Category:Piazzas in Rome
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Pages in category "Piazzas in Rome"
The following 28 pages are in this category, out of 28 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Squares in Rome.|
The following 28 pages are in this category, out of 28 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Keyhole Markup Language – Keyhole Markup Language is an XML notation for expressing geographic annotation and visualization within Internet-based, two-dimensional maps and three-dimensional Earth browsers. KML was developed with Google Earth, originally named Keyhole Earth Viewer. It was created by Keyhole, Inc, acquired in 2004. KML became an international standard of the Open Geospatial Consortium in 2008. Google Earth was the first program able to graphically edit KML files. Other projects such as Marble have also started to develop KML support. Each place always has a latitude. Other data can make the view more specific, such as tilt, heading, altitude, which together define a "view" along with a timestamp or timespan. KML shares some of the structural grammar as GML. Some KML information cannot be viewed in Google Maps or Mobile. KML files are often distributed in KMZ files, which are zipped KML files with a.kmz extension. These must be legacy compression compatible, otherwise file might not uncompress in all geobrowsers. The KML document by convention is a file named "doc.kml" at the root directory level, the file loaded upon opening. Referenced files are in subdirectories. An example KML document is: The MIME type associated with KML is application/vnd.google-earth.kml+xml; the MIME type associated with KMZ is application/vnd.google-earth.kmz.Keyhole Markup Language – Keyhole Markup Language
2. GPS eXchange Format – GPX, or GPS Exchange Format, is an XML schema designed as a common GPS data format for software applications. It can be used to describe waypoints, routes. The format can be used without the need to pay license fees. Location data can be interchanged between GPS devices and software. Common software applications for the data include viewing tracks projected onto various map sources, geotagging photographs based on the time they were taken. These are the essential data contained in GPX files. Ellipsis means that the previous element can be repeated. Additional data is not shown here: wptType is an individual waypoint among a collection of points with no sequential relationship. It consists of the WGS 84 coordinates of possibly other descriptive information. TrkType is a track, made of at least one segment containing waypoints, an ordered list of points describing a path. A Track Segment holds a list of Track Points which are logically connected in order. RteType is an ordered list of routepoint leading to a destination. Conceptually, tracks are a record of where a person has been, routes are suggestions about where they might go in the future. Technically: a track is made of a sufficient number of trackpoints to precisely draw every bend of a path on a bitmap. The routepoints may be as distant as stopover towns, such as those making a trip project.GPS eXchange Format – Waypoints, routes and tracks recorded by GPS receivers.
3. Piazza – A town square is an open public space commonly found in the heart of a traditional town used for community gatherings. Other names for square are civic center, city square, urban square, market square, public square, piazza, plaza, town green. Most town squares are hardscapes suitable for open markets, music concerts, other events that require firm ground. Being centrally located, town squares are usually surrounded by small shops such as bakeries, meat markets, clothing stores. At their center is often a fountain, well, monument, or statue. Many of those with fountains are actually called square. In urban planning, urban square is a planned open area in a city, usually or originally rectangular in shape. Red Square in Moscow later became the stage for Soviet military parades and May Day demonstrations. Similarly, Beijing's Tiananmen Square was the scene of anti-government protests. John-F.-Kennedy-Platz was the site of the West Berlin town hall and John F. Kennedy's famous Ich bin ein Berliner speech. Trafalgar Square in London does the same for the United Kingdom. Saint Peter's Square in the papal enclave within Rome, Italy. Yonge-Dundas Square in Toronto is a famous square in Canada. Nathan Phillips Square is a popular square in front of Toronto's landmark City Hall. Hviezdoslavovo námestie is one of a centre of a social life.Piazza – Piazza della Signoria, in Florence, Italy, a historic example of a traditional public square
4. Rome – Rome is a city and special comune in Italy. Rome is the capital of Italy and of the Lazio region. The Metropolitan City of Rome has a population of million residents. The city is located in the central-western portion of the Italian Peninsula, along the shores of Tiber river. Rome's history spans a half thousand years. The city's early population originated from a mix of Latins, Etruscans and Sabines. Rome is also called the "Caput Mundi". Due to that, Rome became first one of the major centres of the Italian Renaissance, then the birthplace of both Neoclassicism. Famous artists, painters, architects made Rome the centre of their activity, creating masterpieces throughout the city. In 1871 Rome became the capital of the Kingdom of Italy, in 1946 that of the Italian Republic. Rome has the status of a global city. Rome ranked as the 14th-most-visited city in the world, 3rd most visited in the European Union, the most popular tourist attraction in Italy. Its historic centre is listed as a World Heritage Site. Rome is the seat of United Nations' Food and Agriculture Organization. However, it is a possibility that the name Romulus was actually derived from Rome itself.Rome
5. Italy – Italy, officially the Italian Republic, is a unitary parliamentary republic in Europe. Located in the heart of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with Vatican City. With million inhabitants, it is the fourth most populous EU member state. Rome ultimately emerged as the dominant power, becoming the leading cultural, political, religious centre of Western civilisation. The legacy of the Roman Empire can be observed in the global distribution of civilian law, republican governments, Christianity and the Latin script. Italian culture flourished at this time, producing famous scholars, polymaths such as Leonardo da Vinci, Galileo, Michelangelo, Machiavelli. However, the southern areas of the country remained largely excluded from industrialisation, fuelling a large and influential diaspora. Italy has eighth largest economy in the world. It enjoys the highest life expectancy in the EU. The corpus of the solutions proposed by historians and linguists is very wide. Greek historian Dionysius of Halicarnassus states this account together with the legend that Italy was named after Italus, mentioned also by Aristotle and Thucydides. But by his time the name also applied to most of Lucania as well. Excavations throughout Italy revealed a Neanderthal presence dating back to the Palaeolithic period, some 200,000 years ago, modern Humans arrived about 40,000 years ago. Other Italian peoples of undetermined language families but of possible non-Indo-European origins include the Rhaetian people and Cammuni, known for their rock carvings. Also the Phoenicians established colonies on the coasts of Sardinia and Sicily.Italy – The Colosseum in Rome, built c. 70 – 80 AD, is considered one of the greatest works of architecture and engineering of ancient history.
6. List of obelisks in Rome – The city of Rome harbours the most obelisks in the world. On site, large Roman cranes were employed to erect the monoliths. At least eight obelisks created by the Egyptians were taken from Egypt after the Roman conquest and brought to Rome. There was also an Ethiopian obelisk in the Obelisk of Axum, 24 m, placed in the Piazza di Porta Capena. It had been taken from Axum during the Italian occupation of Ethiopia in 1937. It was struck by lightning in May 2002. After being restored, it was returned to Ethiopia in April 2005. There are five modern obelisks in Rome: Villa Medici, 19th century copy of the original, found in the gardens and taken to Florence. 92 panels in white marble contain illustrations of Marconi's allegorical scenes.List of obelisks in Rome – Re-erection of the Vatican Obelisk by the Renaissance architect Domenico Fontana in 1586
8. Piazza d'Aracoeli – Piazza d'Aracoeli is a square of Rome, placed at the base of the Capitoline Hill, in the Rione X Campitelli. The market served not just as a stage for politic debates and religious omilies as well. Here in 1442 the words of St. Bernardino of Siena against usury resounded. Here in 1713 Rosa Venerini opened the first Roman house of the first women's public school in Italy. , because of the blunt tip, where the main entrance is, it has six façades. The big door of the main entrance is decorated with a scroll bearing the saltire mauls of the Mutis coat of arms and lion heads. Archeological investigations located ancient Roman walls in the cellars of the palace. Palazzo Fani, now Pecci-Blunt The three-floors palace overlooks Piazza d’Aracoeli. Noble, it is decorated by a frieze with floral decoration running under the ledge. In the second half of 16th century noble Roman citizen hailing from Tuscania, commissioned to Giacomo della Porta the renewal of the palace. At the end of 16th century the palace was rented out to primates. At the beginning of the 18th century the palace passed finally to the Pecci Blunt counts. The building now is also used by the present owners, the Valsecchi Nesbitts, as a location for high-society and cultural events. The left corner of the palace was cut during the opening of Via del Teatro di Marcello. In 1800 the steps were replaced by little columns.Piazza d'Aracoeli – Piazza d'Aracoeli
9. Piazza Barberini – Piazza Barberini is a large piazza in the centro storico or city center of Rome, Italy and situated on the Quirinal Hill. Many of the surrounding buildings have subsequently been rebuilt. However, its appearance is known from early photographs of the piazza. At the centre of the piazza is the Fontana del Tritone or Triton Fountain sculpted by Bernini. Until the 18th century, human corpses were displayed here for public identification. Between 1822 an antique obelisk stood here; it was transferred to Villa Medici.. . Piazza Barberini with a lot of pictures Roma Segreta: "Piazza Barberini"Piazza Barberini – Piazza Barberini, painted by Ettore Roesler Franz around 1880, featuring the Triton Fountain
10. Piazza Borghese – Piazza Borghese is one of the squares in the historic centre of Rome, in the rione Campo Marzio. The square lies in an area owned for centuries by the House of Borghese. It is delimited at south-west. The Borgheses settled in the 16th century. Under cardinal Scipione Borghese, they expanded into the area between Via di Ripetta and the church of Saint Jerome of the Croats. The square was a private space adjacent to the family's palace until the 19th century. Museum of the Ara Pacis Church of Saint Jerome of the CroatsPiazza Borghese – Piazza Borghese. In front, the seat of the Architecture Department; on the left, Palazzo Borghese.
11. Campo de' Fiori – Campo de' Fiori is a rectangular square south of Piazza Navona in Rome, Italy, at the border between rione Parione and rione Regola. It is one block northeast of the Palazzo Farnese. Campo de' Fiori, translated literally from Italian, means "field of flowers". The name dates to the Middle Ages when the area was a meadow. In Ancient Rome the area was unused space between the flood-prone Tiber. Though the Orsini established themselves in the 13th century, until the 15th century the square remained undeveloped. In 1456 under Pope Callixtus III, Ludovico Cardinal Trevisani paved the area as part of a large project to improve rione Parione. The Renaissance Palazzo della Cancelleria can be seen in Vasi's etching, rising majestically beyond the far right corner of the square. Campo de' Fiori has never been architecturally formalized. The most famous of them, the Taverna della Vacca still stands at the southwest corner of the square, at the begin of Via de' Cappellari. It belonged to the most famous lover of Alexander VI Borgia, whose family seal is still on display on the house facade. Executions used to be held publicly in Campo de' Fiori. The inscription on the base reads: A BRUNO - IL SECOLO DA LUI DIVINATO - QUI DOVE IL ROGO ARSE. The body of scientist Marco Antonio de Dominis was also burned in this square in 1624. The ancient cattle fountain known as la Terrina was replaced with a copy that now is used to keep cut flowers fresh.Campo de' Fiori – The monument to philosopher Giordano Bruno at the centre of the square.
12. Capitoline Hill – The Capitoline Hill, between the Forum and the Campus Martius, is one of the Seven Hills of Rome. It was the citadel of the earliest Romans. The name capitol seems to have meant "dominant height", although ancient tradition places its origin in caput. By the 16th century, Capitolinus had become Capitolino with the alternative Campidoglio stemming from one of the three major spurs of the Capitolinus. The English word capitol derives from Capitoline. Capitol Hill in Washington, D.C. is widely assumed to be named after the Capitoline Hill, but the causation is not crystal clear. At this hill, the Sabines, creeping to the Citadel, were let in by the Roman maiden Tarpeia. For this treachery, Tarpeia was the first to be punished by being flung from a steep cliff overlooking the Roman Forum. This cliff became a frequent site. The Sabines, who immigrated to Rome following the Rape of the Sabine Women, settled on the Capitoline. It was considered one of the largest and the most beautiful temples in the city. The legend starts with the recovery of a human skull when foundation trenches were being dug at Tarquin's order. Recent excavations on the Capitoline uncovered an early cemetery under the Temple of Jupiter. There are several important temples built on Capitoline hill: the Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus Capitolinus. The Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus Capitolinus is the most important of the temples.Capitoline Hill – The Capitoline Hill cordonata (centre of picture) leading from Via del Teatro di Marcello to Piazza del Campidoglio.
13. Capitoline Museums – The museums are owned and operated by the municipality of Rome. The statue of a mounted rider in the centre of the piazza is of Emperor Marcus Aurelius. It is a copy, the original being housed on-site in the Capitoline museum. This section contains collections sorted by building, brief information on the buildings themselves. For the history of their design and construction, see Capitoline Hill#Michelangelo. The Capitoline Museums are interlinked beneath the piazza. The collections here are ancient sculpture, also Egyptian. The Conservator's Apartment is distinguished by interior decorations, including frescoes, stuccos, carved ceilings and doors. The third floor of the Palazzo dei Conservatori houses the Capitoline Art Gallery, housing the museums' painting and applied art galleries. The Capitoline Coin Cabinet, containing collections of jewels, jewelry, is located in the attached Palazzo Caffarelli-Clementino. Statues, inscriptions, sarcophagi, other ancient Roman artifacts occupy two floors of the Palazzo Nuovo. The gallery was constructed in the 1930s. It contains in situ 2nd century ruins of ancient Roman dwellings, also houses the Galleria Lapidaria, which displays the Museums' collection of epigraphs. The design is by the architect Carlo Aymonino. Its volume recalls that of the oval space designed by Michelangelo for the piazza.Capitoline Museums – Michelangelo 's design for Capitoline Hill, now home to the Capitoline Museums. Engraved by Étienne Dupérac, 1568.
14. Piazza Colonna – Piazza Colonna is a piazza at the center of the Rione of Colonna in the historic heart of Rome, Italy. It is named for the Column of Marcus Aurelius, which has stood there since AD 193. The statue of Saint Paul that crowns the column was placed in 1589, by order of Pope Sixtus V. The Roman Via Lata runs from south to north. The piazza is rectangular. Its side is taken up by Palazzo Chigi, formerly the Austria-Hungary's embassy, but is now a seat of the Italian government. The side is taken up by Palazzo Wedekind with a colonnade of Roman columns taken from Veii. The piazza has been a open space since Antiquity; the temple of Marcus Aurelius stood on the site of Palazzo Wedekind. The fountain in the piazza was commissioned by Pope Gregory XIII from Giacomo Della Porta, assisted by Rocco De Rossi. The central sculpture was then substituted with spray.Piazza Colonna – The Column of Marcus Aurelius in the square, with the Palazzo Chigi to the left.
15. Cortile del Belvedere – Innocent VIII began construction of the Villa Belvedere on the high ground overlooking old St Peter's Basilica, in 1484. This suburbana was the first pleasure house to be built in Rome since Antiquity. Soon after its discovery, Julius brought it here by 1506. Julius commissioned Bramante to link the Vatican Palace with the Villa Belvedere. A series of six narrow terraces at the base was traversed by a central stair leading to the wide middle terrace. His corridor-like wings that enclose the Cortile now house the Vatican Museums collections. One of the wings accommodated the Vatican Library. The wings have three storeys in end in a single one enclosing the uppermost terrace. The visual scenography culminated in the semicircular exedra at the Villa Belvedere end of the court. The perpectivised ensemble was designed to be best seen from Raphael's Stanze in the papal apartments of the palace. Shortly after, the court was home to the papal menagerie. It was on the lower part of the courtyard that Pope Leo X would parade his prized elephant Hanno for adoring crowds to see. Because of the pachyderm's glorious history he was buried in the Cortile del Belvedere. The court was incomplete when Bramante died in 1514. It was finished by Pirro Ligorio for Pius IV in 1562–65.Cortile del Belvedere – A carousel in the Cortile del Belvedere, 1565: Étienne du Perac has exaggerated the vertical dimensions, but Bramante's sequence of monumental axially-planned stairs are visible.
17. Piazza della Minerva – Piazza della Minerva is a piazza in Rome, Italy, near the Pantheon. A convent of the Dominicans, who held the nearby church from the 13th century. From the 17th century, it housed the trial and recantation of Galileo Galilei. The cloister now holds the library of the Italian Senate, dedicated to Giovanni Spadolini. At the centre of the piazza, backing onto the Inquisition convent, is the 1667 Obelisk by Bernini. This obelisk came from the Iseum. Opposite the church is the Palazzo dell ` accademia 14th century in origin but completely rebuilt in 1878. It is an academy that trains the diplomats of Vatican City. Piazza del Gesù "Roma segreta"Piazza della Minerva – Piazza della Minerva towards the Pantheon
19. Obelisk of Montecitorio – The Obelisk of Montecitorio, also known as Solare, is an ancient Egyptian, red granite obelisk of Psammetichus II from Heliopolis. 33.97 metres including the base and the globe. Augustus erected it in the Campus Martius. A detailed description that gives the typology, appearance and formal operating procedure of this imposing solar meridian is supplied from Pliny the Elder. The inscription written on two sides of the obelisk's base runs as follows: Imp. Caesar divi fil. / Augustus / pontifex maximus / imp. XII cos XI trib pot XIV / Aegypto in potestatem / populi romani redacta / soli donum dedit. However, according to Pliny, the original horologic stopped working 30 years after its construction. Between the 9th and 11th centuries, probably because of fire, earthquake or war, then, progressively, became buried. Another fragment was hypothesized to be contained in the foundation of the Church of San Lorenzo in Lucina. From 1789 to 1792, Pope Pius VI carried out intensive works to repair the obelisk, later restored as a solar clock. The direction of the work was entrusted to the architect Giovanni Antinori, who restored the obelisk using granite from the Column of Antoninus Pius. Unfortunately, its gnomonic function is definitively lost. Obelisks in Rome Franco Zagari, Piazza Montecitorio. Progetto di riqualificazione Roma 1998.Obelisk of Montecitorio – The obelisk in a print by Giuseppe Vasi of 1738
20. Piazza Navona – Piazza Navona is a piazza in Rome, Italy. Hence it was known as "Circus Agonalis". It is eventually to navona. Piazza Navona has two other fountains. During its history, the piazza has hosted other ephemeral activities. Until 1866 when the festival was suppressed, it was flooded on every Saturday and Sunday in August in elaborate celebrations of the Pamphilj family. In 1869 the market was moved to the nearby Campo de' Fiori. A Christmas market is held in the piazza. During June 2008, Ron Howard directed several scenes of the adaptation of Angels & Demons on the southern section of the piazza. The piazza is featured in several scenes of Joseph Heller's novel, Catch-22. The Fontana dei Quattro Fiumi was used in the 1990 film Coins in the Fountain. The characters threw coins into the fountain as they made wishes. The Trevi Fountain was used in the 1954 version of the film. The piazza is featured in Eugene Levy's "Once Upon A Crime" film. In the early hours of 3 September 2011, the Fontana del Moro was damaged by a vandal.Piazza Navona – Piazza Navona 2013
21. Piazza della Rotonda – The Piazza della Rotonda is a piazza in Rome, Italy, on the south side of, located the Pantheon. The square gets its name from the Pantheon's informal title as the church of Santa Maria Rotonda. The piazza was laid out and paved. An 1879 Baedeker guidebook noted that the "busy scene" of the piazza "affords the stranger opportunities of observing the characteristics of the peasantry." In the center of the piazza is a fountain, the Fontana del Pantheon, surmounted by an Egyptian obelisk. It was consecrated in 1453 as the Acqua Vergine. Leonardo Sormani executed it. Due to the slope of the piazza, the fountain is approached on the north. An engraving by Giovanni Battista Falda records the work, completed in 1667. It was rediscovered underneath the apse of the nearby Basilica of Santa Maria sopra Minerva. It is still called the Obelisco Macutèo after its previous location. List of fountains in Rome List of obelisks in RomePiazza della Rotonda – Piazza della Rotonda seen from the north, showing the Pantheon and fountain with obelisk.
22. Piazza del Popolo – Piazza del Popolo is a large urban square in Rome. The piazza now called the Porta del Popolo. This was the starting point of the Via Flaminia, the most important route to the north. Before the age of railroads, it was the traveller's first view of Rome upon arrival. For centuries, the Piazza del Popolo was a place for public executions, the last of which took place in 1826. An Egyptian obelisk of Sety I from Heliopolis stands in the centre of the Piazza. Three sides of the obelisk were carved under Rameses II. The obelisk, known as the Popolo Obelisk, is the second oldest and one of the tallest obelisks in Rome. The obelisk was brought by order of Augustus and originally set up in the Circus Maximus. It was re-erected here in the piazza as part of the urban plan of Sixtus V. The Via del Babuino, linking to Piazza di Spagna, takes its name from a grotesque sculpture of Silenus that gained the popular name of "the Baboon". To the north of the piazza stands the Porta del Popolo, beyond which lies the Piazzale Flaminio and the start of the Via Flaminia. Opposite Santa Maria del Popolo stands a Carabinieri station, with a dome reflecting that of the church. Valadier outlined this newly defined oval forecourt with identical sweeps of wall forming curving exedra-like spaces. Behind the western one, a screen of trees masks the unassorted fronts of buildings beyond.Piazza del Popolo – The Piazza del Popolo, looking west from the Pincio.
23. Quirinal Hill – The Quirinal Hill is one of the Seven Hills of Rome, at the north-east of the city center. The Quirinal Palace has an extension of 1.2 million square feet. It was originally part of a group of hills that included Collis Latiaris, Mucialis, Salutaris. These are now lost due to building in the 16th century and later. These Sabines had erected altars in the honour of their god Quirinus. Some authors consider it possible that the cult of the Capitoline Triad could have been celebrated here well before it became associated with the Capitoline Hill. The sanctuary of Flora, an Osco-Sabine goddess, was here too. Augustus, too, ordered the building of a temple, dedicated to Mars. On a slope of the Quirinal were the extensive gardens of Sallust. On the Quirinal Hill Constantine ordered the erection of his baths, the last thermae complex erected in imperial Rome. These are now lost, having been incorporated into Renaissance Rome, with only some drawings from the 16th century remaining. In the same palazzo were also the two statues of river gods that Michelangelo moved to the steps of Palazzo Senatorio on the Capitoline Hill. According to the political division of the center of Rome, the Hill belongs to the rione Trevi. The healthy cool air of the Quirinal Hill attracted aristocrats and papal families that built villas where the gardens of Sallust had been in antiquity. Gardens were conceived by Maderno.Quirinal Hill – Piazza del Quirinale panorama
24. Piazza della Repubblica, Rome – Piazza della Repubblica is a semi-circular piazza in Rome, at the summit of the Viminal Hill, next to the Termini station. On it is to be found Santa Maria degli Angeli e dei Martiri. It is served by the Repubblica – Teatro dell'Opera Metro station. From the square starts one of the main streets of Rome, Via Nazionale. The fountain in this square was originally the fountain of the Acqua Pia, commissioned this site by Pope Pius IX in 1870. Completed in 1888, it originally showed four chalk lions designed by Alessandro Guerrieri. The naiads represented are the Nymph of the Lakes, the Nymph of the Rivers, the Nymph of the Underground Waters. In the centre is Rutelli's Glauco group, symbolizing the dominion of the man over natural force and replacing a previous sculpture.Piazza della Repubblica, Rome – Aerial view of the Piazza
26. Piazza di Spagna – Piazza di Spagna, at the bottom of the Spanish Steps, is one of the most famous squares in Rome. It owes its name to the Palazzo di Spagna, seat of the Embassy of Spain among the Holy See. Nearby is the famed Column of the Immaculate Conception of the Blessed Virgin Mary. At the left corner there is the Babington's room, founded in 1893. The side near Via Frattina is overlooked by the two façades of a property of the Holy See. The final key was the one proposed by Francesco De Sanctis: a great staircase decorated with many garden-terraces, splendidly adorned with flowers in summer. In effect, the creation of deep perspectives culminating in monumental wings or backdrops was typical of the great baroque architecture. The Spanish Steps were restored in 1995. Detailed information and 19th-century photographs and etchings by Giuseppe Vasi The Spanish Steps - 360° Panorama Photo gallery Piazza di Spagna on Secret RomePiazza di Spagna – Piazza di Spagna viewed from the Spanish Steps
27. Spanish Steps – The stairway was designed by architects Francesco de Sanctis and Alessandro Specchi. Generations of heated discussion over how the steep slope to the church on a shoulder of the Pincio should be urbanised preceded the final execution. Archival drawings from the 1580s show that Pope Gregory XIII was interested in constructing a stair to the recently completed façade of the French church. Gaspar van Wittel's view of the wooded slope in 1683, before the Scalinata was built, is conserved in the Galleria Nazionale, Rome. Innocent XIII's crown are carefully balanced in the sculptural details. The solution is a gigantic inflation of some conventions of terraced garden stairs. The Spanish Steps, which Joseph de Lalande and Charles de Brosses noted were already in poor condition, have been restored several times, most recently in 1995. A new renovation has commenced on May 30, 2016 and the steps are currently closed. It will reopen on September 21, 2016. The elder Bernini had been the pope's architect for the Acqua Vergine, since 1623. At the top the stairway ramp up the Pincio, the Pincian Hill. From the top of the steps the Villa Medici can be reached. During Christmas time a 19th-century criba manger is displayed on the first landing of the staircase. In modern times the Spanish Steps have included a small cut-flower market. The steps are not a place for eating lunch, being forbidden by Roman urban regulations, but they are usually crowded with people.Spanish Steps – The Spanish Steps, seen from Piazza di Spagna. In foreground, the Fontana della Barcaccia
28. St. Peter's Square – At the centre of the square is an Egyptian obelisk, erected at the current site in 1586. A fountain constructed by Bernini in 1675 matches another fountain designed by Carlo Maderno in 1613. There were many constraints from existing structures. The colossal Tuscan colonnades, four columns deep, frame the trapezoidal entrance to the massive elliptical area which precedes it. The colonnades define the piazza. The elliptical center of the piazza, which contrasts with the trapezoidal entrance, encloses the visitor with "the maternal arms of Mother Church" in Bernini's expression. On the south side, the colonnades formalize the space, with the Barberini Gardens still rising to a skyline of umbrella pines. On the side, the colonnade masks an assortment of Vatican structures; the upper stories of the Vatican Palace rise above. The obelisk was originally erected at Heliopolis, Egypt, by an unknown pharaoh. The Vatican Obelisk is the only obelisk in Rome that has not toppled since ancient Roman times. During the Middle Ages, the gilt ball on top of the obelisk was believed to contain the ashes of Julius Caesar. Fontana later removed the ancient ball, now in a Rome museum, that stood atop the obelisk and found only dust. Christopher Hibbert writes that the ball was found to be solid. The paving is varied by radiating lines in travertine, to relieve what might otherwise be a sea of cobblestones. Below is a view of St. Peter's Square from the cupola, taken in 2007.St. Peter's Square – St. Peter's Square, Vatican City
29. Piazza Venezia – Piazza Venezia is the central hub of Rome, Italy, in which several thoroughfares intersect, including the Via dei Fori Imperiali and the Via del Corso. It takes its name from the Palazzo Venezia, built by the Venetian Cardinal, the patron saint of Venice. The Palazzo Venezia served in Rome. The square is at the foot of the Capitoline Hill and next to Trajan's Forum. The Viale di Fori Imperiali begins there and leads past the Roman Forum to the Colosseum.Piazza Venezia – Piazza Venezia, with Trajan's Column, as seen from the Victor Emmanuel II monument.
30. Piazza Vittorio Emanuele II (Rome) – Piazza Vittorio Emanuele II, also known as Piazza Vittorio, is a piazza in Rome, in the Esquilino rione. It is served by the Vittorio Emanuele Metro station. Surrounded in the 19th-century style, the piazza was built by Gaetano Koch shortly after the unification of Italy. Umbertine in style, it is the largest piazza in Rome. List of city squares by sizePiazza Vittorio Emanuele II (Rome) – Remains of the fountain, called the Trofei di mario (Trophy of Marius)