Category:Roman towns and cities in Provence
This category has the following 2 subcategories, out of 2 total.
This category has the following 2 subcategories, out of 2 total.
1. Ambrussum – Ambrussum is a Roman archaeological site in Villetelle, Hérault département, in southern France. It is close to the modern Lunel, between Nîmes and Montpellier. Its history of settlement spanned 400 years. The whole site is still being excavated. The higher settlement was based on a pre-Roman oppidum, within a surrounding wall including 21 towers. Only one complete arch remains. All place it midway between Nimes and Castelnau-le-Lez, 22 kilometres from each. The Via Domitia is the oldest Roman Road in Gaul, more specifically Gallia Narbonensis in France. It was laid out by Cneius Domitius Ahenobarbus around 120 BC, it was to become part of the roads that linked Italy in Spain. The settlement provided a staging point on this road. The site is reached through the village of Villetelle. The highest point of the oppidum is 58 m. When in spate the Vidourle will rise by 8 m. From the highest point, the Oppidum de Nages is easily seen. Further one can see Mont Ventoux, the hills of the Cevennes including the Causse du Larzac and Mont Aigoual.Ambrussum – The paved road in the oppidum at the south gate leading from the Via Domitia, Ambrussum.
2. Antibes – Antibes is a Mediterranean resort in the Alpes-Maritimes department of southeastern France, on the Côte d'Azur between Cannes and Nice. The Sophia Antipolis technology park is northwest of it. Traces of occupation dating back to the early Iron Age have been found in the areas of the cathedral. However, most trade was via the Phocaeans of Marseille. Antipolis was founded from Massilia. As a Greek settlement, it was known as Antipolis from its position relative to Nice. The exact location of the Greek city is not well known. Given colonial practices, it is likely that it was set at the foot of the rock of Antibes in today's old city. Traces of occupation of the Hellenistic period have been identified around the church. The goods unearthed during these excavations show the dominance of imported products of the Marseilles region, associated with indigenous ceramics. Early in the second BC the Ligurian Deceates and Oxybiens tribes launched repeated attacks against Nikaia and Antipolis. The Greeks of Marseille appealed to Rome as they had already done a few years earlier against the federation of Salyens. In 154 BC the consul Quintus Opimius took Aegythna from the Décéates. Rome gradually increased its hold over the Mediterranean coast. In 43 BC, Antipolis was officially incorporated in the propraetorial province of Narbonesian Gaul, in which it remained for the next 500 years.Antibes – View of Antibes by the Mediterranean
3. Glanum – Glanum was an oppidum, or fortified town in present day Provence, founded by a Celto-Ligurian people called the Salyes in the 6th century BCE. It was abandoned in 260 AD. It is particularly known for two well-preserved Roman monuments of the 1st B.C. known as les Antiques, a mausoleum and a triumphal arch. A shrine was built to Glanis, a Celtic god. A second wall was built in the 2nd century BC. The people of Glanum were with the Greek colony of Massalia, present day Marseille, founded in about 600 BC. The contact influenced the art of Glanum - villas were built in the Hellenic style. In 125 BC the Salyens were defeated by the army of the Roman consul Marcus Fulvius Flaccus, the following year decisively defeated by C. Sextus Calvinus. Many of the old monuments of Glanum were destroyed. Due to its commercially useful location on the Via Domitia, the attraction of its healing the town prospered again. The city built new monuments. The prosperity lasted until 90 BC when the Salyens again rebelled against Rome. The public buildings of Glanum were again destroyed. The remains of the main buildings demolished and replaced by more modest structures.Glanum – Excavations of ancient Glanum, at the foot of Mont Gaussier. The church spire of modern Saint-Rémy-de-Provence can be seen in the middle distance to the left.
4. Orange, Vaucluse – Orange is a commune in the Vaucluse Department in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region in southeastern France, about 21 km north of Avignon. It has a primarily agricultural economy. The name was later conflated with it. It was the capital of a wide area of northern Provence, parcelled up into lots for the Roman colonists. It is found in both the Tabula Peutingeriana and Le cadastre d'Orange maps. The town was sacked by the Visigoths in 412. It had, by then, become from the end of the third century constituted the Ancient Diocese of Orange. No longer Arausio, as it is called in Latin, is today listed by the Catholic Church as a titular see. It hosted two important synods, in 529. The Second Council of Orange was in condemning what later came to be called Semipelagianism. The Carolingian counts of Orange had their origin in the eighth century, passed into the family of the lords of Baux. From the 12th century, Orange was raised as a fief of the Holy Roman Empire. During this period, the principality of Orange belonged to the administration and province of Dauphiné. This pitched it in the Wars of Religion, during which the town was badly damaged. In 1568, the Eighty Years' War began as stadtholder leading the bid for independence from Spain.Orange, Vaucluse – Aerial view of downtown Orange
5. History of Toulouse – The history of Toulouse, in Midi-Pyrénées, southern France, traces back to ancient times. After Roman rule, the city was ruled by Visigoths the Merovingian and Carolingian Franks. Capital of the County of Toulouse during the Middle Ages, today it is the capital of the Midi-Pyrénées region. Archaeological evidence dates human settlement in Toulouse to the 8th BC. Its location was advantageous; the Garonne River can be crossed easily. People settled on the hills overlooking the river, 9 kilometres south of present Toulouse. The city's early name was Tolosa; although researchers agree that it was probably Aquitanian, its meaning is unknown. Toulouse's name has remained almost unchanged despite Celtic, Roman and Germanic invasions. The first inhabitants were apparently the Aquitani, of whom little is known. Later came Iberians from the south, who were non-Indo-Europeans. During the third BC the Volcae Tectosages arrived, the first Indo-Europeans in the region. Their Gaulish language became predominant. By 200 BC, Tolosa is attested on coins as the capital of the Volcae Tectosages. According to archaeologists, Tolosa was one of most important cities in Gaul during the pre-Roman era. Offerings to its shrines and temples accumulated wealth in the city.History of Toulouse – Vomitorium of the Toulouse amphitheatre
6. Vaison-la-Romaine – Vaison-la-Romaine is a commune in the Vaucluse department in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region in southeastern France.The French archaeologist and hellenist Henri Metzger died here. The area was inhabited in the Bronze Age. At the end of the fourth BCE, the upper city of Vaison became the capital of a Celtic tribe, Voconces. After the Roman conquest the Vocontii retained a certain degree of autonomy; they had two capitals, Vaison. Their continued authority in the gradual Romanization of the Celtic oppidum meant that the plan incurred no disruptive re-founding along Roman orthography. The Polyclitan Vaison Diadumenos was discovered in the theatre in the nineteenth century. At Vasio Pompeius Trogus, the Augustan historian, was born. From the eighteenth century most of the population had moved back down to the plains by the river. A flood struck Vaison-la-Romaine on 22 September 1992, costing $1.5 billion in damages. It was the town's worst flood since 1632, was featured in the Discovery Channel series Destroyed In Seconds. One of the most interesting aspects of the town is its geography, its Roman ruins. The medieval town is high on the rocky cliff. The floor was safe from attack in modern times. In the Middle Ages attacks were frequent, the town retreated up-hill to a more defensible position. The apsidal chapels are from the Merovingian period.Vaison-la-Romaine – Vaison-la-Romaine seen from high in the medieval upper town