1848 to receive the congratulations of the Secretary of the Navy for her significant contributions to American victory in Mexico. She bombarded and destroyed Greytown, Mosquito Coast,13 July 1854, on June 3,1857, the Cyane retrieved from Greytown more than 150 filibusters who surrendered with William Walker at Rivas, Nicaragua, on May 1, some of whom had their families with them. The ship afterward protected the disputed fisheries along the coast of Nova Scotia from 2 September to 30 October 1857 and she sailed for Haiti 19 November 1857 and joined a special expedition surveying the Isthmus of Darien as a possible canal site. In August 1858 Cyane stood out for the Pacific, joining the Pacific Squadron, except for necessary overhauls, the Cyane was constantly employed on the coasts of North and South America until decommissioned and placed in ordinary at Mare Island Navy Yard 20 September 1871. She was sold at auction 30 July 1887, there is an effort by The Center for Living History to build a full scale replica of the ship in Monterrey, California. More information can be found on their website at www. cyane. org Notes BibliographyUSS Cyane (1837) – "USS Cyane Taking Possession of San Diego Old Town July 1846", by Carlton T. Chapman (detail)
14. USS Hillsborough County (LST-827) – USS Hillsborough County was an LST-542-class tank landing ship built for the United States Navy during World War II. Named after Hillsborough County, Florida, she was the only U. S. Naval vessel to bear the name, after shakedown off Florida, LST-827 loaded smoke-pots on her tank deck, then departed Mobile, Alabama on 17 January 1945. Following brief stops at the Panama Canal Zone and Pearl Harbor, sailing for Guam on the 13th, she unloaded her cargo, and for the next two months transported men and equipment between the Marianas and the Philippines. After embarking Marine Fighting Squadron 212 of Marine Air Group 14, LST-827 departed San Pedro Bay, when she arrived five days later, American forces were already engaged in a two-month campaign to push the enemy from its Pacific stronghold. After unloading men and equipment, she steamed to the Philippines for additional reinforcements, for the remainder of World War II, LST-827 operated in the vicinity of Okinawa and the Philippines, transporting men and supplies for the final drive to the enemys homeland. Following the Japanese surrender, the ship serviced the occupation forces in the Far East until she sailed for the United States on 15 November. Joining LST Squadron 1 there in May,1946 she operated along the West Coast performing fleet maneuvers, LST-827 decommissioned 7 June 1949 at San Diego and joined the Pacific Reserve Fleet. Her respite was brief, however, as President Harry S. Truman met the communist challenge of aggression in Asia by sending U. S. forces to aid the beleaguered South Koreans. Recommissioned on 3 November 1950 with Lieutenant S. G. Ruskey in command, after a brief stop at Pearl Harbor, she arrived Yokosuka on 3 March. Assigned to the Korean supply run, she carried supplies from Japan to Pusan, Ulsan, LST-827 returned to the United States on 9 August to operate there until early 1952. Departing San Diego on 17 February, she steamed for her tour in the Western Pacific, touching Pearl Harbor, the Marshall Islands. From May to October she shuttled supplies and troops between Japan and Korea to strengthen the Allied forces against the threat of Communism. Departing Japan on 10 October 1952, LST-827 was to another historic service to her country by operating with the units assigned to Ivy Mike — the first hydrogen bomb tests. She returned to San Diego on 30 November and received alterations at Mare Island Naval Shipyard in preparation for her next assignment. S. Counties, LST-827 was named USS Hillsborough County, during 1957 she participated in exercises off the California coast, and on 1 November was placed in commission, in reserve. Hillsborough County decommissioned on 28 January 1958, struck from the Naval Vessel Register on 28 March 1958, she was then used as a target and sunk in the Gulf of California on 15 August 1958. LST-827 received one star for World War II service and three stars for the Korean War. This article incorporates text from the public domain Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships, the entry can be found hereUSS Hillsborough County (LST-827) – LST-827, returning to the U.S. from Korea, 1951