Category:Naval battles involving the Byzantine Empire
Pages in category "Naval battles involving the Byzantine Empire"
The following 19 pages are in this category, out of 19 total, this list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 19 pages are in this category, out of 19 total, this list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Keyhole Markup Language – Keyhole Markup Language is an XML notation for expressing geographic annotation and visualization within Internet-based, two-dimensional maps and three-dimensional Earth browsers. KML was developed for use with Google Earth, which was originally named Keyhole Earth Viewer and it was created by Keyhole, Inc, which was acquired by Google in 2004. KML became a standard of the Open Geospatial Consortium in 2008. Google Earth was the first program able to view and graphically edit KML files, other projects such as Marble have also started to develop KML support. The KML file specifies a set of features for display in Here Maps, Google Earth, Maps and Mobile, each place always has a longitude and a latitude. Other data can make the more specific, such as tilt, heading, altitude. KML shares some of the same grammar as GML. Some KML information cannot be viewed in Google Maps or Mobile, KML files are very often distributed in KMZ files, which are zipped KML files with a. kmz extension. These must be legacy compression compatible, otherwise the. kmz file might not uncompress in all geobrowsers. The contents of a KMZ file are a single root KML document and optionally any overlays, images, icons, the root KML document by convention is a file named doc. kml at the root directory level, which is the file loaded upon opening. By convention the root KML document is at level and referenced files are in subdirectories. An example KML document is, The MIME type associated with KML is application/vnd. google-earth. kml+xml, the longitude, latitude components are as defined by the World Geodetic System of 1984. The vertical component is measured in meters from the WGS84 EGM96 Geoid vertical datum, if altitude is omitted from a coordinate string, e. g. then the default value of 0 is assumed for the altitude component, i. e. A formal definition of the reference system used by KML is contained in the OGC KML2.2 Specification. This definition references well-known EPSG CRS components, the KML2.2 specification was submitted to the Open Geospatial Consortium to assure its status as an open standard for all geobrowsers. In November 2007 a new KML2.2 Standards Working Group was established within OGC to formalize KML2.2 as an OGC standard. Comments were sought on the standard until January 4,2008. The OGC KML Standards Working Group finished working on change requests to KML2.2, the official OGC KML2.3 standard was published in August 4,2015Keyhole Markup Language – Keyhole Markup Language
2. GPS eXchange Format – GPX, or GPS Exchange Format, is an XML schema designed as a common GPS data format for software applications. It can be used to describe waypoints, tracks, and routes, the format is open and can be used without the need to pay license fees. Location data is stored in tags and can be interchanged between GPS devices and software, common software applications for the data include viewing tracks projected onto various map sources, annotating maps, and geotagging photographs based on the time they were taken. These are the data contained in GPX files. Ellipsis means that the element can be repeated. Additional data may exist within every markup but is not shown here and it consists of the WGS84 coordinates of a point and possibly other descriptive information. TrkType is a track, made of at least one segment containing waypoints, that is, a Track Segment holds a list of Track Points which are logically connected in order. To represent a single GPS track where GPS reception was lost, or the GPS receiver was turned off, rteType is a route, an ordered list of routepoint leading to a destination. Conceptually, tracks are a record of where a person has been, technically, a track is made of a sufficient number of trackpoints to precisely draw every bend of a path on a bitmap. The routepoints may be crossings or junctions or as distant as stopover towns, hence, such a project can be saved and reloaded in a GPX file. A process called routing computes a route and may produce a GPX route made of the routepoints where some driver action takes place, the GPX points may contain the text of those instructions. The GPX file may contain both route and track so that a program can get points from the track even if it has no access to a vector map. The minimum properties for a GPX file are latitude and longitude for every single point. Some vendors, such as Humminbird and Garmin, use extensions to the GPX format for recording street address, phone number, business category, air temperature, depth of water, and other parameters. Latitude and longitude are expressed in degrees, and elevation in meters. Dates and times are not local time, but instead are Coordinated Universal Time using ISO8601 format, the following is a truncated GPX file produced by a Garmin Oregon 400t hand-held GPS unit. Concepts Point of Interest OpenStreetMap, a project to create free editable maps using, among others. File formats Exchangeable image file format Geography Markup Language KML, the equivalent format compatible with Google Earth, NMEA0183 NMEA2000 TCX, Garmin Training Center XML Software GPSBabel, used to upload/download/convert GPX files GPX, the GPS Exchange FormatGPS eXchange Format – Waypoints, routes and tracks recorded by GPS receivers.
3. Byzantine Empire – It survived the fragmentation and fall of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD and continued to exist for an additional thousand years until it fell to the Ottoman Turks in 1453. During most of its existence, the empire was the most powerful economic, cultural, several signal events from the 4th to 6th centuries mark the period of transition during which the Roman Empires Greek East and Latin West divided. Constantine I reorganised the empire, made Constantinople the new capital, under Theodosius I, Christianity became the Empires official state religion and other religious practices were proscribed. Finally, under the reign of Heraclius, the Empires military, the borders of the Empire evolved significantly over its existence, as it went through several cycles of decline and recovery. During the reign of Maurice, the Empires eastern frontier was expanded, in a matter of years the Empire lost its richest provinces, Egypt and Syria, to the Arabs. This battle opened the way for the Turks to settle in Anatolia, the Empire recovered again during the Komnenian restoration, such that by the 12th century Constantinople was the largest and wealthiest European city. Despite the eventual recovery of Constantinople in 1261, the Byzantine Empire remained only one of several small states in the area for the final two centuries of its existence. Its remaining territories were annexed by the Ottomans over the 15th century. The Fall of Constantinople to the Ottoman Empire in 1453 finally ended the Byzantine Empire, the term comes from Byzantium, the name of the city of Constantinople before it became Constantines capital. This older name of the city would rarely be used from this point onward except in historical or poetic contexts. The publication in 1648 of the Byzantine du Louvre, and in 1680 of Du Canges Historia Byzantina further popularised the use of Byzantine among French authors, however, it was not until the mid-19th century that the term came into general use in the Western world. The Byzantine Empire was known to its inhabitants as the Roman Empire, the Empire of the Romans, Romania, the Roman Republic, Graikia, and also as Rhōmais. The inhabitants called themselves Romaioi and Graikoi, and even as late as the 19th century Greeks typically referred to modern Greek as Romaika and Graikika. The authority of the Byzantine emperor as the legitimate Roman emperor was challenged by the coronation of Charlemagne as Imperator Augustus by Pope Leo III in the year 800. No such distinction existed in the Islamic and Slavic worlds, where the Empire was more seen as the continuation of the Roman Empire. In the Islamic world, the Roman Empire was known primarily as Rûm, the Roman army succeeded in conquering many territories covering the entire Mediterranean region and coastal regions in southwestern Europe and north Africa. These territories were home to different cultural groups, both urban populations and rural populations. The West also suffered heavily from the instability of the 3rd century ADByzantine Empire – Tremissis with the image of Justinian the Great (r. 527–565) (see Byzantine insignia)
4. Battle of Cap Bon (468) – The Battle of Cap Bon was an engagement during a joint military expedition of the Western and Eastern Roman Empires led by Basiliscus against the Vandal capital of Carthage in 468. The invasion of the kingdom of the Vandals was one of the largest amphibious operations in antiquity, with 1,113 ships, while attempting to land near Carthage at Cap Bon, the Roman fleet was thrown into disorder by a Vandal fireship attack. The Vandal fleet followed up on the action and sunk over 100 Roman ships, some 10,000 Roman soldiers and sailors died in the battle. The Roman expedition was now too scattered to land its troops, the battle is considered to have ended the Western Roman Empires chances of survival. Without access to the resources of the former Roman province of Africa, the plan was concerted between Eastern Emperor Leo, Western Emperor Anthemius, and General Marcellinus, who enjoyed independence in Illyricum. It appears that the forces met in Sicily, whence the three fleets moved at different periods. Ancient and modern historians provided different estimates for the number of ships and troops commanded by Basiliscus, as well as for the expenses of the expedition, although both were enormous sums. According to the text of Priscus,100,000 ships were assembled, although scholars have emended this to 1100. Peter Heather estimates a strength of 30,000 soldiers for the expedition and 50,000 total, when including sailors and the additional forces of Marcellinus and Heraclius. Sardinia and Libya were already conquered by Marcellinus and Heraclius, when Basiliscus cast anchor off the Promontorium Mercurii, now Cap Bon, opposite Sicily, Gaiseric asked Basiliscus to allow him five days to draw up conditions for a peace. During the negotiations, Gaiseric gathered his ships and suddenly attacked the Roman fleet, the Vandals had filled many vessels with combustible materials. During the night, these ships were propelled against the unguarded. The Byzantine commanders tried to rescue ships from destruction. Basiliscus fled in the heat of the battle, one act of heroism stands forth from this naval defeat. Upon seeing that his ship was about to be captured, he refused to surrender to Genso and his last words were that he would never come under the hands of dogs. One half of the Roman fleet was burned, sunk, or captured, after returning to Constantinople, Basiliscus hid in the church of Hagia Sophia to escape the wrath of the people and the revenge of the Emperor. By the mediation of Verina, Basiliscus obtained the Imperial pardon, the treasuries of the Eastern Roman Empire were now empty. Peter Heather considers the expedition to have been the last chance to save the Western Roman Empire, without the revenue stream from the former Roman province of Africa, the west was incapable of sustaining its armyBattle of Cap Bon (468) – Battle of Cap Bon (468)
5. Battle of Demetrias – The Battle of Demetrias was a sea engagement fought at Demetrias in Greece in the early 1270s between a Byzantine fleet and the assembled forces of the Latin barons of Euboea and Crete. The battle was fierce, and initially in favour of the Latins, consequently, he sought an alliance with Venices major antagonist, the Republic of Genoa, while he began building up his own navy. With the aid of his newly constructed fleet, in 1263 Palaiologos sent an expedition to the Morea and this led to the abandonment of the Genoese alliance by Michael, who initiated a rapprochement with Venice, leading to a treaty in 1267. With the neutralization of Venice, the threat to imperial interests in the Aegean were the Lombard corsairs based at Negroponte. The island was attacked by the Byzantine fleet under Alexios Philanthropenos. Only from 1273, with the aid of the Latin renegade Licario, did Byzantine forces make headway, in the early 1270s, Michael VIII Palaiologos launched a major campaign against John I Doukas, ruler of Thessaly. It was to be headed by his own brother, the despotes John Palaiologos, to prevent any aid coming to him from the Latin principalities, he also dispatched a fleet of 73 ships, led by Philanthropenos, to harass their coasts. The Byzantine army, however, was defeated at the Battle of Neopatras with the aid of troops from the Duchy of Athens, at the news of this, the Latin lords took heart, and resolved to attack the Byzantine navy, anchored at the port of Demetrias. The opposing fleets numbers are unclear, for the Byzantines, Nikephoros Gregoras writes of over 50 vessels, while the Italian Marino Sanudo mentions 80 imperial ships. The joint Latin fleet, composed of Lombard and Venetian vessels from Negroponte, at any rate, all sources confirm that the Latin fleet was numerically inferior by about a third. Pursuant to their truce with the Byzantines, the Venetians of Negroponte themselves maintained a neutral stance. The Latin fleet caught the Byzantines by surprise, and their attack was so violent that they made good progress. Their ships, on high wooden towers had been erected, had the advantage. Just as victory seemed within the Latins grasp, however, reinforcements arrived led by the despotes John Palaiologos, while retreating from Neopatras, the despotes had learned of the impending battle. Gathering whatever men he could, he rowed forty miles in one night and his arrival boosted the Byzantines morale, and Palaiologoss men, ferried on board the ships by small boats, began to replenish their casualties and turn the tide. The battle continued all day, but by nightfall, all, the Latin casualties were heavy, and included the triarch of Negroponte Guglielmo II da Verona. Many other nobles were captured, including the Venetian Fillippo Sanudo, the victory at Demetrias went a long way to mitigating the disaster of Neopatras for the Byzantines. His achievements were not to last long after his disappearance from history in c, in Euboea, Licarios major gain and personal fief, the Byzantine forts were gradually retaken by the Lombards, until they recovered the entire island by 1296Battle of Demetrias – Map of the Byzantine Empire and the surrounding states in 1265.
6. Battle of Settepozzi – The Battle of Settepozzi was fought sometime in May–July 1263 off Settepozzi between a Genoese-Byzantine fleet and a smaller Venetian fleet. The resulting Venetian victory had important political repercussions, as the Byzantines distanced themselves from their alliance with Genoa, in early July 1261, the Nicaean emperor Michael VIII Palaiologos had allied himself with the Genoese in the Treaty of Nymphaeum. This alliance, whose terms were very advantageous to Genoa, was necessary for the Nicaeans and their aim of successfully recovering Constantinople, the seat of the moribund Latin Empire. The Latin emperors were backed by the naval might of Venice, and without a navy to counter it. In the event, the city was recovered by Alexios Strategopoulos barely a fortnight after the treaty was signed, for a year thereafter, both Venice and Genoa remained rather passive. In summer 1262, the Venetians ordered a 37-galley fleet into the Aegean, which met the Genoese fleet of 60 ships at Thessalonica, but the Genoese refused to engage. A piratical foray, however, by the nobles of Negroponte, allied with Venice, meanwhile, hostilities broke out in the Morea, where Michael VIII dispatched an expeditionary force against the Principality of Achaea. Despite initial successes, Byzantine attempts to conquer the entirety of the principality were decisively defeated at Prinitza, the details of the engagement are not clear. The Genoese Annales Ianuenses claims that when the signal to attack was given, only fourteen Genoese ships advanced, while the rest stood back, the Venetian chronicler Canale, however, records that the Venetian ships attacked first, while the Genoese were trying to ambush them. Canale claimed 1,000 Genoese losses as compared to 420 Venetian casualties, as a sign of his dissatisfaction, soon after the battle Michael VIII dismissed sixty Genoese ships from his service. Michael signed a treaty with the Venetians on June 18,1265, but it was not ratified by the DogeBattle of Settepozzi – Map of the Byzantine Empire and the surrounding states in 1265