Category:History of the Gulf of California
Pages in category "History of the Gulf of California"
The following 17 pages are in this category, out of 17 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 17 pages are in this category, out of 17 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. First Battle of Topolobampo – The First Battle of Topolobampo was a bloodless engagement and one of the few naval battles of the Mexican Revolution. It was the first battle of the naval campaign in the Gulf of California. The mob of sailors then headed for their captain, whom they arrested with violence. Malpica, who had assumed command of the mutineers, informed Captain Manuel Azueta that he intended to sail Tampico to join the Constitutionalists. . The Tampico intended to head westward. Then the Huerista gunboat Guerrero, under Captain Navio Torres, was spotted in front of Tampico. Malpica steamed Tampico straight for Guerrero, hoping to sink her. Unfortunately for Tampico, she was forced to turn around and head for Topolobampo in Sinaloa. Tampico made it to Topolobampo, which became her port throughout the subsequent naval campaign. Because Tampico was short half of her crew, twenty-five Sinaloan insurgents were ordered to her to become sailors. Guerrero arrived on March 2, where she waited for Morelos which would arrive the following day. Tampico was not in sight however; apparently she was conducting a mission against Mexican forces elsewhere. So the two gunboats waited until the next morning; on March 4, they sighted Tampico as she entered the channel. Guerrero was immediately ordered underway; Morelos followed along Guerrero astern.First Battle of Topolobampo – Tampico in 1908.
2. Second Battle of Topolobampo – The Second Battle of Topolobampo was a bloodless naval engagement during the Mexican Revolution. In March 1914, a rebel Constitutionalist gunboat attempted to break the blockade of Topolobampo, Sinaloa in Mexico. The attack failed to lift the blockade. As fast as possible the two federal warships were underway in Tampico's direction. The Guerrero fired the first shots with her gun battery of six 4 inch guns. Her first shot landed about twenty yards too short at a range of 9,000 to 10,000 yards; none of the others hit Morelos. The Guerrero and Morelos followed Tampico until stopping so Morelos could return Tampico's broadside with some of her own fire. Morelos fires and then turned about to retreat southwestward; none of her shots hit either. During the retreat, Tampico continued to fire on Morelos which put the USS New Orleans, observing the battle, in direct line of Tampico's fire. Realizing that he may hit a neutral vessel, Lieutenant Malpica shifted Tampico's fire to the Guerrero. Captain Torres in the Guerrero, receiving fire again, chose to do the same by turning around and fleeing, apparently in fear of Tampico's guns. The New Orleans, shifted berth well, to a safer position in the battle area. Tampico steamed back to the two federal gunboats anchored farther south than their prior anchorage. All the firing ceased by 9:12 am; the Guerrero fired a total of thirteen shells, the Tampico fired six rounds. No hits were made.Second Battle of Topolobampo – A map of Topolobampo and Topolobampo Bay. Shell Point is visible, west of Topolobampo, sticking out into the Gulf of California.
3. Third Battle of Topolobampo – The Third Battle of Topolobampo was a single ship action during the Mexican Revolution. Tampico, was sunk in a battle lasting a few hours by a Huertista gunboat. Despite the promotion, Captain Malpica still had the problem of fighting two gunboats, just outside Topolobampo's bar. The Morelos and Guerrero, under Captain Navio Torres on Guerrero, were conducting a naval blockade of the port. The Guerrero had blockaded Topolobampo continually since March 1914. Morelos occasionally left the blockade for provisioning and coal. On March 30, Morelos left again for supplies, leaving Guerrero alone and outside the bar. This gave a chance to finally lift the blockade of his home port. At 4:32 pm on the day after Morelos left, Tampico steamed out of the harbor and attacked Guerrero. Tampico's fire from one 6-pounder failed to hit the target but were not far off. The Guerrero took up a position with her broadside towards Tampico. At around 5:30 pm, Captain Malpica in Tampico reached a abreast of Shell Point. There she opened fire again at a range of 9,000 yards. Immediately she was answered by Guerrero's broadsides; shots managed causing considerable damage. One struck underneath the waterline.Third Battle of Topolobampo – A map of Topolobampo and Topolobampo Bay. Shell Point is clearly visible, west of Topolobampo, sticking out into the Gulf of California.
4. Fourth Battle of Topolobampo – The Fourth Battle of Topolobampo was a single ship action fought during the Mexican Revolution and the last naval battle of the Topolobampo Campaign. In June 1914, a Huertista gunboat sank a Constitutionalist gunboat in the Gulf of California. Several United States Navy ships were in the area, observing the campaign. Flagship USS California, USS New Orleans, USS Preble and USS Perry were all present and were under the Pacific Fleet commander Rear Admiral Thomas B. Howard in California. USS Yorktown was also in the area. Much of the campaign is remembered by his officer's reports of the battles. On June 1914, the Tampico was sighted by Howard when off Mazatlán while commanding his flagship. On June 14, 1914, Howard received a report that Tampico was steaming away from Topolobampo to Altata. He ordered the destroyer USS Preble, under Lieutenant Junior Grade Vance Duncan Chapline, to follow her. Preble immediately got underway at about 3:30 pm. From Mazatlán, she steamed north toward Topolobampo. The Perry, off La Paz, was ordered to head for Topolobampo and report to Preble for further instructions with her radio. On June 15 Tampico was sighted to the west at latitude 25 ° 14' north, longitude 109 ° 01' west. Preble stopped.Fourth Battle of Topolobampo – Map of the Fourth Battle of Topolobampo, drawn by the U.S. Navy observers during the battle.
5. The Californias – The Californias, or Province of the Californias, or Spanish: Las Californias, Provincia de las Californias, was the northwestern-most area of the Viceroyalty of New Spain. There has been understandable confusion about use of the plural The Californias by colonial authorities. Afterwards, when its character was ascertained, it was called simply California; but the territory so designated was unlimited in extent. At the same time the old name of The Californias was revived, but with a more definite signification than before. The first attempted Spanish occupation of California was in 1683. The mission became the nucleus of the province. The Jesuits went on to found a total of 18 missions in the lower two-thirds of the Baja California Peninsula. In 1767, Franciscans were brought in to take over. Gaspar de Portolá was appointed governor to supervise the transition. At the same time, José de Gálvez, was dispatched from Spain with authority to organize and expand the fledgling province. The Nueva unexplored areas to the north. The single province was divided into Alta California province and Baja California province. Expansion came through colonization expeditions led by Portolá, his successor Pedro Fages, Juan Bautista de Anza, the Franciscan missionaries and others. Independent Mexico demoted the former provinces to territories, due to populations too small for statehood. The split of the two Californias was restored.The Californias – A New Map of North America, produced following the 1763 Treaty of Paris, five years before the establishment of the Province of the Californias. Note that most interior geographical detail west of Louisiana was guesswork.
6. Thomas B. Howard – Admiral Thomas Benton Howard was an admiral in the United States Navy. He served as commander in chief of the US Pacific Fleet prior to United States entry into World War I. Admiral Howard came from strong fighting stock. Nineteen of his men perished in that disaster. Captain Legate moved as Superintendent of the lead mines. Admiral Howard was reckoned one of the precocious boys of his time. As a cadet in the academy, young "Ben" acquitted himself so nobly that President Grant frequently made the subject of the most flattering comment. He was usually appointed Grant's aid whenever the President visited Annapolis. Admiral Howard was graduated at the top of his class in 1873, was promoted ensign in 1874. During his career he successively commanded Chesapeake, Nevada, Olympia, Tennessee, Ohio. As captain of Ohio, he sailed with the Great White Fleet in 1908 -- 1909. In January 1914, Howard was appointed commander in chief of the US Pacific Fleet. The same year, during the Mexican Revolution, Howard commanded a squadron of American vessels in the Gulf of California. Their mission was to observe the Topolobampo naval campaign. Three of Howard's warships were present at the Fourth Battle of Topolobampo.Thomas B. Howard – Admiral Thomas Benton Howard
7. Island of California – The legend was initially infused with the idea that California was a terrestrial paradise, like the Garden of Eden or Atlantis. It is probable that this description prompted early explorers to misidentify the Baja California Peninsula as the island in these legends. In 1533, a mutineer on an exploring expedition sent by Hernán Cortés, discovered the southern portion of Baja California, around present-day La Paz. His men returned to New Spain and gave report of their find. In 1539, Cortés sent the navigator Francisco de Ulloa northward along the Gulf and Pacific coasts of Baja California. An expedition under Hernando de Alarcón confirmed Ulloa's finding. Maps published subsequently during the 16th century, including those by Gerardus Mercator and Abraham Ortelius, correctly showed Baja California as a peninsula. Despite this evidence, however, the depiction of California as an island revived in the 17th century. One contributing factor may have been the second voyage of Juan de Fuca in 1592. Fuca's claim remains controversial because there is only one surviving written account of it found, his account as related to Michael Locke. Nonetheless, this account claims Fuca found a large strait, at around 47 ° north latitude. In any case further exploration was inevitable. Indeed, the British explorer James Cook narrowly missed the Strait of Juan de Fuca in March 1778, almost 200 years later. His account states "we saw nothing like; nor is there the least probability that ever any such thing existed." Its participants believed that they saw the Gulf of California continuing off to the northwest.Island of California – Map of California, circa 1650; restored.
8. William John McGee – William John McGee, LL.D. was an American inventor, geologist, anthropologist, ethnologist, born in Farley, Iowa. McGee was self-educated, devoting his early years to surveying. He patented several improvements on agricultural implements. He subsequently turned his attention to geology. In 1877 -- 1881, he executed a geological survey of 17,000 square miles in northeastern Iowa. He was appointed geologist for the United States Geological Survey in 1881. While with the USGS, McGee travelled to Charleston, South Carolina, for the purpose of studying the earthquake disturbances in its vicinity. McGee was ethnologist in charge of the Bureau of American Ethnology from 1893 to 1903. In 1895, he explored the Gulf of California, home of the Seri Indians.William John McGee – Washington, D.C. (1900)
9. USS New Orleans (CL-22) – USS New Orleans was a United States Navy protected cruiser of the New Orleans class. New Orleans sailed on 27 March 1898 to fit out for service in the Spanish -- American War. She joined the Flying Squadron off Santiago de Cuba on 30 May. The next afternoon, with Massachusetts and Iowa, she reconnoitered the harbor, shore batteries. After summer exercises off the Atlantic seaboard, she sailed from New York on 21 October to join the Asiatic Fleet. She called at the Azores and Port Said, reached Manila on 21 December. As flagship of the Cruiser Squadron, U.S. Asiatic Fleet, she cruised the Philippines and the China coast. Recommissioning on 15 November 1909, New Orleans returned to Asiatic duty on 25 April 1910. She cruised the Orient until going into reserve. Again in full commission on 31 December 1913, New Orleans patrolled the west coast of Mexico during the tense spring of 1914. After the Topolobampo campaign, New Orleans trained the Washington Naval Militia through the summer of 1914, returning to Mexican waters in the fall. After repairs at Cavite, New Orleans returned to Vladivostok to resume her service to 27 September 1920. She returned to Mare Island on 23 September, was struck from the Naval Vessel Register on 13 November 1929. She was sold for scrapping on 11 February 1930. New Orleans was originally armed with 6" / 50 caliber guns and four 4.7" / 50 caliber guns.USS New Orleans (CL-22) – USS New Orleans photographed during the Spanish-American War, 1898.
10. Samuel Francis Du Pont – Samuel Francis Du Pont was a Rear Admiral in the United States Navy, a member of the prominent Du Pont family. In the Mexican–American War, Du Pont captured San Diego, was made commander of the California naval blockade. Through the 1850s, he promoted engineering studies at the United States Naval Academy, to enable more mobile and aggressive operations. He was enrolled at Mount Airy Academy in Germantown, Pennsylvania, at age 9. However, his father was unable to fund his education because of his failing wool mill, he was encouraged to instead enlist in the U.S. Navy. Du Pont then served off the coast of Brazil. In 1838 he joined the ship Ohio in the Mediterranean until 1841. Du Pont transported Major John Fremont's troops to San Diego, where they captured the city. Du Pont served most of the next decade on shore assignment, his efforts during this time are credited with helping to modernize the U.S. Navy. He studied the possibilities of steam power, emphasized engineering and mathematics in the curriculum that he established for the new United States Naval Academy. Despite international praise, low attendance caused the venture to go into heavy debt, Du Pont resigned. Du Pont became an enthusiastic supporter of naval reform, writing in support of the 1855 congressional act to "Promote the Efficiency of the Navy." He was appointed to the Naval Efficiency Board and oversaw the removal of 201 naval officers. Du Pont was promoted to captain in 1855. In 1857 Du Pont was ordered to transport the U.S..Samuel Francis Du Pont – Samuel Francis Du Pont by Daniel Huntington, 1867–68, oil on canvas, National Portrait Gallery, Washington, D.C.
11. Juan de Ugarte – Ugarte was born in Tegucigalpa, then in the Kingdom of part of New Spain, today Honduras. He went to Mexico to enter the Society of Jesus in 1679. Pedro de Ugarte, was also a Jesuit missionary in Baja California. After his ordination, he was assigned to teach philosophy at the Colegio Máximo de San Pedro y San Pablo in Mexico City. Through conversing with them, Ugarte chose to commit his life to these misisons well. Ugarte was initially the procurator for the newly established missions of California in 1697–1700. In 1701, Ugarte went to the peninsula following in the footsteps of Salvatierra and Francisco María Piccolo. It was there that he established his home among the Cochimí Indians. Ugarte was an energetic leader in the expansion and development of the mission system. He served for the missions in Salvatierra's absence and after the latter's death in 1717. Ugarte led several expeditions of overland exploratio to seek out visita sites in the region surrounding San Javier. More spectacularly, he oversaw the construction of a ship, "El Triunfo la Cruz", from locally harvested lumber called gueribo found at La Sierra "La Giganta". In September 1720, Ugarte sailed his new ship to La Paz to help found a new mission there. He died in 1730. Sources Crosby, Harry W. 1994.Juan de Ugarte – Juan de Ugarte, S.J.
12. Francisco de Ulloa – Francisco de Ulloa was a Spanish explorer who explored the west coast of present-day Mexico under the commission of Hernán Cortés. It is not known whether Ulloa accompanied Cortés to the New Spain. By the account of Bernal Díaz del Castillo, he came to Mexico later while transporting letters from his wife. According to some early historians, Ulloa was influential in helping subdue the Aztec Tenochtitlan by naval power. The expedition left on July 8 reaching the Gulf of California six weeks later. Ulloa named the "Sea of Cortés" in honor of his patron. The progress of his small ships was hampered by high seas he encountered, eventually forcing him to turn back to New Spain. The voyage eventually reached 28 degrees north near the Isla de Cedros. Although a peninsula, his reports were used to create maps depicting California as an island. According to Díaz del Castillo, Ulloa was stabbed to death in 1540. By other accounts, his ship was lost without a trace from Baja California. Supposedly his ship was swept inland with a tsunami, later becoming known as the Lost Ship of the Desert. Catholic Encyclopedia Francisco de Ulloa AmericanJourneys.org Francisco de UlloaFrancisco de Ulloa – Route of the 1539 voyage by Francisco de Ulloa from (Acapulco) along the west coast of Mexico
13. USS Cyane (1837) – The second USS Cyane was a sloop-of-war in the United States Navy during the Mexican-American War. Cyane was launched December 1837 by Boston Navy Yard. She was commissioned in Commander John Percival in command. She sailed June 1838 for duty in the Mediterranean, returning to Norfolk, Virginia 16 May 1841. She cleared November 1841 for the Pacific Squadron, returning 1 October 1844. Sailing again for the Pacific 10 August 1845, Cyane served during the Mexican War. On 26 July 1846 Lieutenant Colonel John C. She landed Marines at nearby La Playa, where they were warmly welcomed by the largely pro-American civilian population. The Marines used them to lay siege to Old Town San Diego. Sailors from Cyane took possession of the town, raising the American flag. Entering the Gulf of California, Cyane burned the small fleet at Guaymas. Within a month, she cleared the Gulf of hostile ships, capturing 30 vessels. In company with Independence and Congress, she captured November 1847. On 22 she arrived off San José del Cabo to relieve the besieged garrison there. She landed a force of about 100 men who broke the Mexican siege.USS Cyane (1837) – "USS Cyane Taking Possession of San Diego Old Town July 1846", by Carlton T. Chapman (detail)
14. USS Hillsborough County (LST-827) – USS Hillsborough County was an LST-542-class tank landing ship built for the United States Navy during World War II. Named after Hillsborough County, Florida, she was the only U.S. Naval vessel to bear the name. After shakedown off Florida, LST-827 loaded smoke-pots on her deck, then departed January 1945. Following brief stops at the Panama Canal Zone and Pearl Harbor, she arrived at Eniwetok early in March. Sailing for Guam for the next two months transported men and equipment between Marianas the Philippines. After embarking Marine Fighting Squadron 212 of Marine Air Group 14, LST-827 departed San Pedro Bay, Philippines on 24 May en route to Okinawa. When she arrived five days later, American forces were already engaged in a two-month campaign to push the enemy from its Pacific stronghold. After unloading men and equipment, she steamed to the Philippines for additional reinforcements. Joining LST Squadron 1 there in May, 1946 she operated along the West Coast performing fleet maneuvers and tactical training exercises for the next three years. LST-827 decommissioned 7 June 1949 at San Diego and joined the Pacific Reserve Fleet. Recommissioned on November 1950 with Lieutenant S. G. Ruskey in command, LST-827 departed January 1951 for the Far East. After a brief stop at Pearl Harbor, she arrived Yokosuka on 3 March. Assigned to the Korean run, she carried supplies from Japan for the next four months. LST-827 returned to the United States on 9 August to operate there until early 1952. From May to October she shuttled supplies and troops between Japan and Korea to strengthen the Allied forces against the threat of Communism.USS Hillsborough County (LST-827) – LST-827, returning to the U.S. from Korea, 1951