Category:Louis XVI of France
This category has the following 3 subcategories, out of 3 total.
This category has the following 3 subcategories, out of 3 total.
1. Louis XVI of France – Louis XVI, born Louis-Auguste, was the last King of France and Navarre before the French Revolution, during which he was also known as Louis Capet. In 1765, at the death of his father, Louis, Dauphin of France, son and heir apparent of Louis XV of France, Louis XVI was guillotined on 21 January 1793. The first part of his reign was marked by attempts to reform France in accordance with Enlightenment ideas and these included efforts to abolish serfdom, remove the taille, and increase tolerance toward non-Catholics. The French nobility reacted to the reforms with hostility. Louis implemented deregulation of the market, advocated by his liberal minister Turgot. In periods of bad harvests, it would lead to food scarcity which would prompt the masses to revolt, from 1776, Louis XVI actively supported the North American colonists, who were seeking their independence from Great Britain, which was realized in the 1783 Treaty of Paris. The ensuing debt and financial crisis contributed to the unpopularity of the Ancien Régime and this led to the convening of the Estates-General of 1789. In 1789, the storming of the Bastille during riots in Paris marked the beginning of the French Revolution. Louiss indecisiveness and conservatism led some elements of the people of France to view him as a symbol of the tyranny of the Ancien Régime. The credibility of the king was deeply undermined, and the abolition of the monarchy, Louis XVI was the only King of France ever to be executed, and his death brought an end to more than a thousand years of continuous French monarchy. Louis-Auguste de France, who was given the title Duc de Berry at birth, was born in the Palace of Versailles. Out of seven children, he was the son of Louis, the Dauphin of France. His mother was Marie-Josèphe of Saxony, the daughter of Frederick Augustus II of Saxony, Prince-Elector of Saxony and King of Poland. A strong and healthy boy, but very shy, Louis-Auguste excelled in his studies and had a taste for Latin, history, geography, and astronomy. He enjoyed physical activities such as hunting with his grandfather, and rough-playing with his brothers, Louis-Stanislas, comte de Provence. From an early age, Louis-Auguste had been encouraged in another of his hobbies, locksmithing, upon the death of his father, who died of tuberculosis on 20 December 1765, the eleven-year-old Louis-Auguste became the new Dauphin. His mother never recovered from the loss of her husband, and died on 13 March 1767, throughout his education, Louis-Auguste received a mixture of studies particular to religion, morality, and humanities. His instructors may have also had a hand in shaping Louis-Auguste into the indecisive king that he becameLouis XVI of France – King Louis XVI by Antoine-François Callet
2. Edict of Versailles – The edict was signed by Louis XVI on 7 November 1787, and registered in the Parlement of Paris of the Ancien Régime on 29 January 1788. Henry IV of France had initially granted Huguenots a significant amount of freedom to practice their faith when he signed the Edict of Nantes and these rights were revoked by Louis XIV with the Edict of Fontainebleau. Enforcement of the revocation relaxed under the reign of Louis XV, history of the Rise of the Huguenots of France. Kila, MT, Kessinger,2006 Kuiper, B. K, grand Rapids, MI, Eerdmans,1995 Martyn, W. Carlos. Ann Arbor, Scholarly Publishing Office, University of Michigan Library,2005 Sutherland, new Haven, CT, Yale University Press,1980. French Wars of Religion Persecution of Huguenots under Louis XV Religions in France Freedom of religion Édit de Versailles, transcription of the original text, in FrenchEdict of Versailles – Edict of Versailles signed by Louis XVI in 1787
3. Flight to Varennes – They escaped only as far as the small town of Varennes, where they were arrested after having been recognized at their previous stop in Sainte-Menehould. The incident was a point after which popular hostility towards the French monarchy as an institution, as well as towards the king and queen as individuals. The kings attempted flight provoked charges of treason that ultimately led to his execution in 1793, the failure of the escape plans was due to a series of misadventures, delays, misinterpretations, and poor judgments. Much was due to the Kings indecision, he postponed the schedule. Furthermore, he misjudged popular support for the traditional monarchy and he thought that only radicals in Paris were promoting a revolution that the people as a whole rejected. He believed, mistakenly, that he was beloved by the rural peasants, the kings flight was traumatic for France, inciting a wave of emotions that ranged from anxiety to violence and panic. Everyone was aware that foreign intervention was imminent, republicanism, from being merely a subject of coffeehouse debate, suddenly became the dominant ideal of revolutionary leaders. Henceforth, the king seems to have become emotionally paralyzed, leaving most important decisions to the politically untrained queen, from the autumn of 1791 on, the king tied his hopes of political salvation to the dubious prospects of foreign intervention. Prompted by Marie Antoinette, Louis rejected the advice of the moderate constitutionalists, led by Antoine Barnave, to implement the Constitution of 1791. At Montmédy General François Claude de Bouillé, the marquis de Bouillé, had concentrated a force of 10,000 regulars of the old royal army who were considered to still be loyal to the monarchy. De Bouillé himself had shown energy in suppressing a mutiny in Nancy in 1790. The troops under his command included two Swiss and four German mercenary regiments who were perceived as being reliable in a time of general political unrest than their French counterparts. The long-term political objectives of the couple and their closest advisors remain unclear. Prodded by the queen, Louis committed himself and his family to an attempt of escape from the capital to the eastern frontier on 21 June 1791. The escape was planned by the queens favourite, the Swedish Count Axel von Fersen and the Baron de Breteuil. Fersen had urged the use of two light carriages that could have made the 200-mile journey to Montmédy relatively quickly. This would have involved the splitting up of the family, however, thus Louis and Marie-Antoinette decided on the use of a heavy. Detachments of cavalry posted along the route had been withdrawn or neutralized by suspicious crowds before the largeFlight to Varennes – Louis XVI and his family, dressed as bourgeois, arrested in Varennes.
4. Execution of Louis XVI – The execution of Louis XVI, by means of the guillotine, took place on 21 January 1793 at the Place de la Révolution in Paris. It was an event of the Revolution. He was convicted in a vote and condemned to death by a large majority. He heard his last Mass, served by Cléry, and received Communion, the Mass requisites were provided by special direction of the authorities. Upon Father Edgeworths advice he avoided a last farewell scene with his family, at 7 oclock he confided his last wishes to the priest. His Royal seal was to go to the Dauphin and his ring to the Queen. After receiving the blessing he went to meet Antoine Joseph Santerre. A green carriage was waiting in the second court and he seated himself in it with the priest, with two militiamen sitting opposite them. The carriage left the Temple at approximately 9 oclock, in the neighbourhood of the present rue de Cléry, the Baron de Batz, a supporter of the Royal family who had financed the flight to Varennes, had summoned 300 Royalists to enable the Kings escape. Louis was to be hidden in a house in the rue de Cléry belonging to the Count of Marsan, the Baron leaped forward calling Follow me, my friends, let us save the King. But his associates had been denounced and only a few had been able to turn up, three of them were killed, but de Batz managed to escape. The 13 February issue of the Thermomètre du jour, a moderate Republican newspaper, citing as its source the executioner, Charles Henri Sanson. Charles Sanson responded to the story by offering his own version of events in a letter dated 20 February 1793, I remain strongly convinced that he derived this firmness from the principles of the religion by which he seemed penetrated and persuaded as no other man. In his Causeries, Alexandre Dumas refers to a meeting circa 1830 with Henri Sanson, eldest son of Charles Sanson, now then, you were saying you wanted something, Monsieur Dumas. You know how much playwrights need accurate information, Monsieur Sanson, the moment may come for me to put Louis XVI on the stage. How much truth is there in the story of the bout between him and your fathers assistants at the foot of the scaffold. Oh, I can tell you that, Monsieur. I know, thats why it is you Im asking. Well listen, the King had been driven to the scaffold in his own carriage and his hands were free. So one assistant waited with a rope, while another said to him It is necessary to tie your hands, on hearing these unexpected words, at the unexpected sight of that rope, Louis XVI made an involuntary gesture of repulsionExecution of Louis XVI – "Day of 21 January 1793 the death of Louis Capet on the Place de la Révolution " – French engraving.
5. Marie Antoinette – Marie Antoinette (/ˈmæriˌæntwəˈnɛt/, /ˌɑ̃ːntwə-/, /ˌɑ̃ːtwə-/, US /məˈriː-/, French, born Maria Antonia Josepha Johanna, was the last Queen of France and Navarre before the French Revolution. She was born an Archduchess of Austria, and was the fifteenth and second youngest child of Empress Maria Theresa and Francis I, in April 1770, upon her marriage to Louis-Auguste, heir apparent to the French throne, she became Dauphine of France. After eight years of marriage, Marie Antoinette gave birth to a daughter, Marie-Thérèse Charlotte, the Diamond Necklace affair damaged her reputation further. On 10 August 1792, the attack on the Tuileries forced the family to take refuge at the Assembly. On 21 September 1792, the monarchy was abolished, after a two-day trial begun on 14 October 1793, Marie Antoinette was convicted by the Revolutionary Tribunal of high treason, and executed by guillotine on Place de la Révolution on 16 October 1793. Maria Antonia was born on 2 November 1755, at the Hofburg Palace and she was the youngest daughter of Empress Maria Theresa, ruler of the Habsburg Empire, and her husband Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor. Her godparents were Joseph I and Mariana Victoria, King and Queen of Portugal, Archduke Joseph, shortly after her birth, she was placed under the care of the Governess of the Imperial children, Countess von Brandeis. Maria Antonia was raised with her older sister Maria Carolina. As to her relationship with her mother, it was difficult, despite the private tutoring she received, results of her schooling were less than satisfactory. At the age of ten she could not write correctly in German or in any language used at court, such as French. Under the teaching of Christoph Willibald Gluck, Maria Antonia developed into a good musician and she learned to play the harp, the harpsichord and the flute. During the familys gatherings in the evenings, she would sing and she also excelled at dancing, had an exquisite poise, and loved dolls. Following the Seven Years War and the Diplomatic Revolution of 1756, Empress Maria Theresa decided to end hostilities with her longtime enemy, on 14 May she met her husband at the edge of the forest of Compiègne. Upon her arrival in France, she adopted the French version of her name, a further ceremonial wedding took place on 16 May 1770 in the Palace of Versailles and, after the festivities, the day ended with the ritual bedding. The lack of consummation of the marriage plagued the reputation of both Louis-Auguste and Marie Antoinette for the seven years. The initial reaction to the marriage between Marie Antoinette and Louis-Auguste was mixed, on the one hand, the Dauphine was beautiful, personable and well-liked by the common people. Her first official appearance in Paris on 8 June 1773 was a resounding success, on the other hand, those opposed to the alliance with Austria, and others, for personal reasons, had a difficult relationship with Marie Antoinette. Madame du Barry, for example, was Louis XVs mistress and had political influence over himMarie Antoinette – Marie Antoinette with the Rose Portrait by Louise Élisabeth Vigée Le Brun, 1783.
6. Trial of Louis XVI – The trial of Louis XVI was a key event of the French Revolution. It involved the trial of the former French king Louis XVI before the National Convention, the trial began on 3 December. On 4 December the Conventions president Bertrand Barère presented it with the indictment and we shall read you the act giving the offenses with which you are charged. On 20 June 1789, Louis shut down the Estates-General, resulting in the commoners swearing not to disband, Mailhe characterized this as an attack on the sovereignty of the people. Louiss answer, No laws then existed to prevent me from it and you ordered an army to march against the citizens of Paris and ceased only after the storming of the Bastille on 14 July 1789. Louiss answer, It was my right but I never had an intention of spilling blood, despite promises made to the National Constituent Assembly, Louis refused to acknowledge the abolition of feudalism, as stated in the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen. He invited troops to Versailles and feted them in a banquet where the tricolor cockade was trampled under foot resulting in the insurrectionary Womens March on Versailles on 5 October,1789. Louiss answer, My refusals were just, I never saw the desecration of the cockade, at Fête de la Fédération of 14 July 1790, Louis took an oath which Mailhe said he did not keep by conspiring with the counter-revolutionaries Antoine Omer Talon and Mirabeau. Louiss answer, I do not remember, Louis is accused of disbursing millions to effect this corruption and planning escape. Louiss answer, I felt no greater pleasure, than that of relieving the needy, Louis did attempt to escape to Verennes on 21 June 1791, protesting in writing the activities of the National Constituent Assembly. Louiss answer, Refer to what I told the assembly at that time and that Louis was complicit in the Champ de Mars Massacre on 17 July 1791. Louiss answer, I do know nothing of it, Louiss answer, This is my ministers fault. Louis supported the counter-revolutionary Arles rebellion, Louiss answer, I followed my ministers advice. When Avignon and the Comtat Venaissin were annexed to France following a referendum, Louis delayed, Louiss answer, I dont remember the delay and the fault lies in the commissioners, not me. Louis did nothing about the counter-revolutions in Nîmes, Montauban, Louiss answer, This was done by my ministers. Louis sent twenty-two battalions against the people of Marseilles who were marching to subdue the counter-revolutionaries of Arles, Louis received a letter from M. de Wittgenstein, Commandant General of the Army of Southern France asking for additional time to rally support for the throne. Louiss answer, I dont remember the letter and he doesnt work for me anymore, Louis paid his former bodyguards even after they emigrated out of France to Coblentz along with other noble émigrés. Louiss answer, I stopped paying the bodyguards after they emigrated, as for the nobles, I dont rememberTrial of Louis XVI – Louis being cross-examined by the Convention.