Category:Suicides by firearm in France
Pages in category "Suicides by firearm in France"
The following 28 pages are in this category, out of 28 total, this list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 28 pages are in this category, out of 28 total, this list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Guy Debord – Guy Louis Debord was a French Marxist theorist, writer, filmmaker, member of the Letterist International, founder of a Letterist faction, and founding member of the Situationist International. He was also briefly a member of Socialisme ou Barbarie, Guy Debord was born in Paris in 1931. Debords father, Martial, was a pharmacist who died due to illness when Debord was young, Debords mother, Paulette Rossi, sent Guy to live with his grandmother in her family villa in Italy. During World War II, the Rossis left the villa and began to travel from town to town, as a result, Debord attended high school in Cannes, where he began his interest in film and vandalism. As a young man, Debord actively opposed the French war in Algeria, Debord studied Law at the University of Paris, but left early and did not complete his college education. After ending his stint at the University of Paris, he began his career as a writer, Debord joined the Letterist International when he was 19. The Letterists were led dictatorially by Isidore Isou until an agreed upon schism ended Isous authority. This schism gave rise to several factions of Letterists, one of which was led by Debord upon Gil Wolmans unequivocal recommendation. In the 1960s, Debord led the Situationist International group, which influenced the Paris Uprising of 1968, some consider his book The Society of the Spectacle to be a catalyst for the uprising. In 1972, Debord disbanded the Situationist International after its members, including Asger Jorn and Raoul Vaneigem. Debord then focused on filmmaking with financial backing from the movie mogul and publisher, Gérard Lebovici, Debord was suspected of Lebovicis murder. Distraught by the accusations and his friends death, Debord took his films and he had agreed to have his films released posthumously at the request of the American researcher, Thomas Y. Debords two most recognized films are Society of the Spectacle and In girum imus nocte et consumimur igni, after dissolving the Situationist International, Debord spent his time reading, and occasionally writing, in relative isolation in a cottage at Champot with Alice Becker-Ho, his second wife. He continued to correspond on political and other issues, notably with Lebovici and he focused on reading material relating to war strategies, e. g. Clausewitz and Sun Tzu, and he designed a war game with Alice Becker-Ho. Debord married twice, first to Michèle Bernstein and then Alice Becker-Ho, Debord had affairs with other women, including Michèle Mochot, the daughter of a surrealist. Bernstein wrote a fictional but detailed account of the open relationships Mochot. Just before Debords death, he filmed a documentary, Son art et son temps and it has been suggested that his dark depiction of this period was a suicide note of sorts. Both Debords depression and alcohol consumption had become problematic, resulting in a form of polyneuritis, perhaps in order to end the suffering caused by these conditions, Debord committed suicide by shooting himself in the head on November 30,1994Guy Debord
2. Jean Germain (politician) – Jean Germain was a French socialist politician. Germain was the president of lUniversité de Tours from 1988 to 1993, in 1995 he was elected mayor of Tours and president of the agglomeration community of Tours, Tour Plus. In September 2011 Germain was elected as a Senator from the department of Indre-et-Loire, Germain was a member of the French Socialist Party. He left two notes, protesting his innocenceJean Germain (politician) – Jean Germain
3. Roger Girerd – Roger Girerd was a French mass murderer who killed 10 members of his family at a farm in Charvieu-Chavagneux on May 20,1965, before committing suicide. The crime was reported to be the deadliest mass murder by a person in French history at that time. Girerd was said to have worked at a foundry from morning to evening, due to being overworked he had been in a mental institution in Grenoble for a few months in 1959. In the months prior to the murders he showed signs of fatigue and uttered fears of a nuclear war. According to reports, the 34-year-old stabbed his wife, Jeannette, his six children, aged 6 months to 10 years, as well as a 16 months-old niece, during the night from May 19 to May 20. The bodies of Jeannette, four of his children, and his niece were found the day lying in the kitchen, covered with sheets. At approximately 8,30 a. m. a witness heard two shots from the farm, and it was suspected that Girerd then killed his 58-year-old mother, two more shots were heard at about 10 a. m. when Girerd killed his dog and himself. In a suicide note, Girerd stated he was sick of living in poverty and watching his family living in need, writing, I dont want my children to have to live the way I have to. I want everyone to live in peace, I am leaving money for the funeral and to pay my debtsRoger Girerd – Roger Girerd
4. Ivar Kreuger – Ivar Kreuger was a Swedish civil engineer, financier, entrepreneur and industrialist. In 1908 he co-founded the construction company Kreuger & Toll Byggnads AB, by aggressive investments and innovative financial instruments he built a global match and financial empire. Kreugers financial empire has been described by one biographer as a Ponzi scheme, however, in a Ponzi scheme early investors are paid dividends from their own money or that of subsequent investors. Many of them have survived to this day, Kreuger & Toll, for example, was composed of bona fide businesses, and there were others like it. Another biographer called Kreuger a genius and swindler, and John Kenneth Galbraith wrote that he was the Leonardo of larcenists, Kreugers financial empire collapsed during the Great Depression, and in March 1932, he was found dead in the bedroom of his flat in Paris. The police concluded that he had committed suicide, but decades later his brother Torsten claimed that he had been murdered, which spawned some controversial literature on the subject. Kreuger was born in Kalmar, the eldest son of Ernst August Kreuger, an industrialist in the industry in that city. Ivar Kreuger had five siblings, Ingrid, Helga, Torsten, at school, Ivar skipped ahead two classes by taking private lessons. Ivar Kreuger never married, but lived for years in different periods with Ingeborg Eberth, family name Hässler, born in Stockholm. They met for the first time in Stockholm in 1913, according to the book she wrote in 1932, after Kruegers death, he was not interested in marriage or children, and was very much focused on his business. She broke off the relationship in 1917 and moved to Denmark and they had a daughter in 1919, Grete Eberth. After some years however, she divorced Eberth and moved back to Stockholm with her daughter, mr. Eberth once kidnapped the daughter in Stockholm and brought her back to Denmark. The new period with Kreuger lasted until around 1928, after that they just met occasionally, the last time they met was in November 1931, just before Kreuger started on his final trip to America. Eberth received the news about his death in Paris on March 12,1932 from newspaper headlines the day after. Kreuger had private apartments in Stockholm, New York, Paris, and Warsaw, on business tours in Europe, he preferred to meet his business associates in Paris and then stayed in his flat at 5, Av. A replica of the boat has been built and he had a large private library in both his apartments in Stockholm and New York and quite a large art collection. The paintings were sold at different auctions held in September 1932, the collection in Stockholm comprised 88 original paintings, among them 19 by Anders Zorn and a great number by old masters from the Netherlands. The New York collection included paintings by Rembrandt and Anthony van DyckIvar Kreuger – Ivar Kreuger c. 1920
5. Nicolas Leblanc – Nicolas Leblanc was a French chemist and surgeon who discovered how to manufacture soda from common salt. Leblanc was born in Ivoy le Pré, Cher, France on December 61742 and his father, a minor official at an iron works, died in 1751. Leblanc was sent to Bourges to live with Dr. Bien, under the influence of his guardian, Leblanc developed an interest in medicine. When Bien died in 1759, Leblanc enrolled at the École de Chirurgie in Paris to study medicine, graduating with a masters degree in surgery, Leblanc opened a medical practice. He married in 1776, and the couples first child followed three years later, in 1775, the French Academy of Sciences offered a prize for a process whereby soda ash could be produced from salt. The French Academy wanted to promote the production of much-needed sodium carbonate from sodium chloride. By 1791, Nicolas Leblanc had succeeded in producing sodium carbonate from salt by a 2-step process, in the first step, sodium chloride is mixed with concentrated sulfuric acid at temperatures of 800-900 °C, hydrogen chloride gas is evolved, leaving solid sodium sulfate. In the second step, the sulfate is crushed, mixed with charcoal and limestone. The prize was awarded to Nicolas Leblanc for a process which used sea salt, later a plant was in operation producing 320 tons of soda ash per year. The process, however, is now obsolete and is superseded by the extremely profitable, two years later the plant was confiscated by the French revolutionary government, which refused to pay him the prize money he had earned ten years earlier. In 1802 Napoleon returned the plant to him, but by then Leblanc could not afford to run it and he committed suicide by a gunshot to the head in 1806. William Losh visited Paris to study Leblancs process, in 1807, Losh, Wilson and Bell opened the first alkali works in England that used the Leblanc process, at Walker, Newcastle upon Tyne. A Crisis in the Soap and Glass IndustriesNicolas Leblanc – Nicolas Leblanc chemist & physician
6. Bernard Loiseau – Bernard Loiseau was a French chef. He committed suicide by firearm in 2003 when newspaper reports hinted that his restaurant might lose its 3-star status, Loiseau was born in Chamalières, in the Auvergne region of central France. He decided to become a chef as a teenager, apprenticing at the famous La Maison Troisgros run by the brothers Jean and Pierre Troisgros in Roanne between 1968 and 1971. When Verger bought the formerly prestigious La Côte dOr of Saulieu in 1975, he installed Loiseau as chef, Loiseau bought La Côte dOr from Verger in 1982, and the well known Michelin Guide bestowed the coveted 3-star rating on his establishment in 1991. His fanatic attention to detail, frenetic work ethic and discerning palate propelled him to the top of his profession and earned him a knowledgeable and loyal but unforgiving and demanding clientele. Bernard Loiseau established Bernard Loiseau SA in 1998, and was the first star restaurateur to establish the concept of having ones restaurant incorporated and traded, at the time of his death, he was the only French chef traded on the stock exchange. Under Bernard Loiseau SA, Loiseau published numerous books, established a line of frozen foods, in the late 1990s, a new form of Asian-inspired fusion cuisine swept France, catering to an international corporate class and pleasing trend-driven foodies, which Loiseau resisted. The prevailing notion, however, was that the pre-eminent Loiseaus grip was slipping — that his cuisine and he was by this time deeply in debt, and suffered from bouts of increasingly severe clinical depression. Loiseau committed suicide on 24 February 2003, shooting himself in the mouth with his shotgun after a day of work in his kitchen. Loiseau had made a lifes ambition of becoming a 3-star chef, after his death, three-star chef Jacques Lameloise said Loiseau had once confided, If I lose a star, Ill kill myself. While it was reported that Loiseau was despondent over his debt issues and decreasing patronage at his restaurant. As of 2017 La Côte dOr remains a three-star establishment in the hands of executive chef Patrick Bertron, the plot of the Pixar film Ratatouille has its roots in Loiseaus life story. La Côte dOr was one of the restaurants visited by Brad Bird, the Perfectionist, Life and Death in Haute Cuisine. Burgundy Stars, A Year in the Life of a Great French RestaurantBernard Loiseau – Bernard and Dominique Loiseau
7. Henry de Montherlant – Henry Marie Joseph Frédéric Expedite Millon de Montherlant was a French essayist, novelist, and dramatist. He was elected to the Académie française in 1960, born in Paris, a descendant of an aristocratic Picard family, he was educated at the Lycée Janson de Sailly and the Sainte-Croix boarding school at Neuilly-sur-Seine. Henrys father was a hard-line reactionary, in 1912 Henry was expelled from the Catholic Sainte-Croix de Neuilly academy for a relationship with a fellow male student, a relationship that he would depict in his 1969 novel Les Garçons. After the deaths of his father and mother in 1914 and 1915, he went to live with his doting grandmother, mobilised in 1916, he was wounded and decorated. Marked by his experience of war, he wrote Songe, a novel, as well as his Chant funèbre pour les morts de Verdun. In the 1920s and 30s de Montherlant achieved critical success with the 1934 novel Les Célibataires, in these years de Montherlant traveled extensively, mainly to Spain, Italy, and Algeria. During the Second World War after the fall of France in 1940 he remained in Paris and continued to write plays, poems, essays, and worked as a war correspondent. Some time in 1968, according to one source, de Montherlant was attacked and beaten in the streets of Paris, after becoming almost blind in his last years, de Montherlant died from a self-inflicted gunshot wound to the head after swallowing a cyanide capsule in 1972. His standard biography was written by Pierre Sipriot, and published in two volumes, revealing the extent of de Montherlants sexual habits. His early successes were such as Les Célibataires in 1934, and the highly anti-feminist tetralogy Les Jeunes Filles. His late novel Chaos and Night was published in 1963, the novels were praised by writers as diverse as Aragon, Bernanos, and Malraux. De Montherlant was well known for his anti-feminist and misogynistic views, simone de Beauvoir considered his attitudes about women in detail in her The Second Sex. He wrote plays such as Pasiphaé, La Reine morte, Le Maître de Santiago, Port-Royal and he is particularly remembered as a playwright. In his plays as well as in his novels he frequently portrayed heroic characters displaying the standards he professed. He worked as an essayist also, like many scions of the old aristocracy, he had hated the Third Republic, especially as it had become in the aftermath of the Dreyfus Affair. De Montherlant wrote articles for the Paris weekly, La Gerbe, directed by the pro-Nazi novelist, after the war, he was thus viewed as a collaborationist, and was punished by a one-year restriction on publishing. He maintained a correspondence with Roger Peyrefitte—author of Les Amitiés particulières. De Montherlant is remembered for his aphorism Happiness writes in white ink on a white page, Les célibataires was awarded the Grand prix de littérature de lAcadémie française in 1934, and the English Northcliffe PrizeHenry de Montherlant – Henry de Montherlant
8. Georges Palante – Georges Toussaint Léon Palante was a French philosopher and sociologist. He advocated aristocratic individualist ideas similar to Nietzsche and Schopenhauer and he was opposed to Émile Durkheims holism, promoting methodological individualism instead. Palante was born in Saint-Laurent-Blangy in the Pas-de-Calais,20 November 1862 and his father, Emile Palante, was an accountant from Liège. Palantes older brother, Emile, died when he was five years old. He studied successively at the college of Arras, where he excelled in Latin and he obtained a Bachelor of Arts at the University of Douai. In 1885, he began his career as professor of philosophy at Aurillac, where he met his wife, Louise Genty. The couple had a daughter, Germaine, in 1890, between 1886 and 1888, he studied in Châteauroux. In 1888 he received his Agrégation in philosophy and he separated from his first wife in 1890 and was appointed to teach at the Lycée de Saint-Brieuc, Brittany, then in the following years at Valenciennes, La Rochelle and Niort. In 1893, he translated a work by Theobald Ziegler and began to publish articles and he returned in 1898 to the Lycée de Saint-Brieuc, at which he worked for the remainder of his teaching career. Meanwhile, he continued to work on his ideas, publishing articles. However, he published the draft under the title Antinomies entre lindividu et la société in 1912, in 1908, he stood in municipal elections as a socialist candidate but was not elected. He took over from Jules de Gaultier at the philosophy journal Mercure de France, in 1916, he befriended the writer Louis Guilloux. During this period he lived a lifestyle, drinking heavily and, notoriously. He married his wife, Louise Pierre, in 1923. On 5 August 1925 he died from a bullet wound to the head. The reasons for Palantes suicide are not certain, but he is known to have been suffering from acromegaly, a severe degenerative disease, which had no cure at time, it was making his life more and more painful. A thoroughgoing Individualist, he admired Nietzsche and showed early interest in the work of Freud and his thinking is also critical towards the mass herd instinct, which he thought oppresses and prevents individuals from developing fully. In sociology, he objected to the holistic model espoused by Emile Durkheim and he rejected the label anarchist, but his ideas are nevertheless often regarded as a form of anarchism or at least as libertarianismGeorges Palante – Palante's house in Hillion
9. Alexandre Stavisky – Serge Alexandre Stavisky was a French financier and embezzler whose actions created a political scandal that became known as the Stavisky Affair. Alexandre Stavisky was a Polish Jew born in modern-day Ukraine whose parents had moved to France, Stavisky tried various professions, working as a café singer, as a nightclub manager, as a worker in a soup factory, and as the operator of a gambling den. He received French citizenship in 1910, in the 1930s he managed municipal pawnshops in Bayonne but also moved in financial circles. He sold lots of worthless bonds and financed his hockshop on the surety of what he called the emeralds of the late Empress of Germany — which later turned out to be glass. In 1927, Stavisky was put on trial for fraud for the first time, however, the trial was postponed again and again, and he was granted bail 19 times. Faced with exposure in December 1933, Stavisky fled, on 8 January 1934, the police found him in a Chamonix chalet dying from two gunshot wounds to the head. Surgeons struggled to save him but he died early in the hours of January 9, officially, Stavisky committed suicide, but historians generally agree he was murdered to keep him silent. In the aftermath there were riots on the streets of Paris. The French premier Camille Chautemps was forced to resign owing to the number of ministers wrapped up in the affair, an official public enquiry was ordered into the affair. Stavisky died on January 8,1934, Chamonix and he was buried in Père Lachaise Cemetery. In 1974, film director Alain Resnais told the story in the film Stavisky. that featured Jean-Paul Belmondo in the title role and Anny Dupérey as his wife Arlette. Paul Jankowski, Stavisky - A Confidence Man in the Republic of Virtue, ISBN 0-8014-3959-0 Large, David Clay, Between Two Fires, Europes Path in the 1930s pp 24–58, a scholarly accountAlexandre Stavisky – Alexandre Stavisky
10. Death of Vincent van Gogh – Van Gogh was shot in the stomach, either by himself or by others, and died two days later. In 1889, Vincent van Gogh experienced a deterioration in his mental health, as a result of incidents in Arles leading to a public petition, he was committed to a hospital. His condition improved and he was ready to be discharged by March 1889, at Salles suggestion van Gogh chose an asylum in nearby Saint-Rémy. Theo originally resisted this choice, even suggesting that Vincent rejoin Paul Gauguin in Pont Aven, Vincent entered the asylum in early May 1889. His mental condition remained stable for a while and he was able to work en plein air, producing many of his most iconic paintings, such as Starry Night, at this time. However at the end of July, following a trip to Arles and he made a good recovery, only to suffer another relapse in late December 1889, and early the following January an acute relapse while delivering a portrait of Madame Ginoux to her in Arles. This last relapse, described by Jan Hulsker as his longest and saddest, lasted until March 1890. In May 1890 Vincent was discharged from the asylum, and after spending a few days with Theo and Jo in Paris, Vincent went to live in Auvers-sur-Oise, a commune north of Paris popular with artists. Shortly before leaving Saint-Rémy, Van Gogh told how he was suffering from his stay in the hospital, I need some air, I feel overwhelmed by boredom and grief. On arriving at Auvers, van Goghs health was not very good. Writing on 21 May to Theo he comments, I can do nothing about my illness, I am suffering a little just now — the thing is that after that long seclusion the days seem like weeks to me. But by 25 May, the artist was able to report to his parents that his health had improved and his letters to his sister Wilhelmina on 5 June and to Theo and his wife Jo on about 10 June indicate a continued improvement, his nightmares almost having disappeared. The other patients society had a bad influence on me, furthermore, an unsent letter to Paul Gauguin which van Gogh wrote around 17 June is quite positive about his plans for the future. After describing his recent colourful wheat studies, he explains, I would like to paint some portraits against a very vivid yet tranquil background. On 2 July, writing to his brother, van Gogh comments, I myself am also trying to do as well as I can, and if my disease returns, you would forgive me. I still love art and life very much, the first sign of new problems was revealed in a letter van Gogh wrote to Theo on 10 July. He first states, I am very well, I am working hard, have painted four studies, first of all, he is sicker than I am, I think, or shall we say just as much, so thats that. Certainly my last attack, which was terrible, was in a large measure due to the influence of the other patients, later in the letter he adds, For myself, I can only say at the moment that I think we all need rest — I feel exhaustedDeath of Vincent van Gogh – Graves of Vincent van Gogh and his brother Theo
11. Vincent van Gogh – Vincent Willem van Gogh was a Dutch Post-Impressionist painter who is among the most famous and influential figures in the history of Western art. In just over a decade he created about 2,100 artworks, including around 860 oil paintings and his suicide at 37 followed years of mental illness and poverty. Born into a family, Van Gogh drew as a child and was serious, quiet. As a young man he worked as an art dealer, often travelling and he turned to religion, and spent time as a Protestant missionary in southern Belgium. He drifted in ill health and solitude before taking up painting in 1881 and his younger brother Theo supported him financially, and the two kept up a long correspondence by letter. His early works, mostly still lifes and depictions of peasant labourers, in 1886 he moved to Paris, where he met members of the avant-garde, including Émile Bernard and Paul Gauguin, who were reacting against the Impressionist sensibility. As his work developed he created a new approach to still lifes and his paintings grew brighter in colour as he developed a style that became fully realised during his stay in Arles in the south of France in 1888. During this period he broadened his subject matter to include trees, cypresses, wheat fields. Van Gogh suffered from episodes and delusions and though he worried about his mental stability, he often neglected his physical health, did not eat properly. His friendship with Gauguin ended after a confrontation with a razor and he spent time in psychiatric hospitals, including a period at Saint-Rémy. After he discharged himself and moved to the Auberge Ravoux in Auvers-sur-Oise near Paris and his depression continued and on 27 July 1890, Van Gogh shot himself in the chest with a revolver. He died from his injuries two days later, Van Gogh was unsuccessful during his lifetime, and was considered a madman and a failure. He became famous after his suicide, and exists in the imagination as the quintessential misunderstood genius. His reputation began to grow in the early 20th century as elements of his style came to be incorporated by the Fauves. The most comprehensive source on Van Gogh is the correspondence between him and his younger brother, Theo. Their lifelong friendship, and most of what is known of Vincents thoughts, Theo van Gogh was an art dealer and provided his brother with financial and emotional support, and access to influential people on the contemporary art scene. Theo kept all of Vincents letters to him, Vincent kept few of the letters he received, after both had died, Theos widow Johanna arranged for the publication of some of their letters. A few appeared in 1906 and 1913, the majority were published in 1914, Vincents letters are eloquent and expressive and have been described as having a diary-like intimacy, and read in parts like autobiographyVincent van Gogh – Self-Portrait, Spring 1887, Oil on pasteboard, 42 × 33.7 cm., Art Institute of Chicago (F 345)
12. Dominique Venner – Dominique Venner was a French historian, journalist and essayist. Venner was a member of the Organisation armée secrète and later became a European nationalist before withdrawing from politics to focus on a career as a historian and he specialized in military and political history. At the time of his death, he was the editor of the La Nouvelle Revue dHistoire, on 21 May 2013, Venner committed suicide inside the cathedral of Notre Dame de Paris. The son of an architect who had been a member of Doriots Parti populaire français, Venner volunteered to fight in the Algerian War, upon his return to France he joined the Jeune Nation movement. Following the violent suppression of the 1956 Hungarian Revolution he participated in the ransacking of the office of the French Communist Party on 7 November 1956. Along with Pierre Sidos, he helped found the short-lived Parti Nationaliste and was involved with the Mouvement populaire du 13-mai led by General Chassin, as a member of the Organisation armée secrète, he was jailed for 18 months in La Santé Prison as a political undesirable. Upon his release from prison in the autumn of 1962, Venner wrote a manifesto entitled Pour une critique positive, as it became a foundational text of a whole segment of the ultra-right. In January 1963, he created a movement and magazine called “Europe-Action” and he was a member of Groupement de recherche et détudes pour la civilisation européenne from its beginning until the 1970s. He also created, with Thierry Maulnier, the Institut détudes occidentales, the IEO was anti-communist, pitted itself against what it saw as mental subversion and supported Western values. The IEO dissolved in 1971, the same year Venner ceased all activities in order to focus on his career as an historian. Venner was a specialist regarding weaponry and hunting and wrote books on these subjects. His principal historical works were, Baltikum, Le Blanc Soleil des vaincus, Le Cœur rebelle, Gettysburg, Les Blancs et les Rouges, Histoire de la Collaboration and his Histoire de lArmée rouge won the Prix Broquette-Gonin of history awarded by the Académie française in 1981. The work was criticised by some for failing to probe Marshal Philippe Pétains attitude towards the Resistance. In 2002, Venner wrote Histoire et tradition des Européens, in which he set out what he believed to be the cultural bases of European civilisation. Venner served as editor in chief of the revue Enquête sur lhistoire until its dissolution in the late 1990s, in 2002, he created La Nouvelle Revue dHistoire, a bimonthly magazine devoted to historical topics. The Revue has featured Bernard Lugan, Jean Tulard, Aymeric Chauprade, Jean Mabire, François-Georges Dreyfus, Jacqueline de Romilly and former ministers Max Gallo and he was a co-host of a radio program on Radio Courtoisie. Some of his books have been translated into English, German, Spanish, Portuguese, as noted above, Venner has been awarded a prestigious prize by lAcadémie française for one of his historical works. Châton also alleges that Venner uses his historical revues to manipulate history in the guise of various rhetorical techniques, university Professor Christopher Flood has noted that the revue generally adheres to a right-wing outlook, commenting, the overall flavour has been persistently, if subtly, revisionistDominique Venner – Dominique Venner