Category:Roman Catholic Church painters
Pages in category "Roman Catholic Church painters"
The following 35 pages are in this category, out of 35 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 35 pages are in this category, out of 35 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Cherubino Alberti – Cherubino Alberti, also called Borghegiano, was an Italian engraver and painter. He is most often remembered for the Roman frescoes completed with his brother Giovanni Alberti during the papacy of Clement VIII and he was most prolific as an engraver of copper plates. Alberti was born in 1553 in Borgo San Sepolcro, Tuscany and he was the second son of Alberto Alberti, a carver and sculptor, and his brothers Alessandro Alberti and Giovanni Alberti were artists as well. Alberti studied in Rome under Cornelius Cort and worked as an engraver and his early influences included Raphael and contemporary Mannerist art. Between 1571 and 1575 he made engravings after works of Federico, over the next ten years his engravings included works after Raphael, Michelangelo, Polidoro da Caravaggio, Andrea del Sarto, Rosso Fiorentino, Marco Pino, Pellegrino Tibaldi, and Cristofano Gherardi. He also produced based on ancient statues. Later in life Alberti decorated palaces and churches with paintings in fresco and his most famous work was the fresco decoration of Sala Clementina in the Vatican, which he completed with his brother Giovanni. He painted for the church of Santa Maria in Via Lata and he may have been first a pupil of Cornelis Cort, and afterwards by studying the works of Agostino Carracci and Francesco Villamena. At his death in Rome Alberti was Director of the Academy of Saint Luke, over 180 engravings are attributed to Alberti, including, Portrait of Pope Gregory XIII. St. Susannah resting against a pedestal, with a sword St. Jerome, meditating on the Crucifix The Crucifixion, after Michelangelo St. The Death of the Children of Niobe, in five sheets Rape of the Sabines, after another frieze from Polidoro da Caravaggio The Triumph of Camillus, the Presentation at the Temple, The Resurrection, and the The Holy Family after Raphael. A piece of architecture, after the same, in two prints, the Baptism of our Saviour, by St. John and The Miracle of St. Philip Benizzo after Andrea del Sarto. Tobit and the Angel, after Pellegrino Tibaldi Christ praying in the Garden, the Adoration of the Shepherds, The Holy Family, The Scourging of Christ, Conversion of St. Paul, and Assumption of the Virgin, after Taddeo Zuccari. Assumption and The Coronation of the Virgin, after Federico Zuccari, Dictionary of Painters and Engravers, Biographical and Critical. York St. #4, Covent Garden, London, Original from Fogg Library, Digitized May 18,2007, George Bell, Painters and their Works, A Dictionary of Great Artists who are Not Now Alive. Notices of Engravers and their Works, London, Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown & Green. Firenze, Grafica European Center of Fine ArtsCherubino Alberti – Portrait of Cherubini Alberti by Carlo Lasinio (1759-1838)
2. Fra Angelico – Fra Angelico was an Early Italian Renaissance painter described by Vasari in his Lives of the Artists as having a rare and perfect talent. He was known to contemporaries as Fra Giovanni da Fiesole and Fra Giovanni Angelico, in modern Italian he is called il Beato Angelico, the common English name Fra Angelico means the Angelic friar. In 1982 Pope John Paul II proclaimed his beatification in recognition of the holiness of his life and he is listed in the Roman Martyrology as Beatus Ioannes Faesulanus, cognomento Angelicus—Blessed Giovanni of Fiesole, surnamed the Angelic. Fra Angelico was born Guido di Pietro at Rupecanina in the Tuscan area of Mugello near Fiesole towards the end of the 14th century, nothing is known of his parents. He was baptized Guido or Guidolino, the earliest recorded document concerning Fra Angelico dates from October 17,1417 when he joined a religious confraternity or guild at the Carmine Church, still under the name of Guido di Pietro. The first record of Angelico as a friar dates from 1423, Fra, a contraction of frater, is a conventional title for a mendicant friar. According to Vasari, Fra Angelico initially received training as an illuminator, possibly working with his older brother Benedetto who was also a Dominican and an illuminator. The former Dominican convent of San Marco in Florence, now a state museum, the painter Lorenzo Monaco may have contributed to his art training, and the influence of the Sienese school is discernible in his work. He had several important charges in the convents he lived in, but this did not limit his art, according to Vasari, the first paintings of this artist were an altarpiece and a painted screen for the Charterhouse of Florence, none such exist there now. Between 1418 and 1436 he was at the convent of Fiesole, where he executed a number of frescoes for the church and the Altarpiece. A predella of the Altarpiece remains intact and is conserved in the National Gallery, London and it shows Christ in Glory surrounded by more than 250 figures, including beatified Dominicans. In 1436, Fra Angelico was one of a number of the friars from Fiesole who moved to the newly built convent or friary of San Marco in Florence, in 1439 Fra Angelico completed one of his most famous works, the San Marco Altarpiece at Florence. The result was unusual for its time, but in this instance, the saints stand squarely within the space, grouped in a natural way as if they were able to converse about the shared experience of witnessing the Virgin in glory. Paintings such as this, known as Sacred Conversations, were to become the major commissions of Giovanni Bellini, Perugino and Raphael. In 1445 Pope Eugene IV summoned him to Rome to paint the frescoes of the Chapel of the Holy Sacrament at St Peters, later demolished by Pope Paul III. Vasari claims that at this time Fra Angelico was offered the Archbishopric of Florence by Pope Nicholas V, the story seems possible and even likely. However, if Vasaris date is correct, then the pope must have been Eugene IV and not Nicholas, moreover, the Archbishop in 1446–1459 was the Dominican Antoninus of Florence, canonized by Pope Adrian VI in 1523. In 1447 Fra Angelico was in Orvieto with his pupil, Benozzo Gozzoli, among his other pupils were Zanobi StrozziFra Angelico – Detail from Deeds of the Antichrist by Luca Signorelli (c. 1501) in Orvieto Cathedral, Italy
3. Jean Denis Attiret – Jean Denis Attiret was a French Jesuit painter and missionary to China. Attiret was born in Dole, France and he studied art in Rome and made himself a name as a portrait painter. While a Jesuit novice, he did paintings in the Cathedral of Avignon and he went to China in 1737 and was given the title Painter to the Emperor by the Qianlong Emperor. Because the emperor insisted on the use of a Chinese painting methods and styles, most of his works were paintings of natural subjects such as trees, fruit, fish and other animals done on glass or silk. But they also include portraits of members of the family and court. After successful military campaigns in Central Asia, the Qianlong Emperor commissioned depictions of the battles, the work was carried out by four Jesuit artists, among them Attiret. The group produced 16 tableaux, which were engraved in France in 1774,6 years after Attirets death in Beijing, Jesuit China missions Catholic Encyclopedia European Buildings with Chinese Characteristics Jean-Denis Attiret, A Particular Account of the Emperor of Chinas gardens near Pekin,1749Jean Denis Attiret – The 1758 Victory of Khorgos, a 1774 engraving by Jacques-Philippe Le Bas (1707-1783), after Jean-Denis Attiret (1702-1768). Louvre Museum.
4. Fra Bartolomeo – Fra Bartolomeo or Bartolommeo OP, also known as Bartolommeo di Pagholo, Bartolommeo di S. Marco, and his original name Baccio della Porta, was an Italian Renaissance painter of religious subjects. He spent all his career in Florence until his mid-forties, when he travelled to work in various cities, as far south as Rome. He trained with Cosimo Roselli and in the 1490s fell under the influence of Savonarola and he remained friends with Raphael, and they both influenced the other. His portrait of Savonarola remains the most famous image of the reformer, Fra Bartolomeo painted both in oils and fresco, and some of his drawings are pure landscape sketches that are the earliest of this type from Italy. He was born in Savignano di Prato, Tuscany and he received the nickname of Baccio della Porta for his house was near the Gate of San Pier Gattolini. Starting from 1483 or 1484, by recommendation of Benedetto da Maiano and he was one of the greatest painters of his time. In 1490 or 1491 he began a collaboration with Mariotto Albertinelli, in the late 1490s Baccio was drawn to the teachings of Fra Girolamo Savonarola, who denounced what he viewed as vain and corrupt contemporary art. Savonarola argued for art serving as a visual illustration of the Bible to educate those unable to read the book. From 1498 is his famous portrait of Savonarola, now in the Museo Nazionale di San Marco in Florence, the following year he entered the convent of San Marco. He renounced painting for several years, not resuming until 1504 when he became the head of the workshop in obedience to his superior. In that year he began a Vision of St. Bernard for Bernardo Biancos family chapel in the Badia Fiorentina, soon thereafter, Raphael visited Florence and befriended the friar. Bartolomeo learned perspective from the younger artist, while Raphael added skills in coloring and handling of drapery, with Raphael, he remained on the friendliest terms, and when he departed from Rome, left in his hands two unfinished pictures which Raphael completed. As the Dominicans did not pay for the work, he took it back to Lucca, also in Lucca, in the October 1509, he painted by Albertinelli an altarpiece with Madonna and Child with Saints for the local cathedral. On November 26,1510 Pier Soderini commissioned him an altarpiece for the Sala del Consiglio of Florence, two years later he finished another altarpiece for the cathedral of Besançon. After a promised Feast of Venus for Duke Alfonso I dEste of Ferrara, of only drawings remain. He died in Florence in 1517, initially, his works showed the influence of Rossellis assistant, Piero di Cosimo, and those of Domenico Ghirlandaio and Filippino Lippi. After his hiatus from 1500 to 1503, he seemed to change vision, taking from Raphael the representation of light, Fra Bartolomeos figures are generally small and draped. Among his pupils were Cecchino del Frate, Benedetto Ciamfanini, Gabriel Rustici, Ridolfo Ghirlandaio, Fra Bartolommeo di Pagholo, Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th ed. Vol. III, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press,1911, p.124Fra Bartolomeo – Fra Bartolomeo: Christ with the Four Evangelists
5. Sandro Botticelli – Alessandro di Mariano di Vanni Filipepi, known as Sandro Botticelli, was an Italian painter of the Early Renaissance. Botticellis posthumous reputation suffered until the late 19th century, since then, among Botticellis best-known works are The Birth of Venus and Primavera. Botticelli was born in the city of Florence in a house in the Via Nuova, BorgOgnissanti, Vasari reported that Botticelli was initially trained as a goldsmith by his brother Antonio. By 1462 he was apprenticed to Fra Filippo Lippi, many of his works have been attributed to the elder master. Influenced also by the monumentality of Masaccios painting, it was from Lippi that Botticelli learned a more intimate, by 1470, Botticelli had his own workshop. The Adoration of the Magi for Santa Maria Novella, contains the portraits of Cosimo de Medici, his sons Piero and Giovanni, the quality of the scene was hailed by Vasari as one of Botticellis pinnacles. In 1481, Pope Sixtus IV summoned Botticelli and other prominent Florentine, the iconological program was the supremacy of the Papacy. Sandros contribution included the Temptations of Christ, the Punishment of the Rebels, thus Vasari characterized the first printed Dante with Botticellis decorations, he could not imagine that the new art of printing might occupy an artist. Recent scholarship suggests otherwise, the Primavera was painted for Lorenzos townhouse in Florence, by 1499, both had been installed at Castello. In these works, the influence of Gothic realism is tempered by Botticellis study of the antique, but if the painterly means may be understood, the subjects themselves remain fascinating for their ambiguity. The complex meanings of these continue to receive widespread scholarly attention, mainly focusing on the poetry. The works do not illustrate particular texts, rather, each relies upon several texts for its significance, of their beauty, characterized by Vasari as exemplifying grace and by John Ruskin as possessing linear rhythm, there can be no doubt. The pictures feature Botticellis linear style emphasized by the soft continual contours, in 1491 he served on a committee to decide upon a façade for the Cathedral of Florence. For this reason, persisting in his attachment to that party, Botticelli biographer Ernst Steinmann searched for the artists psychological development through his Madonnas. In the deepening of insight and expression in the rendering of Marys physiognomy, Botticelli was already little employed in 1502. In 1504 he was a member of the appointed to decide where Michelangelos David would be placed. After his death, his reputation was eclipsed longer and more thoroughly than that of any other major European artist and his paintings remained in the churches and villas for which they had been created and his frescoes in the Sistine Chapel were upstaged by those of Michelangelo. The English collector William Young Ottley, however, had brought Botticellis The Mystical Nativity to London with him in 1799 after buying it in Italy, the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood incorporated elements of his work into their ownSandro Botticelli – Probable self-portrait of Botticelli, in his Adoration of the Magi (1475)
6. Caravaggio – Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio was an Italian painter active in Rome, Naples, Malta, and Sicily between 1592 and 1610. His paintings, which combine a realistic observation of the human state, in scarcely a year or so’s sojourn in Naples, he rapidly established himself once more as the most prominent painter, exploiting high-ranking connections. It was not long before these connections gave him an opening to travel on in 1607 to Malta, governed by the Order of Knights Hospitallers, Caravaggio probably hoped that the Knights would provide a channel whereby he could obtain a pardon from the Papacy. Once more his talents made an instant impression, along with the support of noble patrons and his hopes dashed, he contrived to escape and flee once, which before the end of 1608 led to his cancellation from the rolls of the Order. He made for Syracuse in Sicily, where he was received as a guest by a friend from his Roman days, the painter’s face was disfigured and rumours started to circulate of his death. Various commentators have formulated opinions about his state from works supposedly executed at this period. In fact, Caravaggio’s end is shrouded in mystery, mystery that is rendered only denser by conflicting hypotheses, some speak of a natural death from a persistent fever, others of an assassination by emissaries of the Knights of Malta. The loss of the paintings put the deal and his future in doubt, there is evidence that dogged by a serious fever, he was tended by a local religious confraternity near Porto Ercole, then in the Grand Duchy of Tuscany, but succumbed. His death was certified by them as taking place on 18 July 1610, if the story to this point is exact, it is likely he was buried in a paupers’ common grave. As to the place, though this continues to be contested. Famous while he lived, Caravaggio was forgotten almost immediately after his death, despite this, his influence on the new Baroque style that eventually emerged from the ruins of Mannerism was profound. The 20th-century art historian André Berne-Joffroy claimed, What begins in the work of Caravaggio is, quite simply, modern painting. Caravaggio was born in Milan where his father, Fermo, was an administrator and architect-decorator to the Marchese of Caravaggio. His mother, Lucia Aratori, came from a family of the same district. In 1576 the family moved to Caravaggio to escape a plague which ravaged Milan, Caravaggios mother died in 1584, the same year he began his four-year apprenticeship to the Milanese painter Simone Peterzano, described in the contract of apprenticeship as a pupil of Titian. Following his initial training under Simone Peterzano, in 1592 Caravaggio left Milan for Rome, in flight after certain quarrels, in Rome, where there was a demand for paintings to fill the many huge new churches and palazzos being built at the time. It was also a period when the Church was searching for an alternative to Mannerism in religious art that was tasked to counter the threat of Protestantism. Caravaggios innovation was a radical naturalism that combined close observation with a dramatic, even theatricalCaravaggio – Chalk portrait of Caravaggio by Ottavio Leoni, circa 1621.
7. Giovanni Battista Gaulli – Giovanni Battista Gaulli, also known as Baciccio or Baciccia, was an Italian artist working in the High Baroque and early Rococo periods. He is best known for his grand illusionistic vault frescos in the Church of the Gesù in Rome and his work was influenced by Gian Lorenzo Bernini. Gaulli was born in Genoa, where his parents died from the plague of 1654 and he initially apprenticed with Luciano Borzone. Painters such as Peter Paul Rubens and Anthony van Dyck stayed in Genoa for a few years, in the 1660s, he experimented with the cooler palette and linear style of Bolognese classicism. He was first noticed by the Genoese merchant of artworks, Pellegrino Peri, Peri introduced him to Gianlorenzo Bernini, who promoted him. He found patrons among the Genoese Giovanni Paolo Oliva, a prominent Jesuit, in 1662, he was accepted into the Roman artists guild, the Accademia di San Luca, where he was to later hold several offices. The next year, he received his first public commission for an altarpiece, in the church of San Rocco and he received many private commissions for mythological and religious works. At his height, Gaulli was one of Romes most esteemed portrait painters, Gaulli is not well known for any other medium but paint, though many drawings in many media have survived. Gaulli died in Rome, shortly after 26 March 1709, probably 2 April and this was not true for the two large Jesuit churches in Rome, which, while rich in marble and stone, remained artistically barren by the mid-17th century. This void would have been evident for Il Gesù with its cavernous blank plaster nave ceiling. Funding and inertia stalled its decoration, in 1661, the election of a new General of the Jesuit order, Gian Paolo Oliva, advanced the decoration. A new inductee into the order, the French Jacques Courtois had become a painter and was the main candidate for its decoration. Oliva wanted his fellow Jesuit for the commission, yet other prominent names such as Maratta, Ferri, ultimately, with Berninis persuasive support and likely strong guidance thereafter, Oliva awarded the prestigious commission to the mere 22-year-old Gaulli. Gaulli decorated the entire dome including lantern and pendentives, central vault, window recesses, the original contract stipulated the dome was to be completed in two years, and the remainder by the end of ten years. If it met the approval of a panel, Gaulli was to be paid 14,000 scudi plus expenses, gaullis main vault fresco was unveiled on Christmas Eve,1679. After this, he continued frescoing of the vaults of the tribune, gaullis program for the nave was likely heavily overseen by Oliva and Bernini, though it is not clear how much all three contributed and whether they all shared the same philosophy. During this time, Bernini supposedly espoused some quietist teachings of the Spanish priest Miguel de Molinos, Molinos proposed that God was accessible internally through an individual experience, while the Jesuits saw the church and clergy as an essential intermediary for access to Christs salvation. Ultimately, just as Bernini approved of the fresco and plaster in this new plastic conceptionGiovanni Battista Gaulli – Self-portrait, c. 1667
8. Geertgen tot Sint Jans – No contemporary documentation of his life has been traced, and the earliest published account of his life and work is from 1604, in Karel van Manders Schilder-boeck. According to van Mander, Geertgen was probably a pupil of Albert van Ouwater, both painters lived in the city of Haarlem, where Geertgen was attached to the house of the Knights of Saint John, perhaps as a lay brother, for whom he painted an altarpiece. In van Manders book he states that Geertgen took the name of St. John without joining the order, thus his last name tot Sint Jans was derived from the orders name and means unto Saint John. The assignment of Leiden as his birthplace is traceable to a 17th-century print by Jacob Matham, there is no known archival evidence for this claim by Matham. This print of The Lamentation of Christ from 1620, shows in the left corner Cum privil. M. – Gerardus Leydanus Pictor ad S. Ia Bapt, harlemi pinxit indicating he was a painter from Leiden at St John the Baptist in Haarlem. In the lower hand corner it says Theodorus Matham Sculpsit. Iac Matham excud. which means that son Theo made the sketch from the painting and it was printed in Haarlem in 1620, indicating that the painting was still there at that time. Both side panels are quite fragile and are located in museums today. Modern acceptance of Leiden as Geertgens birthplace is traceable to Johann Kesslers dissertation of 1930. He died, probably still in his twenties, around the year 1495, in Haarlem, modern scholars have attempted to calculate the artists death date with the information from The Painting-Book by Karel van Mander, published in 1604. Should he have gone to work for one or two years as a journeyman, then the age at which he began to live by his art correspondingly rises, accordingly, Geertgen worked a maximum of ten years independently. Though it seems a sleepy little community of Amsterdam today. It was the second largest city in historical Holland after Dordrecht and before Delft, Leiden, Amsterdam, Gouda, in 1429 the city gained the right to collect tolls, including ships passing the city on the Spaarne river. At the end of the Middle Ages Haarlem was a city with a large textile industry, shipyards. Around 1428 the city was put under siege by the army of Jacqueline, Haarlem had taken side with the Cods in the Hook and Cod wars, and thus against Jacoba of Bavaria. The entire Haarlemmerhout wood was burnt down by the enemy, in 1469 the commandry of St. John in Haarlem was promoted to a special status that fell directly under the grand Prior of Germany. Before that it was a commandry of the Balij of UtrechtGeertgen tot Sint Jans – Geertgen tot Sint Jans
9. Domenico Ghirlandaio – Domenico Ghirlandaio was an Italian Renaissance painter born in Florence. Ghirlandaio was part of the third generation of the Florentine Renaissance, along with Verrocchio. Many apprentices passed through Ghirlandaios workshop, including the famous Michelangelo, Ghirlandaio was born Domenico di Tommaso di Currado di Doffo Bigordi. Tommaso had two children by his second wife, also named Antonia, whom he married in 1464. Domenicos half-sister Alessandra married the painter Bastiano Mainardi in 1494, both Ghirlandaios father and his uncle, Antonio, were setaiuolo a minuto. Giorgio Vasari reported that Domenico was at first apprenticed to his father, the nickname Il Ghirlandaio came to Domenico from his father, who was famed for creating the metallic garland-like headdresses worn by Florentine women. He was eventually apprenticed to Alesso Baldovinetti to study painting and mosaic, according to the art historian Günter Passavent, he was apprenticed in Florence to Andrea del Verrocchio. He maintained an association with other Florentine painters including Botticelli. Ghirlandaio excelled in the painting of frescos and it is for his fresco cycles that he is best known, an early commission came to him in the 1470s from the Commune of San Gimignano to decorate the Chapel of Santa Fina in the Collegiate Church of that city. The frescos, executed from 1477 to 1478, depict two miraculous events associated with the death of Saint Fina, in 1480, Ghirlandaio painted St. Jerome in His Study as a companion piece to Saint Augustine in His Study by Botticelli in the Church of Ognissanti, Florence. He also painted a life-sized Last Supper in its refectory, from 1481 to 1485, he was employed on frescoes at the Palazzo Vecchio, painting among other works an Apotheosis of St. Ghirlandaio painted the Vocation of the Apostles. He also painted the now lost Resurrection of Christ, the Crossing of the Red Sea has also been attributed to him, but is consistent with the style of Cosimo Roselli who was also part of the commission. Ghirlandaio is known to have created works in Rome, now lost. The first of these paintings contains portraits of Lorenzo de Medici, Sassetti and Lorenzos children with their tutor, the Resuscitation shows the painters own likeness. In 1483, there arrived in Florence a masterpiece of the Flemish painter Hugo van der Goes, now known as the Portinari Altarpiece, it was an Adoration of the Shepherds, commissioned by Tommaso Portinari, an employee of the Medici Bank. The painting was in oil paint, not the tempera employed in Florence, the aspect of the painting that had a profound effect on Ghirlandaio was the naturalism with which the shepherds were depicted. Ghirlandaio painted the altarpiece of the Sassetti chapel, an Adoration of the Shepherds and it is in this painting that he particularly shows his indebtedness to the Portinari Altarpiece. The shepherds, among whom is a portrait of the artist himself, are portrayed with a realism that was an advance in Florentine painting at that time, the altarpiece is still in position in Santa Trinita, surrounded by the frescos of which it was the centrepieceDomenico Ghirlandaio – Supposed self-portrait, from Adoration of the Magi, 1488
10. El Greco – Doménikos Theotokópoulos, most widely known as El Greco, was a painter, sculptor and architect of the Spanish Renaissance. El Greco was a nickname, a reference to his Greek origin, El Greco was born in Crete, which was at that time part of the Republic of Venice, and the center of Post-Byzantine art. He trained and became a master within that tradition before traveling at age 26 to Venice, in 1570 he moved to Rome, where he opened a workshop and executed a series of works. During his stay in Italy, El Greco enriched his style elements of Mannerism. In 1577, he moved to Toledo, Spain, where he lived and worked until his death, in Toledo, El Greco received several major commissions and produced his best-known paintings. El Grecos dramatic and expressionistic style was met with puzzlement by his contemporaries, El Greco has been characterized by modern scholars as an artist so individual that he belongs to no conventional school. He is best known for tortuously elongated figures and often fantastic or phantasmagorical pigmentation, El Grecos father, Geórgios Theotokópoulos, was a merchant and tax collector. Nothing is known about his mother or his first wife, also Greek, El Grecos older brother, Manoússos Theotokópoulos, was a wealthy merchant and spent the last years of his life in El Grecos Toledo home. El Greco received his training as an icon painter of the Cretan school. In 1563, at the age of twenty-two, El Greco was described in a document as a master, meaning he was already a master of the guild and presumably operating his own workshop. Three years later, in June 1566, as a witness to a contract, most scholars believe that the Theotokópoulos family was almost certainly Greek Orthodox, although some Catholic sources still claim him from birth. One of his uncles was an Orthodox priest, and his name is not mentioned in the Catholic archival baptismal records on Crete, prevelakis goes even further, expressing his doubt that El Greco was ever a practicing Roman Catholic. Important for his biography, El Greco, still in Crete, painted his Dormition of the Virgin near the end of his Cretan period. Three other signed works of Doménicos are attributed to El Greco, in 1563, at the age of twenty-two, El Greco was already an enrolled master of the local guild, presumably in charge of his own workshop. He left for Venice a few later, and never returned to Crete. His Dormition of the Virgin, of before 1567 in tempera, the painting combines post-Byzantine and Italian Mannerist stylistic and iconographic elements, and incorporates stylistic elements of the Cretan School. It was natural for the young El Greco to pursue his career in Venice, though the exact year is not clear, most scholars agree that El Greco went to Venice around 1567. Knowledge of El Grecos years in Italy is limited and this may mean he worked in Titians large studio, or notEl Greco – Portrait of a Man (presumed self-portrait of El Greco), c. 1595–1600, oil on canvas, 52.7 × 46.7 cm, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City, United States
11. Franz Ittenbach – Franz Ittenbach was a German religious painter from Königswinter, at the foot of the Drachenfels. Ittenbach began his art education as a student of Kaufmann, then left to study under Franz Katz in Cologne, in 1832, Ittenbach became a pupil, at the age of 19, of the Düsseldorf Academy, where he also received private lessons from its president, Schadow. He is associated with the Düsseldorf school of painting and he was a member of the Nazarene movement and associated himself mainly with three of his friends and fellow-students, Karl and Andreas Müller, and Ernst Deger. The four men travelled about in Germany, studying and painting together, from 1839 to 1842, Ittenbach lived in Italy. On his return, he stayed in Munich for some time, in 1849, he returned to Düsseldorf. From 1859 until his death, he was a member of the artist club Malkasten, Ittenbach was exceedingly religious and persistently declined any commissions for mythological or pagan subjects. As a rule, he devoted his energies exclusively to church decoration and he would precede the execution of his greatest works with devout religious exercises, including confession and communion. His finest paintings are said to be found at Bonn, in the church of St. Remigius, there is also a remarkable Holy Family dated 1861, painted for Prince Liechtenstein in his private chapel near Vienna. Most of his works can be found in various Catholic churches in Germany His only important fresco was painted in 1844 in a church at Remagen. Ittenbach was a painter in court circles, a member of most of the European academies. He painted a few portraits, but they were unimportant, his work was his altar-pieces. This article incorporates text from a now in the public domain, Herbermann, CharlesFranz Ittenbach – "Self Portrait" (1857)
12. Filippo Lippi – Fra Filippo Lippi, O. Carm. also called Lippo Lippi, was an Italian painter of the Quattrocento. Lippi was born in Florence in1406 to Tommaso, a butcher, when he was still a small child, both his parents died. He was sent to live with his aunt Mona Lapaccia, however because she was too poor to rear him and he was 8 years old when he left for the convent and started his education there. In 1420 he was admitted to the community of Carmelite friars of the Priory of Our Lady of Mount Carmel in Florence, taking vows in the Order the following year. He was ordained as a priest in approximately 1425, and remained in residence of that priory until 1432, georgio Vasari, the first art historian of the renaissance, writes that Lippi was inspired to become a painter by watching Masaccio at work in the Carmine church. Lippis early work, notably the Tarquinia Madonna show that influence from Masaccio, in his Lives of the Artists, Vasari says, Instead of studying, he spent all his time scrawling pictures on his own books and those of others. Due to his interest, the decided to give him the opportunity to learn painting. Lippi then went on to visit to Ancona and Naples, where he was captured by Barbary pirates and his skill in portrait-sketching helped to eventually release him. Louis Gillet, writing for the Catholic Encyclopedia, considers this account assuredly nothing, with his return to Florence in 1432 is paintings had became popular, warranting the support of the Medici family, who commissioned of The Annunciation and the Seven Saints. Cosimo de Medici had to him up in order to compel him to work. His escapades threw him into financial difficulties from which he did not hesitate to extricate himself by forgery and his life included many similar tales of lawsuits, complaints, broken promises and scandal. In 1441 Lippi painted an altarpiece for the nuns of S. Ambrogio which is now a prominent attraction in the Academy of Florence and it represents the coronation of the Virgin among angels and saints, including many Bernardine monks. In 1452 he was appointed chaplain to the nuns at the Monastery of St. Mary Magdalene in Florence, in June 1456 Fra Filippo is recorded as living in Prato to paint frescoes in the choir of the cathedral. Lippi asked that she might be permitted to sit for the figure of the Madonna, under that pretext, Lippi engaged in sexual relations with her, abducted her to his own house, and kept her there despite the nuns efforts to reclaim her. This relationship resulted in their son, Filippino Lippi, who became a famous painter following his father, Vasari accounts for this relationship in his publication of The Lives, which was published soon after. In 1457 he was appointed commendatory Rector of S. Quirico in Legania, despite these profits, Lippi struggled to escape poverty throughout his life. The close of Lippis life was spent at Spoleto, where he had commissioned to paint scenes from the life of the Virgin for the apse of the cathedral. In the semidome of the apse is the Christ Crowning the Madonna, with angels, sibyls and this series, which is not wholly equal to the one at Prato, was completed by one of his assistants, his fellow Carmelite, Fra Diamante, after Lippis deathFilippo Lippi – Selfportrait of Fra' Filippo Lippi
13. Michelangelo – Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni was an Italian sculptor, painter, architect, and poet of the High Renaissance who exerted an unparalleled influence on the development of Western art. Considered to be the greatest living artist during his lifetime, he has since described as one of the greatest artists of all time. A number of Michelangelos works of painting, sculpture, and architecture rank among the most famous in existence and he sculpted two of his best-known works, the Pietà and David, before the age of thirty. As an architect, Michelangelo pioneered the Mannerist style at the Laurentian Library, at the age of 74, he succeeded Antonio da Sangallo the Younger as the architect of St. Peters Basilica. Michelangelo transformed the plan so that the end was finished to his design, as was the dome, with some modification. Michelangelo was unique as the first Western artist whose biography was published while he was alive, in his lifetime he was often called Il Divino. One of the qualities most admired by his contemporaries was his terribilità, the attempts by subsequent artists to imitate Michelangelos impassioned and highly personal style resulted in Mannerism, the next major movement in Western art after the High Renaissance. Michelangelo was born on 6 March 1475 in Caprese near Arezzo, at the time of Michelangelos birth, his father was the Judicial administrator of the small town of Caprese and local administrator of Chiusi. Michelangelos mother was Francesca di Neri del Miniato di Siena, the Buonarrotis claimed to descend from the Countess Mathilde of Canossa, this claim remains unproven, but Michelangelo himself believed it. Several months after Michelangelos birth, the returned to Florence. There Michelangelo gained his love for marble, as Giorgio Vasari quotes him, If there is good in me. Along with the milk of my nurse I received the knack of handling chisel and hammer, as a young boy, Michelangelo was sent to Florence to study grammar under the Humanist Francesco da Urbino. The young artist, however, showed no interest in his schooling, preferring to copy paintings from churches, the city of Florence was at that time the greatest centre of the arts and learning in Italy. Art was sponsored by the Signoria, by the merchant guilds and by patrons such as the Medici. The Renaissance, a renewal of Classical scholarship and the arts, had its first flowering in Florence, the sculptor Lorenzo Ghiberti had laboured for fifty years to create the bronze doors of the Baptistry, which Michelangelo was to describe as The Gates of Paradise. The exterior niches of the Church of Orsanmichele contained a gallery of works by the most acclaimed sculptors of Florence – Donatello, Ghiberti, Andrea del Verrocchio, and Nanni di Banco. The interiors of the churches were covered with frescos, begun by Giotto. During Michelangelos childhood, a team of painters had been called from Florence to the Vatican, among them was Domenico Ghirlandaio, a master in fresco painting, perspective, figure drawing, and portraiture who had the largest workshop in Florence at that periodMichelangelo – Portrait of Michelangelo by Daniele da Volterra
14. Antonio Moscheni – Antonio Moscheni was a Jesuit brother and painter, known best for his elaborate fresco decoration of the church of the St. Aloysius College, Mangalore, India. Moscheni was born in Stezzano, Province of Bergamo, Italy and his artistic talent was discovered early, and he was sent to study painting at the Accademia Carrara in Bergamo. He then went to Rome to study the masterpieces of the Vatican, fresco painting now became his passion and several of his works can be found in churches of the Bergamo area. In 1889, at the age of 35, Moscheni renounced the prospect of a worldy career, after the usual two years of novitiate, his superiors noted his talent, and he was sent to decorate churches in Croatia, Albania as well as in his native country. In 1898, Moscheni was assigned to India, and sent to Mangalore with the mission of painting the Chapel of St. Aloysius College. It took him a little over two years to complete the work, besides the chapel he painted also frescoes in the Jesuit refectory, scenes evocative of Ignatius of Loyolas early years and the foundation of the Society of Jesus. Less known but strikingly unusual, he depicted the Hindu goddess of Knowledge, Saraswati, the coat of arms, painted above the stage, is embellished with Sanskrit phrase, Satyam eva Jayate. The bishop of Cochin called him in 1905, Moscheni had hardly completed the work in the sanctuary of the Cochin cathedral when he fell sick, a case of acute dysentery that ultimately proved fatal. He died on 15 November 1905 in Cochin, Kerala, and was buried in the Jesuit cemetery there, the Saint Aloysius Chapel remains a unique case of Italian art in India. It attracts thousands of visitors every year, coelho, J. Inspired Jesuit Painter and Artist, in Jesuit Profiles, Anand,1991, pp. 289–297. Dizionario degli Artisti Italiani Viventi, pittori, scultori, e Architetti, tipe dei Successori Le Monnier,1889, p.393Antonio Moscheni – A self-portrait of Antonio Moscheni.
15. Edith Pfau – Sister Edith Pfau, S. P. was an American painter, sculptor and art educator known for her religious works and commissions. Born Alberta Henrietta Pfau in Jasper, Indiana, she began drawing at an early age. Later in her life she recalled, I always was attracted to faces, I find faces everywhere, even in scribbles on the wall. Pfau entered the Sisters of Providence of Saint Mary-of-the-Woods in 1933 at the age of 18 and her main ministry as a Sister was teaching art and English in Indiana, Illinois, Washington, D. C. Pfau earned a degree in English and art from Saint Mary-of-the-Woods College in 1941. In 1951 she earned her Masters from Indiana State University, as an academic, she focused on the subject of art in secondary Catholic education. Pfau also completed numerous summer sessions from the University of Notre Dame, Pfau worked in a variety of media including oil, tempera, ceramics, polymer, wood and metal sculpture, silkscreen and acrylic. Well-known works include Risen Christ, Stations of the Cross, Madonna and Child and she became known for colorful religious paintings, often utilizing intersections of straight and curved lines and overlapping shapes. Her oil painting Mater Salvatoris is an example of this technique, several of her screen print card designs were printed and produced by Community Art Chicago in the 1950s. Pfaus work was exhibited at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in 1947 in an Exhibit of Sisters Manuscripts and she earned a solo show of polymer painting and serigraphs during her doctorate studies at Ball State University in 1969Edith Pfau – Sister Edith in 1977.
16. Ivan Ranger – Johann Baptist Ranger was a Tyrolese baroque painter. Ranger entered the Paulist monastic order as a child and he started to paint very early and in its artistic workshops in northern Italy and southern Germany. His paintings were stylistically original compositions, the orders treasures, such as books and other valuables, were scattered or destroyed, its activities left to be lost in time. Rangers frescoes were preserved on arched ceilings and walls over the 250 years since their creation, Ranger had enormous importance and influence upon his disciples and followers in the many works painted later. The Paulist order painting school of workshop continued in that way its activity in north-western Croatia long after Rangers time, oltarne slike Ivana Krstitelja Rangera u crkvama i kapelama u Klenovniku i Donjoj Voći Virtual exhibition of Johannes Baptista Ranger Austrian painter Johann Baptist Ranger, Oxford IndexIvan Ranger – Gothic vaulting in the parish church in Lepoglava. To the left is the original Gothic vaulting. To the right is the sanctuary vault painted in Baroque style by Ivan Ranger
17. Raphael – Raffaello Sanzio da Urbino, known as Raphael, was an Italian painter and architect of the High Renaissance. His work is admired for its clarity of form, ease of composition, together with Michelangelo and Leonardo da Vinci, he forms the traditional trinity of great masters of that period. Raphael was enormously productive, running a large workshop and, despite his death at 37. Many of his works are found in the Vatican Palace, where the frescoed Raphael Rooms were the central, the best known work is The School of Athens in the Vatican Stanza della Segnatura. After his early years in Rome much of his work was executed by his workshop from his drawings and he was extremely influential in his lifetime, though outside Rome his work was mostly known from his collaborative printmaking. Raphael was born in the small but artistically significant central Italian city of Urbino in the Marche region and his poem to Federico shows him as keen to show awareness of the most advanced North Italian painters, and Early Netherlandish artists as well. In the very court of Urbino he was probably more integrated into the central circle of the ruling family than most court painters. Under them, the court continued as a centre for literary culture, growing up in the circle of this small court gave Raphael the excellent manners and social skills stressed by Vasari. Castiglione moved to Urbino in 1504, when Raphael was no longer based there but frequently visited, Raphael mixed easily in the highest circles throughout his life, one of the factors that tended to give a misleading impression of effortlessness to his career. He did not receive a humanistic education however, it is unclear how easily he read Latin. His mother Màgia died in 1491 when Raphael was eight, followed on August 1,1494 by his father, Raphael was thus orphaned at eleven, his formal guardian became his only paternal uncle Bartolomeo, a priest, who subsequently engaged in litigation with his stepmother. He probably continued to live with his stepmother when not staying as an apprentice with a master and he had already shown talent, according to Vasari, who says that Raphael had been a great help to his father. A self-portrait drawing from his teenage years shows his precocity and his fathers workshop continued and, probably together with his stepmother, Raphael evidently played a part in managing it from a very early age. In Urbino, he came into contact with the works of Paolo Uccello, previously the court painter, and Luca Signorelli, according to Vasari, his father placed him in the workshop of the Umbrian master Pietro Perugino as an apprentice despite the tears of his mother. The evidence of an apprenticeship comes only from Vasari and another source, an alternative theory is that he received at least some training from Timoteo Viti, who acted as court painter in Urbino from 1495. An excess of resin in the varnish often causes cracking of areas of paint in the works of both masters, the Perugino workshop was active in both Perugia and Florence, perhaps maintaining two permanent branches. Raphael is described as a master, that is to say fully trained and his first documented work was the Baronci altarpiece for the church of Saint Nicholas of Tolentino in Città di Castello, a town halfway between Perugia and Urbino. Evangelista da Pian di Meleto, who had worked for his father, was named in the commissionRaphael – Presumed Portrait of Raphael
18. Jacopo Ripanda – Jacopo Ripanda was an Italian painter of the Renaissance era. His works were undertaken in his home town of Bologna. Little is known of the life and work of this painter and his great interest in Roman antiquity led him to detailed observation of Trajans column, which he documented precisely using a viewing device to observe the detail of farthermost friezes. This apparatus caused a deal of discussion and made Ripanda famous. As a result of his device, he was able to produce numerous detailed drawings of the designs. These were published as engravings in 1576 by Girolamo Muziano, the fame of these works was enough to attract the patronage of the Pope and other church officials. The paintings in the Sala di Annibale and the Sala della Lupa still exist, in 1505-7 Ripanda painted chiaroscuro frescoes depicting the lives of Julius Caesar and Trajan. These formed part of the palace of Cardinal Fazio Santorio, however, these paintings no longer survive. Ripandas Vatican commissions were cancelled by Pope Alexanders successor Pope Julius II, however, he apparently executed decorations for the funeral of Julius in 1513. His last known work is a sketchbook dated 1516, which is presumed to be around the date of his death. He is considered a painter, but sources of the period suggest that his work was most admired for his ability to document in accurate detail numerous classical motifs. His work influenced Baldassare Peruzzis own chiaroscuro frescoes of the life of Trajan in the palace of OstiaJacopo Ripanda – Hannibal Crossing the Alps, one of Ripanda's frescoes for the Palazzo dei Conservatori.
19. Peter Paul Rubens – Sir Peter Paul Rubens was a Flemish/Netherlandish draughtsman and painter. He is widely considered as the most notable artist of Flemish Baroque art school, the catalogue of his works by Michael Jaffé lists 1,403 pieces, excluding numerous copies made in his workshop. His commissioned works were mostly history paintings, which included religious and mythological subjects and he painted portraits, especially of friends, and self-portraits, and in later life painted several landscapes. Rubens designed tapestries and prints, as well as his own house and he also oversaw the ephemeral decorations of the royal entry into Antwerp by the Cardinal-Infante Ferdinand in 1635. His drawings are mostly extremely forceful but not overly detailed and he also made great use of oil sketches as preparatory studies. For altarpieces he painted on slate to reduce reflection problems. Rubens was born in the city of Siegen to Jan Rubens and he was named in honour of Saint-Peter and Paul, because he was born on their solemnety. His father, a Calvinist, and mother fled Antwerp for Cologne in 1568, after increased religious turmoil and persecution of Protestants during the rule of the Spanish Netherlands by the Duke of Alba. Jan Rubens became the adviser of Anna of Saxony, the second wife of William I of Orange. Following Jan Rubens imprisonment for the affair, Peter Paul Rubens was born in 1577, the family returned to Cologne the next year. In 1589, two years after his fathers death, Rubens moved with his mother Maria Pypelincks to Antwerp, religion figured prominently in much of his work and Rubens later became one of the leading voices of the Catholic Counter-Reformation style of painting. In Antwerp, Rubens received a Renaissance humanist education, studying Latin, by fourteen he began his artistic apprenticeship with Tobias Verhaeght. Subsequently, he studied under two of the leading painters of the time, the late Mannerist artists Adam van Noort. Much of his earliest training involved copying earlier works, such as woodcuts by Hans Holbein the Younger. Rubens completed his education in 1598, at time he entered the Guild of St. Luke as an independent master. In 1600 Rubens travelled to Italy and he stopped first in Venice, where he saw paintings by Titian, Veronese, and Tintoretto, before settling in Mantua at the court of Duke Vincenzo I Gonzaga. The colouring and compositions of Veronese and Tintoretto had an effect on Rubenss painting. With financial support from the Duke, Rubens travelled to Rome by way of Florence in 1601, there, he studied classical Greek and Roman art and copied works of the Italian mastersPeter Paul Rubens – Self-portrait, 1623, Royal Collection
20. Antoine Sublet – Antoine Sublet was a French painter. Antoine Sublet was born in 1821 in Lyon and he became ordained as a Roman Catholic priest and particularly close to the Carthusian Order. He painted frescoes inside the Belley Cathedral and the Hôtel-Dieu de Lyon, additionally, he painted the vault inside the Église Saint-Théodore in Marseille from 1860 to 1863. While he was living in Rome, Italy, he worked as a copyist for painter Charles Soulacroix and his painting entitled The Apparition of the Sacred Heart to Marguerite-marie Alacoque is displayed inside the Church of Saint-Bruno des Chartreux in Lyon. He died in 1897 in ParisAntoine Sublet – The Holy Trinity
21. Tintoretto – Tintoretto was an Italian painter and a notable exponent of the Renaissance school. For his phenomenal energy in painting he was termed Il Furioso and his work is characterized by its muscular figures, dramatic gestures, and bold use of perspective in the Mannerist style, while maintaining color and light typical of the Venetian School. His real name Comin was discovered by Miguel Falomir of the Museo del Prado, Madrid, Comin translates to the spice cumin in the local language. Tintoretto was born in Venice in 1518, as the eldest of 21 children and his father, Giovanni, was a dyer, or tintore, hence the son got the nickname of Tintoretto, little dyer, or dyers boy, which is anglicized as Tintoret. The family originated from Brescia, in Lombardy, then part of the Republic of Venice, older studies gave the Tuscan town of Lucca as the origin of the family. In childhood Jacopo, a painter, began daubing on the dyers walls, his father, noticing his bent. This was supposedly towards 1533, when Titian was already fifty-six years of age, active disparagement also was not wanting, but it passed unnoticed by Tintoretto. The latter sought for no further teaching, but studied on his own account with laborious zeal, he lived poorly, collecting casts, bas-reliefs etc. and practising by their aid. His noble conception of art and his personal ambition were evidenced in the inscription which he placed over his studio Il disegno di Michelangelo ed il colorito di Tiziano. Now and afterwards he very frequently worked by night as well as by day, the young painter Andrea Schiavone, four years Tintorettos junior, was much in his company. Tintoretto helped Schiavone gratis in wall-paintings, and in many subsequent instances he worked also for nothing, the two earliest mural paintings of Tintoretto—done, like others, for next to no pay—are said to have been Belshazzars Feast and a Cavalry Fight. These are both long since perished, as are all his frescoes, early or later, the first work of his to attract some considerable notice was a portrait-group of himself and his brother—the latter playing a guitar—with a nocturnal effect, this also is lost. It was followed by some subject, which Titian was candid enough to praise. For the Scuola della Trinità he painted four subjects from Genesis, up till 2012, The Embarkation of St Helena in the Holy Land was attributed to his contemporary Andrea Schiavone. But new analysis of the work has revealed it as one of a series of three paintings by Tintoretto, depicting the legend of St Helena And The Holy Cross, the error was uncovered during work on a project to catalogue continental European oil paintings in the UK. The Embarkation of St Helena was acquired by the V&A in 1865 and its sister paintings, The Discovery Of The True Cross and St Helen Testing The True Cross, are held in galleries in the US. Towards 1546 Tintoretto painted for the church of the Madonna dellOrto three of his works, the Worship of the Golden Calf, the Presentation of the Virgin in the Temple. He took the commission for two of the paintings, the Worship of the Golden Calf and the Last Judgment, on a cost only basis in order to make himself better known and he settled down in a house hard by the churchTintoretto – Detail of a self-portrait
22. Jacopo Torriti – Jacopo Torriti or Turriti was an Italian painter and mosaic maker who lived in the 13th century. He worked in the decoration especially in the apse of San Giovanni in Laterano and those in the Lateran were carried out in conjunction with the Franciscan friar, Jacopo Camerino. They were executed between the years 1287 and 1292, and though in imitation of the style of Cimabue, there are no written documents about his life. In 1291 he signed the apse mosaics in the basilica San Giovanni in Laterano in Rome, the mosaics of the apse in Santa Maria Maggiore were executed by him in 1295. They depict the Coronation of the Virgin by Christ in a large medallion, the medallion is encircled with a sprawling floral ornament with flowers, birds and animals, this probably original from the 4th century. In the lower strip of the mosaic we can see the figures of St Peter, St Paul and Pope Nicholas IV. The walls are decorated with scenes from the life of Mary, the apse of Santa Maria Maggiore is the most important surviving example of Roman mosaic art from the late Middle Ages. Torriti probably participated in the execution of some frescoes in the church of Basilica of San Francesco dAssisi. In France, a painting of Jacopo Torriti is exposed at the Museum of Grenoble, walter Armstrong & Robert Edmund Graves, ed. Dictionary of Painters and Engravers, Biographical and Critical, york St. #4, Covent Garden, London, Original from Fogg Library, Digitized May 18,2007, George Bell and Sons. Christ Child A mosaic by Jacopo Torriti in the Pushkin Art Museum, MoscowJacopo Torriti – Coronation of the Virgin by Torritti.
23. Gregorio Vasquez de Arce y Ceballos – Most of the artwork of Vázquez depicts the life of Christ, Virgin Mary, the Saints and scenes of the New Testament. Vázquez was born in Bogotá, in a family of Andalusian origin. The Vasquez family emigrated from Seville, Spain in the 16th century and he received art classes in the St Bartolome College and as apprentice of the painter Baltasar de Vargas Figueroa. In 1701 Vasquez went to jail due to his involvement with the kidnapping of Doña María Teresa de Orgaz from the Santa Clara Convent, when he left the jail, he was in deep poverty and went insane, never painting again. Finally, he died in 1711 in Bogotá, in 1863 the Colombian government placed a conmemorative plaque in the house where Vasquez was born and diedGregorio Vasquez de Arce y Ceballos – “Los desposorios místicos de Santa Catalina” (Mystic weddings of St catalina) by Gregorio Vasquez, painted around 1700. Capilla del Sagrario, Bogotá, Colombia