Category:Netherlandish Baroque art
This category has the following 2 subcategories, out of 2 total.
This category has the following 2 subcategories, out of 2 total.
1. Dutch Baroque architecture – Like contemporary developments in England, Dutch Palladianism is marked by sobriety and restraint. The architecture of the first republic in Northern Europe was meant to reflect democratic values by quoting extensively from classical antiquity. Brought together in a coherent combination, these stylistic developments anticipated Wren's Classicism. The most ambitious constructions of the period included the seats of self-government in Amsterdam and Maastricht, designed by Campen and Post, respectively. On the other hand, the residences of the House of Orange are closer to a typical burgher mansion than to a royal palace. Two of these, Huis ten Bosch and Mauritshuis, are symmetrical blocks with large windows, stripped of ostentatious Baroque flourishes. The austerely effect is achieved without great cost or pretentious effects at the stadholder's summer residence of Het Loo. The Dutch Republic was one of the great powers of 17th-century Europe and its influence on European architecture was by no means negligible. Dutch architects were employed on important projects in Northern Germany, Scandinavia and Russia, disseminating their ideas in those countries. Jakob Rosenberg, Seymour Slive, E.H. ter Kuile, Dutch Art and Architecture, 1600 to 1800, 3rd ed..Dutch Baroque architecture – Royal Palace (Amsterdam): Jacob van Campen, 1646.
2. Dutch Golden Age painting – The new Dutch Republic led art. Most work, including that for which the period is best known, reflects the traditions of detailed realism inherited from Early Netherlandish painting. A distinctive feature of the period, compared to earlier European painting, was the small amount of religious painting. Dutch Calvinism forbade religious painting in churches, though biblical subjects were acceptable in private homes, relatively few were produced. The development of many of these types of painting was decisively influenced by 17th-century Dutch artists. However this was the hardest to sell, as even Rembrandt found. Many were forced to produce portraits or genre scenes, which sold much more easily. In descending order of status the categories in the hierarchy were: painting, including religious subjects. Most paintings were relatively small – the only common type of really large paintings were group portraits. Painting directly onto walls hardly existed; when a wall-space in a public building needed decorating fitted framed canvas was normally used. Painted delftware tiles were very cheap and common, if rarely of really high quality, but silver, especially in the auricular style, led Europe. With this exception, the best artistic efforts were concentrated on painting and printmaking. In particular the French invasion of 1672, brought a severe depression to the art market, which never quite returned to earlier heights. The distribution of pictures was very wide: "yea many tymes, blacksmithes, cobblers etts. will have some picture or other by their Forge and in their stalle. Such is the generall Notion, enclination and delight that these Countrie Native have to Painting" reported an English traveller in 1640.Dutch Golden Age painting – Johannes Vermeer, The Milkmaid (1658–1660)
3. Flemish Baroque painting – Flemish Baroque painting refers to the art produced in the Southern Netherlands during Spanish control in the 16th and 17th centuries. Rubens, in particular, had a strong influence on seventeenth-century visual culture. By the seventeenth century, however, Antwerp was the main city for innovative artistic production, largely due to the presence of Rubens. Brussels was important as the location of the court, attracting David Teniers the Younger later in the century. Between the 17th century they made many new altarpieces to replace those destroyed during the iconoclastic outbreaks of 1566. Also during this time Frans Francken the Younger and Jan Brueghel the Elder became important for their small cabinet paintings, often depicting mythological and history subjects. Most artists active in the city during the first half of the 17th century were directly influenced by Rubens. Frans Snyders, for example, was Jan Brueghel the Elder was admired for his paintings of plants. Both artists worked with Rubens, who often usually painted the figures, other artists to create collaborative pieces. In Antwerp, however, this new genre also developed into a specifically Catholic type of painting, the flower garland. Painting, which includes biblical, historical subjects, was considered by seventeenth-century theoreticians as the most noble art. Abraham Janssens was an important painter in Antwerp between 1620, although after 1609 Rubens was the leading figure. Both Van Dyck and Jacob Jordaens were active painting monumental history scenes. Following Rubens's death, Jordaens became the most important Flemish painter. During the second half of the century, history painters combined a local influence from Rubens with knowledge of classicism and Italian Baroque qualities.Flemish Baroque painting – Peter Paul Rubens, The Raising of the Cross, c. 1610–1611
5. Rubenesque – Sir Peter Paul Rubens was a Flemish Baroque painter. He was a prolific artist. The catalogue of his works by Michael Jaffé lists 1,403 pieces, excluding numerous copies made in his workshop. His commissioned works were mostly hunt scenes. Rubens painted portraits, especially of friends, in later life painted several landscapes. He designed prints, as well as his own house. Rubens also oversaw the ephemeral decorations of the royal entry by the Cardinal-Infante Ferdinand in 1635. His drawings are extremely forceful but not overly detailed. Rubens also made great use of oil sketches as preparatory studies. For altarpieces Rubens sometimes painted on slate to reduce reflection problems. He was born to Jan Rubens and Maria Pypelincks. Following Jan Rubens' imprisonment for the affair, Peter Paul Rubens was born in 1577. The family returned to Cologne the next year. Two years after his father's death, he moved with his mother Maria Pypelincks to Antwerp, where he was raised as a Catholic. Rubens later became one of the leading voices of the Catholic Counter-Reformation style of painting.Rubenesque – Self-portrait, 1623, Royal Collection