Category:States and territories disestablished in 1461
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1. Sovereign state – A sovereign state is, in international law, a nonphysical juridical entity that is represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area. International law defines sovereign states as having a permanent population, defined territory, one government, and it is also normally understood that a sovereign state is neither dependent on nor subjected to any other power or state. The existence or disappearance of a state is a question of fact, States came into existence as people gradually transferred their allegiance from an individual sovereign to an intangible but territorial political entity, of the state. States are but one of political orders that emerged from feudal Europe, others being city states, leagues. Westphalian sovereignty is the concept of sovereignty based on territoriality. It is a system of states, multinational corporations. Sovereignty is a term that is frequently misused and that position was reflected and constituted in the notion that their sovereignty was either completely lacking, or at least of an inferior character when compared to that of civilised people. Lassa Oppenheim said There exists perhaps no conception the meaning of which is more controversial than that of sovereignty. It is a fact that this conception, from the moment when it was introduced into political science until the present day, has never had a meaning which was universally agreed upon. In the opinion of H. V. Evatt of the High Court of Australia, sovereignty is neither a question of fact, nor a question of law, but a question that does not arise at all. The right of nations to determine their own status and exercise permanent sovereignty within the limits of their territorial jurisdictions is widely recognized. The Westphalian model of sovereignty has increasingly come under fire from the non-west as a system imposed solely by Western Colonialism. What this model did was make religion a subordinate to politics and this system does not fit in the Islamic world because concepts such as separation of church and state and individual conscience are not recognised in the Islamic religion as social systems. Nation denotes a people who are believed to or deemed to share common customs, religion, language, origins, however, the adjectives national and international are frequently used to refer to matters pertaining to what are strictly sovereign states, as in national capital, international law. State refers to the set of governing and supportive institutions that have sovereignty over a definite territory, State recognition signifies the decision of a sovereign state to treat another entity as also being a sovereign state. Recognition can be expressed or implied and is usually retroactive in its effects. It does not necessarily signify a desire to establish or maintain diplomatic relations, There is no definition that is binding on all the members of the community of nations on the criteria for statehood. In actual practice, the criteria are mainly political, not legal, in international law, however, there are several theories of when a state should be recognised as sovereignSovereign state – Member states of the United Nations, all of which are sovereign states, though not all sovereign states are necessarily members
2. Byzantine Empire – It survived the fragmentation and fall of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD and continued to exist for an additional thousand years until it fell to the Ottoman Turks in 1453. During most of its existence, the empire was the most powerful economic, cultural, several signal events from the 4th to 6th centuries mark the period of transition during which the Roman Empires Greek East and Latin West divided. Constantine I reorganised the empire, made Constantinople the new capital, under Theodosius I, Christianity became the Empires official state religion and other religious practices were proscribed. Finally, under the reign of Heraclius, the Empires military, the borders of the Empire evolved significantly over its existence, as it went through several cycles of decline and recovery. During the reign of Maurice, the Empires eastern frontier was expanded, in a matter of years the Empire lost its richest provinces, Egypt and Syria, to the Arabs. This battle opened the way for the Turks to settle in Anatolia, the Empire recovered again during the Komnenian restoration, such that by the 12th century Constantinople was the largest and wealthiest European city. Despite the eventual recovery of Constantinople in 1261, the Byzantine Empire remained only one of several small states in the area for the final two centuries of its existence. Its remaining territories were annexed by the Ottomans over the 15th century. The Fall of Constantinople to the Ottoman Empire in 1453 finally ended the Byzantine Empire, the term comes from Byzantium, the name of the city of Constantinople before it became Constantines capital. This older name of the city would rarely be used from this point onward except in historical or poetic contexts. The publication in 1648 of the Byzantine du Louvre, and in 1680 of Du Canges Historia Byzantina further popularised the use of Byzantine among French authors, however, it was not until the mid-19th century that the term came into general use in the Western world. The Byzantine Empire was known to its inhabitants as the Roman Empire, the Empire of the Romans, Romania, the Roman Republic, Graikia, and also as Rhōmais. The inhabitants called themselves Romaioi and Graikoi, and even as late as the 19th century Greeks typically referred to modern Greek as Romaika and Graikika. The authority of the Byzantine emperor as the legitimate Roman emperor was challenged by the coronation of Charlemagne as Imperator Augustus by Pope Leo III in the year 800. No such distinction existed in the Islamic and Slavic worlds, where the Empire was more seen as the continuation of the Roman Empire. In the Islamic world, the Roman Empire was known primarily as Rûm, the Roman army succeeded in conquering many territories covering the entire Mediterranean region and coastal regions in southwestern Europe and north Africa. These territories were home to different cultural groups, both urban populations and rural populations. The West also suffered heavily from the instability of the 3rd century ADByzantine Empire – Tremissis with the image of Justinian the Great (r. 527–565) (see Byzantine insignia)
3. Chaldia – Chaldia was a historical region located in mountainous interior of the eastern Black Sea, northeast Anatolia. Its name was derived from a people called the Chaldoi that inhabited the region in Antiquity, Chaldia was used throughout the Byzantine period and was established as a formal theme, known as the Theme of Chaldia, by 840. During the late Middle Ages, it formed the core of the Empire of Trebizond until its fall to the Ottomans in 1461. Anthony Bryer traces the origin of its not to Chaldea, as Constantine VII had done. Bryer notes at the time of his writing that a number of villages in the Of district were known as Halt. Its main cities were the two ancient Greek colonies, Kerasus and Trapezus, situated in the coastal lowlands, the mines of the region gave the name Argyropolis to the principal settlement. Byzantine sources provide evidence that the people of Chaldia and Tzanicha were descended from the inhabitants of the historical area of Chaldia. Strabo identifies them with the ancient people of Chalybia and describes them as rough, the first local inhabitants, the Chalybes, were counted among the earliest ironsmith nations by Classical writers. Indeed, the Greek name for steel is chalybas, possibly deriving from them, the first Greek colony was that of Trapezus, founded by Greek traders from Miletus, traditionally dated to 756 BC. Greek colonization was restricted to the coast, and in later ages Roman control remained likewise only nominal over the tribes of the interior, the coastal regions, however, belonged to the Roman province of Pontus Polemoniacus. Only during the reign of the Byzantine emperor Justinian I were the tribes, the Sannoi or Tzannoi, subdued, Christianized. Justinian included the region in the newly constituted province of Armenia I Magna with Trapezus as its capital. By 840, and perhaps as early as 824, it was constituted as a theme in its own right, in the early 10th century, the themes southern portion, the district of Keltzene, was detached and added to the newly established theme of Mesopotamia. Until the eastern gains in the latter 10th century, Chaldia remained the frontier of the Byzantine Empire. During the periods 1091/1095–1098 and 1126–1140, the theme was practically autonomous from the Byzantine government, following the dissolution of the Byzantine Empire by the Fourth Crusade in 1204, the region became part of the new Empire of Trebizond. Indeed, by the 14th century, the Empire was reduced practically to the territory of the old theme, even thereafter, isolated fortresses in the interior continued to resist. Only in 1479 was the region subdued, when the castle of Golacha, significant numbers of Pontic Greeks remained in the region throughout the Ottoman period, until the 1923 population exchange between Greece and TurkeyChaldia – Map of the administrative structure of the Byzantine Empire in 842. Chaldia's strategic location in the north-easternmost corner of the Empire is evident.
4. Isfendiyarids – The region is also known in Western literature as Paphlagonia, a name used for the same geographic area during the Roman period. The founder of the beylik is Şemseddin Yaman Candar, the collapsed in 1461 when the Ottoman sultan Mehmed II annexed the region. The Seljuq Sultan Masud II gave Kastamonu to Temür Yaman Jandar and this province, however, was already under the control of the Chobanids. Following Temürs death, his son Süleyman I conquered the province and annexed Safranbolu and Sinop, Süleyman then appointed his son Ibrahim I as governor to Sinop and a second son Ali to Safranbolu. Süleyman reigned under the authority of the Ilkhanate, the Mongols of Persia, following the death of Süleyman I, his sons Ibrahim I and Ali fought for the throne. In 1339 Ibrahim was victorious and took over the rule of Kastamonu, upon his death, his cousin Adil replaced him. When Adil died, his son Kötürüm Bayezid became bey, Bayezid left for Sinop, and thus the Jandarid Principality was divided. After Bayezids death in 1385, his son Isfendiyar succeeded him, based in Kastamonu, Süleyman II remained faithful to Murad I, his supporter in his revolt against his father, and participated in Ottoman campaigns in Europe in 1386 and 1389. Murads successor, the aggressive Beyazid I launched an assault in 1391 on Kastamonu as part of an effort to control the Anatolian beyliks, Süleyman II was killed and Jandarids rule in Kastamonu ended. Meanwhile, fearing conflict with the powerful Ottomans, Isfendiyar requested immunity from Beyazid in return for being subject to Ottoman reign, after Timur left Anatolia, during the Ottoman Interregnum, Isfendiyar stood close to all the four sons of Beyazid avoiding any conflict. When one of his sons, Kasım claimed control over Çankırı and Tosya, and declared the annexation of areas to the Ottoman Empire. But Isfendiyar revolted against the new sultan Murad II, only to be defeated, Isfendiyar died in 1439, to be succeeded by his son Ibrahim II, who upon his death was replaced by Ismail in 1443. After his conquest of Constantinople in 1453, the Ottoman sultan Mehmed II turned to Anatolia to unite the Anatolian beyliks, according to new research, this seems to have happened in 1464. Descendants of the Jandarid dynasty live today as Citizens of the Turkish Republic mostly in Istanbul and in Europe, ayşe Sultan, who was the last identified descendant of the Jandarid dynasty having benefited from the status offered by the Ottoman Empire to the dynasty, died 1981 in Ankara. The flag of Jandarids may confuse many with what is now known as the Star of David. In medieval times however, this was not solely a Jewish symbol, another state known to use the seal on their flag was the Beylik of Karaman. The Jandarids was located at an important region in the northeast of Anatolia. They were quite significant in their area with their population and political influence, existing along other beyliksIsfendiyarids – Flag according to the Catalan Atlas.
5. League of Mayapan – The League of Mayapan was a confederation of Maya states in the post classic period of Mesoamerica on the Yucatan peninsula. The main members of the league were the Itza, the Tutul-Xiu, Mayapan, Mayapan means flag of the Maya. The Itza were known as water witches, according to the Chilam Balam of Chumayel, in 325 they started immigrating to Bacalar from Peten. From there many of them continued northwest, where they conquered the classical Maya city of Uuc Yabnal and they lived there from 550 to 692. After that for economic and political reasons the Itza moved to Chakan Putum, the Tutul-Xiu were known as overflowing virtue. In the Seventh century they migrated to Yucatan, there their leader Ah Suytok Tutul Xiu, nicknamed Chac Uitzil Hun, founded Uxmal. The date that this happened is disputed by a codex from Tizimin, in 869 Ah Mekat Tutul Xiu ruler of the Tutul Xius moved to Uxmal from Nonohual. Nonohuals location is unknown, but was probably in Peten, it also might have another name for Potonchán in Tabasco or Tula. The Tutul Xius were the group of people forcing the Itzas out of Chichen Itza. The Cocom were known as the lineage of the woode pigeon and they lived farther to the west and forced the Itza out of Chakan Putum. The Itzas spent forty years living in the rainforest, before the foundation of the league, the Toltecs invaded Yucatan. Their leader was the semi-mythical king Kukulcan, whether Kukulkan was real or not, the Toltecs had influence over the Mayas there. Ah Mekat Tutul Xiu, is considered the ruler who founded The League of Mayapan in 987 and he unified Chichen Itza, Mayapan, and Uxmal. Chichen Itza being the city, with a population of approximately 50,000 people. He continued to other areas, Zama, Ichpatun, Itzamal. In 1175 The League began to disintegrate, a Cocom man named Ceel Cauich Ah was ritually thrown into the cenote of Chichen Itza. The Sacred Cenote of Chichen Itza was specially considered an entrance to the after life and its 15 meters deep from the ground to the water surface and its very steep walls made almost impossible to climb out if thrown into. But Ceel managed to survive and climbed out, which he pretended to be a sign of his right to rule and proclaimed himself AjawLeague of Mayapan – The League of Mayapan at its greatest extent, circa 1200
6. Empire of Trebizond – The Empire of Trebizond or the Trapezuntine Empire was a monarchy that flourished during the 13th through 15th centuries, consisting of the far northeastern corner of Anatolia and the southern Crimea. The Emperors of Trebizond pressed their claim on the Imperial throne for decades after the Nicaean reconquest of Constantinople in 1261, the Trapezuntine monarchy survived the longest of the Byzantine successor states. The Despotate of Epirus was slowly decimated, and briefly occupied by the restored Byzantine Empire c. 1340, thereafter becoming a Serbian dependency and later inherited by Italians, ultimately falling to the Ottoman Empire in 1479, having long ceased to contest the Byzantine throne. While the Empire of Nicaea had become the resurrected Byzantine Empire, the Empire of Trebizond continued until 1461 when the Ottoman Sultan Mehmed II conquered it after a month-long siege and took its ruler and his family into captivity. The Crimean Principality of Theodoro, an offshoot of Trebizond, lasted another 14 years and its demographic legacy endured for several centuries after the Ottoman conquest in 1461 and the region retained a substantial number of Greek Orthodox inhabitants until 1923. These are usually referred to as Pontic Greeks and their displacement was formalized, and the few still remaining were required to leave, in 1923 with the population exchange between Greece and Turkey. Many were resettled in Greek Macedonia and those living in the Crimea and the Russian province of Kars Oblast, much of which lies in modern Georgia, stayed longer, with some Greek speaking villages remaining in both locations today. Anthony Bryer has argued that six of the seven banda of the Byzantine theme of Chaldia were maintained in working order by the rulers of Trebizond until the end of the empire, helped by geography. This territory corresponds to an area comprising all or parts of the modern Turkish provinces of Sinop, Samsun, Ordu, Giresun, Trabzon, Bayburt, Gümüşhane, Rize, and Artvin. In the 13th century, some believe the empire controlled the Gazarian Perateia. However, after Michael VIII Palaiologos of Nicaea recaptured Constantinople in 1261, in 1282, John II Komnenos stripped off his imperial regalia before the walls of Constantinople before entering to marry Michaels daughter and accept his legal title of despot. However, his successors used a version of his title, Emperor and Autocrat of the entire East, of the Iberians, rulers of Trebizond were also known as Prince of Lazes. Its wealth and exotic location endowed a lingering fame on the polity, cervantes described the eponymous hero of his Don Quixote as imagining himself for the valour of his arm already crowned at least Emperor of Trebizond. Rabelais had his character Picrochole, the ruler of Piedmont, declare, other allusions and works set in Trebizond continue into the 20th century. The city of Trebizond was the capital of the theme of Chaldia, the Byzantine Emperor Alexios I Komnenos confirmed him as governor of Chaldia, but kept his son at Constantinople as a hostage for his good conduct. Nevertheless, Gabras proved himself a worthy guardian by repelling a Georgian attack on Trebizond, one of his successors, Gregory Taronites also rebelled with the aid of the Sultan of Cappadocia, but he was defeated and imprisoned, only to be made governor once more. Another successor to Theodore was Constantine Gabras, whom Niketas describes as ruling Trebizond as a tyrant, although that effort came to nothing, this was the last rebel governor known to recorded history prior to the events of 1204. Henceforth, the links between Trebizond and Georgia remained close, but their nature and extent have been disputed, both men were the grandsons of the last Komnenian Byzantine emperor, Andronikos I Komnenos, by his son Manuel Komnenos and Rusudan, daughter of George III of GeorgiaEmpire of Trebizond – Alexios III, from the chrysobull he granted to the Dionysiou monastery on Mount Athos.