Category:Italian-speaking countries and territories
This category has the following 4 subcategories, out of 4 total.
This category has the following 4 subcategories, out of 4 total.
1. Duchy of Florence – The Duchy of Florence was an Italian principality, centred on the city of Florence, in Tuscany, Italy. The duchy was founded after Emperor Charles V restored Medici rule in 1530. Cosimo I, established a strong Florentine navy and expanded his territory, purchasing Elba and conquering Siena. In 1569, the Pope declared Cosimo grand duke of Tuscany. The Medici ruled the Grand Duchy of Tuscany until 1737. Florence had been since 1434. On 12 the Emperor created the Medici hereditary rulers of the Republic of Florence. The title "duke of Florence" was chosen because it would bolster Medici power in the region. In April 1532, the Pope convinced Florence's ruling commission, to draw up a new constitution, which formally created a hereditary monarchy. The Senate, composed of forty-eight men, chosen by the Balía, was vested with the prerogative of determining Florence's financial, foreign policies. Additionally, the senate appointed the governors of Pisa, Arezzio, Prato, Voltera and Cortona and ambassadors. The Council of Two Hundred was a petitions court; membership was for life. Even after Alessandro's accession, Imperial troops remained stationed in Florence. In 1535, prominent Florentine families, including the Pazzi dispatched a delegation under Ippolito de' Medici, asking Charles V to depose Alessandro. Much to the Emperor rejected their appeal.Duchy of Florence – Alessandro de' Medici
2. Italy – Italy, officially the Italian Republic, is a unitary parliamentary republic in Europe. Located in the heart of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with Vatican City. With million inhabitants, it is the fourth most populous EU member state. Rome ultimately emerged as the dominant power, becoming the leading cultural, political, religious centre of Western civilisation. The legacy of the Roman Empire can be observed in the global distribution of civilian law, republican governments, Christianity and the Latin script. Italian culture flourished at this time, producing famous scholars, polymaths such as Leonardo da Vinci, Galileo, Michelangelo, Machiavelli. However, the southern areas of the country remained largely excluded from industrialisation, fuelling a large and influential diaspora. Italy has eighth largest economy in the world. It enjoys the highest life expectancy in the EU. The corpus of the solutions proposed by historians and linguists is very wide. Greek historian Dionysius of Halicarnassus states this account together with the legend that Italy was named after Italus, mentioned also by Aristotle and Thucydides. But by his time the name also applied to most of Lucania as well. Excavations throughout Italy revealed a Neanderthal presence dating back to the Palaeolithic period, some 200,000 years ago, modern Humans arrived about 40,000 years ago. Other Italian peoples of undetermined language families but of possible non-Indo-European origins include the Rhaetian people and Cammuni, known for their rock carvings. Also the Phoenicians established colonies on the coasts of Sardinia and Sicily.Italy – The Colosseum in Rome, built c. 70 – 80 AD, is considered one of the greatest works of architecture and engineering of ancient history.
3. Malta – Malta, officially known as the Republic of Malta, is a Southern European island country consisting of an archipelago in the Mediterranean Sea. It lies 80 km south of Italy, 333 km north of Libya. The country covers just over 316 km2, with a population of just under 450,000, making one of the world's smallest and most densely populated countries. The capital of Malta is Valletta, which at 0.8 km2, is the smallest national capital in the European Union. Malta has two official languages: English. King George VI of the United Kingdom awarded the George Cross for the country's bravery in the Second World War. The George Cross continues to appear on Malta's national flag. The country became a republic in 1974, although no longer a Commonwealth realm, remains a current member state of the Commonwealth of Nations. Malta was admitted to the European Union in 2004; in 2008, it became part of the Eurozone. Catholicism is the official religion in Malta. The modern-day variation derives from the Maltese language. The most common etymology is that the Malta derives from the Greek word μέλι, meli, "honey". The ancient Greeks called the Μελίτη meaning "honey-sweet", possibly due to Malta's unique production of honey; an endemic species of bee lives on the island. Another conjecture suggests that the Malta comes from the Phoenician word Maleth "a haven" or "port" in reference to Malta's many bays and coves. Other etymological mentions appear in classical literature, with the term Malta appearing in its present form in the Antonine Itinerary.Malta – Ġgantija megalithic temple complex
4. Monaco – Monaco, officially the Principality of Monaco, is a sovereign city-state and microstate, located on the French Riviera in Western Europe. France borders the country on three sides while the other side borders the Mediterranean Sea. Monaco has a land border of 4.4 km, a coastline of 4.1 km, a width that varies between 1,700 and 349 m. Monaco's most populous Quartier is Monte Carlo and the most populous Ward is Larvotto/Bas Moulins. Through reclamation, Monaco's land mass has expanded by twenty percent. Monaco is known as a playground for the famous, due to its tax laws. In 2014, it was noted about 30% of the population was made up of millionaires, similar to Zürich or Geneva. Monaco is a principality governed with Prince Albert II as head of state. Although Prince Albert II is a constitutional monarch, he wields political power. The House of Grimaldi have ruled Monaco, with brief interruptions, since 1297. Monégasque, Italian, English are widely spoken and understood. The state's sovereignty was officially recognized with Monaco becoming a full United Nations voting member in 1993. Despite separate foreign policy, its defense is the responsibility of France. However, Monaco does maintain two military units. Economic development was spurred in the 19th century with the opening of the country's first casino, Monte Carlo, a railway connection to Paris.Monaco – Statue of Francesco Grimaldi, " Il Malizia " ("the Cunning"), disguised as a monk with a dagger hidden under the cloak of his habit. However, he was ousted by the Genoese just four years later. The Grimaldi family purchased Monaco from the Crown of Aragon in 1419.
5. Republic of Florence – The Florentines formed a commune in her successors' place. The republic was ruled by a council, known as the signoria. The signoria was chosen by the gonfaloniere, elected every two months by guild members. The republic had a checkered history of coups and counter coups against various factions. The Medici kept control of Florence until 1494. Giovanni de' Medici re-conquered the republic in 1512. Florence repudiated Medici authority during the War of the League of Cognac. The Medici re-assumed their rule after an 11-month siege of the city. The government was disestablished in 1532, when Pope Clement VII appointed Alessandro de' Medici "Duke of the Florentine Republic", making the "republic" a hereditary monarchy. The city of Florence was established by Julius Caesar. The city had been part of the Marquisate of Tuscany before the death of Margravine Matilda in 1115. The city did not submit readily to Rabodo, killed in a dispute with the city. The first mention of the republic was in 1138, when several cities around Tuscany formed a league against Henry X of Bavaria. The country was nominally part of the Holy Roman Empire. Florence prospered in the 12th century, trading extensively with foreign countries.Republic of Florence – Front and back of a Florentine florin
6. San Marino – Its size is just over 61 km2, with a population of 33,562. Its largest city is Dogana. San Marino has the smallest population of all the members of the Council of Europe. The country takes its name from a stonemason originating from the Roman colony on the island of Rab, in modern-day Croatia. In 257 CE Marinus participated in the reconstruction of Rimini's city walls by Liburnian pirates. The country is considered to have the earliest written governing documents still in effect. The country's economy mainly relies on finance, services and tourism. It is one of the wealthiest countries in the world in terms of GDP, with a figure comparable to the most developed European regions. San Marino is considered to have a highly stable economy, with one of the lowest unemployment rates in Europe, a budget surplus. It is the only country with more vehicles than people. Saint Marinus went to the city of Rimini as a stonemason. The official date of the founding of what is now known as the Republic is September 301. In 1631, its independence was recognized by the Papacy. The offer was declined by the Regents, fearing future retaliation from other states' revanchism. In recognition of this support, Giuseppe Garibaldi accepted the wish of San Marino not to be incorporated into the Italian state.San Marino – The San Marino constitution of 1600
7. Switzerland – Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a federal republic in Europe. It consists of 26 cantons, the city of Bern is the seat of the federal authorities. Switzerland is a landlocked country geographically divided between the Alps, the Swiss Plateau and the Jura, spanning an area of 41,285 km2. The establishment of the Old Swiss Confederacy dates to the late medieval period, resulting from a series of military successes against Austria and Burgundy. Swiss independence from the Holy Roman Empire was formally recognized in the Peace of Westphalia in 1648. Nevertheless, it pursues an active foreign policy and is frequently involved in peace-building processes around the world. In addition to being the birthplace of the Red Cross, Switzerland is home to numerous international organisations, including the second largest UN office. However, it participates in the Schengen Area and the European Single Market through bilateral treaties. Spanning the intersection of Germanic and Romance Europe, Switzerland comprises four main linguistic and cultural regions: Romansh. Due to its linguistic diversity, Switzerland is known by a variety of native names: Schweiz; Suisse; Svizzera; and Svizra or. On coins and stamps, Latin is used instead of the four living languages. The English Switzerland is a compound containing an obsolete term for the Swiss, in use to 19th centuries. The English adjective Swiss is a loan from French Suisse, also in use since the 16th century. The name originates as an exonym, applied pars pro toto to the troops of the Confederacy. The data code for Switzerland, CH, is derived from Latin Confoederatio Helvetica.Switzerland – Founded in 44 BC by Lucius Munatius Plancus, Augusta Raurica was the first Roman settlement on the Rhine and is now among the most important archaeological sites in Switzerland.