Category:States and territories disestablished in 1461
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to States and territories disestablished in 1461.|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to States and territories disestablished in 1461.|
1. Sovereign state – A sovereign state is, in international law, a nonphysical juridical entity, represented by one centralised government that has sovereignty over a geographic area. International law defines sovereign states as having a permanent population, defined territory, the capacity to enter into relations with other sovereign states. It is also normally understood that a sovereign state is neither dependent on nor subjected to state. The disappearance of a state is a question of fact. States came into existence as people "gradually transferred their allegiance to an intangible but territorial political entity, of the state". States are but one of political orders that emerged from feudal Europe, others being city states, leagues, empires with universalist claims to authority. Sovereignty is the concept of nation-state sovereignty based on territoriality and the absence of a role for external agents in domestic structures. It is an international system of states, organizations that began with the Peace of Westphalia in 1648. Sovereignty is a term, frequently misused. Lassa Oppenheim said "There exists perhaps no conception the meaning of, more controversial than that of sovereignty. The right of nations to exercise permanent sovereignty within the limits of their territorial jurisdictions is widely recognised. The Westphalian model of sovereignty has increasingly come under fire from the "non-west" as a system imposed solely by Western Colonialism. What this model did was make a subordinate to politics, a problem that has caused some issues in the Islamic world. Nation denotes a people who are deemed to share common customs, religion, language, origins, ancestry or history. However, the adjectives international are frequently used to refer to matters pertaining to what are strictly sovereign states, as in national capital, international law.Sovereign state – Member states of the United Nations, all of which are sovereign states, though not all sovereign states are necessarily members
2. Byzantine Empire – During most of its existence, the empire was the most powerful economic, military force in Europe. Several signal events from the 4th to 6th centuries mark the period of transition during which the Roman Empire's Greek East and Latin West divided. Constantine I reorganised the empire, legalised Christianity. Under Theodosius I, Christianity became other religious practices were proscribed. Finally, under the reign of Heraclius, the Empire's administration were restructured and adopted Greek for official use instead of Latin. The borders of the Empire evolved significantly over its existence, as it went through several cycles of recovery. During the reign of Maurice, the north stabilised. In a matter of years the Empire lost Egypt and Syria, to the Arabs. This battle opened the way for the Turks to settle as a homeland. The Empire recovered again during such that by the 12th century Constantinople was the largest and wealthiest European city. Its remaining territories were progressively annexed by the Ottomans over the 15th century. The Fall of Constantinople to the Ottoman Empire in 1453 finally ended the Byzantine Empire. The term comes from "Byzantium", the name of the city of Constantinople before it became Constantine's capital. This older name of the city would rarely be used from this point onward except in poetic contexts. However, it was not until the mid-19th century that the term came in the Western world.Byzantine Empire – Tremissis with the image of Justinian the Great (r. 527–565) (see Byzantine insignia)
3. Chaldia – Chaldia was a historical region located in mountainous interior of the eastern Black Sea, northeast Anatolia. Its name was derived from a people called the Chaldoi that inhabited the region in Antiquity. Chaldia was used throughout the Byzantine period and known as the Theme of Chaldia, by 840. During the late Middle Ages, it formed the core of the Empire of Trebizond to the Ottomans in 1461. Bryer notes at the time of his writing that a number of villages in the Of district were still known as "Halt". Its main cities were Kerasus and Trapezus, situated in the coastal lowlands. The mines of the region gave Argyropolis to the principal settlement. Byzantine sources provide evidence that the people of Chaldia and Tzanicha were descended from the indigenous inhabitants of the historical area of Chaldia. Strabo describes them as rough and warlike. The Chalybes, were counted among the earliest ironsmith nations by Classical writers. Indeed, the Greek name for steel is chalybas, possibly deriving from them. The Greek colony was that of Trapezus, founded by Greek traders from Miletus, traditionally dated to 756 BC. In later ages Roman control remained likewise only nominal over the tribes of the interior. The coastal regions, however, belonged to the Roman province of Pontus Polemoniacus. Only during the reign of the Byzantine Justinian I were the warlike tribes, the Sannoi or Tzannoi, subdued, Christianized, brought under central rule.Chaldia – Map of the administrative structure of the Byzantine Empire in 842. Chaldia's strategic location in the north-easternmost corner of the Empire is evident.
4. Isfendiyarids – The region is also known as Paphlagonia, a name used during the Roman period. The founder of the beylik is Şemseddin Yaman Candar; the beylik collapsed in 1461 when the Ottoman sultan Mehmed II annexed the region. The Seljuq Sultan Masud II gave Kastamonu in thanks for rescuing him from Mongol captivity. This province, however, was already under the control of the Chobanids. Following his Süleyman I conquered the province and annexed Safranbolu and Sinop, formerly ruled by the descendants of Mu`in al-Din Suleyman. Süleyman then appointed his son I to Safranbolu. Süleyman reigned under the authority of the Ilkhanate, the Mongols of Persia, until the death of the ruler Abu Sa'id. Following the death of Süleyman I, his sons Ibrahim I and Ali fought for the throne. In 1339 Ibrahim was victorious and took over the rule of Kastamonu. Upon his death, his cousin Adil replaced him. When Adil died, his son Kötürüm Bayezid became bey. Bayezid left for Sinop, thus the Jandarid Principality was divided. After Bayezid's death in 1385, his son Isfendiyar succeeded him. Murad's successor, the aggressive Beyazid I launched an assault as part of an effort to control the Anatolian beyliks. Süleyman II was killed and Jandarids' rule in Kastamonu ended.Isfendiyarids – Flag according to the Catalan Atlas.
5. League of Mayapan – The League of Mayapan was a confederation of Maya states in the post classic period of Mesoamerica on the Yucatan peninsula. The main members of the league were the Itza, the Tutul-Xiu, Uxmal. Mayapan means flag of the Maya. The Itza were known as water witches. According in 325 they started immigrating to Bacalar from Peten. From there many of them continued northwest, where they conquered the classical Maya city of Uuc Yabnal and renamed it as Chichen Itza. They lived there from 550 to 692. After that for political reasons the Itza moved to Chakan Putum, where they lived until 928 when they returned to Chichen Itza. The Tutul-Xiu were known as overflowing virtue. In the Seventh century they migrated to Yucatan. There their leader Ah Suytok Tutul Xiu, nicknamed Chac Uitzil Hun, founded Uxmal. The date that this happened is disputed by another from Mani. In 869 Ah Mekat Tutul Xiu ruler of the Tutul Xius moved from Nonohual. Nonohual's location was probably in Peten, it also might have been another name for Potonchán in Tabasco or Tula. The Tutul Xius were the main group of Chichen Itza.League of Mayapan – The League of Mayapan at its greatest extent, circa 1200
6. Empire of Trebizond – The Emperors of Trebizond pressed their claim on the Imperial throne for decades after the Nicaean reconquest of Constantinople in 1261. The Trapezuntine monarchy survived the longest of the Byzantine successor states. The Despotate of Epirus was slowly decimated, briefly occupied by the restored Byzantine Empire c. The Crimean Principality of Theodoro, an offshoot of Trebizond, lasted another 14 years, falling to the Ottomans in 1475. Its demographic legacy endured for several centuries after the Ottoman conquest in 1461 and the region retained a substantial number of Greek Orthodox inhabitants until 1923. These are usually referred to as Pontic Greeks. The few still remaining were required to leave, with the exchange between Greece and Turkey. Many were resettled in Greek Macedonia. This territory corresponds to an area comprising all or parts of the modern Turkish provinces of Sinop, Samsun, Ordu, Giresun, Trabzon, Bayburt, Gümüşhane, Rize, Artvin. In the 13th century, some experts believe the empire controlled the Gazarian Perateia, which included Cherson and Kerch on the Crimean peninsula. However, after Michael VIII Palaiologos of Nicaea recaptured Constantinople in 1261, the Komnenian use of the style "Emperor" became a sore point. Rulers of Trebizond were also known as "Prince of Lazes". Its wealth and exotic location endowed a lingering fame on the polity. Cervantes described the eponymous hero of his Don Quixote as "imagining himself for the valour of his arm already crowned at least Emperor of Trebizond." Rabelais had his character Picrochole, the ruler of Piedmont, declare: "I want also to be Emperor of Trebizond."Empire of Trebizond – Alexios III, from the chrysobull he granted to the Dionysiou monastery on Mount Athos.