Category:States and territories established in 330
This category has only the following subcategory.
- ► Byzantine Empire (22 C, 7 P, 2 F)
This category has only the following subcategory.
1. Sovereign state – A sovereign state is, in international law, a nonphysical juridical entity, represented by one centralised government that has sovereignty over a geographic area. International law defines sovereign states as having a permanent population, defined territory, the capacity to enter into relations with other sovereign states. It is also normally understood that a sovereign state is neither dependent on nor subjected to state. The disappearance of a state is a question of fact. States came into existence as people "gradually transferred their allegiance to an intangible but territorial political entity, of the state". States are but one of political orders that emerged from feudal Europe, others being city states, leagues, empires with universalist claims to authority. Sovereignty is the concept of nation-state sovereignty based on territoriality and the absence of a role for external agents in domestic structures. It is an international system of states, organizations that began with the Peace of Westphalia in 1648. Sovereignty is a term, frequently misused. Lassa Oppenheim said "There exists perhaps no conception the meaning of, more controversial than that of sovereignty. The right of nations to exercise permanent sovereignty within the limits of their territorial jurisdictions is widely recognised. The Westphalian model of sovereignty has increasingly come under fire from the "non-west" as a system imposed solely by Western Colonialism. What this model did was make a subordinate to politics, a problem that has caused some issues in the Islamic world. Nation denotes a people who are deemed to share common customs, religion, language, origins, ancestry or history. However, the adjectives international are frequently used to refer to matters pertaining to what are strictly sovereign states, as in national capital, international law.Sovereign state – Member states of the United Nations, all of which are sovereign states, though not all sovereign states are necessarily members
2. Byzantine Empire – During most of its existence, the empire was the most powerful economic, military force in Europe. Several signal events from the 4th to 6th centuries mark the period of transition during which the Roman Empire's Greek East and Latin West divided. Constantine I reorganised the empire, legalised Christianity. Under Theodosius I, Christianity became other religious practices were proscribed. Finally, under the reign of Heraclius, the Empire's administration were restructured and adopted Greek for official use instead of Latin. The borders of the Empire evolved significantly over its existence, as it went through several cycles of recovery. During the reign of Maurice, the north stabilised. In a matter of years the Empire lost Egypt and Syria, to the Arabs. This battle opened the way for the Turks to settle as a homeland. The Empire recovered again during such that by the 12th century Constantinople was the largest and wealthiest European city. Its remaining territories were progressively annexed by the Ottomans over the 15th century. The Fall of Constantinople to the Ottoman Empire in 1453 finally ended the Byzantine Empire. The term comes from "Byzantium", the name of the city of Constantinople before it became Constantine's capital. This older name of the city would rarely be used from this point onward except in poetic contexts. However, it was not until the mid-19th century that the term came in the Western world.Byzantine Empire – Tremissis with the image of Justinian the Great (r. 527–565) (see Byzantine insignia)
3. Rouran Khaganate – The Rouran Khaganate, Ruru, or Tantan was the name of a state established by proto-Mongols, from the late 4th century until the middle 6th century. Rouran is a Classical Chinese transcription of the endonym of the confederacy. Ruanruan and Ruru remained in usage despite being derogatory. They derived from orders given by the Emperor Taiwu of Northern Wei, who waged war against the Rouran and intended to intimidate the confederacy. According to René Grousset, Ju-juan – an alternate Chinese name for the Rouran – was a "disparaging pun" derived from Juan-Juan: "unpleasantly wriggling insects". This, however, is not generally accepted and there are other theories regarding the origin of the Pannonian Avars. They considered the Tuoba and Rourans to be descended from common ancestors. Also some contemporary historians studying the history of Northern Wei, like Kwok Kin Poon, proposed that the Rouran descended specifically from Xianbei of Donghu heritage. They were first noted as having defeated the Tiele and establishing an empire extending all the way to the Hulun, an alliance in eastern Inner Mongolia. During the reign of Yujiulü Shelun, Rouran became a powerful empire. To the west of the Rouran Khaganate was the Hephthalite Empire, a vassal of the Rouran until the beginning of the 5th century. The Hephthalites and Rouran had close contact, although they had different languages and cultures, the Hephthalites borrowed much of their political organization from the Rouran. In particular, the title “Khan“, which according to McGovern was original to the Rouran, was borrowed by the Hephthalite rulers. The reason for the migration of the Hephthalites southeast was to avoid pressure from the Rouran. Further, the Hephthalites defeated the Yuezhi in Bactria and their leader Kidara led the Yuezhi to the south.Rouran Khaganate