Category:Italian travel writers
Pages in category "Italian travel writers"
The following 17 pages are in this category, out of 17 total, this list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 17 pages are in this category, out of 17 total, this list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Giosafat Barbaro – Giosafat Barbaro was a member of the Venetian Barbaro family. He was a diplomat, merchant, explorer and travel writer and he was unusually well-travelled for someone of his times. Giosafat Barbaro was born to Antonio and Franceschina Barbaro in a palazzo on the Campo di Santa Maria Formosa and he became a member of the Venetian Senate in 1431. In 1434, he married Nona Duodo, daughter of Arsenio Duodo, Giosafat and Nona had three daughters and a son, Giovanni Antonio. From 1436 to 1452 Barbaro traveled as a merchant to the Genoese colony Tana on the Sea of Azov, during this time the Golden Horde was disintegrating due to political rivalries. In November 1437, Barbaro heard of the mound of the last King of the Alans. Barbaro and six men, a mix of Venetian and Jewish merchants, hired 120 men to excavate the kurgan. When the weather proved too severe, they returned in March 1438, Barbaro analytically and precisely recorded information about the layers of earth, coal, ashes, millet, and fish scales that composed the mound. Modern scholarship concludes that it was not a burial mound, but a kitchen midden that had accumulated over centuries of use, the remains of Barbaros excavation was found in the 1920s by Russian archeologist Alexander Alexandrovich Miller. In 1438, the Great Horde under Küchük Muhammad advanced on Tana, Barbaro went as an emissary to the Tatars to persuade them not to attack Tana. Later, Barbaro was part of a group that drove off a hundred Circassian raiders, Barbaro visited many cities in the Crimea, including Solcati, Soldaia, Cembalo, and Caffa. Barbaro also traveled to Russia, where he visited Casan and Novogorod, Giosafat Barbaro did not spend all of the years from 1436 to 1452 in Tartary In 1446, he was elected to the Council of Forty. In 1448, he was appointed Provveditore of the trading colonies Modon and Corone in the Peloponnese, since there was regular trade between Venice and Tana at this time, it seems likely Barbaro went to Tana to trade and returned to Venice for the winter over this time. Barbaro stopped these travels when the Crimean Khanate became a client state of the Ottoman Turks, Barbaro returned to Venice in 1452, traveling by way of Russia, Poland, and Germany. In 1455, Barbaro freed a pair of Tartar men he had found in Venice, in 1460, Giosafat Barbaro was elected Council to Tana, but he declined the position. In 1463, he was appointed Provveditore of Albania, while there, Barbaro he fought with Lekë Dukagjini and Skanderbeg against the Turks. Provveditore Barbaro linked his forces with those of Dukagjini and Nicolo Moneta to form a corps of 13,000 men which was sent to relieve the Second Siege of Krujë. After Skanderbeg’s death, Barbaro returned to Venice again, in 1469, Giosafat Barbaro was made Provveditore of Scutari, in AlbaniaGiosafat Barbaro – Ruins of the Palace of Apadana, Persepolis
2. Urbano Bolzanio – It is not inappropriate, however, since the Delle Fosse family was originally from Bolzano, a village near Belluno. Despite the claims of Pierio Valeriano, the Dalle Fosse family was not noble, in 1450, when he was eight years old, Urbano appears as a novice at the Conventual Franciscan convent of San Pietro di Belluno. In 1465 he was still a student at the monastery, but in 1466 he was in Treviso, in 1472 he spent time in the convent of San Nicolò della Lattuga in Venice, probably in order to further his studies in philosophy and dialectic. Wishing to study languages and learn about eastern cizilizations, he travelled by foot to Thrace, Greece, Syria, Arabia, Palestine. His account of these travels is lost, but is referenced by many surviving works, returning to Italy, he climbed Mount Etna twice to study the crater, which Pietro Bembo references in his dialogue De Aetna. He was follower of Constantine Lascaris at Messina, friend of Pietro Bembo, Urbano was well integrated into the cultural life of Venice, where he was soon joined by his nephew Pietro Valeriano. In 1484 Urbano moved to Florence at the invitation of Lorenzo de Medici who appointed him tutor of his son Giovanni, when Giovanni became a cardinal and was transferred to Pisa, Urbano returned to Venice, where he taught Greek from 1489 to 1497. In 1502, in the company of Andrea Gritti, Urbano travelled to Constantinople, the last journey of which we have record is a trip to Rome in 1515 to visit his former pupil, Pope Leo X. He died in 1525 aged 81 years, as recorded by Pierio Valeriano on his tombstone in the wall of the Basilica Santa Maria Gloriosa dei Frari in Venice. Bolzanios most important work is a grammar of Ancient Greek published for the ciricle of Aldo Manuzio, in this work, originally written entirely in Latin, he describes the nouns, verbs and other parts of speech. It was extraordinarily successful, enjoying 23 editions in only a few years, lucia Gualdo Rosa, «DALLE FOSSE, Urbano», in Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani, Volume 32, Roma, Istituto dellEnciclopedia Italiana,1986. Ticozzi Stefano, Storia dei letterati ed artisti del dipartimento della Piave, Belluno, presso FrancescAntonio Tissi,1813, LibUrbano Bolzanio – On the right side the tombstone of Pierio Valeriano and on the left that of his uncle Urban Bolzanio
3. Scipione Borghese, 10th Prince of Sulmona – Nevertheless, before 1907 he had already become known internationally as a traveller, explorer, diplomat and mountain climber. In 1900 he had finished a journey in Asia from Beirut to the Pacific Ocean and his book In Asia, Siria, Eufrate, Babilonia, published in 1903 and which proved a success, describes his journey from Beirut to Basra and the head of the Persian Gulf. Subsequently he also completed a journey across China, recounted in another book, tall and abstemious, he was a man of few words, cold, with calm and measured manners, and with great self-control. He was a deputy of the Partito Radicale in the Italian parliament of 1904 to 1913, fought bravely in the First World War, Borghese was the eldest son of Paolo, 9th Prince of Sulmona and his wife Ilona, Countess Apponyi de Nagy-Appony. He was twice married, firstly to Anna Maria de Ferrari, daughter of Gaetano, duca di Ferrari by his wife Maria Annenkov, on 23 May 1895 and his second marriage to Teodora Martini on 8 August 1926 produced no issue. He was succeeded in the title Prince of Sulmona by his brother Livio Borghese, 11th Prince of Sulmona and she married on 4 July 1925 at Isola Borghese, Lago di Garda, Astorre Hercolani, 9º principe Hercolani. They have 7 children with an A beginning surname, livia Borghese, she married on 30 December 1930 at Isola Borghese, Lago di Garda, Alessandro, conte Cavazza, by whom she had three sons, and several descendants. This page is a translation of its Italian counterpart, Works by Scipione Borghese at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Scipione Borghese at Internet ArchiveScipione Borghese, 10th Prince of Sulmona – Borghese (left) and Barzini (right) in the Peking to Paris race.
4. Cristoforo Buondelmonti – Cristoforo Buondelmonti was an Italian Franciscan priest and traveler, and a pioneer in promoting first-hand knowledge of Greece and its antiquities throughout the Western world. He left his city of Florence around 1414 C. E. in order to travel. He visited Constantinople in the 1420s and he is the author of two historical-geographic works, the Descriptio insulae Cretae and the Liber insularum Archipelagi. These two books are a combination of information and contemporary charts and sailing directions. The last one contains the oldest surviving map of Constantinople, while travelling over the island of Andros, he bought a Greek manuscript and brought back with him to Italy. This was the Heiroglyphica of Horapollo, which played a role both in humanistic thinking and in art. The Buondelmonti, a family of Florence G. Gerola, Le vedute di Costantinopoli di Cristoforo Buondemonti, SBN3Cristoforo Buondelmonti – Map of Constantinople (1422) by Buondelmonti, contained in Liber insularum Archipelagi (Bibliothèque nationale de France, Paris) is the oldest surviving map of the city, and the only one which antedates the Turkish conquest of the city in 1453
5. Giovanni Francesco Gemelli Careri – Giovanni Francesco Gemelli Careri was a seventeenth-century Italian adventurer and traveler. Some suspected him of spying for the Vatican on his journey, Gemelli Careri was born in Taurianova,1651, and died in Naples,1725. He obtained a doctorate in law at the College of Jesuits in Naples, after completing his studies he briefly entered the judiciary. In 1685 he took time off to travel around Europe, in Hungary he was wounded when an army of Turks besieged Buda. In 1687 he returned to Naples and re-entered the judiciary and he also began work on his first two books, Relazione delle Campagne dUngheria with co-author Matteo Egizio, and Viaggi in Europa. At this time Gemelli encountered frustrations with his legal profession and he was denied certain opportunities because he did not have an established aristocratic origin. Eventually, he decided to suspend his career for a round-the-world trip and this five-year trip would lead to his best known six-volume book, Giro Del Mondo. Gemelli Careri started his trip in 1693, with a visit to Egypt, Constantinople. At the time, this Middle Eastern route was already becoming a standard ingredient of any excursion into foreign lands, however, from there the Italian tourist would take less traveled paths. After crossing Armenia and Persia, he visited Southern India and entered China and this fortuitous misunderstanding opened for Gemelli many of the most tightly closed doors of the country. He got to visit the emperor at Beijing, attended the Lantern Festival celebrations, almost all the structure, as has been said, is of brick, so well built that it does not only last but looks new after several ages. It is above 1800 years since the Emperor Xi-hoam-ti caused it to be built against the incursions of the Tartars and this was one of the greatest, and most extravagant works that ever was undertaken. And if they conceited those people could make their way climbing the clefts, from Macau, Gemelli Careri sailed to the Philippines, where he stayed two months while waiting for the departure of a Manila galleon, for which he carried quicksilver, for a 300% profit in Mexico. In the meantime, as Gemelli described it in his journal, the half-year-long transoceanic trip to Acapulco was a nightmare plagued with bad food, epidemic outbursts, and the occasional storm. In Mexico, he became friends with Mexican creole patriot and savant Don Carlos de Sigüenza y Góngora, Sigüenza spoke with Gemelli about his theories of the ancient Mexicans and entrusted him with information about the Mexican calendar, which appeared in Gemellis account. As well as having visited the pyramids at Teotihuacan, he visited several mining towns. After leaving Mexico city he visited the city of Puebla de Los Angeles and several towns as he traveled to the city of Veracruz. After five years of wandering around the world, Gemelli was finally on his way back to Europe when he joined the Spanish treasure fleet in Cuba, for many years scholars and experts did not consider Gemelli Careris adventurous journey authenticGiovanni Francesco Gemelli Careri – Giovanni Francesco Gemelli Careri at age 48 in the year 1699. This image is taken from his book: "Giro Del Mondo"
6. Carlo Maggi – Carlo Maggi was a Venetian citizen and traveller. During 1568–1573, he visited much of the Near East, then under Ottoman control, including the city of Jerusalem, where he was made a Knight of the Order of the Holy Sepulchre. He was captured by the Turks during the siege of the city of Nicosia in the Cyprus War of 1570-1571, being able to free himself and to get back to Venice only after the Battle of Lepanto in 1572. He compiled a short travelogue in manuscript form in 1578, known as the Codex Maggi, the manuscript consists of 18 miniatures by a Flemish or a Venetian master, showing scenes of Maggis travels. A French commentary on the manuscript was published by Louis César de La Baume Le Blanc in 1761, ariane Isler-de Jongh, François Fossier, Le voyage de Charles Magius, 1568-1573,1992, ISBN9782904420566. Media related to Voyages et aventures de Charles Magius at Wikimedia CommonsCarlo Maggi – Portrait from the Codex Maggi (Voyages et aventures de Ch. Magius, Bibliothèque nationale de France, département Estampes et photographie, RESERVE 4-AD-134, miniature no. 4)
7. Marco Polo – He learned the mercantile trade from his father and uncle, Niccolò and Maffeo, who travelled through Asia and met Kublai Khan. In 1269, they returned to Venice to meet Marco for the first time, the three of them embarked on an epic journey to Asia, returning after 24 years to find Venice at war with Genoa, Marco was imprisoned and dictated his stories to a cellmate. He was released in 1299, became a merchant, married. He died in 1324 and was buried in the church of San Lorenzo in Venice, Marco Polo was not the first European to reach China, but he was the first to leave a detailed chronicle of his experience. This book inspired Christopher Columbus and many other travellers, there is a substantial literature based on Polos writings, he also influenced European cartography, leading to the introduction of the Fra Mauro map. Marco Polo was born in 1254 in Venice Republic and his exact date and place of birth are archivally unknown. Some historians mentioned that he was born on September 15 but that date is not endorsed by mainstream scholarship, Marco Polos birthplace is generally considered Venice, but also varies between Constantinople, and the island of Korčula. There is dispute as to whether the Polo family is of Venetian origin, the first recorded Polo is Venetian Domenico Polo who was mentioned in 971 regarding the prohibition of trade with the Arabs. Later other Polos were also mentioned in the service of the realm, whether they were related with the family of Marco Polo is uncertain, but this could indicate that his ancestors travelled between Venice and Dalmatia. Some of the first indications of where his family originated and were resident come from Venetian documents and manuscripts. Some scholars argued that this account could go along with the note from Il Milione that his father and uncle, Niccolò and Maffeo Polo, the non-Venetian i. e. Sanuto also mentioned a captain from Korčula, Antonio di Polo. Moule cited two early 17th century Venetian manuscripts questi ueneno de dalmatia, Polo questi uene de Dalmatia, scholars etymologically argued that his family name derives from Latin Paulus, the name of a certain bird species, or like Albert tSerstevens considered - from Eastern origin. However, the habitat of the shorebird is non-existent on Korčula, the surname Polo seems related with other widespread Dalmatian surnames. The lack of evidence makes the Korčula theory as a specific birthplace strongly disputed, in 1168, his great-uncle, Marco Polo, borrowed money and commanded a ship in Constantinople. His grandfather, Andrea Polo of the parish of San Felice, had three sons, Maffeo, yet another Marco, and the travellers father Niccolò and this genealogy, described by Ramusio, is not universally accepted as there is no additional evidence to support it. His father, Niccolò Polo, a merchant, traded with the Near East, becoming wealthy, Niccolò and his brother Maffeo set off on a trading voyage before Marcos birth. In 1260, Niccolò and Maffeo, while residing in Constantinople, then the capital of the Latin Empire, foresaw a political change, they liquidated their assets into jewels and moved away. According to The Travels of Marco Polo, they passed through much of Asia, and met with Kublai Khan and their decision to leave Constantinople proved timelyMarco Polo – Polo wearing a Tatar outfit, date of print unknown
8. Riccoldo da Monte di Croce – Riccoldo da Monte di Croce or Ricoldo of Monte Croce, c.1243 –1320, was an Italian Dominican monk, travel writer, missionary, and Christian apologist. Riccoldo was born in Florence, and his name originated from a small castle just above Pontassieve. After studying in various major European schools, he became a Dominican in 1267 and he was a professor in several convents of Tuscany, including St Catherine in Pisa. With a papal commission to preach he departed for Acre in 1286 or 1287 and made a pilgrimage to the Holy Land and he arrived in Mossul in 1289, equipped with a Papal bull. He failed to convince the Nestorian Christian mayor of the city to convert to Catholicism. He was a missionary to the court of the Mongol Il-Khan ruler Arghun, of whom he wrote that he was a man given to the worst of villainy, moving to Baghdad, Riccoldo entered in conflict with the local Nestorian Christians, preaching against them in their own cathedral. He was allowed nonetheless by Mongol authorities to build his own church, Riccoldo brought the matter to the Nestorian patriarch Mar Yaballaha, who agreed with him that the doctrine of Nestorius, namely the duality of Christ was heretical. Mar Yaballaha was however disavowed by his own followers and he returned to Florence before 1302, and was chosen to high offices in his order. He died in Florence on 31 October 1320 and his Liber Peregrinacionis or Itinerarius was intended as a guide-book for missionaries, and is a description of the Oriental countries he visited. In 1288 or 1289 he began to keep a record of his experiences in the Levant, entering Syria at Acre, he crossed Galilee to the Sea of Tiberias, thence returning to Acre he seems to have travelled down the coast to Jaffa, and so up to Jerusalem. After visiting the Jordan River and the Dead Sea he left Palestine by the coast road, retracing his steps to Acre and passing on by Tripoli, from the Cilician port of Lajazzo he started on the great high road to Tabriz in north Persia. Crossing the Taurus he travelled on by Sivas of Cappadocia to Erzerum, in and near Tabriz he preached for several months, after which he proceeded to Baghdad via Mosul and Tikrit. In Baghdad he stayed several years, as a traveller and observer his merits are conspicuous. His account of the Tatars and his sketch of Islamic religion, in spite of strong prejudice, he shows remarkable breadth of view and appreciation of merit in systems the most hostile to his own. The Epistolæ de Perditione Acconis are five letters in the form of lamentations over the fall of Acre, during his stay in Baghdad, Riccoldo studied the Quran and other works of Islamic theology, for controversial purposes, arguing with Nestorian Christians, and writing. In 1300–1301 Riccoldo again appeared in Florence, about 1300 in Florence he wrote Contra legem Sarracenorum and Ad nationes orientales. This work was translated into German by Martin Luther in 1542, there are translations into English by Thomas C. Pfotenhauer, and Londini Ensis, under the title, Refutation of the Koran, much of this works contents derive from those sections of the Liber Peregrinacionis devoted to Muslim beliefs and related topicsRiccoldo da Monte di Croce – Riccoldo da Monte di Croce and Pope Nicolas IV