1. Leaning Tower of Pisa – The Leaning Tower of Pisa or simply the Tower of Pisa is the campanile, or freestanding bell tower, of the cathedral of the Italian city of Pisa, known worldwide for its unintended tilt. It is situated behind Pisas cathedral and is the third oldest structure in the citys Cathedral Square, after the cathedral, the towers tilt began during construction, caused by an inadequate foundation on ground too soft on one side to properly support the structures weight. The tilt increased in the decades before the structure was completed and gradually increased until the structure was stabilized by efforts in the late 20th and early 21st centuries. The height of the tower is 55.86 metres from the ground on the low side and 56.67 metres on the high side, the width of the walls at the base is 2.44 m. Its weight is estimated at 14,500 metric tons, the tower has 296 or 294 steps, the seventh floor has two fewer steps on the north-facing staircase. Prior to restoration work performed between 1990 and 2001, the tower leaned at an angle of 5.5 degrees and this means the top of the tower is displaced horizontally 3.9 metres from the centre. There has been controversy about the identity of the architect of the Leaning Tower of Pisa. For many years, the design was attributed to Guglielmo and Bonanno Pisano, Pisano left Pisa in 1185 for Monreale, Sicily, only to come back and die in his home town. A piece of cast bearing his name was discovered at the foot of the tower in 1820, construction of the tower occurred in three stages over 199 years. Work on the floor of the white marble campanile began on August 14,1173 during a period of military success. This ground floor is a blind arcade articulated by engaged columns with classical Corinthian capitals, the tower began to sink after construction had progressed to the second floor in 1178. This was due to a mere three-metre foundation, set in weak, unstable subsoil, construction was subsequently halted for almost a century, because the Republic of Pisa was almost continually engaged in battles with Genoa, Lucca, and Florence. This allowed time for the soil to settle. Otherwise, the tower would almost certainly have toppled, in 1198, clocks were temporarily installed on the third floor of the unfinished construction. In 1272, construction resumed under Giovanni di Simone, architect of the Camposanto, in an effort to compensate for the tilt, the engineers built upper floors with one side taller than the other. Because of this, the tower is actually curved, construction was halted again in 1284 when the Pisans were defeated by the Genoans in the Battle of Meloria. The seventh floor was completed in 1319, the bell-chamber was finally added in 1372. It was built by Tommaso di Andrea Pisano, who succeeded in harmonizing the Gothic elements of the bell-chamber with the Romanesque style of the tower, there are seven bells, one for each note of the musical major scaleLeaning Tower of Pisa – Leaning Tower of Pisa
2. Torre dei Gualandi – The Torre dei Gualandi is a former tower in Pisa, central Italy, now included in the Palazzo dellOrologio. It is located on the part of the Piazza dei Cavalieri. The tower was in the part of the present building. Gualandi was the name of a Pisan family that owned the tower in the 13th century, ugolino della Gherardesca, his sons and two grandsons were immured in the tower and starved to death in the 13th century. Dante, his contemporary, wrote about Gherardesca in his masterpiece The Divine ComedyTorre dei Gualandi – Torre della Muda, Giovanni Paolo Lasinio, engravings dated 1865.