Category:Social history of the Netherlands
This category has the following 7 subcategories, out of 7 total.
This category has the following 7 subcategories, out of 7 total.
1. Box-bed – A box-bed is a bed enclosed in furniture that looks like a cupboard, half-opened or not. The form originates in western European late medieval furniture, the box-bed is closed on all sides by panels of wood. One enters it by removing curtains, opening a door hinge or sliding doors on one or two slides, the bed is placed on short legs to prevent moisture due to a dirt floor. In front of the box-bed was often a large oaken chest and this was always the seat of honour, and served also as a step for climbing into the bed. It was also used to store clothing, underwear and bedding the rest of the time, in Brittany, the closed-bed is a traditional furnishing. In homes with only one room, the box-bed allowed some privacy. Similar enclosed bed furniture was also found in western Britain, Devon, Cornwall. Some closed-beds were built one above the other in a double-decker, in this case, young people were sleeping upstairs. It was the furniture of rural houses in Brittany until the 20th century. Often carved and decorated, it was the pride of its owners, closed-beds were 1.60 to 1.70 m length, long enough for people of that region who were rather small. And because they slept in an almost sitting position, they leaned on three or four pillows and it was the tradition of the Middle Ages not to sleep lying down, because that is the position of the dead and of effigies. Later out of fashion and because they were expensive to make, fine pieces were put in museums, while most of them were converted into bookshelves, dressers or TV cabinets. In the 21st century, rental companies offer nights in authentic box-beds, the contemporary Breton designers Erwan and Ronan Bouroullec have reinterpreted the form with their lit-clos,2000 for Galerie kreo. Box-beds were also used to people of the home from the animals also living in the house, or even to protect them from wolves who might enter houses. In the Netherlands the closet-bed, or bedstede, was in use into the 19th century. Closet-beds were closed off with a door or a curtain, one of the advantages of the closet-bed was that it could be built into the living room and closed off during the day, making a separate bedroom unnecessary. The other main advantage was that, during the winter, the area of the closet-bed would be warmed by body heat. This meant the stove would not need to be stoked at nightBox-bed – Box-bed in Austria
2. History of urban centers in the Low Countries – As such, this article covers the development of Dutch and Flemish cities beginning at the end of the migration period till the end of the Dutch Golden Age. During Roman times, the Low Countries belonged to the provinces of the empire. Probably because of the fear of Germanic incursions, Roman settlements were extremely sparse and these together formed the only population centers which surpassed the native villages of the time in terms of architecture and, in some cases, population. The only possible exception was the city of Atuatuca Tungrorum, which became one of the earliest centers of Christianity in the Low Countries. Unsurprisingly, it was on or around the of these Castra, very little is known about these settlements, apart from archeological material, as there was little literacy at the time. From around the 10th century, mainly due to population growth, around the 11th century, some of these cities begin to form networks of urban centers. In the Low Countries these appeared in 3 regions, at first in the County of Flanders in the South, then followed by the County of Holland in the North and Northern Guelders/Oversticht in the East. The cities located in the center of the Low Countries were able to profit of both of the Flemish and Hollandic cities and no real urban network emerged there, in the North of the Low Countries, however, such as Frisia and Groningen, cities remained relatively isolated. Groningen is still nicknamed stad within its province, signaling its position as the city in the region as well as its isolation. The principal urban center in the County of Flanders was focused on the cities of Bruges, Ghent, the textile industry in this area flourished which provided the region with enormous wealth, as well as attracting various other trades. The area was notorious for its civil uprisings, by 1500 these cities had lost their leading position within the Low Countries to Antwerp, though still playing an important role. In the East of the Low Countries, a number of towns aligned themselves with the Hanseatic cities and this sparked a sudden economic boom for these cities, principally Zutphen, Kampen, Deventer, Elburg, Doesburg, Zwolle and their immediate surroundings. The boom was short, as Hollandic, Flemish and English merchants tried breaking open the Baltic trade. Eventually they formed the bulk of the fleet sailing on Bruges and Ghent. It wasnt till the Fall of Antwerp that the Hollandic cities would truly expand, from 1550 CE onwards a two trade hubs start to emerge which for the first time truly dominate the entirety of the Low Countries. The first is Antwerp, the second is Amsterdam, after the silting of the river Zwin and the consequent decline of Bruges, the city of Antwerp, with its connection to the less silting-prone Scheldt, becomes of importance. At the end of the 15th century the trading houses were transferred from Bruges to Antwerp. Fernand Braudel states that Antwerp became the center of the entire international economy—something Bruges had never been even at its height, antwerps Golden Age was tightly linked to the Age of ExplorationHistory of urban centers in the Low Countries – Objects found excavating the remains of Dorestad.
3. Oude Mannenhuis – An Oude Mannenhuis, or Old Mens house is a Dutch term for a home for poor men older than sixty, who could spend their final days enjoying regular meals and a clean place to sleep. It can be regarded as a type of retirement home. As an institution, they were an improvement over almshouses for the poor known as hofjes. Because older men were less able to care for themselves than women. After the introduction of Oude Mannenhuizen, the hofjes were designed almost exclusively for women, for women who became too feeble to take part in hofje life, special old houses for woman were opened, that were often combined with old mens houses. Like the hofjes, living in an old house was usually free of charge and was considered a favor. Similar to hofjes, the regents of old houses had a regents room for meetings. The regents made and enforced the rules, such as making church attendance mandatory. Breaking the rules was usually followed by house arrest, the old men lived in a room where they only had a bedstead, and occasionally they were assigned two to a room. A few old houses have been preserved, but they have been given a different purpose. Older men with means could buy a room in a Proveniershuis, which was cheaper than a rental or hotel, but afforded more luxury than an Oude MannenhuisOude Mannenhuis – Former soup kitchen with cooking pots for the Oude Mannenhuis in Amsterdam
4. Pillarisation – Pillarisation is the politico-denominational segregation of a society. These societies were divided into several segments or pillars according to different religions or ideologies. The best-known examples of this are the Dutch and Belgian ones, some companies even hire only personnel of a specific religion or ideology. This leads to a situation where people have no personal contact with people from another pillar. The Netherlands had three pillars, Protestant, Catholic and Social-democratic, Pillarisation was originally initiated by Abraham Kuyper and his neo-Calvinist Anti-Revolutionary Party in the late 1800s, it was part of their philosophy of sphere sovereignty. The Catholic pillar had the highest degree of organisation, because Catholic clergy promoted the organization of almost the whole life of Catholics in confessional institutions, yet, the conservative Protestant pillar and the Socialist pillar, which mainly consisted of industrial workers, were nearly as tightly knit. The Protestant Christian Historical Union did not organise a pillar of its own, people who were not associated with one of these pillars, mainly middle and upper class latitudinarian Protestants and atheists, arguably set up their own pillar, the liberal or general pillar. Ties between general organisations were much weaker than within the three pillars. Liberals actually rejected the voluntary segregation of the society, and denied the existence of a liberal pillar, the political parties usually associated with this group were the Free-minded Democratic League and Liberal State Party. Communists, Humanists and ultra-orthodox Protestants also set up similar organisations, however, the development of pillarisation in the Netherlands was favoured by the emancipation of working and lower-middle classes on the one hand, and the execution of elite control on the other hand. The emancipation of the class led to the establishment of socialist parties, trade unions, media, cooperative shops. This full care of the socialist movement for its members existed similarly in other European countries, the emancipation of the conservative and often strongly religious lower-middle class fostered the emergence of the Protestant pillar. In 1866 Kuyper founded the current of Protestantism that was both more conservative and more popular with ordinary people than the established Protestant churches in the Netherlands. Kuypers worldview asserted the principle of sovereignty, rejecting both ecclesiasticism and statist secularism. Instead he argued that both had their own spheres in which the other was not to interfere, in 1879 he founded the Anti-Revolutionary Party as the political wing of his religious movement and core of the Protestant pillar. At the same time, new and old tried to maintain their control over the newly emancipated social groups. For instance, the Catholic clergy set up confessional unions to prevent Catholic workers from joining socialist unions, one reason behind the formation of Christian parties was to counter the feared rise of left-wing mass parties. The following table shows the most important institutions by pillar, After World War II liberals and socialists and they founded a unity movement, the Peoples Movement Nederlandse VolksbewegingPillarisation – Life in the Netherlands
5. Regenten – In the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries, the regenten were the rulers of the Dutch Republic, the leaders of the Dutch cities or the heads of organisations. Though not formally a hereditary class, they were de facto patricians, since the late Middle Ages Dutch cities had been run by the richer merchant families, who gradually formed a closed group. From the latter part of the 17th century the regent families were able to reserve government offices to themselves via quasi-formal contractual arrangements, in practice they could only be dislodged by political upheavals, like the Orangist revolution of 1747 and the Patriot revolt of 1785. The regenten as the ruling class originated in the 13th century. The nobilitys and rulers incomes were often not enough to pay their mercenaries or their own army and they therefore needed financial assistance from the up-and-coming merchant class in the growing towns. This class could thus induce the sovereigns to grant municipal charters and city rights and this newly acquired autonomy brought into being a new group of managers next to the sovereigns deputy, the schout, to run the city. These city councillors were often recruited from the wealthiest citizens, medieval city-dwellers were of the opinion that the vroedschap, from which the magistrates were chosen, had to consist of de weisten, treffelijksten en rijksten van de stadsbevolking. Men of wealth were deemed to be the people most able to guarantee the prosperity of the city, to keep the peace was in their personal interest, and because they were already rich, one could hope that they would not plunder the city coffers. In the first half of the 15th century, the Burgundian dukes tightened their grip on the cities in the county of Holland. Philip the Good promoted the situation in which the regenten could exert a greater control over the city and her inhabitants, the vroedschappen were given the power to co-opt members, instead of using a more open electoral process. Members of a vroedschap were usually appointed for life, or during good behavior, similar developments took place in the other provinces. The vroedschap was the body that nominated candidates for burgemeesters and schepenen in annual or biannual elections and these nominees were usually members of the vroedschap, though this was not a formal requirement for office. Members of the vroedschap were usually also the representatives of the cities that voted in the states of the provinces and these arrangements remained basically in place after the Dutch Revolt. From then on, the regenten were the de facto. Formally, little changed in the arrangements of the republic. Equally, the same 18 cities made up the states held the vote before. What changed after the revolt was the makeup of these institutions. In most cities the old regenten were purged, and replaced with adherents to the new political order, in general, Catholic regenten were replaced with supporters of the New ReligionRegenten – Group portrait Regenten Oudemannenhuis at Haarlem by Frans Hals, 1664
6. Tulip mania – Tulip mania or tulipomania was a period in the Dutch Golden Age during which contract prices for bulbs of the recently introduced tulip reached extraordinarily high levels and then suddenly collapsed. At the peak of tulip mania, in March 1637, some single tulip bulbs sold for more than 10 times the income of a skilled craftsman. The term tulip mania is now often used metaphorically to refer to any large economic bubble when asset prices deviate from intrinsic values, the 1637 event was popularized in 1841 by the book Extraordinary Popular Delusions and the Madness of Crowds, written by British journalist Charles Mackay. According to Mackay, at one point 12 acres of land were offered for a Semper Augustus bulb, Mackay claims that many such investors were ruined by the fall in prices, and Dutch commerce suffered a severe shock. Although Mackays book is a classic, his account is contested, many modern scholars feel that the mania was not as extraordinary as Mackay described and argue that not enough price data are available to prove that a tulip bulb bubble actually occurred. Research is difficult because of the economic data from the 1630s—much of which come from biased. Some modern economists have proposed rational explanations, rather than a speculative mania, for the rise, for example, other flowers, such as the hyacinth, also had high initial prices at the time of their introduction, which immediately fell. The high asset prices may also have driven by expectations of a parliamentary decree that contracts could be voided for a small cost—thus lowering the risk to buyers. Tulip bulbs were soon distributed from Vienna to Augsburg, Antwerp and he planted his collection of tulip bulbs and found they were able to tolerate the harsher conditions of the Low Countries, shortly thereafter the tulip began to grow in popularity. The tulip was different from other flower known to Europe at that time. The appearance of the tulip as a status symbol at this time coincides with the rise of newly independent Hollands trade fortunes. No longer the Spanish Netherlands, its resources could now be channeled into commerce. Amsterdam merchants were at the center of the lucrative East Indies trade, as a result, tulips rapidly became a coveted luxury item, and a profusion of varieties followed. They were classified in groups, the tulips of red, yellow, or white were known as Couleren, the multicolored Rosen, Violetten, and the rarest of all. The multicolor effects of intricate lines and flame-like streaks on the petals were vivid and spectacular, growers named their new varieties with exalted titles. Many early forms were prefixed Admirael, often combined with the growers names, generael was another prefix used for around thirty varieties. Later varieties were given even more extravagant names, derived from Alexander the Great or Scipio, or even Admiral of Admirals, however, naming could be haphazard and varieties highly variable in quality. Most of these varieties have now died out, tulips grow from bulbs, and can be propagated through both seeds and budsTulip mania – A tulip, known as "the Viceroy" (viseroij), displayed in the 1637 Dutch catalog 'Verzameling van een Meenigte Tulipaanen'. Its bulb cost between 3,000 and 4,200 guilders (florins) depending on size (aase). A skilled craftsman at the time earned about 300 guilders a year.